Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3147 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3147 Journals sorted alphabetically
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.655, CiteScore: 2)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.015, CiteScore: 2)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 106, SJR: 1.462, CiteScore: 3)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 2)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.771, CiteScore: 3)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 446, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 7)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.18, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 324, SJR: 3.263, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.307, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.793, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.331, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.374, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.344, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.671, CiteScore: 5)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 4)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.29, CiteScore: 3)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.611, CiteScore: 8)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 189, SJR: 4.09, CiteScore: 13)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.167, CiteScore: 4)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.384, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.126, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.992, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.089, CiteScore: 5)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.61, CiteScore: 7)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35, SJR: 3.043, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.453, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.992, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.713, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.316, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.562, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.977, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.524, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.159, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 51, SJR: 5.39, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 68, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.354, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 12.74, CiteScore: 13)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.193, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.749, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37, SJR: 4.433, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.938, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.682, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.88, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 3.027, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.158, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.875, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.579, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.536, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.791, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 69)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.371, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 431, SJR: 0.569, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.208, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.262, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 3)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.117, CiteScore: 3)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 395, SJR: 0.796, CiteScore: 3)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.42, CiteScore: 2)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 3.671, CiteScore: 9)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 488, SJR: 1.238, CiteScore: 3)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.13, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 5)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.156, CiteScore: 4)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 1.272, CiteScore: 3)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.747, CiteScore: 4)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.589, CiteScore: 3)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 0)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.153, CiteScore: 3)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 3)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.142, CiteScore: 4)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.148, CiteScore: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 3.521, CiteScore: 6)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 4.66, CiteScore: 10)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.796, CiteScore: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.108, CiteScore: 3)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 3.267, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67, SJR: 1.93, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.524, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 7.45, CiteScore: 8)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.062, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.973, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 266, SJR: 2.7, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67, SJR: 3.184, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.289, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.139, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.164, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 1)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.144, CiteScore: 3)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 67, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 1)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 0)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription  
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 4.849, CiteScore: 10)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 5)
Analytica Chimica Acta : X     Open Access  
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 213, SJR: 0.633, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 237, SJR: 1.58, CiteScore: 3)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.704, CiteScore: 2)
Annales d'Endocrinologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.475
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 12  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0939-4753
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3147 journals]
  • Does healthy obesity exist in the elderly' Findings from the Northern
           Shanghai Study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 January 2020Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular DiseasesAuthor(s): Jiadela Teliewubai, Ximin Fan, Hongwei Ji, Rusitanmujiang Maimaitiaili, Jiamin Tang, Song Zhao, Shikai Yu, Chen Chi, Yawei Xu, Yi ZhangAbstractBackground and AimsMetabolic unhealthiness and obesity are both associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. We aimed to investigate the significance of metabolic unhealthiness and obesity in organ damages in a community-based elderly cohort.Methods and results3325 elderly participants (>65 years old) were recruited in northern Shanghai. Associations of metabolic status and obesity with organ damages were investigated. 1317(39.6%) participants were metabolically unhealthy and 481(14.5%) were obese. Compared with metabolically healthy nonobese (MH-nonobese) individuals, metabolically healthy obese subjects had a greater left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and pulse wave velocity (PWV). Metabolically unhealthy subjects, regardless of their obesity status, had greater organ damage parameters including E/Ea, LVMI, PWV and urine albumin-creatinine ratio than MH-nonobese subjects (all P < 0.05). After multivariate adjustments, both metabolic unhealthiness and obesity increased the risk of left ventricular hypertrophy (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.10-1.57 and OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.30-2.04), diastolic dysfunction (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.06-1.67 and OR 1.51, 95% CI 1.14-1.99) and lower extremity atherosclerosis (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.11-1.85 and OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.49-2.70). Metabolic unhealthiness was also associated with arterial stiffness, microalbuminuria and chronic kidney disease (all P
       
  • Consumption of a diet high in dairy leads to higher 15:0 in cholesteryl
           esters of healthy people when compared to diets high in meat and grain
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 January 2020Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular DiseasesAuthor(s): Linda E.T. Vissers, Sabita S. Soedamah-Muthu, Yvonne T. van der Schouw, Nicolaas P.A. Zuithoff, Johanna M. Geleijnse, Ivonne SluijsAbstractBackground and AimsA higher dairy product intake has been associated to higher blood concentrations of 15:0 (pentadecanoic acid), 17:0 (margaric acid), and 14:0 (myristic acid). This study investigates whether a diet high in dairy products influences cholesteryl ester fatty acid concentrations of these specific fatty acids (FA).Methods and ResultsIn a randomized multiple cross-over study, 13 men and 17 women aged 22±4 years with a BMI of 21.6±2.2 kg/m2 received 3 isocaloric intervention diets (dairy, meat or grain) in random order. For this post-hoc analysis, FA in plasma cholesteryl esters were measured using gas chromatography. We performed a linear mixed model per centered log-ratio transformed FA, adjusting for period, and the interaction between diet and period. Consumed total fat intake per controlled intervention diet was 31.0±0.9 en%/day (dairy), 31.5±0.6 en%/day (meat), and 28.4±1.2 en%/day (grain), respectively. The dairy diet led to higher relative concentrations of 15:0 when compared to diets high in meat and grain, (β; 0.27, 95%CI: 0.18,0.37; p=1.2x10-5, and β: 0.15; 95%CI: 0.06,0.24; p=1.2x10-2, respectively). The dairy diet also led to higher 14:0 when compared to the meat diet (β: 0.34; 95%CI: 0.21,0.46; p=6.0x10-5), but not when compared to the grain diet. 17:0 did not differ between diets.ConclusionThe plasma cholesteryl ester fraction after a diet high in dairy was characterized by higher 15:0 levels. Concentrations of 14:0 were only higher when comparing the FA profile after a diet high in dairy when compared to a diet high in meat.Clinical trial registrationClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01314040.
       
  • Impact of body mass index on clinical outcome among elderly patients with
           acute coronary syndrome treated with percutaneous coronary intervention:
           insights from the ELDERLY ACS 2 trial
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 January 2020Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular DiseasesAuthor(s): Giuseppe De Luca, Monica Verdoia, Stefano Savonitto, Luca A. Ferri, Luigi Piatti, Daniele Grosseto, Nuccia Morici, Irene Bossi, Paolo Sganzerla, Giovanni Tortorella, Michele Cacucci, Maurizio Ferrario, Ernesto Murena, Girolamo Sibilio, Stefano Tondi, Anna Toso, Sergio Bongioanni, Amelia Ravera, Elena Corrada, Matteo MarianiAbstractBackgroundElderly patients are at increased risk of hemorrhagic and thrombotic complications after an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Frailty, comorbilities and low body weight have emerged as conditioning the prognostic impact of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT). The aim of the present study was to investigate the prognostic impact of body mass index (BMI) on clinical outcome among patients included in the Elderly-ACS 2 trial, a randomized, open-label, blinded endpoint study comparing low-dose (5mg) prasugrel vs clopidogrel among elderly patients with ACS.MethodsOur population is represented by 1408 patients enrolled in the Elderly-ACS 2 trial. BMI was calculated at admission. The primary endpoint of this analysis was cardiovascular (CV) mortality. Secondary endpoints were all-cause death, recurrent MI, Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) type 2 or 3 bleeding, and re-hospitalization for cardiovascular reasons or stent thrombosis within 12 months after index admission.ResultsPatients were grouped according to median values of BMI (
       
  • Association between lipids and apolipoproteins on type 2 diabetes risk;
           moderating effects of gender and polymorphisms; the ATTICA study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 January 2020Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular DiseasesAuthor(s): Duane D. Mellor, Ekavi N. Georgousopoulou, Nathan M. D’Cunha, Nenad Naumovski, Christina Chrysohoou, Dimitrios Tousoulis, Christos Pitsavos, Demosthenes B. Panagiotakos, the ATTICA Study GroupAbstractBackground and AimsType 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a condition defined by hyperglycaemia, but also often presents with dyslipidaemia and suppressed HDL cholesterol. Mendelian randomization studies have suggested a causal link between low HDL cholesterol and T2DM. However, influences of gender, polymorphisms and lifestyle, all known to influence HDL cholesterol, have not been fully explored in a prospective cohort.Methods and ResultsIn 2001-2002, a random sample of 1514 males (18-87 years old) and 1528 females (18-89 years old) were recruited in the ATTICA study. The 10-year follow-up (2011-2012) included 1485 participants. Lipids and lipoproteins levels, glucose and insulin levels were measured together with apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1) 75 G/A genotype, which is known to influence HDL-cholesterol. In total, 12.9% of the study sample developed T2DM within the 10-year follow-up period. In multivariable models, for each mg/dL increase in apoA1 levels in males, 10-year T2DM risk decreased 1.02%; while every unit increase in apoB/LDL-cholesterol ratio increased risk 4-fold. Finally, for every unit increase in triglycerides/apoA1 ratio, the risk increased 85%. HOMA-IR independently predicted T2DM 10-year incidence only for carriers of GG polymorphism (all, p0.05).ConclusionApoA1 was associated with decreased T2DM risk and TG/ApoA1 and apoB/LDL were associated with increased risk of T2DM, only in males. ApoA1 polymorphism, which is associated with lower HDL cholesterol, influenced the predictive effects of HOMA-IR on T2DM incidence, which appeared to be moderated by physical activity, suggesting potential scope for more targeted preventative strategies.
       
  • Serum Metabolites Associate with Lipid Phenotypes Among Bogalusa Heart
           Study Participants
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 January 2020Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular DiseasesAuthor(s): Xiaoying Gu, Changwei Li, Jiang He, Shengxu Li, Lydia A. Bazzano, Jason M. Kinchen, Wei Chen, Hua He, Dongfeng Gu, Tanika N. KellyAbstractBackground and aimsDyslipidemia has been identified as a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We aimed to identify metabolites and metabolite modules showing novel association with lipids among Bogalusa Heart Study (BHS) participants using untargeted metabolomics.Methods and ResultsUntargeted ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy was used to quantify serum metabolites of 1 243 BHS participants (816 whites and 427 African-Americans). The association of single metabolites with lipids was assessed using multiple linear regression models to adjust for covariables. Weighted correlation network analysis was utilized to identify modules of co-abundant metabolites and examine their covariable adjusted correlations with lipids. All analyses were conducted according to race and using Bonferroni-corrected α-thresholds to determine statistical significance.Thirteen metabolites with known biochemical identities showing novel association achieved Bonferroni-significance, p < 1.04×10-5, and showed consistent effect directions in both whites and African-Americans. Twelve were from lipid sub-pathways including fatty acid metabolism (arachidonoylcholine, dihomo-linolenoyl-choline, docosahexaenoylcholine, linoleoylcholine, oleoylcholine, palmitoylcholine, and stearoylcholine), monohydroxy fatty acids (2-hydroxybehenate, 2-hydroxypalmitate, and 2-hydroxystearate), and lysoplasmalogens [1-(1-enyl-oleoyl)-GPE (P-18:1) and 1-(1-enyl-stearoyl)-GPE (P-18:0)]. The gamma-glutamylglutamine, peptide from the gamma-glutamyl amino acid sub-pathway, were also identified. In addition, four metabolite modules achieved Bonferroni-significance, p < 1.39×10-3, in both whites and African-Americans. These four modules were largely comprised of metabolites from lipid sub-pathways, with one module comprised of metabolites which were not identified in the single metabolite analyses.ConclusionThe current study identified 13 metabolites and 4 metabolite modules showing novel association with lipids, providing new insights into the physiological mechanisms regulating lipid levels.
       
  • Associations of appetitive behaviors in 7 year old children with their
           cardiometabolic health at 10 years of age
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 January 2020Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular DiseasesAuthor(s): Sarah Warkentin, Ana C. Santos, Andreia OliveiraAbstractBackground and AimsAtherosclerosis begins early in life, thus optimal cardiovascular health needs to be promoted early. We investigated whether appetitive behaviors among 7 year olds are associated with their cardiometabolic health years later.Methods and ResultsA sample of 2951 children from a Portuguese birth cohort was analyzed. The Children`s Eating Behavior Questionnaire assessed eating behaviors, and a measure of cardiometabolic risk (higher risk group: those in the upper quartile of triglycerides, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance, waist circumference and systolic blood pressure and in the lower quartile of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol z-scores) was created. Linear and logistic regressions were run. Children with more food avoidant behaviors had lower cardiometabolic risk (Satiety Responsiveness – boys: OR=0.39, 95%CI 0.16; 0.93, girls: OR=0.37, 95%CI 0.17; 0.82 and Slowness in eating – boys: OR=0.49, 95%CI 0.25; 0.95, girls: OR=0.49, 95%CI 0.27; 0.91). Food approach behaviors (Food responsiveness (CEBQ-FR), Enjoyment of food (CEBQ-EF) and Emotional overeating (CEBQ-EOE)) increased cardiometabolic risks (e.g. CEBQ-FR: boys: OR=2.50, 95%CI 1.45; 4.32, girls: OR=2.33, 95%CI 1.46; 3.71). CEBQ-EF had stronger effects in boys, while CEBQEOE was positively associated with cardiometabolic risk among girls. When adjusting for BMIz at 7y, associations did not remain significant. Appetitive behaviors were also associated with isolated cardiometabolic parameters; the strongest association being with waist circumference.ConclusionsAppetitive behaviors at 7-years are associated with cardiometabolic risk at age 10. While ’food avoidant’ behaviors protect against cardiometabolic risk and ‘food approach’ behaviors increase cardiometabolic risk, these associations are largely dependent of child´s adiposity.
       
