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Showing 1 - 200 of 3161 Journals sorted alphabetically
A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.655, CiteScore: 2)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.015, CiteScore: 2)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 97, SJR: 1.462, CiteScore: 3)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 2)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.771, CiteScore: 3)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 418, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 7)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.18, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.128, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 265, SJR: 3.263, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.307, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.793, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.331, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.374, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.344, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.671, CiteScore: 5)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 4)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.29, CiteScore: 3)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.611, CiteScore: 8)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 161, SJR: 4.09, CiteScore: 13)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.167, CiteScore: 4)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.384, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.126, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.992, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.089, CiteScore: 5)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.61, CiteScore: 7)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34, SJR: 3.043, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.453, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.992, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.713, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.316, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.562, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.977, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.524, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.159, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46, SJR: 5.39, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.354, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 12.74, CiteScore: 13)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.193, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.749, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 4.433, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.938, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.682, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.88, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.027, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.158, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.875, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.579, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.536, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.791, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 65)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.371, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 405, SJR: 0.569, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.208, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.262, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 3)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.117, CiteScore: 3)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 352, SJR: 0.796, CiteScore: 3)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.42, CiteScore: 2)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.671, CiteScore: 9)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 463, SJR: 1.238, CiteScore: 3)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.13, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 5)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.156, CiteScore: 4)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 1.272, CiteScore: 3)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 1.747, CiteScore: 4)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.589, CiteScore: 3)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 0)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.153, CiteScore: 3)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 3)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.142, CiteScore: 4)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.148, CiteScore: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 3.521, CiteScore: 6)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 4.66, CiteScore: 10)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.796, CiteScore: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.108, CiteScore: 3)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 3.267, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 1.93, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.524, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 7.45, CiteScore: 8)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.062, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.973, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 221, SJR: 2.7, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 3.184, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.289, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.139, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.164, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 1)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.144, CiteScore: 3)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 1)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 0)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription  
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 4.849, CiteScore: 10)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 5)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 184, SJR: 0.633, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 208, SJR: 1.58, CiteScore: 3)

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Journal Cover
Nuclear Medicine and Biology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.696
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 5  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0969-8051
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3161 journals]
  • [89Zr]Zr-DFO-nimotuzumab ImmunoPET of EGFR
