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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3043 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3043 Journals sorted alphabetically
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 83, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 333, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 225, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 19)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 134, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.801, h-index: 26)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 60)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 345, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 310, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 408, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access  
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 187, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 55, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 164, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access  
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 158, SJR: 1.907, h-index: 126)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.151, h-index: 83)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.711, h-index: 78)
Annales d'Endocrinologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.394, h-index: 30)
Annales d'Urologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Cardiologie et d'Angéiologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.177, h-index: 13)
Annales de Chirurgie de la Main et du Membre Supérieur     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Chirurgie Plastique Esthétique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 22)
Annales de Chirurgie Vasculaire     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover American Journal of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy
  [SJR: 1.091]   [H-I: 45]   [6 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 1543-5946
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3043 journals]
  • Adverse Effects of Analgesics Commonly Used by Older Adults With
           Osteoarthritis: Focus on Non-Opioid and Opioid Analgesics
    • Abstract: December 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:The American Journal of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy, Volume 10, Issue 6

      Background Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common cause of disability in older adults, and although analgesic use can be helpful, it can also result in adverse drug events. Objective To review the recent literature to describe potential adverse drug events associated with analgesics commonly used by older adults with OA. Methods To identify articles for this review, a systematic search of the English-language literature from January 2001 to June 2012 was conducted using PubMed, MEDLINE, EBSCO, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews for publications related to the medical management of OA. Search terms used were “analgesics,” “acetaminophen,” “nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs” (NSAIDs), “opioids,” “pharmacokinetics,” “pharmacodynamics,” and “adverse drug events.” The search was restricted to those articles that concerned humans aged ≥65 years. A manual search of the reference lists from identified articles and the authors' article files, book chapters, and recent reviews was conducted to identify additional articles. From these, the authors identified those studies that examined analgesic use in older adults. Results There are limited data to suggest that non-frail elders are more likely than their younger counterparts to develop acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity. However, decreased hepatic phase II metabolism in frail elders may result in increased risk of hepatotoxicity. It is now well established that older adults are at higher risk of NSAID-induced gastrointestinal toxicity and renal insufficiency. Insofar as opioids, the data that suggest an increased risk of falls, fractures, or delirium need to be tempered by the potential risk of inadequately treating severe chronic OA-related pain. Conclusions Acetaminophen is the mainstay frontline analgesic for treating OA-related pain in older adults. NSAIDs should be limited to short-term use only, and for moderate to severe OA-related pain, opioids may be preferable in individuals without substance abuse or dependence issues.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T07:13:39Z
       
  • Effect of Combination Fluticasone Propionate and Salmeterol or Inhaled
           Corticosteroids on Asthma-Related Outcomes in a Medicare-Eligible
           Population
    • Abstract: December 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:The American Journal of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy, Volume 10, Issue 6

      Background National asthma treatment guidelines recommend either the use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) or ICS in combination with a long-acting bronchodilator for the treatment of moderate to severe asthma. Even though asthma is common among older adults, few studies have assessed the differences in effectiveness between these two recommended therapies in patients over 65 years of age. Objective The aim of this study was to assess the association of the fluticasone-salmeterol combination (FSC) or ICS initiation on asthma-related events in Medicare-eligible asthma patients. Methods This was a retrospective observational study using a large health claims database (July 1, 2001 to June 30, 2008). Subjects 65 to 79 years of age with 12-month preindex and 3- to 12-month postindex eligibility, an asthma diagnosis (ICD-493.xx), and with 1 or more FSC or ICS claims at index were included. Subjects with an FSC or ICS claim in the preindex and any claim for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were excluded. Subjects were observed until they had an event (emergency department [ED] inpatient hospitalization [IP], combined IP/ED or oral corticosteroid [OCS] use) or were no longer eligible in the database, whichever came first. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to assess risk of an asthma-related event (IP, ED, or IP/ED). Baseline characteristics (age, sex, region, index season, comorbidities, preindex use of short-acting β-agonists, OCS, other asthma controllers, and asthma-related ED/IP visits) were independent covariates in the model. Results A total of 10,837 met the criteria (4843 ICS and 5994 FSC). Age (70.4 and 70.5 years, respectively) and the percentage of female subjects (65.5% and 64.8%, respectively) were similar. Asthma-related events were also similar at baseline. Postindex unadjusted rates occurring after >30 days were ED (1.8% vs 1.5%, P = 0.18), IP (2.7% vs 1.7%, P < 0.001), and ED/IP (4.1% vs 2.8%, P < 0.001) for ICS and FSC, respectively. Subjects who received FSC were associated with a 32% (adjusted HR = 0.68; 95% CI, 0.51–0.91) lower risk of experiencing an IP visit and a 22% (HR = 0.78; 95% CI, 0.62–0.98) lower risk of experiencing an ED/IP visit. No differences were observed for ED visits (HR = 0.94; 95% CI, 0.68–1.29). Conclusions In Medicare-eligible asthma patients, FSC use was associated with lower rates of asthma-related serious exacerbations compared with ICS.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T07:13:39Z
       
  • Warfarin–Antibiotic Interactions in Older Adults of an Outpatient
           Anticoagulation Clinic
    • Abstract: December 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:The American Journal of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy, Volume 10, Issue 6

      Background Several classes of drugs, such as antibiotics, may interact with warfarin to cause an increase in wafarins anticoagulant activity and the clinical relevance of warfarin–antibiotic interactions in older adults is not clear. Objective The aim of this study was to determine the effect of oral antibiotics, such as amoxicillin, azithromycin, cephalexin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin, on the international normalized ratio (INR) in patients ≥65 years on stable warfarin therapy. The secondary objective was to compare the effect of warfarin–antibiotic interactions on outcomes of overanticoagulation. Methods Data for this retrospective cohort study were collected through a medical record review of patients in an outpatient anticoagulation clinic of a Veterans Affairs medical center. Patients aged ≥65 years on stable warfarin therapy and with at least 1 prescription of an oral antibiotic of interest during the period from January 1, 2003 to March 1, 2011 were included. A mixed-effects repeated-measures ANOVA model was used to determine the effect of antibiotics on the mean change in patients' INR. The Fisher exact test was used to determine the association between the antibiotics and secondary outcomes of overanticoagulation, using cephalexin as the control. Statistical significance was defined as a P value
      PubDate: 2012-12-17T07:13:39Z
       
  • Use of Warfarin Therapy Among Residents Who Developed Venous
           Thromboembolism in the Nursing Home
    • Abstract: December 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:The American Journal of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy, Volume 10, Issue 6

      Background Treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in long-term care (LTC) settings has received little empirical study. Objective Among residents with VTE in nursing homes, this analysis evaluated frequency of anticoagulant use, the proportion of residents newly started on warfarin who persisted on therapy (≥3 months), and the association of key resident characteristics, including bleeding risk, with warfarin use and persistence. Methods Using the AnalytiCare LTC database (US), eligible residents had deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism coded in the Minimum Data Set (MDS) 2.0 during the uptake period April 1, 2007 through December 31, 2008 (earliest VTE was index date) and had 1 or more MDS assessment(s) over the 90-day preindex period, each negative for VTE. Logistic regression evaluated the association of resident characteristics with warfarin use. Cox regression evaluated persistence with warfarin therapy. Results The median age of residents with VTE included in the analysis (N = 489) was 80 years; 73% received anticoagulant therapy and 66% were prescribed warfarin ±45 days of the index date. Multivariate logistic regression identified several factors significantly associated with warfarin use: location in South Central region (odds ratio [OR] = 1.94, P = 0.019) and the Western region (OR = 2.53, P = 0.005) [both vs reference South Atlantic]; body mass index categories normal (OR = 2.73, P = 0.045), overweight (OR = 4.21, P = 0.005), and obese (OR = 3.82, P = 0.010) (both vs reference underweight); Alzheimer's/dementia (OR = 0.52, P = 0.024); cancer (OR = 0.39, P = 0.008); and moderate-dependent versus independent physical functioning (OR = 2.59, P = 0.003). Of residents newly started on warfarin therapy with no history of cancer (n = 149), 28% discontinued warfarin within 90 days of initiation. Peripheral vascular disease (PVD) (OR = 4.07, P < 0.001), Alzheimer's disease/dementia (OR = 2.55, P = 0.046), and antipsychotic use (OR = 4.60, P < 0.001) were all significantly associated with discontinuation. Conclusions Patients in specific geographic regions who were underweight, had Alzheimer's disease/dementia or cancer, or had independent physical functioning were less likely to receive warfarin. Nonpersistence of warfarin therapy was strongly related to antipsychotic use, presence of dementia, or PVD.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T07:13:39Z
       