  • Association of serum calcium and phosphorus with measures of left
           ventricular structure and function: The ARIC study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 January 2020Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular DiseasesAuthor(s): Kripa Poudel, Amil M. Shah, Erin D. Michos, Aaron R. Folsom, Suma Konety, Pamela L. LutseyAbstractBackground and AimsElevated serum calcium and phosphorus have been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disorders. We evaluated whether abnormal calcium and high serum phosphorus are associated cross-sectionally with echocardiographic measures of left ventricular (LV) structure and function, as doing so may provide insight into the etiology of cardiac disorders.Methods and ResultsIncluded in the analysis were 5,213 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (ARIC) participants who in 2011-2013 had echocardiography and serum calcium and phosphorus measurements. We evaluated the association of serum calcium (corrected for albumin) and phosphorus quintiles with the measures of LV structure and function, after adjusting for other cardiovascular risk factors. Participants were on average 75.3 years old; 59.1% were female and 19.8% were African American. Mean (±SD) concentrations of calcium and phosphorus were 9.33 ± 0.38 and 3.46 ± 0.45 mg/dL, respectively. Higher calcium was associated with lower LV end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD) but greater prevalence of concentric remodeling (p-trend: 0.005 and 0.004 respectively). We observed association between high phosphorus and high septal E/e’ (p-trend: 0.02). Likewise, higher serum phosphorus was associated with higher left atrial volume index (p-trend: 0.001) and LV hypertrophy prevalence (p-trend: 0.04).ConclusionsIn conclusion, higher calcium was associated with more concentric remodeling but lower LVEDD, suggesting complex associations between calcium and cardiac function. Serum phosphorus was related to worse indices of LV diastolic function and LV hypertrophy, but not to LV systolic function. However, the magnitudes of association were modest, so clinical implications of these findings may be limited.
       
  • Carbohydrate Quality, Glycemic Index, Glycemic Load and Cardiometabolic
           Risks in the US, Europe and Asia: A Dose-Response Meta-Analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 January 2020Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular DiseasesAuthor(s): D.S. Hardy, J.T. Garvin, H. XuAbstractBackground and AimsDespite the proven evidence of high glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) diets to increase cardiometabolic risks, knowledge about the meta-evidence for carbohydrate quality within world geographic regions is limited. We conducted a meta-analysis to synthesize the evidence of GI/GL studies and carbohydrate quality, gathering additional exposures for carbohydrate, high glycemic carbohydrate, total dietary fiber, and cereal fiber and risks for type 2 diabetes (T2DM), coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, and mortality, grouped into the US, Europe, and Asia. Secondary aims examined cardiometabolic risks in overweight/obese individuals, by sex, and dose-response dietary variable trends.Methods and Results40-prospective observational studies from 4-Medline bibliographical databases (Ovid, PubMed, EBSCOhost, CINAHL) were search up to November 2019. Random-effects hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for highest vs. lowest categories and continuous form combined were reported. Heterogeneity (I2>50%) was frequent in US GI/GL studies due to differing study characteristics. Increased risks ((HRGI,T2DM,US=1.14;CI:1.06,1.21), HRGL,T2DM,US=1.09;1.06,1.11), HRGI,T2DM,Asia=1.25;1.02,1.53), and HRGL,T2DM,Asia=1.25;1.03,1.52)) were associated with cardiometabolic diseases. GI/GL in overweight/obese females had the strongest magnitude of risks in US-and Asian studies. Total dietary fiber (HRT2DM,US=0.92;0.88,0.96) and cereal fiber(HRT2DM,US=0.83;0.77,0.90) decreased risk of developing T2DM. Among females, we found protective dose-response risks for total dietary fiber (HR5g-total-dietary-fiber,T2DM,US=0.94;0.92,0.97), but cereal fiber showed better ability to lower T2DM risk (HR5g-cereal-fiber,T2DM,US=0.67;0.60,0.74). Total dietary-and cereal fibers’ dose-response effects were nullified by GL, but not cereal fiber with GI.ConclusionsOverweight/obese females can shift their carbohydrate intake for higher cereal fiber to decrease T2DM risk, but GL may cancel-out this effect.
       
  • l-carnitine+supplementation+for+management+of+blood+lipids:+A+systematic+review+and+dose–response+meta-analysis+of+randomized+controlled+trials”+[Nutr+Metabol+Cardiovasc+Dis+29+(11)+(2019)+1151–1167]&rft.title=Nutrition,+Metabolism+and+Cardiovascular+Diseases&rft.issn=0939-4753&rft.date=&rft.volume=">Erratum to “Efficacy of l-carnitine supplementation for management of
           blood lipids: A systematic review and dose–response meta-analysis of
           randomized controlled trials” [Nutr Metabol Cardiovasc Dis 29 (11)
           (2019) 1151–1167]
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 January 2020Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular DiseasesAuthor(s): Moein Askarpour, Amir Hadi, Michael E. Symonds, Maryam Miraghajani, Omid Sadeghi, Ali Sheikhi, Ehsan Ghaedi
       
  • Common bean protein hydrolysate modulates lipid metabolism and prevents
           endothelial dysfunction in BALB/c mice fed an atherogenic diet
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3 January 2020Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, Volume 30, Issue 1Author(s): Mariana J.C. Gomes, Sâmara L.S. Lima, Natália E.G. Alves, Andressa Assis, Maria E.C. Moreira, Renata C.L. Toledo, Carla O.B. Rosa, Olívia R. Teixeira, Priscila Z. Bassinello, Elvira G. De Mejía, Hércia S.D. MartinoBackground and aimsCommon beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) protein hydrolysate is a source of bioactive peptides with known health benefits. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of common bean protein hydrolysate on lipid metabolism and endothelial function in male adult BALB/c mice fed an atherogenic diet for nine weeks.Methods and resultsMale adult mice were divided into three experimental groups (n = 12) and fed with normal control diet; atherogenic diet and atherogenic diet added with bean protein hydrolysate (700 mg/kg/day) for nine weeks. Food intake, weight gain, lipid profile, Atherogenic Index of Plasma, inflammation biomarkers and endothelial function were evaluated. APH group presented reduced feed intake, weight gain, lipid profile, tumor necrosis factor-α, angiotensin II (94% and 79%, respectively) and increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase (62%).ConclusionsProtein hydrolysate showed hypocholesterolemic activity preventing inflammation and dysfunction of vascular endothelium, in addition to decreasing oxidative stress, indicating an adjuvant effect on reducing atherogenic risk.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Moderate and heavy alcohol consumption are prospectively associated with
           decreased left ventricular ejection fraction: The Hoorn Study
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3 January 2020Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, Volume 30, Issue 1Author(s): Sabine van Oort, Joline W. Beulens, Amber A.W.A. van der Heijden, Petra J.M. Elders, Coen D.A. Stehouwer, Inge A.T. van de Luitgaarden, Ilse C. Schrieks, Diederick E. Grobbee, Adriana J. van BallegooijenAbstractBackground and aimsData on the prospective relationship of alcohol consumption at more moderate levels with systolic and diastolic function are scarce. We aimed to examine the prospective association of alcohol consumption with echocardiographic measures of cardiac structure and function, in individuals with and without type 2 diabetes (T2DM).Methods and resultsWe included 778 participants from the Hoorn Study (aged 68.4 ± 7.2 years, 49% women), a population-based prospective cohort study, oversampled for people with impaired glucose metabolism or T2DM. Self-reported alcohol consumption was collected at baseline with a validated food-frequency questionnaire and categorized into: none (0/week), light (>0-≤30 g/week), light-to-moderate (>30-≤70 g/week), moderate (>70-≤140 g/week), and heavy drinkers (>140 g/week). Echocardiography was performed at baseline (N = 778) and after 8 years follow-up (N = 404). Multiple linear regression was used to study the association between alcohol consumption and echocardiographic measures (left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left atrial volume index (LAVI) and left ventricular mass index (LVMI)), adjusted for confounders. Moderate and heavy alcohol consumption were associated with a decreased LVEF of −3.91% (CI: −7.13;-0.69) for moderate and −4.77% (−8.18;-1.36) for heavy drinkers compared to light drinkers. No associations were found between alcohol consumption, LVMI and LAVI. Modified Poisson regression showed a trend that higher alcohol consumption amounts were associated with a higher risk of incident systolic dysfunction (LVEF≤50%) (P-for-trend 0.058).ConclusionThe findings provide longitudinal evidence that moderate and heavy alcohol consumption are associated with decreased LVEF and trend towards a higher risk of incident LV systolic dysfunction, compared to light drinkers.
       
  • Alcohol consumption and subclinical atherosclerosis among South Asians:
           Findings from the Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in
           America (MASALA) study
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3 January 2020Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, Volume 30, Issue 1Author(s): Parag A. Chevli, Amer I. Aladin, Alka M. Kanaya, Namratha R. Kandula, Diego Malaver, David M. HerringtonAbstractBackgroundSouth Asians are the second fastest growing ethnic group in the United States, and they have a high risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Moderate alcohol consumption has been associated with lower CVD risk in some race/ethnic groups, but the association of alcohol consumption and atherosclerosis in South Asians has not been investigated.Methods and ResultsWe used data from 906 South Asian participants who participated in the Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America (MASALA) cohort (2010–2012). Alcohol consumption was ascertained via questionnaire, coronary artery calcium (CAC) was measured with computed tomography, and common carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT) was measured using B-mode ultrasonography. We used multivariable regression models to examine cross-sectional associations of alcohol consumption with the presence and amount of CAC and cIMT.Compared with never drinkers, participants consuming 4–7 drinks/week had a 63% decreased odds of any CAC after adjusting for potential confounders and mediators. Participants consuming 4–7 drinks/week had significantly lower odds of CAC score between 1 and 300 [OR (95% CI): 0.34 (0.16–0.72)]. A similar inverse association was seen for the odds of CAC>300 [OR (95% CI): 0.28 (0.07–0.97)]. Alcohol consumption of>7 drinks/week was associated with a 0.096 mm increase in common-cIMT.ConclusionThere was an inverse association between the amount of alcohol intake and CAC among South Asians while a positive association was found between alcohol consumption and common-cIMT. Long-term follow-up of the MASALA cohort will examine prospective associations of alcohol intake with the progression of subclinical atherosclerosis, incident CVD events, and mortality.
       
  • Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin-D and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: Does
           race/ethnicity matter' Findings from the MESA cohort
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3 January 2020Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, Volume 30, Issue 1Author(s): Samar R. El Khoudary, Saad Samargandy, Irfan Zeb, Temitope Foster, Ian H. de Boer, Dong Li, Matthew J. BudoffAbstractBackground and aimsLow serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) is associated with higher nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) risk in studies of mainly white participants. Significant racial/ethnic differences exist in serum 25(OH)D and NAFLD prevalence questioning extending this association to other racial/ethnic groups. We tested whether the association between serum 25(OH)D and NAFLD vary by race/ethnicity.Methods and resultsThis was a cross-sectional analysis from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) that included 3484 participants (44% male; 38.4% Whites, 27.8% African-Americans, 23.5% Hispanics, and 10.3% Chinese-Americans) who had serum 25(OH)D and upper abdominal CT images available at baseline. Serum 25(OH)D was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. NAFLD was identified if liver-to-spleen Hounsfield-Unit ratio was
       
  • Insulin resistance, but not insulin response, during oral glucose
           tolerance test (OGTT) is associated to worse histological outcome in obese
           NAFLD
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3 January 2020Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, Volume 30, Issue 1Author(s): Federica Coccia, Moira Testa, Gloria Guarisco, Claudio Di Cristofano, Gianfranco Silecchia, Frida Leonetti, Amalia Gastaldelli, Danila CapocciaBackground and aimObese subjects are at high risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and diabetes (T2D) due to insulin resistance (IR). Since high glucose levels are as toxic as lipids for hepatic metabolism, we hypothesize that altered response to oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is associated to more severe NAFLD with significant/advanced liver damage.Methods and resultsWe studied 90 subjects with morbid obesity (73F/17M, BMI = 43.2 ± 5,9 kg/m2) undergoing bariatric surgery and intraoperative liver biopsy, and measured HbA1c, HOMA-IR (fasting Glucose x Insulin/22.5), OGTT glucose and insulin profile, and calculated OGIS (muscle insulin sensitivity), hepatic-IR (glucose [AUC0-30] x insulin [AUC0-30]) during OGTT, insulin response as (insulin [dAUC0-120]/glucose [dAUC0-120] or Insulinogenic Index (IGI = (I30–I0)/(G30-G0)). Patients were divided in 3 groups according to liver biopsy: A (no-NAFLD, 23%), B (simple steatosis (SS), 53%) and C (NASH, 24%) with similar age, gender and BMI. Diabetes was 0% in no-NAFLD, 13% in SS, 35% in NASH. During OGTT, OGIS decreased from A to C (422 vs 360 vs 338, p 
       