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 February 2019Source: Nuclear Medicine and BiologyAuthor(s): Yu Tang, Yingjiang Hu, Weihao Liu, Lin Chen, Yan Zhao, Huan Ma, Jijun Yang, Yuanyou Yang, Jiali Liao, Jiming Cai, Yue Chen, Ning Liu IntroductionThe potential of the positron-emitting zirconium-89 (89Zr) (t1/2 = 78.4 h) has been recently reported for immune positron emission tomography (immunoPET) radioimmunoconjugates design. In our work, we explored the optimized preparation of [89Zr]Zr-DFO-nimotuzumab, and evaluated 89Zr-labeled monoclonal antibody (mAb) construct for targeted imaging of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) overexpressed in glioma.MethodsTo optimize the radiolabeling efficiency of 89Zr with DFO-nimotuzumab, multiple immunoconjugates and radiolabeling were performed. Radiolabeling yield, radiochemical purity, stability, and activity assay were investigated to characterize [89Zr]Zr-DFO-nimotuzumab for chemical and biological integrity. The in vivo behavior of this tracer was studied in mice bearing subcutaneous U87MG (EGFR-positive) tumors received a 3.5 ± 0.2 MBq/dose using PET/CT imaging. One group mice bearing subcutaneous U87MG (EGFR-positive) tumors received [89Zr]Zr-DFO-nimotuzumab (3.5 ± 0.2 MBq, ~3 μg) (nonblocking) for immunoPET; the other group had 30 μg predose (blocking) of cold nimotuzumab 24 h prior to [89Zr]Zr-DFO-nimotuzumab.Results[89Zr]Zr-DFO-nimotuzumab was prepared with high radiochemical yield (>90%), radiochemical purity (>99%), and specific activity (115 ± 0.8 MBq/mg). In vitro validation showed that [89Zr]Zr-DFO-nimotuzumab had an initial immunoreactive fraction of 0.99 ± 0.05 and remained active for up to 5 days. A biodistribution study revealed excellent stability of [89Zr]Zr-DFO-nimotuzumab in vivo compared with 89Zr as a bone seeker. High uptake in the liver and heart and modest penetration in the brain were observed, with no significant accumulation of activity in other organs. ImmunoPET studies also indicated prominent image contrast that remarkably high uptake up to ~20%ID/g for nonblocking and ~2%ID/g for blocking in tumor between 12 and 120 h after administration.ConclusionThese studies developed a radiopharmaceutical [89Zr]Zr-DFO-nimotuzumab with optimized synthesis. The potential utility of [89Zr]Zr-DFO-nimotuzumab in assessing EGFR status in glioma was demonstrated in this study.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
  • [18F]DiFA as a novel hypoxia PET probe
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 February 2019Source: Nuclear Medicine and BiologyAuthor(s): Norihito Nakata, Masato Kiriu, Yuki Okumura, Songji Zhao, Ken-ichi Nishijima, Tohru Shiga, Nagara Tamaki, Yuji Kuge, Hiroki Matsumoto IntroductionHypoxia, a common feature of most solid tumors, is an important predictor of tumor progression and resistance to radiotherapy. We developed a novel hypoxia imaging probe with optimal biological characteristics for use in clinical settings.MethodsWe designed and synthesized several new hypoxia probes with additional hydrophilic characteristics compared to [18F]fluoromisonidazole ([18F]FMISO). These were 1-(2,2-Dihydroxy-methyl-3-[18F]-Fluoropropyl) azomycin ([18F]DiFA, formerly [18F]HIC101) and its analogs ([18F]F1 and [18F]F2). Biodistribution studies with EMT6 mammary carcinoma cell-bearing mice were performed 1 and 2 h after injection of each probe. Small-animal positron emission tomography (PET) imaging studies were conducted using [18F]DiFA and [18F]FMISO in the same mice. Tumoral hypoxia was confirmed via pimonidazole staining. Ex vivo digital autoradiographs were obtained for confirming the co-localization of [18F]DiFA and pimonidazole in the tumor tissues.ResultsThe EMT6 tumors used had pimonidazole-positive regions. In biodistribution studies, the tumor-to-blood ratio and tumor-to-muscle ratio of [18F]DiFA was significantly higher than the respective [18F]FMISO ratios 1 h after injection. Hence, we selected [18F]DiFA as the best hypoxia probe among those tested. Small-animal PET imaging studies showed time-dependent increases in the tumor-to-normal tissue ratio of [18F]DiFA uptake. Rapid clearance from the rest of the body was observed primarily via the renal system. Ex vivo autoradiography showed a positive correlation between [18F]DiFA uptake and the regions of pimonidazole distribution, indicating that [18F]DiFA selectively accumulated in the tumor tissue's hypoxic region.ConclusionsA better contrast image and a shorter waiting time may be obtained with [18F]DiFA than with [18F]FMISO.Advances in Knowledge.By optimizing LogP based on the [18F]FMISO structure, we demonstrated that [18F]DiFA could detect tumor hypoxia regions at an early time point.Implications for patient Care.[18F]DiFA imaging facilitates the evaluation of various cancer hypoxic states due to the lower uptake of normal tissues and could contribute to novel treatment development.
  • Dual-isotope antibody imaging
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 February 2019Source: Nuclear Medicine and BiologyAuthor(s): James C. Knight, Michael J. Mosley, Veerle Kersemans, Gemma M. Dias, P. Danny Allen, Sean Smart, Bart Cornelissen While radiolabelled antibodies have found great utility as PET and SPECT imaging agents in oncological investigations, a notable shortcoming of these agents is their propensity to accumulate non-specifically within tumour tissue. The degree of this non-specific contribution to overall tumour uptake is highly variable and can ultimately lead to false conclusions. Therefore, in an effort to obtain a reliable measure of inter-individual differences in non-specific tumour uptake of radiolabelled antibodies, we demonstrate that the use of dual-isotope imaging overcomes this issue, enables true quantification of epitope expression levels, and allows non-invasive in vivo immunohistochemistry. The approach involves co-administration of (i) an antigen-targeting antibody labelled with zirconium-89 (89Zr), and (ii) an isotype-matched non-specific control IgG antibody labelled with indium-111 (111In). As an example, the anti-HER2 antibody trastuzumab was radiolabelled with 89Zr, and co-administered intravenously together with its 111In-labelled non-specific counterpart to mice bearing human breast cancer xenografts with differing HER2 expression levels (MDA-MB-468 [HER2-negative], MDA-MB-231 [low-HER2], MDA-MB-231/H2N [medium-HER2], and SKBR3 [high-HER2]). Simultaneous PET/SPECT imaging using a MILabs Vector4 small animal scanner revealed stark differences in the intratumoural distribution of [89Zr]Zr-trastuzumab and [111In]In-IgG, highlighting regions of HER2-mediated uptake and non-specific uptake, respectively. Normalisation of the tumour uptake values and tumour-to-blood ratios obtained with [89Zr]Zr-trastuzumab against those obtained with [111In]In-IgG yielded values which were most strongly correlated (R = 0.94; P = 0.02) with HER2 expression levels for each breast cancer type determined by Western blot and in vitro saturation binding assays, but not non-normalised uptake values. Normalised intratumoural distribution of [89Zr]Zr-trastuzumab correlated well with intratumoural heterogeneity HER2 expression.