  • Use of Rivastigmine or Galantamine and Risk of Adverse Cardiac Events: A
           Database Study from the Netherlands
    • Abstract: December 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:The American Journal of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy, Volume 10, Issue 6

      Background Two cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs), rivastigmine and galantamine, are used to treat Alzheimer disease in the Netherlands. Several adverse cardiac events have been reported for these medications. Objective We aimed to assess if the use of ChEIs increased the risk of cardiac events in the Netherlands. Methods A cohort crossover study of the PHARMO Record Linking System database included patients who initiated ChEIs at age 50 years or older, had at least 1 dispensing of a ChEI drug between 1998 and 2008, a 1-year history in PHARMO, and 1 subsequent dispensing of any medication. Two outcomes were assessed: a first hospitalization for syncope or atrioventricular block. Poisson and Cox regression were used to calculate incidence densities and hazard ratios for cardiac events during periods with ChEI use, compared with periods without ChEI use. Results During the complete observation period of 8.9 years (interquartile range 6.7 to 10.2) there were 132 first hospitalizations for atrioventricular block and 17 first hospitalizations for syncope among 3358 patients. The adjusted incidence densities were significantly increased during ChEI exposure for syncope and atrioventricular block, when compared with the background incidence densities in the roughly 5 years before the last year before ChEI initiation. However, when exposed periods were compared with the unexposed periods 1 year before ChEI initiation and times after exposure, the adjusted hazard ratios remained increased for syncope and atrioventricular block, but increases were not significant anymore. Conclusions Exposure to ChEIs might increase the risk of adverse cardiac events, but small numbers of cases limit conclusions about the risk in this population and research on larger study samples is needed.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T07:13:39Z
       
  • Atypical Antipsychotic Use and Parkinsonism in Dementia: Effects of Drug,
           Dose, and Sex
    • Abstract: December 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:The American Journal of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy, Volume 10, Issue 6

      Background Differences between atypical antipsychotics in their potential to cause parkinsonism and risk factors for antipsychotic-induced parkinsonism are not well established. There is a particular paucity of information on this in real-world use of these drugs, outside of clinical trial settings. Objective We compared the incidence of parkinsonism after new treatment with risperidone, olanzapine, or quetiapine in patients with dementia and examined the effects of dose and sex on the risk of parkinsonism. Methods Administrative data from Ontario, Canada between 2002 and 2010 were used to compare the incidence of a diagnostic code for parkinsonism or prescription of an anti-Parkinson medication among patients with dementia who were newly prescribed quetiapine, olanzapine, or risperidone. Results From 15,939 person-years of observation, 421 patients developed parkinsonism. Using low-dose risperidone as the reference group, the adjusted hazard ratios for developing parkinsonism were 0.49 (95% CI, 0.07–3.53) for low-dose olanzapine and 1.18 (95% CI, 0.84–1.66) for low-dose quetiapine. Comparing across drugs within the most commonly prescribed dose ranges, the incidence of parkinsonism was higher in the medium-dose olanzapine group compared with the low-dose risperidone group (hazard ratio 1.66; 95% CI 23–2.23). The adjusted hazard ratio for developing parkinsonism for men (compared with women) was 2.29 (95% CI, 1.88– 2.79). Conclusions We found no evidence that the risk of drug-induced parkinsonism in older adults with dementia was different among quetiapine, olanzapine, or risperidone, challenging the notion that the drugs differed in their propensity to cause parkinsonism. Men appeared to be at higher risk of parkinsonism as a adverse event than women.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T07:13:39Z
       
  • Caregiver Assistance Among Medicare Beneficiaries With Atrial Fibrillation
           and Factors Associated With Anticoagulant Treatment
    • Abstract: October 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:The American Journal of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy, Volume 10, Issue 5

      Background Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia and disproportionately affects the elderly. Objective This study describes patient characteristics and caregiver assistance among Medicare beneficiaries with AF and examines factors associated with receiving anticoagulant treatment. Methods Patients with AF and age/gender-matched controls were identified from Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey data from 2001 to 2006. A logistic regression model was used to assess factors associated with receiving anticoagulants in a subgroup of patients with AF whose treatment pattern was established for 2 consecutive years. Sample weights were applied to obtain nationally representative estimates. Results A total of 2990 patients with AF and 5980 control patients were included in the burden of disease analysis, and 1481 patients with AF were included in the anticoagulant predictor analysis. Patients with AF had a higher level of comorbidity (Charlson Comorbidity Index: 3.3 vs 1.5; P < 0.05), worse self-perceived health status (P < 0.001), and greater level of disability (P < 0.001) than their matched counterparts. A greater proportion of patients with AF required caregiver assistance (62.8% vs 51.5%; P < 0.001). Logistic regression found that higher Charlson Comorbidity Index scores, difficulty in obtaining necessary health care, older age, being widowed, a history of psychiatric disorders, and being underweight decreased the likelihood of receiving anticoagulant therapy. Conclusions In a Medicare population, a greater need for caregiver assistance was observed in patients with AF. Subgroups characterized by frailty or inability for self-care were identified as being less likely to receive anticoagulant therapy. The need for caregiver assistance among patients with AF, as well as the patient subgroups identified as less likely to receive anticoagulant therapy, should be considered when making treatment decisions.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T07:13:39Z
       
  • Medication Discrepancy and Potentially Inappropriate Medication in Older
           Chinese-American Home-Care Patients After Hospital Discharge
    • Abstract: October 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:The American Journal of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy, Volume 10, Issue 5

      Background Studies of potential medication problems among older adults have focused on English-speaking populations in a single health care setting or a single potential medication problem. No previous studies investigated potential inappropriate medications (PIMs) and medication discrepancies (MDs) among older Chinese Americans during care transitions from hospital discharge to home care. Objective The aims of this study were to examine, in older Chinese Americans, the prevalence of both PIMs and MDs; the relationship between PIMs and MDs; and the patient and hospitalization characteristics associated with them during care transitions from hospital discharge to home care. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of older Chinese Americans from a large certified nonprofit home-care agency in New York City from June 2010 to July 2011. PIMs were identified by using 2002 diagnosis-independent Beers criteria. MDs were identified by comparing the differences between hospital discharge medication order and home-care admission medication order. Prevalence of PIMs and MDs and their relationship was determined. Logistic regression examined the relationship between hospitalization and patient characteristics with PIMs and MDs. Results The sample consisted of 82 older Chinese-American home-care patients. Twenty (24.3%) study participants were prescribed at least one PIM at hospital discharge. Fifty-one (67.1%) study participants experienced at least one MD. A positive correlation was found between the occurrence of PIMs and MDs (r = 0.22; P = 0.05). Number of medications was the only significant factor associated with both PIMs and MDs. In addition, older age and more hospitalization days were associated with PIMs. Conclusions The evident prevalence of PIMs and MDs supports the practice of evaluating the appropriateness of medications while reconciling inconsistencies in medication regimens. The number of medications was the only factor associated with both PIMs and MDs, underscoring the need to address polypharmacy as a multifaceted threat to patient health.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T07:13:39Z
       
  • The Effect of HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors on Cognition in Patients With
           Alzheimer's Dementia: A Prospective Withdrawal and Rechallenge Pilot Study
           
    • Abstract: October 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:The American Journal of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy, Volume 10, Issue 5