  • Validation of the echocardiographic assessment of epicardial adipose
           tissue thickness at the Rindfleisch fold for the prediction of coronary
           artery disease
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3 January 2020Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, Volume 30, Issue 1Author(s): Valentina Parisi, Laura Petraglia, Roberto Formisano, Aurelio Caruso, Maria G. Grimaldi, Dario Bruzzese, Fabrizio V. Grieco, Maddalena Conte, Stefania Paolillo, Alessandra Scatteia, Santo Dellegrottaglie, Annarita Iavazzo, Pasquale Campana, Emanuele Pilato, Patrizio Lancellotti, Vincenzo Russo, Emilio Attena, Pasquale P. Filardi, Dario LeoscoAbstractBackground and AimEchocardiography is a promising technique for the assessment of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT). Increased EAT thickness is associated with different cardiac diseases, including; coronary artery disease (CAD). Since several different echocardiographic approaches have been proposed to measure EAT, the identification of a standardized method is needed. We propose the assessment of EAT maximal thickness at the Rindfleisch fold, the reproducibility of this measurement and its correlation with EAT thickness and volume assessed at cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). Finally, we will test the predictive role of this measurement on the presence of significant CAD.Methods and ResultsIn 1061 patients undergoing echocardiography, EAT thickness was measured at the level of the Rindfleisch fold. In 70 patients, we tested the relationship between echo-EAT thickness and EAT thickness and volume assessed at CMR. In 499 patients with suspected CAD, undergoing coronary artery angiography, we tested the predictive value of EAT on the presence of significant CAD.Echo-EAT thickness measurements had an excellent reliability as indicated by the inter-observer (ICC:0.97; 95% C.I. 0.96 to 0.98) and intra-observer (ICC:0.99; 95% C.I. 0.98 to 0.99) reliability rates. Echo-EAT thickness significantly correlated with CMR-EAT thickness and volume (p 10 mm discriminated patients with significant CAD at coronary angiography (p 
       
  • Associations of a metabolic syndrome severity score with coronary heart
           disease and diabetes in fasting vs. non-fasting individuals
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3 January 2020Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, Volume 30, Issue 1Author(s): Mark D. DeBoer, Stephanie L. Filipp, Matthew J. GurkaAbstractBackground and aimsMany traditional assessments of risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) and diabetes require laboratory studies performed after an 8-h fast. We assessed whether metabolic-syndrome (MetS) severity would remain linked to future CHD and diabetes even when assessed from non-fasting samples.Methods and resultsParticipants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study were assessed at 4 visits and followed for 20-years of adjudicated CHD outcomes. We used Cox proportional-hazard models (for 20-year CHD outcomes) and logistic regression (for 9-year diabetes outcomes) to compare incident disease risk associated with a race/ethnicity-specific MetS-severity Z-score (MetS-Z) calculated in participants who were fasting (≥8 h) or non-fasting. All analyses were adjusted for sex, race, education, income and smoking. MetS Z-scores were overall similar between participants who were always fasting vs. those non-fasting at Visits 1–3 (all values −0.1 to 0.4), while MetS-Z for participants who were non-fasting at Visit-4 were higher at each visit. Baseline MetS-Z was linked to future CHD when calculated from both fasting and non-fasting measurements, with hazard ratio (HR) for fasting MetS-Z 1.53 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.42, 1.66) and for non-fasting 1.28 (CI 1.08, 1.51). MetS-Z at Visit-1 also remained linked to future diabetes when measured from non-fasting samples, with odds ratio for fasting MetS-Z 3.10 (CI 2.88, 3.35) and for non-fasting 1.92 (CI 1.05, 3.51).ConclusionsMetS-Z remained linked to future CHD and diabetes when assessed from non-fasting samples. A score such as this may allow for identification of at-risk individuals and serve as a motivation toward interventions to reduce risk.
       
  • Diabetes diagnosis from administrative claims and estimation of the true
           prevalence of diabetes among 4.2 million individuals of the Veneto region
           (North East Italy)
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3 January 2020Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, Volume 30, Issue 1Author(s): Enrico Longato, Barbara Di Camillo, Giovanni Sparacino, Claudio Saccavini, Angelo Avogaro, Gian Paolo FadiniAbstractBackground and aimsDiabetes can often remain undiagnosed or unregistered in administrative databases long after its onset, even when laboratory test results meet diagnostic criteria. In the present work, we analyse healthcare data of the Veneto Region, North East Italy, with the aims of: (i) developing an algorithm for the identification of diabetes from administrative claims (4,236,007 citizens), (ii) assessing its reliability by comparing its performance with the gold standard clinical diagnosis from a clinical database (7525 patients), (iii) combining the algorithm and the laboratory data of the regional Health Information Exchange (rHIE) system (543,520 subjects) to identify undiagnosed diabetes, and (iv) providing a credible estimate of the true prevalence of diabetes in Veneto.Methods and resultsThe proposed algorithm for the identification of diabetes was fed by administrative data related to drug dispensations, outpatient visits, and hospitalisations. Evaluated against a clinical database, the algorithm achieved 95.7% sensitivity, 87.9% specificity, and 97.6% precision. To identify possible cases of undiagnosed diabetes, we applied standard diagnostic criteria to the laboratory test results of the subjects who, according to the algorithm, had no diabetes-related claims. Using a simplified probabilistic model, we corrected our claims-based estimate of known diabetes (6.17% prevalence; 261,303 cases) to account for undiagnosed cases, yielding an estimated total prevalence of 7.50%.ConclusionWe herein validated an algorithm for the diagnosis of diabetes using administrative claims against the clinical diagnosis. Together with rHIE laboratory data, this allowed to identify possibly undiagnosed diabetes and estimate the true prevalence of diabetes in Veneto.
       
  • Adherence to Mediterranean diet and prognosis in older patients scheduled
           to undergo cardiac resynchronization therapy
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3 January 2020Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, Volume 30, Issue 1Author(s): Alberto Dominguez-Rodriguez, Pablo Avanzas, Pedro Abreu-Gonzalez, Nestor Baez-Ferrer, Francisco J. Martín-Sanchez, Óscar MiròAbstractBackground and aimsAdherence to the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) has been associated with prolonged survival in older individuals. However, it is unknown whether adherence to MedDiet is associated with the prognosis in older patients scheduled to undergo cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between adherence to the MedDiet and clinical outcomes at 12 months follow-up after CRT implantation in older patients.Methods and resultsPatients adherents to the MedDiet, defined as ≥ 9 of 14 points using the PREDIMED (Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease with a Mediterranean Diet Study) questionnaire, was assessed before device implantation in patient's ≥ 70 years candidates for CRT. The primary outcome was a combined endpoint at 12 months follow-up after CRT implantation, defined as cardiovascular death, cardiac transplantation or decompensated heart failure. The cohort study consisted of 284 patients with a mean age of 73 ± 3 years. One hundred and fifty-nine (55.9%) patients were classified as adherent to the MedDiet. Seventy (24.6%) patients showed the combined endpoint at one year follow-up. Subjects who did not developed the combined endpoint had higher proportion of adherent patients to the MedDiet compared to patients who developed the combined endpoint (85% vs 67.1%, p = 0.002). After adjustment by possible confounders, the adherence to the MedDiet was a protective and significant predictor of the combined endpoint (HR = 0.42, 95% CI 0.22–0.81; p = 0.01).ConclusionAdherence to the MedDiet is inversely associated with outcome in older patients following CRT.
       
  • Exploring the heterogeneity of the effects of SGLT-2 inhibitors in
           cardiovascular outcome trials
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3 January 2020Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, Volume 30, Issue 1Author(s): Edoardo Mannucci, Ilaria Dicembrini, Besmir Nreu, Matteo MonamiAbstractBackground and aimThe interpretation of discrepancies across cardiovascular safety trials (CVOT) with SGLT-2 inhibitors in the incidence of major cardiovascular events (MACE) and mortality is complex, because of heterogeneity in trial protocols and baseline characteristics of patients enrolled. Aim of this analysis is the exploration of possible determinants of heterogeneity of relative risk reduction for major cardiovascular events (MACE) and all-cause mortality.Methods and resultsIncidence of events (MACE and mortality) in intervention and control groups and baseline characteristics of patients were extracted for each trial (EMPAREG, CANVAS, and DECLARE). For studies including both primary and secondary prevention cohorts, those two subgroups were considered separately. Metaregression analysis was used to assess the association of relative risk reduction with baseline characteristics of patients, including observed incidence of events with placebo. The estimated reduction in the incidence of MACE associated with SGLT-2 inhibitors showed a significant association with the incidence of MACE in the control group, suggesting that a greater effect was observed in trials enrolling patients at higher risk (Slope −0.008 [−0.023; 0.007], p = 0.31). A higher proportion of patients treated with statins, β-blockers and insulin at baseline was associated with a greater reduction of MACE, but not of mortality.ConclusionsIn CVOT trials, the magnitude of the effect of SGLT-2 inhibitors on MACE is driven by absolute risk of enrolled patients; as a consequence, the estimated risk reduction is lower in primary prevention cohorts, which have a lower risk. This result supports the hypothesis of a class effect of SGLT-2 inhibitors on MACE.
       
  • DASH diet decreases CXCL4 plasma concentration in patients diagnosed with
           coronary atherosclerotic lesions
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3 January 2020Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, Volume 30, Issue 1Author(s): Magdalena Makarewicz-Wujec, Jan Henzel, Mariusz Kruk, Cezary Kępka, Łukasz Wardziak, Piotr Trochimiuk, Andrzej Parzonko, Marcin Demkow, Małgorzata Kozłowska-WojciechowskaAbstractBackground and aimsAim of this study involved assessment of the intensive intervention concerning lifestyle based on the DASH diet model on plasma concentration of CXCL4 chemokine among patients with coronary atherosclerosis.Methods and resultsThe Dietary Intervention to Stop Coronary Atherosclerosis in Computed Tomography Study randomized patients with stable CAD to an interventional group (n = 41), where DASH diet was implemented and the control group (n = 40) without dietary intervention. Dietary counselling was provided to DASH group during all 6 control visits within 6 months of observation. During the study, body weight and body composition were controlled using the bioimpedance method. CXCL4 concentration was determined with the use of ELISA test.Within the DASH group, a significant decrease in body weight, a decrease in high sensitivity C-reactive protein concentration (−0.32 ± 2.8 mg/l; p 
       
  • Osteoprotegerin in diabetic osteopathy
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3 January 2020Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, Volume 30, Issue 1Author(s): Alessia Valentini, Maria A. Cianfarani, Massimo Federici, Umberto Tarantino, Aldo BertoliAbstractAimThe aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between OPG and the degree of glycaemic control in a population of elderly subjects.Methods and resultsData presented included 172 elderly subjects, of whom 107 were hospitalized for a hip fracture and 65 were non fractured outpatients. All participants received a multidimensional geriatric evaluation and underwent blood sampling. HbA1c, OPG, CTX and OC were measured and DXA scans were performed. Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) was measured in all outpatients. Diabetic patients had more comorbidities, higher mean values of lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD and T-score, lower circulating levels of OC and CTX, and higher circulating levels of OPG compared to non-diabetic subjects. OPG was directly correlated with HbA1c. This association was most evident in non-fractured elderly subjects. Moreover, diabetic patients with IMT>1.5 mm had greater mean values of OPG than non-diabetic subjects with high IMT and than elderly subjects with IMT 
       
  • Phenotypes and concentration of PON1 in cardiovascular disease: The role
           of nutrient intake
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3 January 2020Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, Volume 30, Issue 1Author(s): Néstor Ponce-Ruiz, Fátima E. Murillo-González, Aurora E. Rojas-García, Yael Y. Bernal Hernández, Mike Mackness, Jaime Ponce-Gallegos, Briscia S. Barrón-Vivanco, Isabel Hernández-Ochoa, Cyndia A. González-Arias, Laura Ortega Cervantes, Guillermo Cardoso-Saldaña, Irma M. Medina-DíazAbstractBackground and aimsParaoxonase 1 (PON1) is considered to play a crucial role as an anti-atherosclerotic factor. The PON1 activity is affected by genetic polymorphisms, environmental factors, age, sex, lifestyle, pharmaceutical drugs, and dietary factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between macro- and micronutrients as well as PON1 concentration and activities in patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVD), cardiovascular risk factors but no CVD (CRF), and in healthy controls (control group).Methods and resultsA case-control study was carried out with 356 volunteers from the Mexican Institute of Social Security, Mexico. Clinical parameters, lipid profile, PON1 activities (AREase, LACase, CMPAase and PONase), and PON1 concentration were evaluated. There was a differential intake of macro- and micronutrients among the study groups. The intake of proteins and carbohydrates was higher in the CVD group than in the CFR and control groups (p 
       
  • Antiatherogenic properties of high-density lipoproteins from arterial
           plasma are attenuated as compared to their counterparts of venous origin
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3 January 2020Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, Volume 30, Issue 1Author(s): Dominique Bonnefont-Rousselot, Leila Benouda, Randa Bittar, Maryam Darabi-Amin, Pierre Demondion, Philippe Lesnik, Pascal Leprince, Anatol Kontush, Jean-Christophe Charniot, Philippe GiralAbstractBackground and aimsHigh-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles play atheroprotective roles by their ability to efflux cholesterol from foam cells and to protect low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) from oxidative damage in the arterial intima. We hypothesized that antioxidative properties of HDLs can be attenuated in the oxygen-rich prooxidative arterial environment, contributing to the development of atherosclerosis. To evaluate this hypothesis, we compared antioxidative activity of HDLs from arterial and venous plasmas.Methods and resultsArterial and venous blood samples were simultaneously obtained from 16 patients (age 68 ± 10 years; 75% males) presenting with ischemic or valvular heart disease. Major HDL subfractions and total HDLs were isolated by density gradient ultracentrifugation and their chemical composition and the capacity to protect LDLs from in vitro oxidation were evaluated. HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and apolipoprotein (apo) B-100 levels were slightly but significantly reduced by −4 to −8% (p 
       
