Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3161 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3161 Journals sorted alphabetically
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.655, CiteScore: 2)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.015, CiteScore: 2)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 106, SJR: 1.462, CiteScore: 3)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 2)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.771, CiteScore: 3)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 446, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 7)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.18, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 324, SJR: 3.263, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.307, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.793, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.331, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.374, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.344, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.671, CiteScore: 5)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 4)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.29, CiteScore: 3)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.611, CiteScore: 8)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 188, SJR: 4.09, CiteScore: 13)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.167, CiteScore: 4)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.384, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.126, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.992, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.089, CiteScore: 5)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.61, CiteScore: 7)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35, SJR: 3.043, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.453, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.992, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.713, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.316, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.562, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.977, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.524, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.159, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 52, SJR: 5.39, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 68, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.354, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 12.74, CiteScore: 13)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.193, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.749, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37, SJR: 4.433, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.938, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.682, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.88, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 3.027, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.158, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.875, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.579, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.536, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.791, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 69)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.371, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 431, SJR: 0.569, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.208, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.262, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 3)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.117, CiteScore: 3)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 395, SJR: 0.796, CiteScore: 3)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.42, CiteScore: 2)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 3.671, CiteScore: 9)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 488, SJR: 1.238, CiteScore: 3)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.13, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 5)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.156, CiteScore: 4)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 1.272, CiteScore: 3)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.747, CiteScore: 4)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.589, CiteScore: 3)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 0)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.153, CiteScore: 3)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 3)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.142, CiteScore: 4)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.148, CiteScore: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 3.521, CiteScore: 6)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 4.66, CiteScore: 10)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.796, CiteScore: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.108, CiteScore: 3)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 3.267, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67, SJR: 1.93, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.524, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 7.45, CiteScore: 8)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.062, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.973, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 264, SJR: 2.7, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67, SJR: 3.184, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.289, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.139, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.164, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 1)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.144, CiteScore: 3)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 67, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 1)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 0)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription  
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 4.849, CiteScore: 10)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 5)
Analytica Chimica Acta : X     Open Access  
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 215, SJR: 0.633, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 237, SJR: 1.58, CiteScore: 3)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.704, CiteScore: 2)
Annales d'Endocrinologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
American Journal of Human Genetics
Journal Prestige (SJR): 7.45
Citation Impact (citeScore): 8
Number of Followers: 39  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0002-9297 - ISSN (Online) 1537-6605
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3161 journals]
  • Delineation of a Human Mendelian Disorder of the DNA Demethylation
           Machinery: TET3 Deficiency
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 January 2020Source: The American Journal of Human GeneticsAuthor(s): David B. Beck, Ana Petracovici, Chongsheng He, Hannah W. Moore, Raymond J. Louie, Muhammad Ansar, Sofia Douzgou, Sivagamy Sithambaram, Trudie Cottrell, Regie Lyn P. Santos-Cortez, Eloise J. Prijoles, Renee Bend, Boris Keren, Cyril Mignot, Marie-Christine Nougues, Katrin Õunap, Tiia Reimand, Sander Pajusalu, Muhammad Zahid, Muhammad Arif Nadeem SaqibGermline pathogenic variants in chromatin-modifying enzymes are a common cause of pediatric developmental disorders. These enzymes catalyze reactions that regulate epigenetic inheritance via histone post-translational modifications and DNA methylation. Cytosine methylation (5-methylcytosine [5mC]) of DNA is the quintessential epigenetic mark, yet no human Mendelian disorder of DNA demethylation has yet been delineated. Here, we describe in detail a Mendelian disorder caused by the disruption of DNA demethylation. TET3 is a methylcytosine dioxygenase that initiates DNA demethylation during early zygote formation, embryogenesis, and neuronal differentiation and is intolerant to haploinsufficiency in mice and humans. We identify and characterize 11 cases of human TET3 deficiency in eight families with the common phenotypic features of intellectual disability and/or global developmental delay; hypotonia; autistic traits; movement disorders; growth abnormalities; and facial dysmorphism. Mono-allelic frameshift and nonsense variants in TET3 occur throughout the coding region. Mono-allelic and bi-allelic missense variants localize to conserved residues; all but one such variant occur within the catalytic domain, and most display hypomorphic function in an assay of catalytic activity. TET3 deficiency and other Mendelian disorders of the epigenetic machinery show substantial phenotypic overlap, including features of intellectual disability and abnormal growth, underscoring shared disease mechanisms.
       
  • Genome-wide Associations Reveal Human-Mouse Genetic Convergence and
           Modifiers of Myogenesis, CPNE1 and STC2
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2 January 2020Source: The American Journal of Human Genetics, Volume 106, Issue 1Author(s): Ana I. Hernandez Cordero, Natalia M. Gonzales, Clarissa C. Parker, Greta Sokoloff, David J. Vandenbergh, Riyan Cheng, Mark Abney, Andrew Skol, Alex Douglas, Abraham A. Palmer, Jennifer S. Gregory, Arimantas Lionikas
       
  • ZMIZ1 Variants Cause a Syndromic Neurodevelopmental Disorder
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2 January 2020Source: The American Journal of Human Genetics, Volume 106, Issue 1Author(s): Raphael Carapito, Ekaterina L. Ivanova, Aurore Morlon, Linyan Meng, Anne Molitor, Eva Erdmann, Bruno Kieffer, Angélique Pichot, Lydie Naegely, Aline Kolmer, Nicodème Paul, Antoine Hanauer, Frédéric Tran Mau-Them, Nolwenn Jean-Marçais, Susan M. Hiatt, Gregory M. Cooper, Tatiana Tvrdik, Alison M. Muir, Clémantine Dimartino, Maya Chopra
       
  • Bi-allelic Mutations in NADSYN1 Cause Multiple Organ Defects and Expand
           the Genotypic Spectrum of Congenital NAD Deficiency Disorders
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2 January 2020Source: The American Journal of Human Genetics, Volume 106, Issue 1Author(s): Justin O. Szot, Carla Campagnolo, Ye Cao, Kavitha R. Iyer, Hartmut Cuny, Thomas Drysdale, Josue A. Flores-Daboub, Weimin Bi, Lauren Westerfield, Pengfei Liu, Tse Ngong Leung, Kwong Wai Choy, Gavin Chapman, Rui Xiao, Victoria M. Siu, Sally L. DunwoodieBirth defects occur in up to 3% of all live births and are the leading cause of infant death. Here we present five individuals from four unrelated families, individuals who share similar phenotypes with disease-causal bi-allelic variants in NADSYN1, encoding NAD synthetase 1, the final enzyme of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) de novo synthesis pathway. Defects range from the isolated absence of both kidneys to multiple malformations of the vertebrae, heart, limbs, and kidney, and no affected individual survived for more than three months postnatally. NAD is an essential coenzyme for numerous cellular processes. Bi-allelic loss-of-function mutations in genes required for the de novo synthesis of NAD were previously identified in individuals with multiple congenital abnormalities affecting the heart, kidney, vertebrae, and limbs. Functional assessments of NADSYN1 missense variants, through a combination of yeast complementation and enzymatic assays, show impaired enzymatic activity and severely reduced NAD levels. Thus, NADSYN1 represents an additional gene required for NAD synthesis during embryogenesis, and NADSYN1 has bi-allelic missense variants that cause NAD deficiency-dependent malformations. Our findings expand the genotypic spectrum of congenital NAD deficiency disorders and further implicate mutation of additional genes involved in de novo NAD synthesis as potential causes of complex birth defects.
       