  • RM2-PET/CT of prostate cancer compared to histopathology
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 January 2019Source: Nuclear Medicine and BiologyAuthor(s): Thomas F. Fassbender, Florian Schiller, Michael Mix, Helmut R. Maecke, Selina Kiefer, Vanessa Drendel, Philipp T. Meyer, Cordula A. Jilg IntroductionProstate cancer (PCa) often shows an overexpression of the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPr). Therefore, GRPr is a possible theragnostic target. An interesting antagonist GRPr-ligand is RM2 or BAY86–7548. This study examines the accuracy of positron emission tomography (PET) with [68Ga]Ga-RM2 for diagnostic imaging of primary PCa (pPCa) compared to histopathology in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP).Methods[68Ga]Ga-RM2-PET examinations were performed in 15 patients before RP. All prostate specimens were histopathologically examined based on predefined spatial octants. Each prostate volume on PET was subdivided into octants, which were correlated to histopathology and evaluated according to presence of tumor by two experienced examiners. Additionally, PET data was evaluated by volume of interest (VOI) analyses in terms of maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) and normalized SUVmax relative to background activity (rSUVmax). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for SUVmax and rSUVmax were calculated.ResultsAt least one focus of increased [68Ga]Ga-RM2 uptake corresponding to a tumor manifestation on histology was found in 14 of 15 patients (93%). Spatial concordance of visual PET readings with histopathology was very variable. Intraindividual agreement reached from ≤2 octants in three, 3–5 octants in six to ≥6 octants in six patients, resulting in a relatively low correlation of visual PET readings with histopathology (accuracy = 0.63; p = 0.0018). Lesion-based analysis found a sensitivity of 69% and a positive predictive value of 73%. Concordantly, the octant-based ROC curves for SUVmax and rSUVmax indicated a relatively low diagnostic performance (area under the curve of 0.59 and 0.61, respectively).Conclusions[68Ga]Ga-RM2-PET shows only a relatively low diagnostic accuracy for pPCa compared to histopathology on an octant basis, which may be explained to some extent by methodological weaknesses. Further studies need to explore, whether the observed high interindividual variability of agreement between [68Ga]Ga-RM2-PET and histopathology can be explained by different tumor biologies or other coincident prostatic pathologies.
  • Mini-review: Targeted radiopharmaceuticals incorporating reversible, low
           molecular weight albumin binders
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 January 2019Source: Nuclear Medicine and BiologyAuthor(s): Marie Brandt, Jens Cardinale, Carolina Giammei, Xabier Guarrochena, Barbara Happl, Nedra Jouini, Thomas L. Mindt The combination of low molecular weight, reversible human serum albumin (HSA) binders with targeted radiopharmaceuticals in dual-targeted radioconjugates holds great promise, in particular for endoradiotherapy. Attachment of HSA-binders to radiopharmaceuticals extends their blood circulation time and results in an enhanced tumour uptake as well as often in an improved pharmacokinetic profile. In this mini-review, an overview of currently pursued approaches of this novel strategy is provided.