  • Interrelationships among common predictors of cardiovascular diseases in
           patients of OSA: A large-scale observational study
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3 January 2020Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, Volume 30, Issue 1Author(s): Xinyi Li, Fan Wang, Huajun Xu, Yingjun Qian, Jianyin Zou, Mingpo Yang, Huaming Zhu, Hongliang Yi, Jian Guan, Shankai YinAbstractBackground and aimsThe apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A-I (ApoB/ApoA-I) and insulin resistance has been recognized as common cardiovascular diseases (CVD) risk factors. However, whether they were biomarkers for 10-year CVD risk in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) had been rarely studied. Besides, interrelationships between the ApoB/ApoA-I, insulin resistance and OSA remain unclear.Methods and resultsA total of 4010 subjects were finally included. Anthropometric, fasting biochemical, and polysomnographic parameters were collected. 10-year Framingham CVD risk score (FRS) was calculated for each subjects. The relationships between insulin resistance, OSA risk and the ApoB/ApoA-I was evaluated through logistic regressions analysis, restricted cubic spline (RCS) analysis and mediation analysis. ApoB/ApoA-I, HOMA-IR and AHI were all risk factors for high10-year CVD risk as assessed by FRS (odds ratios (OR) = 5.365, 1.094, 1.010, respectively, all P 
       
  • Insulin-like growth factor-1 short-period therapy improves cardiomyopathy
           stimulating cardiac progenitor cells survival in obese mice
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3 January 2020Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, Volume 30, Issue 1Author(s): Daniela Andrade, Genilza Oliveira, Luciana Menezes, Ana Lúcia Nascimento, Simone Carvalho, Ana Carolina Stumbo, Alessandra Thole, Érica Garcia-Souza, Anibal Moura, Laís Carvalho, Erika CortezAbstractBackground and aimsCardiovascular diseases are the main cause of mortality in obesity. Despite advanced understanding, the mechanisms that regulate cardiac progenitor cells (CPC) survival in pathological conditions are not clear. Low IGF-1 plasma levels are correlated to obesity, cardiomyopathy and CPC death, so this work aimed to investigate IGF-1 therapeutic potential on cardiomyopathy and its relationship with the survival, proliferation and differentiation of CPC in Western diet-induced obesity.Methods and resultsMale Swiss mice were divided into control group (CG, n = 8), fed with standard diet; and obese group (OG, n = 16), fed with Western diet, for 12 weeks. At 11th week, OG was subdivided to receive a daily subcutaneous injection of human recombinant IGF-1 (100 μg.Kg−1) for seven consecutive days (OG + IGF1, n = 8). Results showed that IGF-1 therapy improved the metabolic parameters negatively impacted by western diet in OG, reaching levels similar to CG. OG + IGF-1 also demonstrated restored heart energetic metabolism, fibrosis resolution, decreased apoptosis level, restored cardiac gap junctions and intracellular calcium balance. Cardiomyopathy improvement was accompanied by increased CPC survival, proliferation and newly cardiomyocytes formation related to increased pAkt/Akt ratio.ConclusionThese results suggest that only one week of IGF-1 therapy has cardioprotective effects through Akt pathway upregulation, ensuring CPC survival and differentiation, contributing to heart failure rescue.
       
  • Letter to the Editor about PNPLA3 gene polymorphism in Brazilian patients
           with type 2 diabetes: A prognostic marker beyond liver disease'
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3 January 2020Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, Volume 30, Issue 1Author(s): Alessandro Mantovani, Chiara Zusi
       
  • Reply to Drs Mantovani and Zusi
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3 January 2020Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, Volume 30, Issue 1Author(s): Cristiane A. Villela-Nogueira, Nathalie C. Leite, Carolina M. Machado, Claudia R. Cardoso, Gil F. Salles
       
  • Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic
           review and meta-analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 December 2019Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular DiseasesAuthor(s): Hester Jaspers Faijer-Westerink, Andre-Pascal Kengne, Karlijn A.C. Meeks, Charles AgyemangAbstractBackground and AimsThere are rising levels of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and diabetes in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a precursor of these conditions, but the data on the prevalence of MS in SSA are fragmented. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the prevalence of MS in SSA and determine the population groups that are most at risk.Methods and ResultsWe systematically searched PubMed, EMBASE and African Journals Online for all published articles reporting MS prevalence in SSA populations. Random effects models were used to calculate the pooled prevalence overall and by major study-level characteristics. A total of 65 studies across fourteen different countries comprising 34,324 healthy participants aged ≥16 years were included in the meta-analysis. The overall prevalence of MS according to the different diagnostic criteria was: IDF: 18.0% (95%CI:13.3-23.3), IDF-ethnic: 16.0% (95%CI:11.3-21.4), JIS: 23.9% (95%CI: 16.5-32.3), NCEP-ATP III: 17.1% (95%CI:12.8-22.0) and WHO: 11.1% (95%CI:5.3-18.9). The prevalence of MS was higher in women than in men, and higher in (semi-)urban than in rural participants. The MS prevalence was highest in Southern Africa, followed by Eastern, Western and Central Africa. Substantial heterogeneity in the prevalence estimates across studies were not explained by major study-level characteristics, while apparent publication biases were likely artefactual.ConclusionsMS is not rare in SSA. The prevalence of MS was highest for women, populations in urban areas, and populations in Southern Africa. Public health intervention efforts are needed to prevent further increases in the burden of MS in the region.
       
  • Association between the price of ultra-processed foods and obesity in
           Brazil
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 December 2019Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular DiseasesAuthor(s): Camila Mendes dos Passos, Emanuella Gomes Maia, Renata Bertazzi Levy, Ana Paula Bortoletto Martins, Rafael Moreira ClaroAbstractBackground and AimsTo estimate the relationship between price of ultra-processed foods and prevalence of obesity in Brazil and examine whether the relationship differed by socioeconomic status.Methods and ResultsData from the national Household Budget Survey from 2008/09 (n = 55 570 households, divided in 550 strata) were used. Weight and height of all individuals were used. Weight was measured using portable electronic scales (maximum capacity of 150 kilograms). Height (or length) was measured using portable stadiometers (maximum capacity of 200 cm-long) or infant anthropometers (maximum capacity of 105 cm-long). Multivariate regression models (log-log) were used to estimate price elasticity. An inverse association was found between price of ultra-processed foods (per kg) and prevalence of overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) and obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) in Brazil. The price elasticity for ultra-processed foods was -0.33 (95% CI: -0.46; -0.20) for overweight and -0.59 (95% CI: -0.83; -0.36) for obesity. This indicated that a 1.00% increase in the price of ultra-processed foods would lead to a decrease in the prevalence of overweight and obesity of 0.33% and 0.59%, respectively. For the lower income group, the price elasticity for price of ultra-processed foods was -0.34 (95% CI: -0.50; -0.18) for overweight and -0.63 (95% CI: -0.91; -0.36) for obesity.ConclusionThe price of ultra-processed foods was inversely associated with the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Brazil, mainly in the lowest socioeconomic status population. Therefore, the taxation of ultra-processed foods emerges as a prominent tool in the control of obesity.
       
  • Effects of fish oil and curcumin supplementation on cerebrovascular
           function in older adults: a randomized controlled trial
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 December 2019Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular DiseasesAuthor(s): Julia C. Kuszewski, Rachel H.X. Wong, Lisa G. Wood, Peter R.C. HoweAbstractBackground and AimsChronic conditions such as obesity, which contribute to endothelial dysfunction in older adults, can cause impairments in cerebrovascular perfusion, which is associated with accelerated cognitive decline. Supplementing the diet with bioactive nutrients that can enhance endothelial function, such as fish oil or curcumin, may help to counteract cerebrovascular dysfunction.Methods and ResultsA 16-week double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial was undertaken in 152 older sedentary overweight/obese adults (50-80 years, body mass index: 25-40kg/m2) to investigate effects of fish oil (2000mg docosahexaenoic acid + 400mg eicosapentaenoic acid/day), curcumin (160mg/day) or a combination of both on cerebrovascular function (measured by Transcranial Doppler ultrasound), systemic vascular function (blood pressure, heart rate and arterial compliance) and cardiometabolic (fasting glucose and blood lipids) and inflammatory (C-reactive protein) biomarkers. The primary outcome, cerebrovascular responsiveness to hypercapnia, was not affected by the interventions. However, cerebral artery stiffness was significantly reduced in males following fish oil supplementation (P=0.007). Furthermore, fish oil reduced heart rate (P=0.038) and serum triglycerides (P=0.006) and increased HDL cholesterol (P=0.002). Curcumin did not significantly affect these outcomes either alone or in combination with fish oil.ConclusionRegular supplementation with fish oil but not curcumin improved biomarkers of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular function. The combined supplementation did not result in additional benefits. Further studies are warranted to identify an efficacious curcumin dose and to characterize (in terms of sex, BMI, cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors) populations whose cerebrovascular and cognitive functions might benefit from either intervention.Clinical Trial RegistrationACTRN12616000732482p.
       
  • Changes in cardiorespiratory fitness through adolescence predict metabolic
           syndrome in young adults
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 December 2019Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular DiseasesAuthor(s): Evelin Mäestu, Jaanus Harro, Toomas Veidebaum, Triin Kurrikoff, Jaak Jürimäe, Jarek MäestuAbstractBackground and AimsHigher cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) has been suggested to reduce the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS). We aimed to examine longitudinally the changes of CRF on MetS and its risk factors from adolescence to adulthood.Methods and ResultsAt the age of 15 years, 1076 subjects were recruited from two cohorts. CRF was measured on a cycle ergometer. MetS was classified as having at least three of the following parameters above the threshold of risk factors: waist circumference; triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), high blood pressure (BP) and fasting glucose. In addition, insulin, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were measured and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated. Persistently high, increasing, decreasing and persistently low CRF groups were formed according to change in CRF from adolescence to adulthood. Longitudinal increase in CRF was positively associated with change in HDL and negatively associated with change in insulin, HOMA-IR, triglycerides, BP and prevalence of MetS after adjustment for potential confounders. Subjects with persistently low CRF had 11.5- to 34.4-time higher risk of MetS at the age of 25 and 33 years compared to subjects with persistently high CRF and 14.6- to 15.9-time higher risk compared to increasing CRF group.ConclusionHigher CRF is strongly related to lower values of MetS risk factors. Increasing CRF from adolescence to adulthood reduces the risk to have MetS later in adulthood. High CRF in adolescence that decreases during adulthood has similar risks to MetS compared to individuals with persistently low CRF.
       
  • Asymptomatic hyperuricemia and incident congestive heart failure in
           elderly patients without comorbidities
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 December 2019Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular DiseasesAuthor(s): Xianfeng Wu, Guihua Jian, Yuezhong Tang, Huan Cheng, Niansong Wang, Junnan WuAbstractBackground and AimsAlthough hyperuricemia is associated with congestive heart failure (CHF), hyperuricemic patients frequently have other comorbidities. Thus, it is difficult to distinguish the role of hyperuricemia from that of other comorbid conditions in CHF. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between hyperuricemia and CHF in elderly patients without comorbidities.MethodsSubjects aged ≥65 years were analyzed at enrollment (2009-2012) and during the 4-year follow-up period at the Kangjian Community Health Center of Shanghai. Subjects were excluded if they had hypertension, diabetes mellitus, preexisting cardiovascular disease, hyperlipidemia, overweight or obesity, a history of gout or hyperuricemia and were taking medication for their condition, or chronic kidney disease. The primary outcome of this study was to investigate the impact of asymptomatic hyperuricemia on incident CHF. We used Cox regression to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) for incident CHF events between hyperuricemic (defined as an SUA level>7 mg/dL in men and ≥6 mg/dL in women) and normouricemic subjects.ResultsA total of 2749 subjects (70.9±6.0 years) were followed for 47.4±3.6 months. Asymptomatic hyperuricemia was associated with an increased cumulative incidence of incident CHF events (6.5% versus 3.1%, odds ratio [OR]=2.15, 95% confidence index [CI] 1.39-3.33, p=0.001). After adjusting for confounding factors, including baseline eGFR, hyperuricemia independently predicted the risk of incident CHF events (HR=2.34, 95% CI 1.50-3.63, p
       