  • Loss-of-Function Variants in PPP1R12A: From Isolated Sex Reversal to
           Holoprosencephaly Spectrum and Urogenital Malformations
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2 January 2020Source: The American Journal of Human Genetics, Volume 106, Issue 1Author(s): Joel J. Hughes, Ebba Alkhunaizi, Paul Kruszka, Louise C. Pyle, Dorothy K. Grange, Seth I. Berger, Katelyn K. Payne, Diane Masser-Frye, Tommy Hu, Michelle R. Christie, Nancy J. Clegg, Joshua L. Everson, Ariel F. Martinez, Laurence E. Walsh, Emma Bedoukian, Marilyn C. Jones, Catharine Jean Harris, Korbinian M. Riedhammer, Daniela Choukair, Patricia Y. FechnerIn two independent ongoing next-generation sequencing projects for individuals with holoprosencephaly and individuals with disorders of sex development, and through international research collaboration, we identified twelve individuals with de novo loss-of-function (LoF) variants in protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 12a (PPP1R12A), an important developmental gene involved in cell migration, adhesion, and morphogenesis. This gene has not been previously reported in association with human disease, and it has intolerance to LoF as illustrated by a very low observed-to-expected ratio of LoF variants in gnomAD. Of the twelve individuals, midline brain malformations were found in five, urogenital anomalies in nine, and a combination of both phenotypes in two. Other congenital anomalies identified included omphalocele, jejunal, and ileal atresia with aberrant mesenteric blood supply, and syndactyly. Six individuals had stop gain variants, five had a deletion or duplication resulting in a frameshift, and one had a canonical splice acceptor site loss. Murine and human in situ hybridization and immunostaining revealed PPP1R12A expression in the prosencephalic neural folds and protein localization in the lower urinary tract at critical periods for forebrain division and urogenital development. Based on these clinical and molecular findings, we propose the association of PPP1R12A pathogenic variants with a congenital malformations syndrome affecting the embryogenesis of the brain and genitourinary systems and including disorders of sex development.
       
  • Allelic Heterogeneity at the CRP Locus Identified by Whole-Genome
           Sequencing in Multi-ancestry Cohorts
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2 January 2020Source: The American Journal of Human Genetics, Volume 106, Issue 1Author(s): Laura M. Raffield, Apoorva K. Iyengar, Biqi Wang, Sheila M. Gaynor, Cassandra N. Spracklen, Xue Zhong, Madeline H. Kowalski, Shabnam Salimi, Linda M. Polfus, Emelia J. Benjamin, Joshua C. Bis, Russell Bowler, Brian E. Cade, Won Jung Choi, Alejandro P. Comellas, Adolfo Correa, Pedro Cruz, Harsha Doddapaneni, Peter Durda, Stephanie M. GogartenWhole-genome sequencing (WGS) can improve assessment of low-frequency and rare variants, particularly in non-European populations that have been underrepresented in existing genomic studies. The genetic determinants of C-reactive protein (CRP), a biomarker of chronic inflammation, have been extensively studied, with existing genome-wide association studies (GWASs) conducted in>200,000 individuals of European ancestry. In order to discover novel loci associated with CRP levels, we examined a multi-ancestry population (n = 23,279) with WGS (∼38× coverage) from the Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) program. We found evidence for eight distinct associations at the CRP locus, including two variants that have not been identified previously (rs11265259 and rs181704186), both of which are non-coding and more common in individuals of African ancestry (∼10% and ∼1% minor allele frequency, respectively, and rare or monomorphic in 1000 Genomes populations of East Asian, South Asian, and European ancestry). We show that the minor (G) allele of rs181704186 is associated with lower CRP levels and decreased transcriptional activity and protein binding in vitro, providing a plausible molecular mechanism for this African ancestry-specific signal. The individuals homozygous for rs181704186-G have a mean CRP level of 0.23 mg/L, in contrast to individuals heterozygous for rs181704186 with mean CRP of 2.97 mg/L and major allele homozygotes with mean CRP of 4.11 mg/L. This study demonstrates the utility of WGS in multi-ethnic populations to drive discovery of complex trait associations of large effect and to identify functional alleles in noncoding regulatory regions.
       
  • Bi-Allelic UQCRFS1 Variants Are Associated with Mitochondrial Complex III
           Deficiency, Cardiomyopathy, and Alopecia Totalis
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2 January 2020Source: The American Journal of Human Genetics, Volume 106, Issue 1Author(s): Mirjana Gusic, Gudrun Schottmann, René G. Feichtinger, Chen Du, Caroline Scholz, Matias Wagner, Johannes A. Mayr, Chae-Young Lee, Vicente A. Yépez, Norbert Lorenz, Susanne Morales-Gonzalez, Daan M. Panneman, Agnès Rötig, Richard J.T. Rodenburg, Saskia B. Wortmann, Holger Prokisch, Markus SchuelkeIsolated complex III (CIII) deficiencies are among the least frequently diagnosed mitochondrial disorders. Clinical symptoms range from isolated myopathy to severe multi-systemic disorders with early death and disability. To date, we know of pathogenic variants in genes encoding five out of 10 subunits and five out of 13 assembly factors of CIII. Here we describe rare bi-allelic variants in the gene of a catalytic subunit of CIII, UQCRFS1, which encodes the Rieske iron-sulfur protein, in two unrelated individuals. Affected children presented with low CIII activity in fibroblasts, lactic acidosis, fetal bradycardia, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and alopecia totalis. Studies in proband-derived fibroblasts showed a deleterious effect of the variants on UQCRFS1 protein abundance, mitochondrial import, CIII assembly, and cellular respiration. Complementation studies via lentiviral transduction and overexpression of wild-type UQCRFS1 restored mitochondrial function and rescued the cellular phenotype, confirming UQCRFS1 variants as causative for CIII deficiency. We demonstrate that mutations in UQCRFS1 can cause mitochondrial disease, and our results thereby expand the clinical and mutational spectrum of CIII deficiencies.
       