      Background Statins are well-known for their cardiovascular benefits. However, the cognitive effects of statins are not well understood. We hypothesized that individuals with preexisting dementia would be more vulnerable to statin-related cognitive effects. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact on cognition of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl–coenzyme A reductase inhibitor (statin) discontinuation and rechallenge in individuals with Alzheimer's dementia (AD) on statins at baseline. Methods A 12-week prospective, open-label study was conducted in a geriatric clinic setting. Eighteen older subjects underwent a 6-week withdrawal phase of statins followed by a 6-week rechallenge. The primary outcome measure was cognition, measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE); secondary outcome measures were the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) neuropsychological battery, Activities of Daily Living (ADL) scale, Instrumental ADL (IADL) scale, and fasting cholesterol. The change in outcome measures was assessed using repeated-measures ANOVA and paired t tests. Results At the end of the intervention, there was a significant difference across time for MMSE score (P = 0.018), and total cholesterol (P = 0.0002) and a trend toward change across time for ADL (P = 0.07) and IADL (P = 0.06) scale scores. Further analyses using paired t tests indicated improvement in MMSE scores (Δ1.9 [3.0], P = 0.014) with discontinuation of statins and a decrease in MMSE scores (Δ1.9 [2.7], P = 0.007) after rechallenge. Total cholesterol increased with statin discontinuation (P = 0.0003) and decreased with rechallenge (P = 0.0007). The CERAD score did not show a change across time (P = 0.31). There was a trend toward improvement in ADL (P = 0.07) and IADL (P = 0.06) scale scores with discontinuation of statins, but no change with rechallenge. Conclusions This pilot study found an improvement in cognition with discontinuation of statins and worsening with rechallenge. Statins may adversely affect cognition in patients with dementia.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T07:13:39Z
       
  • Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Alzheimer's Disease Pharmacotherapy
           Exposure: An Analysis Across Four State Medicaid Populations
    • Abstract: October 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:The American Journal of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy, Volume 10, Issue 5

      Background Treatment disparities in Alzheimer's disease (AD) have received little attention. Determining whether disparities exist in this subpopulation is an important health policy issue. Objective The aim was to determine whether an association existed between race/ethnicity and exposure to AD pharmacotherapy across 4 state Medicaid populations. Methods Data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) were used in this retrospective study. Persons with AD enrolled in California, Florida, New Jersey, or New York Medicaid programs on January 1, 2004, and remained in that program for 1 year. Individuals had an AD diagnosis based on the ICD-9-CM code 331.0. Outcomes of interest were exposure to a cholinesterase inhibitor (ChEI) or memantine. Multivariate logistic regression was used to test for the association between race/ethnicity and exposure to a ChEI or memantine. Variables of interest included demographic characteristics and resource utilization factors. The Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition method was used to test for disparities to determine whether exposure to AD pharmacotherapy was influenced by race. Results Race, age, long-term care admittance, inpatient care admittance, state of residence, and sex were significant predictors of AD pharmacotherapy exposure (P < 0.0001 for all variables). Racial/ethnic disparities were observed with respect to exposure to a ChEI or memantine between non-Hispanic whites and Hispanics (in favor of Hispanics) in Florida (P < 0.0001), between non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics (in favor of Hispanics) in California (P < 0.0001) and Florida (P < 0.0001), between non-Hispanic blacks and non-Hispanic others (in favor of non-Hispanic others) in California (P < 0.0001) and New York (P < 0.0001), and between Hispanics and non-Hispanic others (in favor of non-Hispanic others) in California (P = 0.001) and New York (P < 0.0001). Conclusions Disparities in AD pharmacotherapy exposure among minority populations are just as prevalent, if not of greater magnitude, than minority/white disparities.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T07:13:39Z
       
  • The Effect of Statins on Acute and Long-Term Outcome After Ischemic Stroke
           in the Elderly
    • Abstract: October 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:The American Journal of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy, Volume 10, Issue 5

      Background Although treatment with statins has produced beneficial effects when used as secondary prevention, its primary protective role is still somewhat controversial. Moreover, few studies have evaluated the effect of statins in older patients with stroke. Objective The aim was to investigate whether treatment with statins decreases stroke severity and/or improves survival and outcome after stroke in an older population. Methods We investigated the association between previous statin use and stroke severity (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale [NIHSS]), as well as the effect of poststroke statin treatment on 12-month functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale [mRS] score) in 799 patients (mean age, 78 years), with acute ischemic stroke. The effect of statin treatment on survival was examined using the Cox proportional hazard model, after adjusting for relevant covariates. Results Statins did not decrease stroke severity and did not improve 30-day survival. However, both the 12-month survival (hazard ratio = 0.33; 95% CI, 0.20–to 0.54; P < 0.001) and the 12-month functional outcome (odds ratio = 2.09; 95% CI, 1.25–3.52; P = 0.005) were significantly better in the group treated with statins. Conclusions Significantly better survival and functional outcome were noted with poststroke statins at the end of the 12-month follow-up period. Statins seem to provide beneficial effects for the long-term functional outcome and survival in the elderly.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T07:13:39Z
       
  • Dementia and Risk of Adverse Warfarin-Related Events in the Nursing Home
           Setting
    • Abstract: October 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:The American Journal of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy, Volume 10, Issue 5

      Background Little attention has been focused on the safety of medications administered to treat non illnesses in nursing home residents with dementia. It is unclear whether this population is at increased risk of adverse drug events. Objectives To test the hypotheses that in nursing home residents with dementia prescribed warfarin have less time in therapeutic range and a higher incidence of nonpreventable and preventable adverse warfarin events compared to nursing home residents without dementia after controlling for facility and patient characteristics. Methods A prospective cohort embedded in a clinical trial of nursing home residents prescribed warfarin in 26 nursing homes in Connecticut was observed for up to 12 months. The primary outcome measures included adverse warfarin events (AWEs) (injuries resulting from warfarin use), potential AWEs (INR [international normalized ratio] >4.5 and management error), and AWE preventability based on physician reviews of medical record abstractions. Potential confounders included nursing home structural characteristics (eg, number of beds and for-profit status), nursing staff time, and nursing home regulatory deficiencies (pharmacy, administrative, quality of care, and all other deficiencies). Multivariable Poisson regression analysis was used to determine the independent association of dementia with potential and preventable AWEs using generalized estimating equations to account for clustering within nursing homes. Results Residents with dementia had no difference in the number of INR monitoring tests or percentage of days in the therapeutic range, but did have an increased risk of AWEs (adjusted incidence rate ratio [IRR], 1.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20–1.82), and preventable or potential AWEs (adjusted IRR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.06–1.76) after adjustment for patient characteristics, nursing home quality, and case mix. Greater nursing staff time was protective for preventable and potential AWEs (adjusted IRR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.48–0.90) but not for nonpreventable AWEs. Conclusion A diagnosis of dementia was associated with increased risk of nonpreventable and preventable or potential AWEs. Greater nursing staff time was associated with lower risk of preventable AWEs. These findings have implications for quality-of-care reporting and patient safety.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T07:13:39Z
       
  • Looking Beyond Polypharmacy: Quantification of Medication Regimen
           Complexity in the Elderly
    • Abstract: August 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:The American Journal of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy, Volume 10, Issue 4

      Background Polypharmacy has been shown to influence outcomes in elderly patients. However, the impact of medication regimen complexity, quantified by the Medication Regimen Complexity Index (MRCI), on health outcomes after discharge of elderly patients has not been studied. Objective Our aim was to test the convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity of the MRCI in older hospitalized patients with varying functional and cognitive levels. Methods We retrospectively applied the MRCI to the medication regimen of 212 hospitalized patients and assessed its validity. Results The mean (SD) MRCI scores for medication regimens and number of medications at discharge were 30.27 (13.95) and 5.95 (2.40), respectively. The MRCI scores were strongly correlated with the number of medications (r =0.94, P
      PubDate: 2012-12-17T07:13:39Z
       
  • The Impact of Family Caregivers on Potentially Inappropriate Medication
           Use in Noninstitutionalized Older Adults With Dementia
    • Abstract: August 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:The American Journal of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy, Volume 10, Issue 4

      Background The risk of potentially inappropriate medication (PIM), both prescription and over-the-counter, use in dementia patients is high. Informal caregivers often facilitate patients' use of medications, but the effect of caregiver factors on PIM use has not been a focus of previous research. Objective The aim of this study was to examine PIM use in dementia patients and caregivers and identify caregiver risk factors for PIM use in dementia patients. Methods We conducted a secondary data analysis of the baseline wave of the Resources for Enhancing Alzheimer's Caregiver's Health study. The sample comprised 566 persons with dementia aged 65 and older and their coresiding family caregiver. PIM was defined using the 2003 Beers criteria and was examined in both dementia patients and their caregivers. Caregiver and patient risk factors included a range of sociodemographic and health variables. Results In dementia patients, 33% were taking at least 1 PIM, and 39% of their caregivers were also taking a PIM. In fully adjusted models, the following caregiver factors were associated with an increased risk of dementia patient PIM use: caregiver's own PIM use, spouse caregivers, Hispanic caregivers, and greater number of years that the caregiver has lived in the United States. Increased caregiver age was associated with a decreased risk of PIM use in patients. Conclusions PIM use may be higher in dementia patients and their informal caregivers compared with the general older adult population. Further, patterns of medication use in 1 member of the dyad may influence PIM risk in the other dyad member. These results suggest that interventions to increase appropriate medication use in dementia patients and their caregivers should target both members of the dyad and target over-the-counter agents along with prescription medications.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T07:13:39Z
       