  • Sleep-disordered breathing in adolescents with obesity: When does it start
           to affect cardiometabolic health'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 December 2019Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular DiseasesAuthor(s): Johanna Roche, Flavia Campos Corgosinho, Ana R. Dâmaso, Laurie Isacco, Maud Miguet, Alicia Fillon, Aurore Guyon, Gustavo A. Moreira, Marcia Pradella-Hallinan, Sergio Tufik, Marco Túlio de Mello, Valérie Gillet, Bruno Pereira, Martine Duclos, Yves Boirie, Julie Masurier, Patricia Franco, David Thivel, Fabienne MouginAbstractObjectivesPediatric obesity and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) are associated with cardiometabolic risk (CMR), but the degree of severity at which SDB affects cardiometabolic health is unknown. We assessed the relationship between the CMR and the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), tending to identify a threshold of AHI from which an increase in the CMR is observed, in adolescents with obesity. We also compared the clinical, cardiometabolic and sleep characteristics between adolescents presenting a high (CMR+) and low CRM (CMR-), according to the threshold of AHI.Methods114 adolescents with obesity were recruited from three institutions specialized in obesity management. Sleep and SDB as assessed by polysomnography, anthropometric parameters, fat mass (FM), glucose and lipid profiles, and blood pressure (BP) were measured at admission. Continuous (MetScoreFM) and dichotomous (metabolic syndrome, MetS) CMR were determined. Associations between MetScoreFM and AHI adjusted for sex and age were assessed by multivariable analyses.ResultsData of 82 adolescents were analyzed. Multivariable analyses enabled us to identify a threshold of AHI≥2 above which we observed a strong and significant association between CMR and AHI (Cohen’s d effect-size=0.57 [0.11;1.02] p=0.02). Adolescents with CMR+ exhibited higher MetScoreFM (p
       
  • The effect of physical activity on dose-relationship between serum
           25-hydroxyvitamin D and cardiovascular health events in older adults
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 December 2019Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular DiseasesAuthor(s): Yi Su, Jason Leung, Jenny Lee, Kin-fai Ho, Timothy KwokAbstractBackground and aimsReverse J- or U-shaped associations between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentrations and cardiovascular outcomes have been reported, which need clarifications in older adults. Physical activity, correlating with both serum 25[OH]D concentration and cardiovascular health, may have an effect on the dose-relationships.MethodsAt baseline, 2790 participants aged 65 years and over, free of vitamin D supplementation use, had assays for serum 25[OH]D concentrations and health related characteristics and measurements, were followed up for cardiovascular events and death by up to 7 and 15 years, respectively. The dose-response associations of serum 25[OH]D concentrations with cardiovascular events and mortality risk were examined using Cox regression models.ResultsAfter adjusting for physical activity and other covariates, serum 25[OH]D concentration was non-linearly associated with cardiovascular mortality risk (U-shaped, P = 0.009). According to the Institute of Medicine categories, the HR(95% CI) of cardiovascular mortality risk separately in deficient (
       
  • Addition of Fish oil to Atherogenic High Fat Diet Inhibited Atherogenesis
           while Olive Oil did not, in LDL Receptor KO Mice
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 December 2019Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular DiseasesAuthor(s): A. Harari, A. Leikin Frenkel, I. Barshack, A. Sagee, H. Cohen, Y. Kamari, D. Harats, M. Kandel Kfir, A. ShaishAbstractBackgroundand aims: Mediterranean diet has been associated with decreased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Both fish and olive oil are key components of this diet. Therefore, we compared their effects on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and atherogenesis in a mouse model, fed a high fat diet.Methods and resultsForty nine, female LDL receptor knockout (LDLR KO) mice were allocated into 3 groups and fed an atherogenic high fat (HF) diet for 9 weeks. The HF group was fed a high fat diet alone. A HF+OO group was fed a HF diet with added olive oil (60 ml/kg feed), and the third group (HF+FO) was fed a HF diet with added fish oil (60 ml/kg feed).Both additions of fish and olive oil, significantly decreased plasma cholesterol elevation compared to HF diet. Nevertheless, only fish oil addition reduced significantly atherosclerotic lesion area by 51% compared to HF group. Liver levels of eicosapentenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids were several folds higher in HF+FO group than in HF and HF+OO groups. Liver levels of oleic acid were higher in HF+OO compared to the other groups. Moreover, Fish oil addition significantly decreased NAFLD scores related to steatosis and inflammation and lowered the expression of the inflammatory genes interleukin 6 (IL6) and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1).ConclusionThese results suggest that fish oil addition on top of an atherogenic, HF diet, is beneficial, while olive oil is not, in its effect on plaque formation and NAFLD in LDLR KO mice.
       
  • Liraglutide decreases energy expenditure and does not affect the fat
           fraction of supraclavicular brown adipose tissue in patients with type 2
           diabetes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 December 2019Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular DiseasesAuthor(s): Huub J. van Eyk, Elisabeth H.M. Paiman, Maurice B. Bizino, Suzanne L. IJzermans, Fleur Kleiburg, Tim G.W. Boers, Eline J. Rappel, Jedrzej Burakiewicz, Hermien E. Kan, Johannes W.A. Smit, Hildo J. Lamb, Ingrid M. Jazet, Patrick C.N. RensenStructured abstractBackground and AimsSeveral studies have shown that glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogues can affect resting energy expenditure, and preclinical studies suggest that they may activate brown adipose tissue (BAT). The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of treatment with liraglutide on energy metabolism and BAT fat fraction in patients with type 2 diabetes.Methods and ResultsIn a 26-week double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 50 patients with type 2 diabetes were randomized to treatment with liraglutide (1.8 mg/day) or placebo added to standard care. At baseline and after treatment for 4, 12 and 26 weeks, we assessed resting energy expenditure (REE) by indirect calorimetry. Furthermore, at baseline and after 26 weeks, we determined the fat fraction in the supraclavicular BAT depot using chemical-shift water-fat MRI at 3T. Liraglutide reduced REE after 4 weeks, which persisted after 12 weeks and tended to be present after 26 weeks (week 26 vs baseline: liraglutide -52 ± 128 kcal/day; P=0.071, placebo +44 ± 144 kcal/day; P=0.153, between group P=0.057). Treatment with liraglutide for 26 weeks did not decrease the fat fraction in supraclavicular BAT (-0.4 ± 1.7%; P=0.447) compared to placebo (-0.4 ± 1.4%; P=0.420; between group P=0.911).ConclusionTreatment with liraglutide decreases REE in the first 12 weeks and tends to decrease this after 26 weeks without affecting the fat fraction in the supraclavicular BAT depot. These findings suggest reduction in energy intake rather than an increase in REE to contribute to the liraglutide-induced weight loss.Trial registry numberNCT01761318.
       
  • Exclusive olive oil consumption was favorably associated with metabolic
           indices and lifestyle factors in schoolchildren
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 December 2019Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular DiseasesAuthor(s): Konstantinos D. Tambalis, Demosthenes B. Panagiotakos, Glykeria Psarra, Labros S. SidossisAbstractBackground and AimOlive oil consumption has been suggested to favorably impact children’s health. The present study aimed to identify possible associations between exclusive olive oil consumption and metabolic indices and lifestyle factors.Methods and ResultsCross-sectional, observational study. Population data derived from a health survey on a sample of 177 091 children aged 8 to 17 years. Olive oil consumption and dietary habits were evaluated using questionnaires (KIDMED index). Anthropometric and physical fitness measurements were obtained by trained investigators. Physical activity (PA) status, screen time and sleeping habits were assessed through self-completed questionnaires. Exclusive olive oil consumption decreased the odds of obesity and increased the odds of healthy cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) by 15% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.75-0.95) and 13% (95% CI: 1.04-1.22), respectively, after adjusting for several covariates. Moreover, exclusive olive oil consumption was associated with increased odds of having sufficient dietary habits (average/optimal adherence to the Mediterranean Diet) by almost four times (95% CI: 3.65-4.45) and decreased odds of insufficient sleep (2 h/d) by 20% (95% CI: 0.73-0.87) and 40% (95% CI: 0.48-0.72), respectively.ConclusionsExclusive olive oil consumption was associated with metabolic indices such as obesity and CRF and a healthy lifestyle profile. The exclusive consumption of olive oil as part of a balanced MD does seem to provide favorable health benefits and should be further promoted.
       
  • Diabetes influences cancer risk in patients with increased carotid
           atherosclerosis burden
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 December 2019Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular DiseasesAuthor(s): Stefano Rizza, Valerio Rossini, Marina Cardellini, Alessio Luzi, Susanna Longo, Giacomo Piciucchi, Luca Coppeta, Massimo FedericiAbstractBackground and aimsatherosclerosis and cancer share several risk factors suggesting that at least in part their pathogenesis is sustained by common mechanisms. To investigate this relation we followed a group of subjects with carotid atherosclerosis at baseline up for malignancy development.Methods and resultswe carried out an observational study exploring cancer incidence (study endpoint) in subjects with known carotid atherosclerosis at baseline (n=766) without previous cancer or carotid vascular procedures. During the follow-up (160±111 weeks) 24 cancer occurred, corresponding to an overall annual incidence rate of 0.11%. 10 diagnosis of cancer occurred in individuals with a carotid stenosis>50% (n=90) whereas 14 in patients with a carotid stenosis
       
  • Impact of adherence to a Mediterranean Diet pattern on patients with First
           Acute Myocardial Infarction
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 December 2019Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular DiseasesAuthor(s): Marco Magnoni, Paola Scarano, Vittoria Vergani, Martina Berteotti, Guglielmo Gallone, Nicole Cristell, Attilio Maseri, Domenico CianfloneAbstractBackgroundMediterranean diet (MD) affects the risk of myocardial infarction and long-term prognosis after a coronary event. Limited data are available regarding the influence of MD on short-term prognosis. We assessed the impact of the MD adherence on in-hospital and short-term outcome in patients with first ST-elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI).Methods533 European patients with STEMI and no previous history of coronary artery disease were included in this analysis. Previous dietary habits of each patient were collected with a food frequency questionnaire from which we calculated the FAMI Mediterranean Diet Score (FAMI MD Score), according to the MD adherence. A blood sample was drawn to each patient within 6 hours of symptoms onset. Levels of high-sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (hsCRP), Interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured. Clinical outcome at 180 days and myocardial reperfusion were assessed.ResultsPatients with higher FAMI MD Score had lower levels of hsCRP; there were no differences between IL-6 level among FAMI MD Score quintiles. There were no associations between adherence to MD and 180-day adverse events. Lower FAMI MD Score was associated with a higher risk of ineffective myocardial reperfusion after thrombolysis or percutaneous coronary intervention. Similar results were observed for daily consumption of ≥4 portions of fruit and vegetable.ConclusionsA positive effect of the Mediterranean diet, and fruit and vegetable intake was observed on hsCRP and the occurrence of effective myocardial reperfusion. These findings confirm the favorable impact of Mediterranean diet adherence not only in primary but also in secondary prevention.
       
  • Effects of polyphenols on cardio-metabolic risk factors and risk of type 2
           diabetes. A joint position statement of the Diabetes and Nutrition Study
           Group of the Italian Society of Diabetology (SID), the Italian Association
           of Dietetics and Clinical Nutrition (ADI) and the Italian Association of
           Medical Diabetologists (AMD)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 December 2019Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular DiseasesAuthor(s): Rosalba Giacco, Giuseppina Costabile, Giuseppe Fatati, Lucia Frittitta, Maria I. Maiorino, Giuseppe Marelli, Mario Parillo, Danila Pistis, Claudio Tubili, Claudia Vetrani, Marilena VitaleAbstractAimA large body of evidence supports a role of polyphenols in the prevention of chronic diseases, i.e. type 2 diabetes (DMT2), cardiovascular diseases and some types of cancer. In the present manuscript, the effect of polyphenol/phenolic compounds on the main cardio-metabolic risk factors (body weight, blood pressure, blood glucose concentrations, plasma lipids, inflammation and oxidative stress) in humans will be discussed.Data synthesisEpidemiological evidence supports the beneficial effects of polyphenol-rich diets in the prevention of T2D risk. However, the available evidence from randomized controlled clinical trials did not allow the identification of specific phenolic compounds or polyphenol-rich foods that effectively improve cardio-metabolic risk factors. The most promising results in terms of the management of cardio-metabolic risk factors derive from RCTs based on a long-term intake of polyphenol-rich foods and beverages. Therefore, future studies should focus on a diet containing different classes of polyphenols rather than a specific food or phenolic compound. The hypothesis is that a polyphenol-rich diet may have a pleiotropic effect on cardiometabolic risk factors thanks to the specific action of different polyphenol subclasses.ConclusionThe lack of conclusive evidence on the effectiveness of polyphenols in the management of cardio-metabolic risk factors does not allow recommendation of their use as supplements to reduce T2D and CVD risk. However, the daily consumption of naturally polyphenol-rich foods and beverages might be advised according to the current nutritional dietary recommendation.
       
  • Low carbohydrate diet and cardiovascular diseases in Iranian population:
           Tehran Lipid and Glucose study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 December 2019Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular DiseasesAuthor(s): Hossein Farhadnejad, Golaleh Asghari, Farshad Teymoori, Zhaleh Tahmasebinejad, Parvin Mirmiran, Fereidoun AziziAbstractBackground and AimsStudies indicated that risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in association to greater adherence to low carbohydrate diet (LCD) differs in various populations. In the current study, we aimed to assess the association of LCD score with risk of CVD events in a prospective population-based study.MethodsCVD free participants (n=2188) were recruited from the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (2006-2008) and followed for a mean of 6.7 years. Using a valid and reliable 168 item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, LCD score was determined based on the percentage of energy as carbohydrate, protein, and fat, which ranged from 0 to 12. Cox proportional hazard regression models, adjusted for potential confounders, were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of CVD across tertiles of LCD score in women and men.ResultsMean±SD age of participants (44.8% male) was 38.8±13.0 years, and median (25-75 interquartile range) of the LCD score was 6 (4-8) at baseline. During follow-up, 77 (3.5%) new cases of CVD were identified. After adjustment for sex, age, body mass index, physical activity, smoking, energy intake, diabetes, and hypertension, there was no association between LCD score and risk of CVD outcomes in all participants (HR=0.93;95%CI:0.86-1.02) and women (HR=1.13; 95%CI:0.94-1.36); however, LCD score was associated with a 10% reduced incident of CVD events in men (HR=0.89;95% CI:0.80-0.98), (P for trend:0.028).ConclusionFindings showed that higher adherence to LCD may be associated with a lower risk of CVD outcomes in men but not in women.
       