  • Pathogenic Bi-allelic Mutations in NDUFAF8 Cause Leigh Syndrome with an
           Isolated Complex I Deficiency
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2 January 2020Source: The American Journal of Human Genetics, Volume 106, Issue 1Author(s): Charlotte L. Alston, Mike T. Veling, Juliana Heidler, Lucie S. Taylor, Joseph T. Alaimo, Andrew Y. Sung, Langping He, Sila Hopton, Alexander Broomfield, Julija Pavaine, Jullianne Diaz, Eyby Leon, Philipp Wolf, Robert McFarland, Holger Prokisch, Saskia B. Wortmann, Penelope E. Bonnen, Ilka Wittig, David J. Pagliarini, Robert W. TaylorLeigh syndrome is one of the most common neurological phenotypes observed in pediatric mitochondrial disease presentations. It is characterized by symmetrical lesions found on neuroimaging in the basal ganglia, thalamus, and brainstem and by a loss of motor skills and delayed developmental milestones. Genetic diagnosis of Leigh syndrome is complicated on account of the vast genetic heterogeneity with>75 candidate disease-associated genes having been reported to date. Candidate genes are still emerging, being identified when “omics” tools (genomics, proteomics, and transcriptomics) are applied to manipulated cell lines and cohorts of clinically characterized individuals who lack a genetic diagnosis. NDUFAF8 is one such protein; it has been found to interact with the well-characterized complex I (CI) assembly factor NDUFAF5 in a large-scale protein-protein interaction screen. Diagnostic next-generation sequencing has identified three unrelated pediatric subjects, each with a clinical diagnosis of Leigh syndrome, who harbor bi-allelic pathogenic variants in NDUFAF8. These variants include a recurrent splicing variant that was initially overlooked due to its deep-intronic location. Subject fibroblasts were found to express a complex I deficiency, and lentiviral transduction with wild-type NDUFAF8-cDNA ameliorated both the assembly defect and the biochemical deficiency. Complexome profiling of subject fibroblasts demonstrated a complex I assembly defect, and the stalled assembly intermediates corroborate the role of NDUFAF8 in early complex I assembly. This report serves to expand the genetic heterogeneity associated with Leigh syndrome and to validate the clinical utility of orphan protein characterization. We also highlight the importance of evaluating intronic sequence when a single, definitively pathogenic variant is identified during diagnostic testing.
       
  • A Robust Method Uncovers Significant Context-Specific Heritability in
           Diverse Complex Traits
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2 January 2020Source: The American Journal of Human Genetics, Volume 106, Issue 1Author(s): Andy Dahl, Khiem Nguyen, Na Cai, Michael J. Gandal, Jonathan Flint, Noah ZaitlenGene-environment interactions (GxE) can be fundamental in applications ranging from functional genomics to precision medicine and is a conjectured source of substantial heritability. However, unbiased methods to profile GxE genome-wide are nascent and, as we show, cannot accommodate general environment variables, modest sample sizes, heterogeneous noise, and binary traits. To address this gap, we propose a simple, unifying mixed model for gene-environment interaction (GxEMM). In simulations and theory, we show that GxEMM can dramatically improve estimates and eliminate false positives when the assumptions of existing methods fail. We apply GxEMM to a range of human and model organism datasets and find broad evidence of context-specific genetic effects, including GxSex, GxAdversity, and GxDisease interactions across thousands of clinical and molecular phenotypes. Overall, GxEMM is broadly applicable for testing and quantifying polygenic interactions, which can be useful for explaining heritability and invaluable for determining biologically relevant environments.
       
  • Neuron-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Is Mutated in Congenital
           Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2 January 2020Source: The American Journal of Human Genetics, Volume 106, Issue 1Author(s): Andrea Messina, Kristiina Pulli, Sara Santini, James Acierno, Johanna Känsäkoski, Daniele Cassatella, Cheng Xu, Filippo Casoni, Samuel A. Malone, Gaetan Ternier, Daniele Conte, Yisrael Sidis, Johanna Tommiska, Kirsi Vaaralahti, Andrew Dwyer, Yoav Gothilf, Giorgio R. Merlo, Federico Santoni, Nicolas J. Niederländer, Paolo GiacobiniCongenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by infertility and the absence of puberty. Defects in GnRH neuron migration or altered GnRH secretion and/or action lead to a severe gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) deficiency. Given the close developmental association of GnRH neurons with the olfactory primary axons, CHH is often associated with anosmia or hyposmia, in which case it is defined as Kallmann syndrome (KS). The genetics of CHH are heterogeneous, and>40 genes are involved either alone or in combination. Several CHH-related genes controlling GnRH ontogeny encode proteins containing fibronectin-3 (FN3) domains, which are important for brain and neural development. Therefore, we hypothesized that defects in other FN3-superfamily genes would underlie CHH. Next-generation sequencing was performed for 240 CHH unrelated probands and filtered for rare, protein-truncating variants (PTVs) in FN3-superfamily genes. Compared to gnomAD controls the CHH cohort was statistically enriched for PTVs in neuron-derived neurotrophic factor (NDNF) (p = 1.40 × 10−6). Three heterozygous PTVs (p.Lys62∗, p.Tyr128Thrfs∗55, and p.Trp469∗, all absent from the gnomAD database) and an additional heterozygous missense mutation (p.Thr201Ser) were found in four KS probands. Notably, NDNF is expressed along the GnRH neuron migratory route in both mouse embryos and human fetuses and enhances GnRH neuron migration. Further, knock down of the zebrafish ortholog of NDNF resulted in altered GnRH migration. Finally, mice lacking Ndnf showed delayed GnRH neuron migration and altered olfactory axonal projections to the olfactory bulb; both results are consistent with a role of NDNF in GnRH neuron development. Altogether, our results highlight NDNF as a gene involved in the GnRH neuron migration implicated in KS.
       
  • SYCP2 Translocation-Mediated Dysregulation and Frameshift Variants Cause
           Human Male Infertility
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2 January 2020Source: The American Journal of Human Genetics, Volume 106, Issue 1Author(s): Samantha L.P. Schilit, Shreya Menon, Corinna Friedrich, Tammy Kammin, Ellen Wilch, Carrie Hanscom, Sizun Jiang, Sabine Kliesch, Michael E. Talkowski, Frank Tüttelmann, Amy J. MacQueen, Cynthia C. MortonUnexplained infertility affects 2%–3% of reproductive-aged couples. One approach to identifying genes involved in infertility is to study subjects with this clinical phenotype and a de novo balanced chromosomal aberration (BCA). While BCAs may reduce fertility by production of unbalanced gametes, a chromosomal rearrangement may also disrupt or dysregulate genes important in fertility. One such subject, DGAP230, has severe oligozoospermia and 46,XY,t(20;22)(q13.3;q11.2). We identified exclusive overexpression of SYCP2 from the der(20) allele that is hypothesized to result from enhancer adoption. Modeling the dysregulation in budding yeast resulted in disrupted structural integrity of the synaptonemal complex, a common cause of defective spermatogenesis in mammals. Exome sequencing of infertile males revealed three heterozygous SYCP2 frameshift variants in additional subjects with cryptozoospermia and azoospermia. In sum, this investigation illustrates the power of precision cytogenetics for annotation of the infertile genome, suggests that these mechanisms should be considered as an alternative etiology to that of segregation of unbalanced gametes in infertile men harboring a BCA, and provides evidence of SYCP2-mediated male infertility in humans.
       