  • Pharmacist- Versus Physician-Initiated Admission Medication
           Reconciliation: Impact on Adverse Drug Events
    • Abstract: August 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:The American Journal of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy, Volume 10, Issue 4

      Background Medication reconciliation (MR) has proven to be a problematic task for many hospitals to accomplish. It is important to know the clinical impact of physician- versus pharmacist-initiated MR in the resource-limited hospital environment. Methods This quasi-experimental study took place from December 2005 to February 2006 at an urban US Veterans Affairs hospital. MR was implemented on 2 similar general medical units: one received physician-initiated MR and the other received pharmacist-initiated MR. Adverse drug events (ADEs) and a 72-hour medication-prescribing risk score were ascertained by research pharmacists for all admitted patients by structured record review. Multivariable models were tested for intervention effect, accounting for quasi-experimental design and clustered observations, and were adjusted for patient and encounter covariates. Results Pharmacists completed the MR process in 102 admissions and physicians completed the process in 116 admissions. In completing the MR process, pharmacists documented statistically more admission medication changes than physicians (3.6 vs 0.8; P < 0.001). The adjusted odds of an ADE caused by an admission prescribing change with pharmacist-initiated MR compared with a physician-initiated MR were 1.04 with a 95% CI of 0.53 to 2.0. The adjusted odds of an ADE caused by an admission prescribing change that was a prescribing error with pharmacist-initiated MR compared with a physician-initiated MR were 0.38 with a confidence interval of 0.14 to 1.05. No difference was observed in 72-hour prescribing risk score (coefficient = 0.10; 95% CI, −0.54 to 0.75). Conclusion MR performed by pharmacists versus physicians was more comprehensive and was followed by lower odds of ADEs from admission prescribing errors but with similar odds of all types of ADEs. Further research is warranted to examine how MR tasks may be optimally divided among clinicians and the mechanisms by which MR affects the likelihood of subsequent ADEs. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00370916.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T07:13:39Z
       
  • Anticholinergic Drugs and Functional Outcomes in Older Patients Undergoing
           Orthopaedic Rehabilitation
    • Abstract: August 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:The American Journal of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy, Volume 10, Issue 4

      Background Medications with anticholinergic (antimuscarinic) effects negatively affect physical and cognitive function in community-dwelling older patients. However, it is unknown if anticholinergic drugs exert detrimental effects in older patients undergoing rehabilitation. Objective The purpose of our study was to assess the effect of anticholinergic drug exposure on functional outcomes in older patients undergoing rehabilitation. We speculated that higher anticholinergic drug exposure would be associated with reduced functional outcomes in this group. Methods Data on clinical characteristics, full medication, anticholinergic drug exposure (total number of anticholinergic drugs [tAD] and Anticholinergic Risk Scale [ARS] score), and Barthel index (BI) score were collected on admission and discharge in a consecutive series of 117 older patients (age 79 [7] years) admitted to the orthopaedic rehabilitation unit of a teaching hospital between July 2010 and March 2011. Outcome measures were BI changes (BI on discharge – BI on admission) during rehabilitation (primary outcome) and length of stay (secondary outcome). Results Anticholinergic drugs were prescribed in 38 patients (32.5%). Median and interquartile range for tAD = 0 (0–1); for ARS = 0 (0–1). Poisson regression showed that higher tAD (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 0.92; 95% CI, 0.88–0.97; P = 0.003) and ARS scores (IRR = 0.97; 95% CI, 0.95–0.99; P = 0.008) on admission independently predicted lower BI changes. Being a woman (IRR = 0.87; 95% CI, 0.78–0.97; P = 0.01), lower Abbreviated Mental Test scores (IRR = 0.94; 95% CI, 0.91–0.97; P < 0.001), and lower BI on admission (IRR = 0.98; 95% CI, 0.97–0.98; P < 0.001), but not tAD or ARS scores, independently predicted increasing length of stay. Conclusions Higher anticholinergic drug exposure on admission independently predicts reduced functional outcomes, but not length of stay, in older patients undergoing orthopaedic rehabilitation.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T07:13:39Z
       
  • A Year in Review: New Drugs for Older Adults in 2011
    • Abstract: August 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:The American Journal of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy, Volume 10, Issue 4

      Background New drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) may offer tremendous clinical advances by providing health care providers with new treatment strategies. However, additional care must be taken for safe and effective use of these new agents by older adults. Objective Our objective was to identify FDA-approved medications in 2011 most likely to be prescribed to older adults, and to describe medication characteristics that may require special attention in this population. Methods The FDA Web site was reviewed for new drug approvals from January through December 2011. Approved labeling for each drug was obtained from the manufacturer's Web site and PubMed was searched for primary literature published between 1967 and 2012. Results Rivaroxaban, an oral factor Xa inhibitor, is approved for once-daily use in treatment of nonvalvular atrial fibrillation and deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis after replacement of a hip or knee. Drug interactions and renal function must be considered when prescribing this drug to older adults. Fidaxomicin is an oral anti-infective approved for the treatment of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea. It has minimal oral absorption or side effects, no relevant drug interactions, but a very high cost. It is a treatment option after failure of oral metronidazole and oral vancomycin. Roflumilast is a selective inhibitor of phosphodiesterase 4 and is approved to reduce the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations in patients with severe COPD and a history of exacerbations. It is recommended as a second or alternative choice combined with a long-acting bronchodilator in patients at high risk for hospitalization. Indacaterol is an inhaled long-acting β-agonist approved for COPD maintenance. It is administered once daily, which may improve adherence in older adults compared with currently available twice-daily agents. Conclusions Four new drugs approved in 2011 applicable to the geriatric population are presented. Clinicians must consider the available evidence, cost, drug–drug interactions, renal function, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic differences, and patient preferences when considering prescribing these agents to older adults.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T07:13:39Z
       
  • FDA Drug Safety Communications: A Narrative Review and Clinical
           Considerations for Older Adults
    • Abstract: August 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:The American Journal of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy, Volume 10, Issue 4

      Background The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has new regulatory authorities intended to enhance drug safety monitoring in the postmarketing period. This has resulted in an increase in communication from the FDA in recent years about the safety profile of certain drugs. It is important to stay abreast of the current literature on drug risks to effectively communicate these risks to patients, other health care providers, and the general public. Objective To summarize 4 new FDA drug safety communications by describing the evidence supporting the risks and the clinical implications for older adults. Methods The FDA Web site was reviewed for new drug safety communications from May 2011 to April 2012 that would be relevant to older adults. Approved labeling for each drug or class was obtained from the manufacturer, and PubMed was searched for primary literature that supported the drug safety concern. Results FDA drug safety communications for 4 drugs were chosen because of the potential clinical importance in older adults. A warning for citalopram was made because of potential problems with QT prolongation in patients taking less than 40 mg per day. The evidence suggests minor changes in QT interval. Given the flat dose–response curve in treating depression with citalopram, the new 20-mg/d maximum dose in older adults is sensible. Another warning was made for proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and an increased risk of Clostridium difficile infection. A dose–response relationship was found for this drug risk. With C. difficile infections on the rise in older adults, along with other safety risks of PPI therapy, PPIs should only be used in older adults indicated for therapy for the shortest duration possible. In addition, a warning about dabigatran was made. There is strong evidence from a large clinical trial, as well as case reports, of increased bleeding risk in older adults taking dabigatran, especially in older adults with decreased renal function. This medication should be used with caution in older adults. Finally, several warnings were made about statins. Routine periodic monitoring of liver enzymes does not appear to be effective in detecting or preventing serious liver injury from statin use; thus, liver enzymes are no longer recommended to be routinely monitored. Statin-induced cognitive changes are rare, and insufficient evidence is currently available to establish causality. Statins appear to moderately increase the risk of developing diabetes (versus placebo), and regular screening for diabetes should be considered, especially for patients taking high-dose statins and patients with multiple risk factors for diabetes. Conclusion FDA drug safety communications incorporate complex methodologies that investigate the risks (and relative benefits) of medication therapy. Clinicians caring for older adults need to be aware of the most current evidence behind these drug risks to effectively communicate with and care for their patients.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T07:13:39Z
       