  • Impact of Unknown Diabetes and Prediabetes on Clinical Outcomes in
           "Nondiabetic" Chinese Patients After A Primary Coronary Intervention
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 December 2019Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular DiseasesAuthor(s): Huanhuan Wang, Ying Song, Xiaofang Tang, Jingjing Xu, Ping Jiang, Lin Jiang, Zhan Gao, Jue Chen, Lei Song, Yin Zhang, Xueyan Zhao, Shubin Qiao, Yuejin Yang, Runlin Gao, Bo Xu, Jinqing Yuan, Lijian GaoAbstractObjectiveTo explore the prevalence of unknown diabetes (DM) or prediabetes (pre-DM) in “nondiabetic” patients and its association with 2-year clinical outcomes after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).Methods5 202 consecutive “nondiabetic” patients who underwent primary PCI at Fuwai Hospital from January to December 2013 were prospectively enrolled. The patients were grouped according to their glycemia status: unknown DM (HbA1c≥47 mmol/L; FPG≥ 7.0 mmol/L), pre-DM (HbA1c 39-47 mmol/L; FPG: 5.6-6.9 mmol/L) and normoglycemia (NG, HbA1c < 39 mmol/L; FPG < 5.6 mmol/L). The main endpoint was 2-year major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), including cardiac death, myocardial infarction, and target vessel revascularization.ResultsA total of 905 patients had unknown DM, and 3 407 patients had pre-DM. Unknown DM and pre-DM were associated with aging (p < 0.001); a greater proportion of hypertension (p < 0.001), previous myocardial infarction (p < 0.001), and chronic kidney disease (p = 0.004). During the 2-year follow-up, the rate of MACE was significantly higher in the unknown DM and pre-DM groups than in the NG group (8.1% vs. 5.8% vs. 4.1%, respectively, p = 0.001). Multivariate analyses demonstrated that unknown DM was associated with a 1.9-fold higher event risk compared to NG (95% CI: 1.2-2.8).ConclusionsThe prevalence of abnormal glucose metabolism was high in "nondiabetic" Chinese PCI patients. Patients with unknown DM and pre-DM had higher event risks than those with NG. In "nondiabetes" patients requiring PCI, routine assessment of HbA1c and FPG appears to be of value to identify patients with an increased event risk.
       
  • Associations of SRD5A1 gene variants and testosterone with dysglycemia:
           Henan Rural Cohort Study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 November 2019Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular DiseasesAuthor(s): Xue Liu, Dandan Wei, Jingjing Jiang, Xiaotian Liu, Runqi Tu, Zhicheng Luo, Yan Wang, Xiaokang Dong, Dou Qiao, Fang Shen, Ruiying Li, Yikang Wang, Songcheng Yu, Wenqian Huo, Linlin Li, Wenjie Li, Tao Jing, Chongjian Wang, Zhenxing MaoAbstractBackground and ObjectiveMultiple studies support a complex relationship between testosterone and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and the transformation of testosterone is affected by several reductases. Thus, we aimed to explore the associations of steroid-5α-reductase type 1 (SRD5A1) gene polymorphism with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and T2DM and the interactive effects of testosterone and genotypes on glycometabolism.MethodsA case-control study including 2365 participants was performed. Genomic DNA was extracted from the whole blood and genotyped for the SRD5A1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) rs1691053. Multivariable logistic regression and linear regression were performed to estimate the associations of SRD5A1 rs1691053 alleles and genotypes with glycometabolism. Generalized linear models were used to investigate the modulatory effects of serum testosterone on glycometabolism indexes in males.ResultsAfter multivariable adjustment, the odds ratio (OR) of homozygous CC genotypes in male carriers was 2.62 (95%CI: 1.11-6.18) for IFG. Furthermore, significant associations of SRD5A1 rs1691053 polymorphisms with adverse indices of glycometabolism were observed in males. Interestingly, the opposite associations in females were observed. The interactive associations of SNP and testosterone were found and mutations were more likely to lead unfavorable metabolic phenotypes.ConclusionThese results showed that SRD5A1 rs1691053 gene polymorphism was independently associated with glycometabolism. The interaction between a genetic polymorphism from SRD5A1 and testosterone involved glycometabolism was identified in males. Although this preliminary data should be replicated with other rigorous researches, it highlighted the importance of the SNP-testosterone interaction over the present of glycometabolism.
       
  • Physician experts in diabetes are natural team leaders for managing
           diabetic patients with foot complications. A position statement from the
           Italian Diabetic Foot Study Group
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 November 2019Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular DiseasesAuthor(s): R. Anichini, E. Brocco, C.M. Caravaggi, R. Da Ros, L. Giurato, V. Izzo, M. Meloni, L. Uccioli, Paolo Calenda, Giovanni Federici, Ornella Ludovico, Daniele Simonetti, Vincenzo StoicoAbstractDiabetic foot syndrome(DFS) is a complex disease. The best outcomes are reported with the multi-disciplinary team(MDT) approach, where each member works collaboratively according to his/her expertise. However, which health provider should act as the team leader(TL) has not been determined.The TL should be familiar with the management of diabetes, related complications and comorbidities. He/she should be able to diagnose and manage foot infections, including prompt surgical treatment of local lesions, such as abscesses or phlegmons, in an emergent way in the first meeting with the patient.According to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development(OECD) reports, Italy is one of countries with a low amputation rate in diabetic patients. Many factors might have contributed to this result, including 1)the special attention directed to diabetes by the public health system, which has defined diabetes as a “protected disease”, and accordingly, offers diabetic patients, at no charge, the best specialist care, including specific devices, and 2)the presence of a network of diabetic foot(DF) clinics managed by diabetologists with medical and surgical expertise. The health care providers all share a “patient centred model” of care, for which they use their internal medicine background and skills in podiatric surgery to manage acute or chronic needs in a timely manner.Therefore, according to Italian experiences, which are fully reported in this document, we believe that only a skilled diabetologist/endocrinologist should act as a TL. Courses and university master’s degree programmes focused on DF should guarantee specific training for physicians to become a TL.
       
  • How the seven countries study contributed to the launch and development of
           cardiovascular epidemiology in italy
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 November 2019Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular DiseasesAuthor(s): Alessandro Menotti, Paolo Emilio PudduAbstractThe Italian research group of the Seven Countries Study of Cardiovascular Diseases (SCS) through the independent use of the national cohorts and data had the lucky opportunity, starting in the early 1960, to launch the Italian research in epidemiology of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). In this way, the Italian Section of that international study became the first investigation with baseline measurements in various cohorts, subsequent re-examinations,systematic search for morbid events, and follow-up for mortality up to 50 years.A large number of scientific aspects has been tackled including estimates of morbidity and mortality rates, the association of risk factors with cardiovascular events and total mortality, the role of risk factor changes, the use of multivariable models, the role of lifestyle behavior, the determinants of all-cause mortality including risk factors rarely measured in other studies, the identification of characteristics of a condition called Heart Disease of Uncertain Etiology (HDUE), the production of predictive tools for practical use and several other issues. All this has been enhanced by the availability of extremely long follow-up data rarely found in other studies.Field work organization, measurement techniques, diagnostic criteria, data handling and computing had the limitations and difficulties typical of those times, the mid of last century, when CVD epidemiology was at its beginning.All this represented anyhow the start of CVD epidemiology research in the country and was the stimulus to the start of other studies and a valuable collaboration with some of them.
       
  • SOCS3 methylation mediated the effect of sedentary time on type 2 diabetes
           mellitus: the Henan Rural Cohort Study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 November 2019Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular DiseasesAuthor(s): Xiaotian Liu, Xinling Qian, Runqi Tu, Zhenxing Mao, Wenqian Huo, Haiqing Zhang, jingjing Jiang, Xia Zhang, Zhongyan Tian, Yuqian Li, Chongjian WangAbstractBackground and AimsTo assess the associations of sedentary time, suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)-3 DNA methylation with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and further identify the role of SOCS3 methylation in mediating the association of sedentary time with T2DM in a Chinese rural population.Methods and ResultsA case-control study including 1032 participants from the Henan Rural Cohort study was conducted. Restricted cubic spline analysis and logistic regression model were performed to evaluate the associations between sedentary time, SOCS3 methylation and T2DM. The mediation effect of SOCS3 methylation on the association between sedentary time and T2DM was assessed. Sensitivity analysis was conducted by excluding individuals with diagnosed T2DM. Linear dose-response relationships were found between sedentary time, methylation level of Chr17:76356190 (one novel site on SOCS3) and T2DM. Compared with the first quartile(less than 5 h/d) of sedentary time, the adjusted odds ratio (OR, 95% confidence interval, 95%CI) for those in the third(7∼10 h/d) and fourth(≥10 h/d) quartiles were 1.87(1.22-2.85) and 3.54(2.14-5.85), respectively. Participants in the fourth quartile of methylation level of Chr17:76356190 had lower risk of T2DM than those in the first quartile(OR(95%CI): 0.23(0.14-0.38)). Mediation analysis showed 9.66%(6.38%-14.80%) of the association between sedentary time and T2DM was attributable to Chr17:76356190. The comparable effect estimates were observed between sedentary time, methylation level of Chr17:76356190 and undiagnosed T2DM.ConclusionSedentary time and methylation level of Chr17:76356190 were both independently associated with T2DM in the Chinese rural population. Furthermore, Chr17:76356190 appeared to partially mediate the effect of sedentary time on T2DM.
       
  • Assessment of a non-physician screening program for hypertension and
           cardiovascular risk in community pharmacies
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2019Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, Volume 29, Issue 12Author(s): Marco Pappaccogli, Lorenzo Ravetto Enri, Elisa Perlo, Silvia Di Monaco, Irene Pignata, Francesca Baratta, Franco Rabbia, Massimo Mana, Franco Veglio, Paola BrusaAbstractBackground and aimsThe strategic role of prevention in hypertension setting is well known but, with the only exception of annually events promoted by international scientific societies, no other screening campaigns are available. Aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of a non-physician pharmacy-based screening program and to describe the cardiovascular risk and the BP status of participating subjects.Methods and results2731 costumers participated to the screening program, answering to a questionnaire about personal cardiovascular risk and measuring their BP with an Omron HEM 1040-E. Since no threshold for hypertension diagnosis is currently available for community pharmacies BP measurements, we assessed high BP prevalence according to 3 different cut-offs (≥140/90, ≥135/85 and ≥ 130/80 mmHg) and compared normotensives and hypertensives on major cardiovascular risk factors. According to the proposed cut-offs, prevalence of hypertension was respectively of 31%, 45% and 59.5%, and it increased among younger subjects (31–65 y) when the lowest cut-offs were applied. High BP was found in a large percentage of subjects self-declared on-/not on-treatment (uncontrolled hypertensives) or normotensives (presumptive hypertensives) and among those not aware of their own BP values (presumptive hypertensives). Prevalence of CV risk factors was higher in hypertensives than in normotensives.ConclusionsOur findings demonstrated that a community pharmacy-based screening is feasible and attracts the interests of many subjects, improving awareness on their BP status. The screening was also showed to be useful in order to detect potentially uncontrolled and/or suspected new hypertensives, especially among young adults, to refer to general practitioners for confirmatory diagnosis or further evaluation.
       
  • The probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum 296 attenuates cardiometabolic
           disorders in high fat diet-treated rats
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2019Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, Volume 29, Issue 12Author(s): Raíssa G.S. Cavalcante, Thatyane M.R. de Albuquerque, Micaelle O. de Luna Freire, Georgianna A.H. Ferreira, Lucas A. Carneiro dos Santos, Marciane Magnani, Josiane C. Cruz, Valdir A. Braga, Evandro L. de Souza, José L. de Brito AlvesAbstractBackground and aimHigh-fat (HF) diet consumption has been associated with gut dysbiosis and increased risk of dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Probiotic administration has been suggested as a safe therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cardiometabolic disorders. This study was designed to assess the effects of probiotic Lactobacillus (L.) fermentum 296, a fruit-derived bacteria strain, against cardiometabolic disorders induced by HF diet.Methods and resultsMale Wistar rats were divided into control diet (CTL); HF diet; and HF diet treated with Lactobacillus fermentum 296 (HF + Lf 296). The L. fermentum 296 strain at 1 × 109 colony forming units (CFU)/ml were daily administered by oral gavage for 4 weeks. The results showed that rats fed with HF diet displayed insulin resistance, reduced Lactobacillus spp. counts in feces, serum lipids, and oxidative profile. Rats fed on HF diet also demonstrated augmented blood pressure associated with sympathetic hyperactivity and impaired baroreflex control. The administration of L. fermentum 296 for 4 weeks recovered fecal Lactobacillus sp. counts and alleviated hyperlipidemia, sympathetic hyperactivity, and reduced systolic blood pressure in HF rats without affecting baroreflex sensibility.ConclusionOur results suggest the ability of L. fermentum 296 improve biochemical and cardiovascular parameters altered in cardiometabolic disorders.
       