  • Complete Sequence of the 22q11.2 Allele in 1,053 Subjects with 22q11.2
           Deletion Syndrome Reveals Modifiers of Conotruncal Heart Defects
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2 January 2020Source: The American Journal of Human Genetics, Volume 106, Issue 1Author(s): Yingjie Zhao, Alexander Diacou, H. Richard Johnston, Fadi I. Musfee, Donna M. McDonald-McGinn, Daniel McGinn, T. Blaine Crowley, Gabriela M. Repetto, Ann Swillen, Jeroen Breckpot, Joris R. Vermeesch, Wendy R. Kates, M. Cristina Digilio, Marta Unolt, Bruno Marino, Maria Pontillo, Marco Armando, Fabio Di Fabio, Stefano Vicari, Marianne van den BreeThe 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) results from non-allelic homologous recombination between low-copy repeats termed LCR22. About 60%–70% of individuals with the typical 3 megabase (Mb) deletion from LCR22A-D have congenital heart disease, mostly of the conotruncal type (CTD), whereas others have normal cardiac anatomy. In this study, we tested whether variants in the hemizygous LCR22A-D region are associated with risk for CTDs on the basis of the sequence of the 22q11.2 region from 1,053 22q11.2DS individuals. We found a significant association (FDR p < 0.05) of the CTD subset with 62 common variants in a single linkage disequilibrium (LD) block in a 350 kb interval harboring CRKL. A total of 45 of the 62 variants were associated with increased risk for CTDs (odds ratio [OR) ranges: 1.64–4.75). Associations of four variants were replicated in a meta-analysis of three genome-wide association studies of CTDs in affected individuals without 22q11.2DS. One of the replicated variants, rs178252, is located in an open chromatin region and resides in the double-elite enhancer, GH22J020947, that is predicted to regulate CRKL (CRK-like proto-oncogene, cytoplasmic adaptor) expression. Approximately 23% of patients with nested LCR22C-D deletions have CTDs, and inactivation of Crkl in mice causes CTDs, thus implicating this gene as a modifier. Rs178252 and rs6004160 are expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) of CRKL. Furthermore, set-based tests identified an enhancer that is predicted to target CRKL and is significantly associated with CTD risk (GH22J020946, sequence kernal association test (SKAT) p = 7.21 × 10−5) in the 22q11.2DS cohort. These findings suggest that variance in CTD penetrance in the 22q11.2DS population can be explained in part by variants affecting CRKL expression.
       
  • Gain-of-Function MN1 Truncation Variants Cause a Recognizable Syndrome
           with Craniofacial and Brain Abnormalities
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2 January 2020Source: The American Journal of Human Genetics, Volume 106, Issue 1Author(s): Noriko Miyake, Hidehisa Takahashi, Kazuyuki Nakamura, Bertrand Isidor, Yoko Hiraki, Eriko Koshimizu, Masaaki Shiina, Kazunori Sasaki, Hidefumi Suzuki, Ryota Abe, Yayoi Kimura, Tomoko Akiyama, Shin-ichi Tomizawa, Tomonori Hirose, Kohei Hamanaka, Satoko Miyatake, Satomi Mitsuhashi, Takeshi Mizuguchi, Atsushi Takata, Kazuyuki OboMN1 was originally identified as a tumor-suppressor gene. Knockout mouse studies have suggested that Mn1 is associated with craniofacial development. However, no MN1-related phenotypes have been established in humans. Here, we report on three individuals who have de novo MN1 variants that lead to a protein lacking the carboxyl (C) terminus and who presented with severe developmental delay, craniofacial abnormalities with specific facial features, and structural abnormalities in the brain. An in vitro study revealed that the deletion of the C-terminal region led to increased protein stability, an inhibitory effect on cell proliferation, and enhanced MN1 aggregation in nuclei compared to what occurred in the wild type, suggesting that a gain-of-function mechanism is involved in this disease. Considering that C-terminal deletion increases the fraction of intrinsically disordered regions of MN1, it is possible that altered phase separation could be involved in the mechanism underlying the disease. Our data indicate that MN1 participates in transcriptional regulation of target genes through interaction with the transcription factors PBX1, PKNOX1, and ZBTB24 and that mutant MN1 impairs the binding with ZBTB24 and RING1, which is an E3 ubiquitin ligase. On the basis of our findings, we propose the model that C-terminal deletion interferes with MN1’s interaction molecules related to the ubiquitin-mediated proteasome pathway, including RING1, and increases the amount of the mutant protein; this increase leads to the dysregulation of MN1 target genes by inhibiting rapid MN1 protein turnover.
       
  • UK Biobank Whole-Exome Sequence Binary Phenome Analysis with Robust
           Region-Based Rare-Variant Test
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2 January 2020Source: The American Journal of Human Genetics, Volume 106, Issue 1Author(s): Zhangchen Zhao, Wenjian Bi, Wei Zhou, Peter VandeHaar, Lars G. Fritsche, Seunggeun LeeIn biobank data analysis, most binary phenotypes have unbalanced case-control ratios, and this can cause inflation of type I error rates. Recently, a saddle point approximation (SPA) based single-variant test has been developed to provide an accurate and scalable method to test for associations of such phenotypes. For gene- or region-based multiple-variant tests, a few methods exist that can adjust for unbalanced case-control ratios; however, these methods are either less accurate when case-control ratios are extremely unbalanced or not scalable for large data analyses. To address these problems, we propose SKAT- and SKAT-O- type region-based tests; in these tests, the single-variant score statistic is calibrated based on SPA and efficient resampling (ER). Through simulation studies, we show that the proposed method provides well-calibrated p values. In contrast, when the case-control ratio is 1:99, the unadjusted approach has greatly inflated type I error rates (90 times that of exome-wide sequencing α = 2.5 × 10−6). Additionally, the proposed method has similar computation time to the unadjusted approaches and is scalable for large sample data. In our application, the UK Biobank whole-exome sequence data analysis of 45,596 unrelated European samples and 791 PheCode phenotypes identified 10 rare-variant associations with p value < 10−7, including the associations between JAK2 and myeloproliferative disease, HOXB13 and cancer of prostate, and F11 and congenital coagulation defects. All analysis summary results are publicly available through a web-based visual server, and this availability can help facilitate the identification of the genetic basis of complex diseases.
       
  • This Month in The Journal
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2 January 2020Source: The American Journal of Human Genetics, Volume 106, Issue 1Author(s):
       
  • Genes with High Network Connectivity Are Enriched for Disease Heritability
    • Abstract: Publication date: 5 December 2019Source: The American Journal of Human Genetics, Volume 105, Issue 6Author(s): Samuel S. Kim, Chengzhen Dai, Farhad Hormozdiari, Bryce van de Geijn, Steven Gazal, Yongjin Park, Luke O’Connor, Tiffany Amariuta, Po-Ru Loh, Hilary Finucane, Soumya Raychaudhuri, Alkes L. Price
       
  • Identification of African-Specific Admixture between Modern and Archaic
           Humans
    • Abstract: Publication date: 5 December 2019Source: The American Journal of Human Genetics, Volume 105, Issue 6Author(s): Jeffrey D. Wall, Aakrosh Ratan, Eric Stawiski, Jeffrey D. Wall, Eric Stawiski, Aakrosh Ratan, Hie Lim Kim, Changhoon Kim, Ravi Gupta, Kushal Suryamohan, Elena S. Gusareva, Rikky Wenang Purbojati, Tushar Bhangale, Vadim Stepanov, Vladimir Kharkov, Markus S. Schrӧder, Vedam Ramprasad, Jennifer Tom, Steffen Durinck, Qixin BeiRecent work has demonstrated that two archaic human groups (Neanderthals and Denisovans) interbred with modern humans and contributed to the contemporary human gene pool. These findings relied on the availability of high-coverage genomes from both Neanderthals and Denisovans. Here we search for evidence of archaic admixture from a worldwide panel of 1,667 individuals using an approach that does not require the presence of an archaic human reference genome. We find no evidence for archaic admixture in the Andaman Islands, as previously claimed, or on the island of Flores, where Homo floresiensis fossils have been found. However, we do find evidence for at least one archaic admixture event in sub-Saharan Africa, with the strongest signal in Khoesan and Pygmy individuals from Southern and Central Africa. The locations of these putative archaic admixture tracts are weighted against functional regions of the genome, consistent with the long-term effects of purifying selection against introgressed genetic material.
       