  • Correction
    • Abstract: August 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:The American Journal of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy, Volume 10, Issue 4



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T07:13:39Z
       
  • Medication Adherence in Older Adults With Cognitive Impairment: A
           Systematic Evidence-Based Review
    • Abstract: June 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:The American Journal of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy, Volume 10, Issue 3

      Background Cognitive impairment challenges the ability to adhere to the complex medication regimens needed to treat multiple medical problems in older adults. Objective Our aim was to conduct a systematic evidence-based review to identify barriers to medication adherence in cognitively impaired older adults and interventions aimed at improving medication adherence. Methods A search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, GoogleDocs, and CINAHL for articles published between 1966 and February 29, 2012 was performed. Studies included older adults with a diagnosis of cognitive impairment of any degree (mild cognitive impairment or mild, moderate, or severe dementia). To identify barriers to adherence, we reviewed observational studies. To identify relevant interventions, we reviewed clinical trials targeting medication adherence in cognitively impaired older adults. We excluded studies lacking a measure of medication adherence or lacking an assessment of cognitive function, case reports or series, reviews, and those focusing on psychiatric disorders or infectious diseases. Population demographics, baseline cognitive function, medication adherence methods, barriers to adherence, and prospective intervention methodologies were extracted. Results The initial search identified 594 articles. Ten studies met inclusion criteria for barriers to adherence and three met inclusion criteria for interventional studies. Unique barriers to adherence included understanding new directions, living alone, scheduling medication administration into the daily routine, using potentially inappropriate medications, and uncooperative patients. Two studies evaluated reminder systems and showed no benefit in a small group of participants. One study improved adherence through telephone and televideo reminders at each dosing interval. The results of the review are limited by reviewing only published articles, missing barriers or interventions due to lack of subgroup analysis, study selection and extraction completed by 1 reviewer, and articles with at least an abstract published in English. Conclusions The few studies identified limit the assessment of barriers to medication adherence in the cognitively impaired population. Successful interventions suggest that frequent human communication as reminder systems are more likely to improve adherence than nonhuman reminders.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T07:13:39Z
       
  • Effects of Oral Bisphosphonate Therapy on Serum Calcium in Elderly
           Veterans With Poor Kidney Function
    • Abstract: June 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:The American Journal of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy, Volume 10, Issue 3

      Background Limited data exist on the use of bisphosphonates in patients with poor kidney function due to a contraindication derived from inadequate experience among patients with kidney failure, accounting for as much as 25% of nonprescribing when otherwise appropriate. Objectives To determine whether bisphosphonate use in patients with decreased renal function, as outlined in the package insert (estimated creatinine clearance [eCrCl]
      PubDate: 2012-12-17T07:13:39Z
       
  • The Greater Sensitivity of Elderly APOE ε4 Carriers to Anticholinergic
           Medications is Independent of Cerebrovascular Disease Risk
    • Abstract: June 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:The American Journal of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy, Volume 10, Issue 3

      Background Recent studies found use of anticholinergic medications to be associated with greater performance decrements in older persons who carry an ε4 allele of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene than in those carrying only ε2 or ε3 alleles. Objectives The present study examined whether the apparently greater behavioral toxicity of anticholinergic drugs in ε4 carriers may result from an increased risk of cerebrovascular disease, which is more common in ε4 carriers. Methods Cross-sectional data were available from 240 elderly community volunteers who had participated in 2 different studies of the cognitive and motor effects of normal aging. As part of these studies, information was gathered on subjects' use of anticholinergic medications (based on an inventory of medications taken within 24 hours of testing), risk of cerebrovascular disease (Framingham Stroke Risk Profile), and APOE genotype. Performance data were also available from measures of general cognitive status (Mini-Mental State Examination), executive function (Trail Making Test), mood (Geriatric Depression Scale), sleep (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), and walking speed. Logistic and linear regression models were used to examine how outcomes differed between genotypes and drug use, independent of the risk of cerebrovascular disease. Results In persons with a non-ε4 genotype, anticholinergic medication use did not significantly affect any of the behavioral measures. By contrast, among ε4 carriers, those taking anticholinergic drugs performed significantly worse than did those not taking such drugs on tests of general cognitive status, executive function, mood, and sleep. Adjusting for participants' stroke risk had a minimal effect on these results. Conclusions Anticholinergic medication use was associated with poorer performance on measures of cognition, sleep, and mood only in older persons who carried 1 or more ε4 alleles of the APOE gene; this effect did not appear to be the result of an increased risk of cerebrovascular disease.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T07:13:39Z
       
  • Differences in Lithium Use Patterns in the Netherlands: Comparing
           Middle-Aged and Older Patients in a Database Study
    • Abstract: June 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:The American Journal of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy, Volume 10, Issue 3

      Background Age-dependent changes in lithium pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties can influence lithium use in an aging population, especially as newer treatment options are available. Objective We compared lithium use patterns between middle-aged and elderly outpatients in the Netherlands. Methods Data for this study were obtained from the Dutch PHARMO Record Linkage System. Incident lithium users 40 years or older were identified in the period 1996–2008. The following lithium use patterns were defined: continuation, add on, switch, and discontinuation. Differences were assessed for the following age groups: 40 to 49 years, 50 to 59 years, 60 to 69 years, and 70 years or older. The youngest group was the reference group. Patient baseline characteristics and potential determinants of changes in lithium use patterns were assessed. Results We identified 2081 incident lithium users. Use of antidepressants was not different at baseline between age groups, but elderly patients starting lithium treatment used baseline antipsychotics less frequently (P < 0.05). Older patients were less likely to receive psychotropic drugs as add on to ongoing lithium therapy (P < 0.05). Frequency of discontinuation and switch events did not differ between the age groups. In the whole study group, age was associated with any change in lithium use patterns. Conclusions Older patients are less likely to receive psychotropic drugs as add on to ongoing lithium therapy. Despite pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes in the elderly, lithium is not more often discontinued and not more often switched in older patients.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T07:13:39Z
       
  • Association of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Maintenance
           Medication Adherence With All-Cause Hospitalization and Spending in a
           Medicare Population
    • Abstract: June 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:The American Journal of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy, Volume 10, Issue 3

      Background Although maintenance medications are a cornerstone of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) management, adherence remains suboptimal. Poor medication adherence is implicated in poor outcomes with other chronic conditions; however, little is understood regarding links between adherence and outcomes in COPD patients. Objective This study investigates the association of COPD maintenance medication adherence with hospitalization and health care spending. Methods Using the 2006 to 2007 Chronic Condition Warehouse administrative data, this retrospective cross-sectional study included 33,816 Medicare beneficiaries diagnosed with COPD who received at least 2 prescriptions for ≥1 COPD maintenance medications. After a 6-month baseline period (January 1, 2006 to June 30, 2006), beneficiaries were followed through to December 31, 2007 or death. Two medication adherence measures were assessed: medication continuity and proportion of days covered (PDC). PDC values ranged from 0 to 1 and were calculated as the number of days with any COPD maintenance medication divided by duration of therapy with these agents. The association of adherence with all-cause hospital events and Medicare spending were estimated using negative binomial and γ generalized linear models, respectively, adjusting for sociodemographics, Social Security disability insurance status, low-income subsidy status, comorbidities, and proxy measures of disease severity. Results Improved adherence using both measures was significantly associated with reduced rate of all-cause hospitalization and lower Medicare spending. Patients who continued with their medications had lower hospitalization rates (relative rate [RR] = 0.88) and lower Medicare spending (–$3764), compared with patients who discontinued medications. Similarly, patients with PDC ≥0.80 exhibited lower hospitalization rates (RR = 0.90) and decreased spending (–$2185), compared with patients with PDC
      PubDate: 2012-12-17T07:13:39Z
       
  • Influence of Patient Age and Comorbid Burden on Clinician Attitudes Toward
           Heart Failure Guidelines
    • Abstract: June 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:The American Journal of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy, Volume 10, Issue 3