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus is associated with poor outcome after acute
           myocardial infarction
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2019Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, Volume 29, Issue 12Author(s): Shin-Rong Ke, Cheng-Wei Liu, Yen-Wen Wu, K. Robert Lai, Chiung-Yi Wu, Jeng-Wei Lin, Chien-Lung Chan, Ren-Hao PanAbstractBackgroundSystemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease. However, it is not clear whether or not SLE is associated with poor outcomes after acute myocardial infarction (AMI).Methods and resultsUsing the Taiwan National Health Insurance Database, we identified the SLE group as patients with AMI who have a concurrent discharge diagnosis of SLE. We also selected an age-, sex-, hospital level-, and admission calendar year-matched non-SLE group at a ratio of 1:3 from the total non-SLE group. One hundred fifty-one patients with SLE, 113,791 patients without SLE, and 453 matched patients without SLE were admitted with a diagnosis of AMI. Patients with SLE were significantly younger, predominantly female, and more likely to have chronic kidney disease than those without SLE. The in-hospital mortality rates were 12.6%, 9.0%, and 4.2% in the SLE, total non-SLE, and matched non-SLE groups, respectively. The in-hospital mortality was significantly higher in the SLE group than in the total non-SLE group (OR = 1.98; 95% CI = 1.2–3.26) and the matched non-SLE group (mortality OR = 2.20; 95% CI = 1.06–4.58). In addition, the SLE group was associated with a borderline significant risk of prolonged hospitalization when compared with the non-SLE group.ConclusionSLE is associated with a higher risk of in-hospital mortality and a borderline significantly higher risk of prolonged hospitalization after AMI.
       
  • Prevalence of obesity and obesity-associated muscle wasting in patients on
           peritoneal dialysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2019Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, Volume 29, Issue 12Author(s): Bruna Guida, Rossella Trio, Martina Di Maro, Andrea Memoli, Teresa Di Lauro, Annamaria Belfiore, Mariarosaria Santillo, Mauro CataldiAbstractBackground and aimsA progressive decrease in muscle mass until full-blown sarcopenia may occur in patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) and worsen their life quality and expectancy. Here we investigate the prevalence of obesity and obesity-associated muscle wasting in PD patients.Patients and methodsThe study design was observational, cross sectional. Body composition was assessed with BIA and BIVA in 88 PD patients (53.4 ± 13.1 years; 67% male). Patients with obesity and/or with reduced muscle mass were identified using FMI and SM/BW cutoff values, respectively. Inflammatory status was assessed by measuring CRP and fibrinogen blood levels.ResultsA total of 44.3% of the patients showed a reduced muscle mass (37.5% moderate and 6.8% severe). The prevalence of obesity was 6.1%, 81.8%, and 100% in patients with normal, moderately, and severely reduced muscle mass, respectively (p 
       
  • Spiroergometric assessment of cardiorespiratory fitness in subjects with
           severe obesity: A challenge of reference
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2019Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, Volume 29, Issue 12Author(s): Britta Wilms, Barbara Ernst, Sebastian M. Schmid, Martin Thurnheer, Burkhard Weisser, Bernd SchultesAbstractBackground and aimsSevere obesity is associated with poor physical performance but objective data are scarce.Methods and resultsBicycle spiroergometry data with focus on peak oxygen uptake (V˙O2,peak) and workload (Wpeak) from 476 subjects with severe obesity (BMI ≥ 35.0 kg/m2; 70% women) were analysed. In a first step, V˙O2,peak values were compared with reference values calculated upon different formulas (Wassermann; Riddle). Thereafter, multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify determinants of cardiorespiratory fitness. Cardiorespiratory fitness reference classes for V˙O2,peak and Wpeak were established by stratifying the sample upon identified determinants.Absolute V˙O2,peak (1.87 ± 0.47 vs. 2.40 ± 0.59 l/min) and Wpeak (131 ± 26 vs. 168 ± 44 W) were lower in women than men (both p
       
  • Preventing metabolic syndrome in morbid obesity with resistance training:
           Reporting interindividual variability
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2019Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, Volume 29, Issue 12Author(s): Pedro Delgado-Floody, Cristian Álvarez, Eduardo Lusa Cadore, Marcelo Flores-Opazo, Felipe Caamaño-Navarrete, Mikel IzquierdoAbstractBackground and aimsResistant training (RT) improves health markers in obesity, but its effects in morbid obesity are unknown. We aimed to determine the effects of a RT-program in preventing/attenuating the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in patients with morbid obesity. A second aim was to report the interindividual variability in terms of improvements in MetS markers and other related co-variables.Methods and resultsTwenty-one adults with obesity or morbid obesity were divided into two groups based on body mass index (BMI): a control obesity (CO, n = 7, BMI ≥35 
       
  • Does a rise in plasma erythropoietin after high-altitude exposure affect
           FGF23 in healthy volunteers on a normal or low-phosphorus diet'
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2019Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, Volume 29, Issue 12Author(s): Insa E. Emrich, Juliane Dederer, Angelika Kircher, Verena Klemis, Claudia S. Lennartz, Kathrin Untersteller, Stefan Wagenpfeil, Danilo Fliser, Myles Wolf, Gunnar H. HeineAbstractBackground and aimsData of experimental rodent models suggest that hypoxia with subsequent increase in erythropoietin stimulates the expression of the phosphaturic hormone fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23).Methods and resultsTo translate the findings of animal studies into human physiology, herein we exposed eight healthy volunteers to high altitude (2656 m above sea level) for four days. The volunteers were randomized on a low-phosphorous diet (n = 4) or a normal phosphorus diet (n = 4). Although high-altitude exposure caused a significant increase in plasma erythropoietin (EPO) (before high-altitude exposure: low phosphorus: median EPO 6.6 mIU/ml [interquartile range (IQR) 6.0; 8.2], normal phosphorus: median EPO 9.0 mIU/ml [IQR 7.9; 11.5]; at day 2: low phosphorus: median EPO 21.3 mIU/ml [IQR 19.5; 23.8], normal phosphorus: median EPO 19.4 mIU/ml [IQR 18.0; 20.8]), there was no consistent increase in plasma c-terminal FGF23 or plasma intact FGF23. We observed only a single, intermittent peak in c-terminal FGF23 levels after 5 h of maximal aerobic exercise.ConclusionThese data do not support a substantial effect of moderate hypoxia alone on the expression of FGF23, but they suggest that combined exercise and high-altitude exposure may temporarily induce FGF23 expression.
       
  • Circulating glutamate level as a potential biomarker for abdominal obesity
           and metabolic risk
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2019Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, Volume 29, Issue 12Author(s): Ina Maltais-Payette, Benedicte Allam-Ndoul, Louis Pérusse, Marie-Claude Vohl, André TchernofBackground and aimCirculating level of glutamate, a by-product of the catabolism of branched-chain amino acids, has been positively correlated with visceral adipose tissue accumulation and waist circumference (WC). The aim of the present study was to assess the potential of using glutamate level to identify individuals with abdominal obesity and a high cardiometabolic risk.Methods and resultsThe study sample included 99 men and 99 women. Fasting serum glutamate was measured using the Biocrates p180 kit. Anthropometric and metabolic variables were used to identify individuals with abdominal obesity (WC ≥ 95 cm in both sexes), the hypertriglyceridemic waist (HTW) phenotype and the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Mean (±SD) age was 34.1 ± 10.1 years, mean BMI was 29.0 ± 6.2 kg/m2 and mean WC was 92.7 ± 16.5 cm. Glutamate was strongly correlated with WC (r = 0.66 for men; r = 0.76 for women, both p 
       
  • Myeloperoxidase as cardiovascular risk marker in pre-pubertal preterm
           children'
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2019Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, Volume 29, Issue 12Author(s): Denise O. Schoeps, Simone Holzer, Fabiola I. Suano-Souza, Sonia Hix, Fernando L.A. Fonseca, Roseli O.S. SarniAbstractBackground and aimsTo evaluate the biomarkers related to cardiovascular risk in pre-pubertal preterm children with a birth weight of less than 1,500 g and relate them to current nutritional status, insulin resistance, and inflammation.Methods & resultsThis is a cross-sectional, controlled study with pre-pubertal preterm children aged 5–9 years with a birth weight of less than 1500 g (Preterm group, n = 44) compared to full term children of adequate weight for gestational age (Control group, n = 30). Clinical evaluation: anthropometry and pubertal staging. Laboratory tests: total cholesterol and fractions, triglycerides, paraoxonase 1, apolipoproteins A-I and B, myeloperoxidase (MPO), high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), glycemia and insulin (to calculate HOMA-IR). In the preterm group, 19 (43.2%) were male, with mean birth weight and gestational age of 1157 ± 242 g and 30.0 ± 2.3 weeks, respectively. The preterm group showed lower concentrations of HDL-c (60.1 ± 10.1 vs. 69.0 ± 10.0 mg/dL; p 
       
  • Plaque calcification is driven by different mechanisms of mineralization
           associated with specific cardiovascular risk factors
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2019Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, Volume 29, Issue 12Author(s): Manuel Scimeca, Lucia Anemona, Annarita Granaglia, Rita Bonfiglio, Nicoletta Urbano, Nicola Toschi, Giuseppe Santeusanio, Stefania Schiaroli, Silvestro Mauriello, Virginia Tancredi, Orazio Schillaci, Elena Bonanno, Alessandro MaurielloAbstractBackground and aimsThe aim of this study was to investigate possible associations among markers of mineralization, plaque instability and the main risk factors of atherosclerosis.Methods and resultsA Tissue MicroArray containing 52 samples of calcified carotid plaques from 52 symptomatic and asymptomatic patients were built. TMA serial sections were used to study the expression of inflammatory and mineralization markers (BMP-2, BMP-4, VDR, RANKL, Osteopontin, Sclerostin, β-catenin and calmodulin) by immunohistochemistry. Our data clearly demonstrated the expression of mineralization markers in atheromatic plaques. Indeed, with the exception of RANKL, all investigated markers were expressed in at least 60% of cases. Specifically, multivariate analysis displayed significant associations between both the expression of BMP-2 and the presence of unstable plaques as well as between the expression of β-catenin and the presence of stable plaques. We also found a significant inverse association between both a) the presence of hypertension and VDR and b) smoking habits and calmodulin expression. Finally, we noted a higher density of RANKL positive cells in plaques from diabetic patients as compared to non-diabetic ones and a significant positive association between hypertriglyceridemia and BMP-4 expression.ConclusionOur results support the hypothesis that the process of atherosclerotic plaque calcification presents a number of similarities with the physiological processes that occur in bone, involving both osteoblasts- and osteoclasts-like arterial cells. Finally, the present study suggests that risk factors, such as hypertension, cigarette smoke and diabetes, can cause the destabilization of the atheromatic plaque acting on calcification process as well as inflammation.
       
  • Trend of salt intake measured by 24-hour urine collection samples among
           Iranian adults population between 1998 and 2013: The Isfahan salt study
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2019Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, Volume 29, Issue 12Author(s): Noushin Mohammadifard, Alireza Khosravi, Jordi Salas-Salvadó, Nerea Becerra-Tomás, Fatemeh Nouri, Zahra Abdollahi, Mahnaz Jozan, Ahmad Bahonar, Nizal SarrafzadeganAbstractBackground and aimFew population-based studies conducted in the Eastern Mediterranean region assessed salt intake by the measurement of 24-h sodium urine excretion (24-hUNa). The current study aimed to assess the trend of mean salt intake in Iranian adults between 1998 and 2013.Methods and resultsThese cross-sectional studies were performed on 564, 157, 509 and 837 randomly selected healthy adults aged>18 years from Isfahan city, Iran, in 1998, 2001, 2007 and 2013, respectively. BP was measured using a mercury sphygmomanometer according to a standard protocol. Single 24-h urine was collected to assess 24-hUNa as a surrogate of salt intake, and 24-h urinary K (24-hUK).The estimated trend of salt intake was 9.5, 9.7, 9.6 and 10.2 g/day in total population (P 
       
  • Postnatal delayed growth impacts cognition but rescues programmed impaired
           pulmonary vascular development in an IUGR rat model
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2019Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, Volume 29, Issue 12Author(s): LingLing Yan, Yu Wang, ZiMing Zhang, ShanShan Xu, Rahim Ullah, XiaoFei Luo, XueFeng Xu, XiaoLu Ma, Zheng Chen, LiYan Zhang, Ying Lv, LiZhong DuAbstractBackground and aimsIntrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a state of slower fetal growth usually followed by a catch-up growth. Postnatal catch-up growth in IUGR models increases the incidence of pulmonary arterial hypertension in adulthood. Here, we hypothesize that the adverse pulmonary vascular consequences of IUGR may be improved by slowing down postnatal growth velocity. Meanwhile, cognitive function was also studied.Methods and resultsWe established an IUGR rat model by restricting maternal food throughout gestation. After birth, pups were fed a regular or restricted diet during lactation by changing litter size. Thus, there were three experimental groups according to the dam/offspring diet: C/C (gold standard), IUGR with catch-up growth (R/C) and IUGR with delayed growth (R/D). In adulthood (14 weeks of age), we assessed pulmonary vascular development by hemodynamic measurement and immunohistochemistry. Our results showed that adult R/C offspring developed an elevated mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) and pulmonary arteriolar remodeling accompanied with decreased eNOS mRNA and protein expressions compared to C/C or R/D offspring. This suggested that delayed postnatal growth improved pulmonary circulation compared to postnatal catch-up growth. Conversely, adult R/D offspring performed poorly in cognition. Behavior test and electrophysiology results exhibited a reduced synaptic plasticity. Furthermore, decreased mRNA expression levels of the memory-related gene zif268 and transcription factor recruitment factor p300 in the hippocampus region were also observed in R/D group.ConclusionThese findings indicate that delayed postnatal growth results in cognitive impairment, but it reverses elevations in mPAP induced by postnatal catch-up growth following IUGR.
       