  • Genomic Medicine Year in Review: 2019
    • Abstract: Publication date: 5 December 2019Source: The American Journal of Human Genetics, Volume 105, Issue 6Author(s): Teri A. Manolio, Carol J. Bult, Rex L. Chisholm, Patricia A. Deverka, Geoffrey S. Ginsburg, Gail P. Jarvik, Howard L. McLeod, George A. Mensah, Mary V. Relling, Dan M. Roden, Robb Rowley, Cecelia Tamburro, Marc S. Williams, Eric D. Green
       
  • This Month in The Journal
    • Abstract: Publication date: 5 December 2019Source: The American Journal of Human Genetics, Volume 105, Issue 6Author(s): Sarah Ratzel, Sara B. Cullinan
       
  • A New Annual Feature of AJHG: Genomic Medicine Year in Review
    • Abstract: Publication date: 5 December 2019Source: The American Journal of Human Genetics, Volume 105, Issue 6Author(s): Bruce Korf, Terry Manolio
       
  • Sex-Based Analysis of De Novo Variants in Neurodevelopmental
           Disorders
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 November 2019Source: The American Journal of Human GeneticsAuthor(s): Tychele N. Turner, Amy B. Wilfert, Trygve E. Bakken, Raphael A. Bernier, Micah R. Pepper, Zhancheng Zhang, Rebecca I. Torene, Kyle Retterer, Evan E. EichlerWhile genes with an excess of de novo mutations (DNMs) have been identified in children with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs), few studies focus on DNM patterns where the sex of affected children is examined separately. We considered ∼8,825 sequenced parent-child trios (n ∼26,475 individuals) and identify 54 genes with a DNM enrichment in males (n = 18), females (n = 17), or overlapping in both the male and female subsets (n = 19). A replication cohort of 18,778 sequenced parent-child trios (n = 56,334 individuals) confirms 25 genes (n = 3 in males, n = 7 in females, n = 15 in both male and female subsets). As expected, we observe significant enrichment on the X chromosome for females but also find autosomal genes with potential sex bias (females, CDK13, ITPR1; males, CHD8, MBD5, SYNGAP1); 6.5% of females harbor a DNM in a female-enriched gene, whereas 2.7% of males have a DNM in a male-enriched gene. Sex-biased genes are enriched in transcriptional processes and chromatin binding, primarily reside in the nucleus of cells, and have brain expression. By downsampling, we find that DNM gene discovery is greatest when studying affected females. Finally, directly comparing de novo allele counts in NDD-affected males and females identifies one replicated genome-wide significant gene (DDX3X) with locus-specific enrichment in females. Our sex-based DNM enrichment analysis identifies candidate NDD genes differentially affecting males and females and indicates that the study of females with NDDs leads to greater gene discovery consistent with the female-protective effect.
       
  • Validation Studies for Single Circulating Trophoblast Genetic Testing as a
           Form of Noninvasive Prenatal Diagnosis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 November 2019Source: The American Journal of Human GeneticsAuthor(s): Liesbeth Vossaert, Qun Wang, Roseen Salman, Anne K. McCombs, Vipulkumar Patel, Chunjing Qu, Michael A. Mancini, Dean P. Edwards, Anna Malovannaya, Pengfei Liu, Chad A. Shaw, Brynn Levy, Ronald J. Wapner, Weimin Bi, Amy M. Breman, Ignatia B. Van den Veyver, Arthur L. BeaudetIt has long been appreciated that genetic analysis of fetal or trophoblast cells in maternal blood could revolutionize prenatal diagnosis. We implemented a protocol for single circulating trophoblast (SCT) testing using positive selection by magnetic-activated cell sorting and single-cell low-coverage whole-genome sequencing to detect fetal aneuploidies and copy-number variants (CNVs) at ∼1 Mb resolution. In 95 validation cases, we identified on average 0.20 putative trophoblasts/mL, of which 55% were of high quality and scorable for both aneuploidy and CNVs. We emphasize the importance of analyzing individual cells because some cells are apoptotic, in S-phase, or otherwise of poor quality. When two or more high-quality trophoblast cells were available for singleton pregnancies, there was complete concordance between all trophoblasts unless there was evidence of confined placental mosaicism. SCT results were highly concordant with available clinical data from chorionic villus sampling (CVS) or amniocentesis procedures. Although determining the exact sensitivity and specificity will require more data, this study further supports the potential for SCT testing to become a diagnostic prenatal test.
       
  • Loss of Oxidation Resistance 1, OXR1, Is Associated with an
           Autosomal-Recessive Neurological Disease with Cerebellar Atrophy and
           Lysosomal Dysfunction
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 November 2019Source: The American Journal of Human GeneticsAuthor(s): Julia Wang, Justine Rousseau, Emily Kim, Sophie Ehresmann, Yi-Ting Cheng, Lita Duraine, Zhongyuan Zuo, Ye-Jin Park, David Li-Kroeger, Weimin Bi, Lee-Jun Wong, Jill Rosenfeld, Joseph Gleeson, Eissa Faqeih, Fowzan S. Alkuraya, Klaas J. Wierenga, Jiani Chen, Alexandra Afenjar, Caroline Nava, Diane DoummarWe report an early-onset autosomal-recessive neurological disease with cerebellar atrophy and lysosomal dysfunction. We identified bi-allelic loss-of-function (LoF) variants in Oxidative Resistance 1 (OXR1) in five individuals from three families; these individuals presented with a history of severe global developmental delay, current intellectual disability, language delay, cerebellar atrophy, and seizures. While OXR1 is known to play a role in oxidative stress resistance, its molecular functions are not well established. OXR1 contains three conserved domains: LysM, GRAM, and TLDc. The gene encodes at least six transcripts, including some that only consist of the C-terminal TLDc domain. We utilized Drosophila to assess the phenotypes associated with loss of mustard (mtd), the fly homolog of OXR1. Strong LoF mutants exhibit late pupal lethality or pupal eclosion defects. Interestingly, although mtd encodes 26 transcripts, severe LoF and null mutations can be rescued by a single short human OXR1 cDNA that only contains the TLDc domain. Similar rescue is observed with the TLDc domain of NCOA7, another human homolog of mtd. Loss of mtd in neurons leads to massive cell loss, early death, and an accumulation of aberrant lysosomal structures, similar to what we observe in fibroblasts of affected individuals. Our data indicate that mtd and OXR1 are required for proper lysosomal function; this is consistent with observations that NCOA7 is required for lysosomal acidification.
       