      Background Clinical practice guidelines have been criticized for insufficient attention to the unique needs of patients of advanced age and with multiple comorbid conditions. However, little empiric research is available to inform this topic. Methods We conducted telephone interviews with staff physicians and nurse practitioners in 4 VA health care systems. Respondents were asked to rate the usefulness of national heart failure guidelines for patients of different ages and levels of comorbid burden on a 5-point scale and to comment on the reasons for their ratings. Results Of 139 clinicians contacted, 65 (47%) completed the interview. Almost half (49%) were women, and 48 (74%) were general internists or family practitioners. On a 5-point scale assessing the usefulness of clinical practice guidelines for heart failure, the mean (SD) response ranged from 4.4 (0.7) for patients younger than 65 years with few comorbid conditions to 3.5 (1.2) for patients older than 80 years with multiple comorbid conditions (P
      PubDate: 2012-12-17T07:13:39Z
       
  • Case Report: Post–Traumatic Memories Triggered by Donepezil in a
           Dose-Dependent Pattern
    • Abstract: June 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:The American Journal of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy, Volume 10, Issue 3

      Background This case report describes a new adverse drug event due to use of donepezil in a patient with probable Alzheimer's Disease. Case summary While receiving a 10-mg dose of donepezil nightly, an 87-year old veteran of World War II experienced irrepressible memories of a kamikaze strike. This symptom did not occur at a 5-mg dose of donepezil and resolved with downward titration of this agent. Conclusions This sequence of dosage and symptoms suggests acetylcholinesterase inhibition was the trigger for release of these memories, which are otherwise mostly chronically repressed in this individual.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T07:13:39Z
       
  • Risk of Falls and Fractures in Older Adults Using Atypical Antipsychotic
           Agents: A Propensity Score–Adjusted, Retrospective Cohort Study
    • Abstract: April 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:The American Journal of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy, Volume 10, Issue 2

      Background Atypical antipsychotic agents are extensively prescribed in the elderly to treat various behavioral and psychiatric disorders. Past literature has documented an increased risk of falls and factures with the use of risperidone and olanzapine compared with nonuse. However, none of the studies assessed the comparative safety profiles of atypical agents with respect to falls and fractures. Objective The goal of this study was to evaluate the risk of falls and fractures associated with the use of risperidone, olanzapine, and quetiapine in community-dwelling adults aged ≥50 years. Methods The study involved a propensity score–adjusted approach in new users of risperidone, olanzapine, or quetiapine anytime between July 1, 2000, and June 30, 2008, using data from the IMS LifeLink Health Plan Claims database. Patients were followed up until a hospitalization/emergency department visit for fall/fracture or the end of the study period, whichever occurred earlier. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to evaluate the comparative risk of falls/fractures. The covariates in the final model included propensity scores and their interaction terms. Results There were 12,145 new users of atypical agents in the study population (5083 risperidone, 4377 olanzapine, and 2685 quetiapine). A total of 417 cases of falls/fractures with at least 1 hospitalization/ emergency department visit after the use of the antipsychotic agents were identified. The number of falls for risperidone, olanzapine, and quetiapine were 179 (3.56%), 123 (2.84%), and 115 (4.34%), respectively. After adjusting for propensity scores, the Cox proportional hazards model showed that there was no statistically significant difference with use of risperidone (hazard ratio = 1.10 [95% CI, 0.86–1.39]) or quetiapine (hazard ratio = 1.12 [95% CI, 0.86–1.46]) compared with olanzapine (reference group) in the risk of falls or fractures. Conclusions The study found no significant difference across the individual atypical agents in the risk of falls/fractures in community-dwelling older adults. Future studies are required to evaluate the overall safety profiles of the antipsychotic agents in this population.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T07:13:39Z
       
  • Role of the Pharmacist on a General Medicine Acute Care for the Elderly
           Unit
    • Abstract: April 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:The American Journal of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy, Volume 10, Issue 2

      Background The prevalence of prescription medication use increases with age, and older adults are at increased risk of harm from medication use. Objective To describe the role of a pharmacist on a General Medicine Acute Care of the Elderly (GM-ACE) Unit. Methods A job description was prepared, and a clinical pharmacist specializing in internal medicine was re-assigned to participate in multidisciplinary rounds on the ACE unit twice weekly and to work with a unit-based pharmacist assigned to multiple units. The clinical pharmacist also provided formal education on geriatric pharmacotherapy for other health care providers. Interventions were defined as changes in the medical record and provision of drug information. Interventions were tracked with an existing form and sorted by category. Data on interventions were presented to the pharmacy and therapeutics committee routinely. Results After 3 months, the clinical pharmacist accomplished 76 interventions in the areas of agent selection, dose optimization, addition of therapy, deletion of therapy, medication reconciliation, intravenous to oral conversion, technology improvements, and drug information/patient education. Conclusion Expanding the role of the pharmacist in a GM-ACE unit has improved the medication use process in a high-risk population through improvements in medication overuse, medication underuse, dosing, medication reconciliation, patient education, and health care provider education.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T07:13:39Z
       
  • Applicability of an Adapted Medication Appropriateness Index for Detection
           of Drug-Related Problems in Geriatric Inpatients
    • Abstract: April 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:The American Journal of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy, Volume 10, Issue 2

      Background High drug consumption by older patients and the presence of many drug-related problems require careful assessment of drug therapy, for which a structured approach is recommended. Objective The purpose of our study was to evaluate the applicability of an adapted version of the Medication Appropriateness Index (MAI) in 50 geriatric inpatients at the time of admission. Methods We reviewed, for 432 prescribed drugs, indication, right choice, dosage, directions, drug–disease interactions, drug–drug interactions, and duration of therapy. In addition, adverse drug reactions were evaluated, resulting in 8 questions per drug. MAI scores were attributed independently by a geriatrician and by a clinical pharmacist, and differences between them were assessed. Furthermore, the relationship between MAI score and drug-related hospital admission was explored. Results Mean summed MAI scores of 13.7 according to the geriatrician and 13.6 according to the pharmacist were obtained. The highest scores were found for drugs for the central nervous and the urinary tract system; the highest scores per question were detected for right choice, adverse drug reactions, and drug–drug interactions. A good agreement between the scores of the geriatrician and the pharmacist was found: intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.91 and overall κ value was 0.71. A significantly higher MAI score was found for drug-related hospital admissions (P = 0.04 for the geriatrician and P = 0.03 for the pharmacist). Conclusions This adapted MAI score seems useful for detection of drug-related problems in geriatric inpatients and reliable with a low inter-rater variability and positive correlation between high score and drug-related hospital admission. We consider further application of the adapted MAI for teaching and training of clinical pharmacists, and as a systematic approach for detection of drug-related problems by the clinical pharmacists in our hospital.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T07:13:39Z
       
  • Complexity of Medication Use in Newly Diagnosed Chronic Obstructive
           Pulmonary Disease Patients
    • Abstract: April 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:The American Journal of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy, Volume 10, Issue 2

      Background To better understand how medications have been used and the complexity of regimens used to treat patients, we characterized patterns of medication use and the degree to which patients used different classes of medications in combination and over time in a cohort of newly diagnosed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. Objective The objectives of this study were to characterize patterns of medication use, including the degree to which patients used different classes of medications in combination and over time within a cohort of newly diagnosed COPD patients and to identify the proportion of patients who had gaps in filling their prescriptions. Methods We identified a cohort of patients from the Veterans Affairs health care system with newly diagnosed COPD between 1999 and 2003. Using prescription fill information, we quantified the prevalence and incidence of exposure to short-acting β-agonists (SABAs), long-acting β-agonists (LABAs), short-acting anticholinergics (eg, ipratropium [IPRA]), and inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) over 1 year. We additionally characterized the sequencing of medication addition and discontinuation and gaps between prescription fills. The prevalence of multiple respiratory medication use was summarized at 90, 180, and 365 days of follow-up. Results Of 133,737 patients with newly diagnosed COPD, the majority (80.0%) used a SABA, followed by 40.0% using IPRA, 33.2% using an ICS and 16.0% using a LABA during the 1-year follow-up. Medication changes were frequent, with 57.7% of patients having a medication addition and 48.6% discontinuing medication. The sequence of medication changes varied greatly across patients. Multiple respiratory medication use was common, with 29% of patients dispensed 3 to 4 medication classes in 1 year. Conclusions Many COPD patients who are started on medication management undergo changes in prescribed pharmacotherapy and are taking multiple medications. Despite clinical practice guidelines, there is an ad hoc nature of COPD medication management, and such heterogeneity challenges the ability to estimate relationships between drug exposure and outcomes using real-world data.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T07:13:39Z
       