  • Relevance of physical function in the association of red and processed
           meat intake with all–cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2019Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, Volume 29, Issue 12Author(s): Stavroula Argyridou, Francesco Zaccardi, Melanie J. Davies, Kamlesh Khunti, Thomas YatesAbstractBackground and aimsIntake of red and processed meat has been associated with a higher risk of morbidity and mortality; it is unknown whether these associations are modified by overall physical health. This study examined the associations of red and processed meat consumption with all–cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality and investigated whether markers of physical function modified the associations.Methods and resultsThis observational cohort study used UK Biobank data derived from 419,075 participants free from cancer and cardiovascular disease. Cox models assessed the association of red and processed meat consumption (obtained from a baseline food frequency questionnaire) with mortality, adjusted for potential confounders. Objectively measured handgrip strength and self-reported walking pace were used as interaction terms. The median age was 57 (interquartile range, 49–63) years and 54.9% were women. Over 7 years of follow–up, 8586 all–cause, 1660 cardiovascular, and 4812 cancer deaths occurred. Each additional serving per week of red and processed meat was associated with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.037 (95% CI: 1.028–1.047) for all–cause; 1.030 (1.009–1.051) for cardiovascular; and 1.029 (1.016–1.042) for cancer mortality. The association of red and processed meat consumption was modified by walking pace, with brisk walkers having the lowest risk per additional serving for all–cause and cancer mortality (HR 1.025; 1.006–1.045 and 1.015; 0.990–1.040, respectively); no interaction was observed for handgrip strength.ConclusionThe known risk of mortality associated with red and processed meat consumption may be lower in those with high physical function.
       
  • Adult height and risk of death from all-cause, cardiovascular, and
           cancer-specific disease: The Rural Chinese Cohort Study
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2019Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, Volume 29, Issue 12Author(s): Yang Zhao, Ming Zhang, Yu Liu, Haohang Sun, Xizhuo Sun, Zhaoxia Yin, Honghui Li, Yongcheng Ren, Dechen Liu, Feiyan Liu, Xu Chen, Leilei Liu, Cheng Cheng, Qionggui Zhou, Dongsheng HuAbstractBackground and aimsWe aimed to evaluate the sex-specific association of height and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in rural Chinese adults.Methods and resultsA total of 17,263 participants (10,448 women) ≥18 years old were randomly enrolled during 2007–2008 and followed up during 2013–2014. Sex-specific hazard ratios (HRs) for the height–mortality association, assessed in quintiles or 5 cm increments, were calculated by Cox proportional-hazards models. For both men and women, tall participants showed a baseline prevalence of high levels of socioeconomic factors including income and education but low systolic blood pressure and total cholesterol level. During a median of 6.01 years of follow-up, 620 men (in 39,993.45 person-years) and 490 women (in 61,590.10 person-years) died. With increasing height, the risk of all-cause mortality decreased in a curvilinear trend after adjustment for baseline age, socioeconomic and behavioral factors, and anthropometric and laboratory measurements. For men, height was inversely associated with all-cause mortality (HR per 5 cm increase: 0.89, 95% CI: 0.83–0.96) and cardiovascular mortality (HR per 5 cm increase: 0.81, 95% CI: 0.72–0.91). For women, height was inversely associated with all-cause mortality (HR per 5 cm increase: 0.88, 95% CI: 0.81–0.96) and other mortality (HR per 5 cm increase: 0.82, 95% CI: 0.71–0.96).ConclusionsOur study demonstrated a sex-specific inverse effect of height on mortality from different major causes in rural Chinese adults.
       
  • Carbohydrate intake and risk of metabolic syndrome: A dose–response
           meta-analysis of observational studies
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2019Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, Volume 29, Issue 12Author(s): Ya-Shu Liu, Qi-Jun Wu, Yang Xia, Jia-Yu Zhang, Yu-Ting Jiang, Qing Chang, Yu-Hong ZhaoAbstractBackground and aimsEpidemiological association studies have reported inconsistent findings on the relationship between carbohydrate intake and risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Therefore, we aimed to conduct the first dose–response meta-analysis to investigate this effect.Methods and resultsA systematic search in PubMed and Web of Science databases from their inception to June 01, 2019, together with relevant literature scrutiny, was performed to identify related studies for inclusion into the meta-analysis. We calculated the odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using a random effects model. Furthermore, subgroup, sensitivity, heterogeneity, and publication bias analyses were performed. This meta-analysis included 14 cross-sectional and four cohort studies, totaling 284,638 participants and 69,554 MetS cases. The highest versus the lowest carbohydrate intake values were associated with an increased risk of MetS (OR: 1.253, 95% CI: 1.147–1.368), with moderate heterogeneity (I2 = 54.5%). Using dose–response analysis, we found a linear association between carbohydrate consumption and MetS risk with a corresponding OR of 1.026 (95% CI, 1.004–1.048) and with significant heterogeneity (I2 = 82.0%) at 5% energy intake from carbohydrates. We have found similar results using subgroup analyses for major study characteristics and adjustment for confounders. Sensitivity analysis further enhanced the robustness of the results, and no publication bias was detected.ConclusionCarbohydrate intake is associated with an increased risk of developing MetS. Therefore, additional large prospective cohort studies are warranted to confirm our findings.
       
  • The association of dietary patterns and carotid intima-media thickness: A
           synthesis of current evidence
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2019Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, Volume 29, Issue 12Author(s): S. Bhat, G. Mocciaro, S. RayAbstractAimsDietary pattern (DP) analysis has emerged as a holistic method to understand the effects of food intake on health outcomes. Though dietary intake has been associated with cardiovascular disease, the association of DPs and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), a robust early marker of cardiovascular disease progression has not been comprehensively investigated. This study systematically explores the association of a posteriori and a priori DPs and CIMT.Data synthesisThrough a systematic search of MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Web of Science, twenty studies that derived DPs using a posteriori or a priori methods with CIMT as an outcome were included. Four cross-sectional studies and 1 cohort paper reported a statistically significant association between increased consumption of ‘unhealthy’ foods (i.e processed meat, soda drinks and refined grain) and increased CIMT. While four cross-sectional studies reported a statistically significant association of DPs characterized by increased consumption of ‘healthy’ foods (i.e fruit and vegetables, fish) and decreased CIMT. DPs derived from each study varied depending on derivation method, study design and use of dietary data collection method.ConclusionFindings from this review are generally supportive of a trend between DPs with higher consumption of ‘healthy’ foods and lower consumption of ‘unhealthy’ foods and decreased CIMT; however, the association was largely not statistically significant. Evidence was overwhelmingly heterogeneous due to differences seen in DPs based on location and culture, sample characteristics and adjustment for confounders. Long-term prospective observational and interventional studies with standardized sample selection and dietary data collection are needed to significantly establish the role of DPs on CIMT.
       
  • Effect of vitamin D supplementation on endothelial function – An updated
           systematic review with meta-analysis and meta-regression
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2019Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, Volume 29, Issue 12Author(s): Nick L. Pincombe, Melissa J. Pearson, Neil A. Smart, Nicola King, Gudrun DiebergAbstractBackground and aimsAtherogenesis and endothelial dysfunction contribute to cardiovascular risk and vitamin D has been implemented in endothelial repair. This systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression aims to establish the effect of vitamin D supplementation on endothelial function.Methods and ResultsTo conduct the systematic review we searched the Cochrane Library of Controlled Trials, PubMed, ProQuest and EMBASE for randomized controlled trials that investigated the effects of vitamin D supplementation on flow-mediated dilation (FMD%), pulse wave velocity (PWV), and central augmentation index (AIx). Meta-analysis was based on a random effects model and inverse-variance methods to calculate either mean difference (MD) or standardized mean difference (SMD) as effects sizes. This was followed by meta-regression investigating the effect of baseline vitamin D concentrations, vitamin D dosing and study duration. Risk of bias was assessed using the JADAD scale and funnel plots.We identified 1056 studies of which 26 studies met inclusion criteria for quantitative analysis. Forty-two percent of the 2808 participants had either deficient or insufficient levels of vitamin D. FMD% (MD 1.17% (95% CI −0.20, 2.54), p = 0.095), PWV (SMD −0.09 m/s (95% CI −0.24, 0.07), p = 0.275) and AIx (SMD 0.05% (95% CI −0.1, 0.19), p = 0.52) showed no improvement with vitamin D supplementation. Sub-analysis and meta-regression revealed a tendency for AIx and FMD% to increase as weekly vitamin doses increased; no other significant relationships were identified.ConclusionsVitamin D supplementation showed no improvement in endothelial function. More evidence is required before recommendations for management of endothelial dysfunction can be made.
       
  • Statins therapy and colorectal cancer risk
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2019Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, Volume 29, Issue 12Author(s): Shih-Wei Lai, Yu-Hung Kuo, Chia-Wei Fang, Kuan-Fu Liao
       
  • Corrigendum to “Polyvascular subclinical atherosclerosis in familial
           hypercholesterolemia: The role of cholesterol burden and gender” [Nutr
           Metab Cardiovasc Dis 29 (2019) 1068–1076]
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 October 2019Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular DiseasesAuthor(s): Alessandro Mattina, Antonina Giammanco, Philippe Giral, David Rosenbaum, Alain Carrié, Philippe Cluzel, Alban Redheuil, Randa Bittar, Sophie Béliard, Davide Noto, Angelo Quartarone, Maurizio Averna, Éric Bruckert, Antonio Gallo
       
  • The impact of probiotic yogurt consumption on lipid profiles in subjects
           with mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia: A systematic review and
           meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 October 2019Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular DiseasesAuthor(s): Behnaz Pourrajab, Somaye Fatahi, Afsaneh Dehnad, Hamed Kord Varkaneh, Farzad ShidfarAbstractBackground and AimsPotential beneficial effect of probiotic yogurt on the lipid profile has raised much interest. However, the results are inconsistent in this regard. The aim of the study is to determine the effects of probiotic yogurt on serum lipid profile in individuals with mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia.Methods and ResultsOnline databases including PubMed, Scopus, ISI Web of Science, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Science Direct, Google Scholar and Igaku Chuo Zasshi were searched until March 19th 2019. The effect sizes were expressed as the weighted mean difference (WMD) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Seven eligible trials with 274 participants were included in this systematic review. Pooling of 9 effect sizes from these seven articles revealed a significant reduction in total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels following probiotic yogurt consumption (mean difference: -8.73 mg/dl, 95% CI: -15.98, -1.48, p-value = 0.018 and mean difference: -10.611 mg/dl, 95% CI: -16.529, -4.693, p-value = 0.000, respectively) without significant heterogeneity among the studies (I2 = 40.6%, p-value = 0.1 and I2 = 24.2%, p-value = 0.229, respectively). The results showed no significant changes in high density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Also, none of the variables showed a significant change for sensitivity analysis.ConclusionAvailable evidence suggests that probiotic yogurt can significantly reduce total cholesterol and LDL-c in subjects with mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia without a significant effect on HDL-c and triglyceride levels.
       
  • The effects of green coffee been extract supplementation on lipid profile
           in humans: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled
           trials
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 October 2019Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular DiseasesAuthor(s): Ding Feng, Baoping Ma, Ali Nazary-Vannani, Hamed Kord-Varkaneh, Somaye Fatahi, Maria Papageorgiou, Jamal Rahmani, Faezeh Poursoleiman, Israel Júnior Borges do Nascimento, Hui Li, Dongyang Ham, Dongmei WangAbstractBackground and aimThis systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to assess the effects of green coffee bean extract (GCBE) supplementation on lipid profile in adults.Methods and resultsThe PubMed/Medline, Scopus, Web of sciences, and Google Scholar were systematically searched for randomized controlled trials available in English and published before February 2019. The meta-analysis was conducted using fixed effects models, and between-study heterogeneity was assessed by Cochran’s Q test and I2. A total of 17 effect sizes were included in the meta-analysis. Combined effect sizes on serum total cholesterol concentrations revealed significant effects of GCBE supplementation on serum total cholesterol [weighted mean difference (WMD): -4.51 mg/dL, 95% confidence interval (CI): -6.89, -2.12, p < 0.001)], low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) (WMD: -4.38 mg/dL, 95% CI: -6.44, -2.31, p < 0.001), and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) (WMD: 2.63 mg/dL, 95% CI: 2.20, 3.07, p < 0.001) compared to controls. Nevertheless, no significant changes were observed in serum triglycerides levels (WMD: -4.34 mg/dL, 95% CI: -9.00, 0.32, p = 0.068).ConclusionThe evidence from available studies suggests that the GCBE supplementation leads to significant reductions in total cholesterol, HDL-C, and LDL-C levels, and has modest, but, non-significant effects on triglycerides levels.
       
 
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