  • Integrating Clinical Data and Imputed Transcriptome from GWAS to Uncover
           Complex Disease Subtypes: Applications in Psychiatry and Cardiology
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 November 2019Source: The American Journal of Human GeneticsAuthor(s): Liangying Yin, Carlos K.L. Chau, Pak-Chung Sham, Hon-Cheong SoClassifying subjects into clinically and biologically homogeneous subgroups will facilitate the understanding of disease pathophysiology and development of targeted prevention and intervention strategies. Traditionally, disease subtyping is based on clinical characteristics alone, but subtypes identified by such an approach may not conform exactly to the underlying biological mechanisms. Very few studies have integrated genomic profiles (e.g., those from GWASs) with clinical symptoms for disease subtyping. Here we proposed an analytic framework capable of finding complex diseases subgroups by leveraging both GWAS-predicted gene expression levels and clinical data by a multi-view bicluster analysis. This approach connects SNPs to genes via their effects on expression, so the analysis is more biologically relevant and interpretable than a pure SNP-based analysis. Transcriptome of different tissues can also be readily modeled. We also proposed various evaluation metrics for assessing clustering performance. Our framework was able to subtype schizophrenia subjects into diverse subgroups with different prognosis and treatment response. We also applied the framework to the Northern Finland Birth Cohort (NFBC) 1966 dataset and identified high and low cardiometabolic risk subgroups in a gender-stratified analysis. The prediction strength by cross-validation was generally greater than 80%, suggesting good stability of the clustering model. Our results suggest a more data-driven and biologically informed approach to defining metabolic syndrome and subtyping psychiatric disorders. Moreover, we found that the genes “blindly” selected by the algorithm are significantly enriched for known susceptibility genes discovered in GWASs of schizophrenia or cardiovascular diseases. The proposed framework opens up an approach to subject stratification.
       
  • Homozygous Null TBX4 Mutations Lead to Posterior Amelia with Pelvic and
           Pulmonary Hypoplasia
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 November 2019Source: The American Journal of Human GeneticsAuthor(s): Ariana Kariminejad, Emmanuelle Szenker-Ravi, Caroline Lekszas, Homa Tajsharghi, Ali-Reza Moslemi, Thomas Naert, Hong Thi Tran, Fatemeh Ahangari, Minoo Rajaei, Mojila Nasseri, Thomas Haaf, Afrooz Azad, Andrea Superti-Furga, Reza Maroofian, Siavash Ghaderi-Sohi, Hossein Najmabadi, Mohammad Reza Abbaszadegan, Kris Vleminckx, Pooneh Nikuei, Bruno ReversadeThe development of hindlimbs in tetrapod species relies specifically on the transcription factor TBX4. In humans, heterozygous loss-of-function TBX4 mutations cause dominant small patella syndrome (SPS) due to haploinsufficiency. Here, we characterize a striking clinical entity in four fetuses with complete posterior amelia with pelvis and pulmonary hypoplasia (PAPPA). Through exome sequencing, we find that PAPPA syndrome is caused by homozygous TBX4 inactivating mutations during embryogenesis in humans. In two consanguineous couples, we uncover distinct germline TBX4 coding mutations, p.Tyr113∗ and p.Tyr127Asn, that segregated with SPS in heterozygous parents and with posterior amelia with pelvis and pulmonary hypoplasia syndrome (PAPPAS) in one available homozygous fetus. A complete absence of TBX4 transcripts in this proband with biallelic p.Tyr113∗ stop-gain mutations revealed nonsense-mediated decay of the endogenous mRNA. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated TBX4 deletion in Xenopus embryos confirmed its restricted role during leg development. We conclude that SPS and PAPPAS are allelic diseases of TBX4 deficiency and that TBX4 is an essential transcription factor for organogenesis of the lungs, pelvis, and hindlimbs in humans.
       
  • Genome-Wide Associations Reveal Human-Mouse Genetic Convergence and
           Modifiers of Myogenesis, CPNE1 and STC2
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 November 2019Source: The American Journal of Human GeneticsAuthor(s): Ana I. Hernandez Cordero, Natalia M. Gonzales, Clarissa C. Parker, Greta Sokolof, David J. Vandenbergh, Riyan Cheng, Mark Abney, Andrew Sko, Alex Douglas, Abraham A. Palmer, Jennifer S. Gregory, Arimantas LionikasMuscle bulk in adult healthy humans is highly variable even after height, age, and sex are accounted for. Low muscle mass, due to fewer and/or smaller constituent muscle fibers, would exacerbate the impact of muscle loss occurring in aging or disease. Genetic variability substantially influences muscle mass differences, but causative genes remain largely unknown. In a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on appendicular lean mass (ALM) in a population of 85,750 middle-aged (aged 38–49 years) individuals from the UK Biobank (UKB), we found 182 loci associated with ALM (p < 5 × 10−8). We replicated associations for 78% of these loci (p 
       
  • Making the Most of Clumping and Thresholding for Polygenic Scores
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 November 2019Source: The American Journal of Human GeneticsAuthor(s): Florian Privé, Bjarni J. Vilhjálmsson, Hugues Aschard, Michael G.B. BlumPolygenic prediction has the potential to contribute to precision medicine. Clumping and thresholding (C+T) is a widely used method to derive polygenic scores. When using C+T, several p value thresholds are tested to maximize predictive ability of the derived polygenic scores. Along with this p value threshold, we propose to tune three other hyper-parameters for C+T. We implement an efficient way to derive thousands of different C+T scores corresponding to a grid over four hyper-parameters. For example, it takes a few hours to derive 123K different C+T scores for 300K individuals and 1M variants using 16 physical cores. We find that optimizing over these four hyper-parameters improves the predictive performance of C+T in both simulations and real data applications as compared to tuning only the p value threshold. A particularly large increase can be noted when predicting depression status, from an AUC of 0.557 (95% CI: [0.544–0.569]) when tuning only the p value threshold to an AUC of 0.592 (95% CI: [0.580–0.604]) when tuning all four hyper-parameters we propose for C+T. We further propose stacked clumping and thresholding (SCT), a polygenic score that results from stacking all derived C+T scores. Instead of choosing one set of hyper-parameters that maximizes prediction in some training set, SCT learns an optimal linear combination of all C+T scores by using an efficient penalized regression. We apply SCT to eight different case-control diseases in the UK biobank data and find that SCT substantially improves prediction accuracy with an average AUC increase of 0.035 over standard C+T.
       
  • Mutations in TTC29, Encoding an Evolutionarily Conserved Axonemal Protein,
           Result in Asthenozoospermia and Male Infertility
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 November 2019Source: The American Journal of Human GeneticsAuthor(s): Patrick Lorès, Denis Dacheux, Zine-Eddine Kherraf, Jean-Fabrice Nsota Mbango, Charles Coutton, Laurence Stouvenel, Come Ialy-Radio, Amir Amiri-Yekta, Marjorie Whitfield, Alain Schmitt, Caroline Cazin, Maëlle Givelet, Lucile Ferreux, Selima Fourati Ben Mustapha, Lazhar Halouani, Ouafi Marrakchi, Abbas Daneshipour, Elma El Khouri, Marcio Do Cruzeiro, Maryline FavierIn humans, structural or functional defects of the sperm flagellum induce asthenozoospermia, which accounts for the main sperm defect encountered in infertile men. Herein we focused on morphological abnormalities of the sperm flagellum (MMAF), a phenotype also termed “short tails,” which constitutes one of the most severe sperm morphological defects resulting in asthenozoospermia. In previous work based on whole-exome sequencing of a cohort of 167 MMAF-affected individuals, we identified bi-allelic loss-of-function mutations in more than 30% of the tested subjects. In this study, we further analyzed this cohort and identified five individuals with homozygous truncating variants in TTC29, a gene preferentially and highly expressed in the testis, and encoding a tetratricopeptide repeat-containing protein related to the intraflagellar transport (IFT). One individual carried a frameshift variant, another one carried a homozygous stop-gain variant, and three carried the same splicing variant affecting a consensus donor site. The deleterious effect of this last variant was confirmed on the corresponding transcript and protein product. In addition, we produced and analyzed TTC29 loss-of-function models in the flagellated protist T. brucei and in M. musculus. Both models confirmed the importance of TTC29 for flagellar beating. We showed that in T. brucei the TPR structural motifs, highly conserved between the studied orthologs, are critical for TTC29 axonemal localization and flagellar beating. Overall our work demonstrates that TTC29 is a conserved axonemal protein required for flagellar structure and beating and that TTC29 mutations are a cause of male sterility due to MMAF.
       