  • Polypharmacy With Common Diseases in Hospitalized Elderly Patients
    • Abstract: April 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:The American Journal of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy, Volume 10, Issue 2

      Background Elderly persons are exposed to polypharmacy because of multiple chronic conditions. Many risk factors for polypharmacy have been identified including age, race/ethnicity, sex, educational achievement level, health status, and number of chronic diseases. However, drugs prescribed for individual diseases have not been analyzed. Objective The objective of this study was to analyze each common disease in the elderly with respect to prescribed drugs and polypharmacy. Methods A 1-year (January through December 2009) cross-sectional study was performed in which all drugs given to hospitalized elderly patients (age, >65 years) were investigated. Common diseases of the elderly were separated into disease groups including hypertension, hyperlipidemia, gastric ulcer, previous stroke, reflux esophagitis, diabetes mellitus, malignancy, osteoporosis, angina pectoris, congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, dementia, and depression. Results Among 1768 elderly patients, the mean (range) age of study patients was 78 (65 to 100) years. The mean (SD) number of diseases was 7.7 (3.4), and the number of drugs overall was 4.9 (3.6). The number of drugs and prevalence of polypharmacy were hypertension, 5.2 (3.9 [51%]); hyperlipidemia, 5.6 (3.8 [58%]); gastric ulcer, 5.4 (3.8 [53%]); previous stroke, 5.8 (3.2 [61%]); reflux esophagitis, 5.6 (3.8 [40%]), diabetes mellitus, 5.6 (3.1 [54%]); malignancy, 4.1 (3.1 [37%]); osteoporosis, 5.4 (3.4 [45%]); angina pectoris, 5.7 (3.6 [42%]); congestive heart failure, 6.1 (4.0 [60%]); chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 5.0 (3.5 [53%]); dementia, 5.1 (3.2 [52%]); and depression, 7.0 (4.2 [73%]). Conclusions When assessing the risk of polypharmacy, physicians should carefully consider the type of any chronic disease. Elderly patients with multiple diseases may be subjected to further polypharmacy.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T07:13:39Z
       
  • Design of a Medication Therapy Management Program for Medicare
           Beneficiaries: Qualitative Findings From Patients and Physicians
    • Abstract: April 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:The American Journal of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy, Volume 10, Issue 2

      Background The quality of pharmacologic care provided to older adults is less than optimal. Medication therapy management (MTM) programs delivered to older adults in the ambulatory care setting may improve the quality of medication use for these individuals. Objectives We conducted focus groups with older adults and primary care physicians to explore (1) older adults' experiences working with a clinical pharmacist in managing medications, (2) physician perspectives on the role of clinical pharmacists in facilitating medication management, and (3) key attributes of an effective MTM program and potential barriers from patient and provider perspectives. Methods Five focus groups (4 with older adults, 1 with physicians) were conducted by a trained moderator using a semistructured interview guide. Each participant completed a demographic questionnaire. Sessions were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using qualitative analysis software for theme identification. Results Twenty-eight older adults and 8 physicians participated. Older adults valued the professional, trusting nature of their interactions with the pharmacist. They found the clinical pharmacist to be a useful resource, thorough, personable, and a valuable team member. Physicians believe that the clinical pharmacist fills a unique role as a specialized practitioner, contributing meaningfully to patient care. Physicians emphasized the importance of effective communication, pharmacist access to the medical record, and a mutually trusting relationship as key attributes of a program. Potential barriers to an effective program include poor communication and lack of familiarity with the patient's history. The lack of a sustainable reimbursement model was cited as a barrier to widespread implementation of MTM. Conclusions This study provides information to assist pharmacists in designing MTM programs in the ambulatory setting. Key attributes of an effective program include being comprehensive and addressing all medication-related needs over time. The clinical pharmacist's ability to build trusting relationships with patients and providers is essential.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T07:13:39Z
       
  • Age-Related Changes in Antidepressant Pharmacokinetics and Potential
           Drug-Drug Interactions: A Comparison of Evidence-Based Literature and
           Package Insert Information
    • Abstract: April 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:The American Journal of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy, Volume 10, Issue 2

      Background Antidepressants are among the most commonly prescribed psychotropic agents for older patients. Little is known about the best source of pharmacotherapy information to consult about key factors necessary to safely prescribe these medications to older patients. Objective The objective of this study was to synthesize and contrast information in the package insert (PI) with information found in the scientific literature about age-related changes of antidepressants in systemic clearance and potential pharmacokinetic drug–drug interactions (DDIs). Methods A comprehensive search of two databases (MEDLINE and EMBASE from January 1, 1975 to September 30, 2011) with the use of a combination of search terms (antidepressants, pharmacokinetics, and drug interactions) was conducted to identify relevant English language articles. This information was independently reviewed by two researchers and synthesized into tables. These same two researchers examined the most up-to-date PIs for the 26 agents available at the time of the study to abstract quantitative information about age-related decline in systemic clearance and potential DDIs. The agreement between the two information sources was tested with κ statistics. Results The literature reported age-related clearance changes for 13 antidepressants, whereas the PIs only had evidence about 4 antidepressants (κ < 0.4). Similarly, the literature identified 45 medications that could potentially interact with a specific antidepressant, whereas the PIs only provided evidence about 12 potential medication–antidepressant DDIs (κ < 0.4). Conclusion The evidence-based literature compared with PIs is the most complete pharmacotherapy information source about both age-related clearance changes and pharmacokinetic DDIs with antidepressants. Future rigorously designed observational studies are needed to examine the combined risk of antidepressants with age-related decline in clearance and potential DDIs on important health outcomes such as falls and fractures in older patients.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T07:13:39Z
       
  • Commentary on the New American Geriatric Society Beers Criteria for
           Potentially Inappropriate Medication Use in Older Adults
    • Abstract: April 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:The American Journal of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy, Volume 10, Issue 2



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T07:13:39Z
       
  • Clinical Challenges in a Patient With Dabigatran-Induced Fatal Hemorrhage
    • Abstract: April 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:The American Journal of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy, Volume 10, Issue 2

      Objective To report clinical challenges in managing dabigatran-induced bleeding. Methods A 78-year-old woman came to the hospital with severe coagulopathy, respiratory failure, hypotension, and bleeding secondary to dabigatran therapy. At admission, creatinine clearance was 15 mL/min; prothrombin time, 147.5 seconds; activated partial thromboplastin time, >200 seconds; and international normalized ratio, 12.42. Medications taken at home included dabigatran, 150 mg BID. During the hospitalization, multiple blood product transfusions were given, vitamin K and prothrombin complex concentrate were administered, and dialysis was initiated in an attempt to achieve hemostasis. Despite multiple interventions, coagulopathy persisted (prothrombin time, 70.8 seconds; activated partial thromboplastin time, >200 seconds; and international normalized ratio, 6.05), with continued bleeding. On hospital day 5, the patient died. Conclusions According to the Naranjo probability scale, bleeding associated with dabigatran revealed a probable relationship. This fatal case illustrates our concern about the usefulness of currently recommended anticoagulation laboratory tests and of the efficacy of blood transfusion, dialysis, and prothrombin complex concentrate in managing life-threatening bleeding secondary to dabigatran. In addition, clinicians should be cognizant of the renal recommendations for the newer oral anticoagulant agents to prevent potentially catastrophic results.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T07:13:39Z
       
  • Goodbyes, Hellos, and Changes
    • Abstract: February 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:The American Journal of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy, Volume 10, Issue 1



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T07:13:39Z
       
  • Reconsideration of Key Articles Regarding Medication-Related Problems in
           Older Adults from 2011
    • Abstract: February 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:The American Journal of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy, Volume 10, Issue 1



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T07:13:39Z
       
  • Clostridium Difficile Infection in Older Adults: A Review and Update on
           Its Management
    • Abstract: February 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:The American Journal of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy, Volume 10, Issue 1

      Background Clostridium difficile is a main cause of health care-associated infections. The incidence and severity have been increasing. Elderly persons are at an increased risk of morbidity and mortality from C. difficile infection (CDI). Relatively few advances have been made in the treatment of CDI since it was first identified as a cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea more than 30 years ago. Objective This article reviews CDI and provides an update on its treatment, including recently published clinical practice guidelines and the recently approved drug, fidaxomicin. Methods English-language literature was identified through a search of PubMed (1966–October 2011), Iowa Drug Information Service (1966–October 2011), and International Pharmaceutical s (1970–October 2011). Key search terms included Clostridium difficile, Clostridium infections, pseudomembranous colitis, antibiotic-associated diarrhea, Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea, elderly, geriatric, epidemiology, microbiology, diagnosis, risk factors, treatment, drug therapy, vancomycin, metronidazole, and fidaxomicin. Results Metronidazole and vancomycin remain the mainstays of CDI treatment. Current guidelines recommend oral metronidazole for initial mild to moderate episodes or first recurrence. Oral vancomycin is recommended for initial severe episodes, or first or second recurrence. Fidaxomicin was approved in 2011 for treatment of CDI, but its place in therapy has yet to be determined. Other antibiotics have been used with variable success. Saccharomyces boulardii is the only probiotic that has shown efficacy in CDI. Fecal transplants have been used successfully in some patients, but randomized studies are needed. Immune therapy with a vaccine and monoclonal antibodies is being studied in clinical trials. Conclusions Treatment of CDI is challenging due to the limited number of drugs that have proven to be effective, concerns about antibiotic resistance, and recurring disease. The recent approval of fidaxomicin provides a new alternative. Immune therapy will likely play a greater role in the future.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T07:13:39Z
       
  • Warfarin Use in Nursing Home Residents: Results from the 2004 National
           Nursing Home Survey
    • Abstract: February 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:The American Journal of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy, Volume 10, Issue 1

      Background Practice guidelines recommend anticoagulation therapy with warfarin for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Despite this, warfarin is underused in older adults. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of AF in nursing home (NH) residents and the use of warfarin or other antiplatelet medications in NH residents with AF who have indications for and no contraindications against warfarin use. The secondary objective was to determine the factors associated with warfarin use in NH residents with AF. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of prescription and resident data files from the 2004 National Nursing Home Survey was performed. Residents with a diagnosis of AF were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes, and prescriptions of warfarin and antiplatelet medications were identified using Long-Term Care Drug Database System (LTCDDS) codes. Resident characteristics, stroke risk factors, and potential bleeding risk factors significant at P < 0.10 in χ2 analyses were entered in the final multiple logistic regression model to determine the factors associated with warfarin use. Results From 13,507 NH residents, 1904 (14%) had a diagnosis of AF and 1767 (13%) had a diagnosis of AF with indications for and no contraindications against warfarin use. Of these 1767 residents, 537 (30%) were prescribed warfarin, and of the remaining 1230 residents who were not prescribed warfarin, 283 (23%) received either aspirin or clopidogrel. Thus, of 1767 residents with AF, with indications for and no contraindications to warfarin use, 947 (54%) residents did not receive any antithrombotic therapy in the form of warfarin, aspirin, clopidogrel, or a combination of these medications. Factors that were significantly associated with increased odds of receiving warfarin were congestive heart failure, previous stroke or transient ischemic attack, deep vein thrombosis or peripheral embolus, valvular heart disease, and total number of medications ≥6. Factors that were significantly associated with reduced odds of receiving warfarin were nonwhite race, history of gastrointestinal bleeding, and use of antiplatelets (ie, clopidogrel). Conclusions AF is common in NH residents, and more than half of the residents with AF who had indications for and no contraindications against warfarin use were not prescribed either warfarin or antiplatelets, such as aspirin or clopidogrel, suggesting that antithrombotic therapy may be underused in NH residents with AF.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T07:13:39Z
       
  • Challenge of Changing Nursing Home Prescribing Culture
    • Abstract: February 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:The American Journal of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy, Volume 10, Issue 1

      This article described a framework for improving prescribing in nursing homes (NH) by focusing on the whole facility as a system that has created a “prescribing culture.” We offered this paradigm as an alternative to focused interventions that target prescribers only. We used the example of atypical antipsychotics to illustrate the approach. We also highlighted elements of the NH culture change movement that are germane to medication prescribing, and illustrated which elements of NH culture were shown to be associated with suboptimal quality of care. We concluded by describing current models, including our study funded by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, to identify the best methods of disseminating evidence-based medication use guides in NHs.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T07:13:39Z
       
  • Tolerability of Topical Diclofenac Sodium 1% Gel for Osteoarthritis in
           Seniors and Patients With Comorbidities
    • Abstract: February 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:The American Journal of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy, Volume 10, Issue 1

      Background Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are associated with a dose-related risk of cardiovascular, renal, and gastrointestinal adverse events (AEs). Topical NSAIDs produce lower systemic NSAID exposure compared with oral NSAIDs, offering potential benefits. Objective To evaluate the safety of topical diclofenac sodium 1% gel (DSG) for knee and hand osteoarthritis (OA) in older and younger patients and in patients with versus without comorbid hypertension, type 2 diabetes, or cerebrovascular or cardiovascular disease. Methods Post hoc analysis of pooled data from 5 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials involving 1426 patients (aged ≥35 years) with mild to moderate OA of the knee and 783 patients (aged ≥40 years) with mild to moderate OA of the hand. Patients applied 4 g of DSG or vehicle to affected knees QID for 12 weeks or 2 g of DSG or vehicle to affected hands QID for 8 weeks. Results In patients with knee OA, the percentage with ≥1 adverse event was similar in patients aged
      PubDate: 2012-12-17T07:13:39Z
       
  • Medication Adherence Among Geriatric Outpatients Prescribed Multiple
           Medications
    • Abstract: February 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:The American Journal of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy, Volume 10, Issue 1

      Background Poor medication adherence (PMA) is associated with higher risks of morbidity, hospitalization, and mortality. Polypharmacy is not only a determinant of PMA but is also associated with many adverse health outcomes. Objective We aimed to determine the prevalence and correlates of PMA in an older population with polypharmacy. Methods Baseline data from 193 older adults from the Medication Safety Review Clinic Taiwan Study were analyzed. Patients were either prescribed ≥8 long-term medications or visited ≥3 different physicians between August and October 2007. PMA was defined as taking either 120% of prescribed amounts of a medication. Patients were classified as no (0%), low level (>0 but
      PubDate: 2012-12-17T07:13:39Z
       
  • The Effect of Dementia on Medication Use and Adherence Among Medicare
           Beneficiaries With Chronic Heart Failure
    • Abstract: February 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:The American Journal of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy, Volume 10, Issue 1

      Background Alzheimer's disease and related disorders (ADRD) are prevalent in older adults, increase the costs of chronic heart failure (CHF) management, and may be associated with undertreatment of cardiovascular disease. Objective The purpose of our study was to determine the relationship between comorbid ADRD and CHF medication use and adherence among Medicare beneficiaries with CHF. Methods This 2-year (1/1/2006–12/31/2007) cross-sectional study used data from the Chronic Condition Data Warehouse of the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Medicare beneficiaries with evidence of CHF who had systolic dysfunction and Medicare Parts A, B, and D coverage during the entire study period were included. ADRD was identified based on diagnostic codes using the Chronic Condition Data Warehouse algorithm. CHF evidence-based medications (EBMs) were selected based on published guidelines: angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, selected β-blockers, aldosterone antagonists, and selected vasodilators. Measures of EBMs included a binary indicator of EBM use and medication possession ratio among users. Results Of 9827 beneficiaries with CHF and systolic dysfunction, 24.2% had a diagnosis of ADRD. Beneficiaries with ADRD were older (80.8 vs 73.6 years; P < 0.0001) and more likely to be female (69.3% vs 58.1%; P < 0.0001). Overall EBM use was lower in patients with CHF and ADRD compared with patients with CHF but no ADRD (85.3% vs 91.2%; P < 0.0001). Lower use among those with ADRD was consistent across all EBM classes except vasodilators. Among beneficiaries receiving EBM, those with ADRD had a slightly higher mean medication possession ratio for EBM compared with those without ADRD (0.86 vs 0.84; P = 0.0001). Conclusions EBM medication adherence was high in this population, regardless of ADRD status. However, patients with ADRD had lower EBM use compared with those without ADRD. Low use of specific EBM medications such as β-blockers was found in both groups. Therefore, interventions targeting increased treatment with specific EBMs for CHF, even among patients with ADRD, may be of benefit and could help reduce CHF-related hospitalizations.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T07:13:39Z
       
 
 
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