  • TMX2 Is a Crucial Regulator of Cellular Redox State, and Its Dysfunction
           Causes Severe Brain Developmental Abnormalities
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 November 2019Source: The American Journal of Human GeneticsAuthor(s): Laura V. Vandervore, Rachel Schot, Chiara Milanese, Daphne J. Smits, Esmee Kasteleijn, Andrew E. Fry, Daniela T. Pilz, Stefanie Brock, Esra Börklü-Yücel, Marco Post, Nadia Bahi-Buisson, María José Sánchez-Soler, Marjon van Slegtenhorst, Boris Keren, Alexandra Afenjar, Stephanie A. Coury, Wen-Hann Tan, Renske Oegema, Linda S. de Vries, Katherine A. FawcettThe redox state of the neural progenitors regulates physiological processes such as neuronal differentiation and dendritic and axonal growth. The relevance of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated oxidoreductases in these processes is largely unexplored. We describe a severe neurological disorder caused by bi-allelic loss-of-function variants in thioredoxin (TRX)-related transmembrane-2 (TMX2); these variants were detected by exome sequencing in 14 affected individuals from ten unrelated families presenting with congenital microcephaly, cortical polymicrogyria, and other migration disorders. TMX2 encodes one of the five TMX proteins of the protein disulfide isomerase family, hitherto not linked to human developmental brain disease. Our mechanistic studies on protein function show that TMX2 localizes to the ER mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs), is involved in posttranslational modification and protein folding, and undergoes physical interaction with the MAM-associated and ER folding chaperone calnexin and ER calcium pump SERCA2. These interactions are functionally relevant because TMX2-deficient fibroblasts show decreased mitochondrial respiratory reserve capacity and compensatory increased glycolytic activity. Intriguingly, under basal conditions TMX2 occurs in both reduced and oxidized monomeric form, while it forms a stable dimer under treatment with hydrogen peroxide, recently recognized as a signaling molecule in neural morphogenesis and axonal pathfinding. Exogenous expression of the pathogenic TMX2 variants or of variants with an in vitro mutagenized TRX domain induces a constitutive TMX2 polymerization, mimicking an increased oxidative state. Altogether these data uncover TMX2 as a sensor in the MAM-regulated redox signaling pathway and identify it as a key adaptive regulator of neuronal proliferation, migration, and organization in the developing brain.
       
  • A Fast and Accurate Method for Genome-Wide Scale Phenome-Wide G × E
           Analysis and Its Application to UK Biobank
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 November 2019Source: The American Journal of Human GeneticsAuthor(s): Wenjian Bi, Zhangchen Zhao, Rounak Dey, Lars G. Fritsche, Bhramar Mukherjee, Seunggeun LeeThe etiology of most complex diseases involves genetic variants, environmental factors, and gene-environment interaction (G × E) effects. Compared with marginal genetic association studies, G × E analysis requires more samples and detailed measure of environmental exposures, and this limits the possible discoveries. Large-scale population-based biobanks with detailed phenotypic and environmental information, such as UK-Biobank, can be ideal resources for identifying G × E effects. However, due to the large computation cost and the presence of case-control imbalance, existing methods often fail. Here we propose a scalable and accurate method, SPAGE (SaddlePoint Approximation implementation of G × E analysis), that is applicable for genome-wide scale phenome-wide G × E studies. SPAGE fits a genotype-independent logistic model only once across the genome-wide analysis in order to reduce computation cost, and SPAGE uses a saddlepoint approximation (SPA) to calibrate the test statistics for analysis of phenotypes with unbalanced case-control ratios. Simulation studies show that SPAGE is 33–79 times faster than the Wald test and 72–439 times faster than the Firth’s test, and SPAGE can control type I error rates at the genome-wide significance level even when case-control ratios are extremely unbalanced. Through the analysis of UK-Biobank data of 344,341 white British European-ancestry samples, we show that SPAGE can efficiently analyze large samples while controlling for unbalanced case-control ratios.
       
  • Bi-allelic Mutations in TTC29 Cause Male Subfertility with
           Asthenoteratospermia in Humans and Mice
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 November 2019Source: The American Journal of Human GeneticsAuthor(s): Chunyu Liu, Xiaojin He, Wangjie Liu, Shenmin Yang, Lingbo Wang, Weiyu Li, Huan Wu, Shuyan Tang, Xiaoqing Ni, Jiaxiong Wang, Yang Gao, Shixiong Tian, Lin Zhang, Jiangshan Cong, Zhihua Zhang, Qing Tan, Jingjing Zhang, Hong Li, Yading Zhong, Mingrong LvAs a type of severe asthenoteratospermia, multiple morphological abnormalities of the flagella (MMAF) are characterized by the presence of immotile spermatozoa with severe flagellar malformations. MMAF is a genetically heterogeneous disorder, and the known MMAF-associated genes can only account for approximately 60% of human MMAF cases. Here we conducted whole-exome sequencing and identified bi-allelic truncating mutations of the TTC29 (tetratricopeptide repeat domain 29) gene in three (3.8%) unrelated cases from a cohort of 80 MMAF-affected Han Chinese men. TTC29 is preferentially expressed in the testis, and TTC29 protein contains the tetratricopeptide repeat domains that play an important role in cilia- and flagella-associated functions. All of the men harboring TTC29 mutations presented a typical MMAF phenotype and dramatic disorganization in axonemal and/or other peri-axonemal structures. Immunofluorescence assays of spermatozoa from men harboring TTC29 mutations showed deficiency of TTC29 and remarkably reduced staining of intraflagellar-transport-complex-B-associated proteins (TTC30A and IFT52). We also generated a Ttc29-mutated mouse model through the use of CRISPR-Cas9 technology. Remarkably, Ttc29-mutated male mice also presented reduced sperm motility, abnormal flagellar ultrastructure, and male subfertility. Furthermore, intracytoplasmic sperm injections performed for Ttc29-mutated mice and men harboring TTC29 mutations consistently acquired satisfactory outcomes. Collectively, our experimental observations in humans and mice suggest that bi-allelic mutations in TTC29, as an important genetic pathogeny, can induce MMAF-related asthenoteratospermia. Our study also provided effective guidance for clinical diagnosis and assisted reproduction treatments.
       
  • CAKUT and Autonomic Dysfunction Caused by Acetylcholine Receptor Mutations
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 November 2019Source: The American Journal of Human GeneticsAuthor(s): Nina Mann, Franziska Kause, Erik K. Henze, Anant Gharpure, Shirlee Shril, Dervla M. Connaughton, Makiko Nakayama, Verena Klämbt, Amar J. Majmundar, Chen-Han W. Wu, Caroline M. Kolvenbach, Rufeng Dai, Jing Chen, Amelie T. van der Ven, Hadas Ityel, Madeleine J. Tooley, Jameela A. Kari, Lucy Bownass, Sherif El Desoky, Elisa De FrancoCongenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) are the most common cause of chronic kidney disease in the first three decades of life, and in utero obstruction to urine flow is a frequent cause of secondary upper urinary tract malformations. Here, using whole-exome sequencing, we identified three different biallelic mutations in CHRNA3, which encodes the α3 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, in five affected individuals from three unrelated families with functional lower urinary tract obstruction and secondary CAKUT. Four individuals from two families have additional dysautonomic features, including impaired pupillary light reflexes. Functional studies in vitro demonstrated that the mutant nicotinic acetylcholine receptors were unable to generate current following stimulation with acetylcholine. Moreover, the truncating mutations p.Thr337Asnfs∗81 and p.Ser340∗ led to impaired plasma membrane localization of CHRNA3. Although the importance of acetylcholine signaling in normal bladder function has been recognized, we demonstrate for the first time that mutations in CHRNA3 can cause bladder dysfunction, urinary tract malformations, and dysautonomia. These data point to a pathophysiologic sequence by which monogenic mutations in genes that regulate bladder innervation may secondarily cause CAKUT.
       
  • A Comprehensive Haplotype Targeting Strategy for Allele-Specific HTT
           Suppression in Huntington Disease
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 November 2019Source: The American Journal of Human GeneticsAuthor(s): Chris Kay, Jennifer A. Collins, Nicholas S. Caron, Luciana de Andrade Agostinho, Hailey Findlay-Black, Lorenzo Casal, Dulika Sumathipala, Vajira H.W. Dissanayake, Mario Cornejo-Olivas, Fiona Baine, Amanda Krause, Jacquie L. Greenberg, Carmen Lúcia Antão Paiva, Ferdinando Squitieri, Michael R. HaydenHuntington disease (HD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder caused by a gain-of-function mutation in HTT. Suppression of mutant HTT has emerged as a leading therapeutic strategy for HD, with allele-selective approaches targeting HTT SNPs now in clinical trials. Haplotypes associated with the HD mutation (A1, A2, A3a) represent panels of allele-specific gene silencing targets for efficient treatment of individuals with HD of Northern European and indigenous South American ancestry. Here we extend comprehensive haplotype analysis of the HD mutation to key populations of Southern European, South Asian, Middle Eastern, and admixed African ancestry. In each of these populations, the HD mutation occurs predominantly on the A2 HTT haplotype. Analysis of HD haplotypes across all affected population groups enables rational selection of candidate target SNPs for development of allele-selective gene silencing therapeutics worldwide. Targeting SNPs on the A1 and A2 haplotypes in parallel is essential to achieve treatment of the most HD-affected subjects in populations where HD is most prevalent. Current allele-specific approaches will leave a majority of individuals with HD untreated in populations where the HD mutation occurs most frequently on the A2 haplotype. We further demonstrate preclinical development of potent and selective ASOs targeting SNPs on the A2 HTT haplotype, representing an allele-specific treatment strategy for these individuals. On the basis of comprehensive haplotype analysis, we show the maximum proportion of HD-affected subjects that may be treated with three or four allele targets in different populations worldwide, informing current allele-specific HTT silencing strategies.
       
  • Multivariate Genome-Wide Association Analysis of a Cytokine Network
           Reveals Variants with Widespread Immune, Haematological, and
           Cardiometabolic Pleiotropy
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 October 2019Source: The American Journal of Human GeneticsAuthor(s): Artika P. Nath, Scott C. Ritchie, Nastasiya F. Grinberg, Howard Ho-Fung Tang, Qin Qin Huang, Shu Mei Teo, Ari V. Ahola-Olli, Peter Würtz, Aki S. Havulinna, Kristiina Santalahti, Niina Pitkänen, Terho Lehtimäki, Mika Kähönen, Leo-Pekka Lyytikäinen, Emma Raitoharju, Ilkka Seppälä, Antti-Pekka Sarin, Samuli Ripatti, Aarno Palotie, Markus PerolaCytokines are essential regulatory components of the immune system, and their aberrant levels have been linked to many disease states. Despite increasing evidence that cytokines operate in concert, many of the physiological interactions between cytokines, and the shared genetic architecture that underlies them, remain unknown. Here, we aimed to identify and characterize genetic variants with pleiotropic effects on cytokines. Using three population-based cohorts (n = 9,263), we performed multivariate genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for a correlation network of 11 circulating cytokines, then combined our results in meta-analysis. We identified a total of eight loci significantly associated with the cytokine network, of which two (PDGFRB and ABO) had not been detected previously. In addition, conditional analyses revealed a further four secondary signals at three known cytokine loci. Integration, through the use of Bayesian colocalization analysis, of publicly available GWAS summary statistics with the cytokine network associations revealed shared causal variants between the eight cytokine loci and other traits; in particular, cytokine network variants at the ABO, SERPINE2, and ZFPM2 loci showed pleiotropic effects on the production of immune-related proteins, on metabolic traits such as lipoprotein and lipid levels, on blood-cell-related traits such as platelet count, and on disease traits such as coronary artery disease and type 2 diabetes.
       
  • Genome Sequencing Explores Complexity of Chromosomal Abnormalities in
           Recurrent Miscarriage
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 October 2019Source: The American Journal of Human GeneticsAuthor(s): Zirui Dong, Junhao Yan, Fengping Xu, Jianying Yuan, Hui Jiang, Huilin Wang, Haixiao Chen, Lei Zhang, Lingfei Ye, Jinjin Xu, Yuhua Shi, Zhenjun Yang, Ye Cao, Lingyun Chen, Qiaoling Li, Xia Zhao, Jiguang Li, Ao Chen, Wenwei Zhang, Hoi Gin WongRecurrent miscarriage (RM) affects millions of couples globally, and half of them have no demonstrated etiology. Genome sequencing (GS) is an enhanced and novel cytogenetic tool to define the contribution of chromosomal abnormalities in human diseases. In this study we evaluated its utility in RM-affected couples. We performed low-pass GS retrospectively for 1,090 RM-affected couples, all of whom had routine chromosome analysis. A customized sequencing and interpretation pipeline was developed to identify chromosomal rearrangements and deletions/duplications with confirmation by fluorescence in situ hybridization, chromosomal microarray analysis, and PCR studies. Low-pass GS yielded results in 1,077 of 1,090 couples (98.8%) and detected 127 chromosomal abnormalities in 11.7% (126/1,077) of couples; both members of one couple were identified with inversions. Of the 126 couples, 39.7% (50/126) had received former diagnostic results by karyotyping characteristic of normal human male or female karyotypes. Low-pass GS revealed additional chromosomal abnormalities in 50 (4.0%) couples, including eight with balanced translocations and 42 inversions. Follow-up studies of these couples showed a higher miscarriage/fetal-anomaly rate of 5/10 (50%) compared to 21/93 (22.6%) in couples with normal GS, resulting in a relative risk of 2.2 (95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 4.6). In these couples, this protocol significantly increased the diagnostic yield of chromosomal abnormalities per couple (11.7%) in comparison to chromosome analysis (8.0%, chi-square test p = 0.000751). In summary, low-pass GS identified underlying chromosomal aberrations in 1 in 9 RM-affected couples, enabling identification of a subgroup of couples with increased risk of subsequent miscarriage who would benefit from a personalized intervention.
       
 
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