  • Evaluation of agonist 5-HT1B PET radioligands
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 January 2019Source: Nuclear Medicine and BiologyAuthor(s): Anton Lindberg, Shuiyu Lu, Sangram Nag, Magnus Schou, Jeih-San Liow, Sami S. Zoghbi, Michael P. Frankland, Robert L. Gladding, Cheryl L. Morse, Akihiro Takano, Nahid Amini, Charles S. Elmore, Yong Sok Lee, Robert B. Innis, Christer Halldin, Victor W. Pike IntroductionThe serotonin 1B receptor subtype is of interest in the pathophysiology and treatment of depression, anxiety, and migraine. Over recent years 5-HT1B receptor binding in human brain has been examined with PET using radioligands that are partial but not full agonists. To explore how the intrinsic activity of a PET radioligand may affect imaging performance, two high-affinity full 5-HT1B receptor agonists (AZ11136118, 4; and AZ11895987, 5) were selected from a large compound library and radiolabeled for PET examination in non-human primates.Methods[11C]4 was obtained through Pd(0)-mediated insertion of [11C]carbon monoxide between prepared iodoarene and homochiral amine precursors. [11C]5 was obtained through N-11C-methylation of N-desmethyl precursor 6 with [11C]methyl triflate. [11C]4 and [11C]5 were studied with PET in rhesus or cynomolgus monkey. [11C]4 was studied with PET in mice and rats to measure brain uptake and specific binding. Ex-vivo experiments in rats were performed to identify whether there were radiometabolites in brain. Physiochemical parameters for [11C]4 (pKa, logD and conformational energetics) were evaluated.ResultsBoth [11C]4 and [11C]5 were successfully produced in high radiochemical purity and in adequate amounts for PET experiments. After intravenous injection of [11C]4, brain radioactivity peaked at a low level (0.2 SUV). Pretreatment with tariquidar, an inhibitor of the brain P-gp efflux transporter, increased brain exposure four-fold whereas pretreatment with a high pharmacological dose of the 5-HT1B antagonist, AR-A000002, had no effect on the binding. Ex-vivo experiments in rats showed no radiometabolites entering brain. [11C]5 also failed to enter monkey brain under baseline conditions.Conclusions[11C]4 and [11C]5 show too low brain uptake and specific binding to be useful PET radioligands. Low brain uptake is partly ascribed to efflux transporter action as well as unfavorable conformations.
  • Facile radiochemical separation of clinical-grade 90Y from 90Sr by
           selective precipitation for targeted radionuclide therapy
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 January 2019Source: Nuclear Medicine and BiologyAuthor(s): Rubel Chakravarty, Sudipta Chakraborty, Sachin Jadhav, Ashutosh Dash IntroductionThe widespread clinical utilization of 90Y for preparation of target specific radiopharmaceuticals demands development of a facile, efficient and cost-effective method for radiochemical separation of 90Y from 90Sr via90Sr/90Y generator. In this article, we describe an efficient and facile method for radiochemical separation of 90Y from 90Sr for preparation of radiopharmaceuticals by exploiting the large difference in the solubility product constants (Ksp) of Y(OH)3 and Sr(OH)2.MethodsA two-step radiochemical separation procedure based on selective precipitation of 90Y under alkaline conditions from 90Sr/90Y equilibrium mixture was developed. The 90Y(OH)3 colloid formed at pH ~ 10 was selectively trapped in 0.22 μm sterile filter and was subsequently retrieved by dissolution in HCl solution. Detailed quality control analyses of obtained 90Y were carried out and its utility towards preparation of different radiopharmaceuticals was assessed.ResultsUsing the same feed solution of 90Sr (3.7 GBq), consistent and repeated separation of 90Y could be achieved in different batches with>85% yield and > 99.999% radionuclidic purity. Yttrium-90 obtained from this process was found suitable for preparation of therapeutically relevant doses of three different radiopharmaceutical formulations, namely, 90Y-DOTA-TATE, 90Y-PSMA-617 and 90Y-CHX-A″-DTPA-Cetuximab with>95% radiochemical purity.ConclusionsThe promising results obtained in this study would facilitate implementation of the developed technique for obtaining 90Y in adequate quantity and of required purity from a centralized radiopharmacy set up.
  • Prostate cancer and inflammation: a new molecular imaging challenge in the
           era of personalized medicine
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 January 2019Source: Nuclear Medicine and BiologyAuthor(s): Orazio Schillaci, Manuel Scimeca, Donata Trivigno, Agostino Chiaravalloti, Simone Facchetti, Lucia Anemona, Rita Bonfiglio, Giuseppe Santeusanio, Virginia Tancredi, Elena Bonanno, Nicoletta Urbano, Alessandro Mauriello The relationship between cancer and inflammation is one of the most important fields for both clinical and translational research. Despite numerous studies reported interesting and solid data about the prognostic value of the presence of inflammatory infiltrate in cancers, the biological role of inflammation in prostate cancer development is not yet fully clarified. The characterization of molecular pathways that connect altered inflammatory response and prostate cancer progression can provide the scientific rationale for the identification of new prognostic and predictive biomarkers. Specifically, the detection of infiltrating immune cells or related-cytokines by histology and/or by molecular imaging techniques could profoundly change the management of prostate cancer patients. In this context, the anatomic pathology and imaging diagnostic teamwork can provide a valuable support for the validation of new targets for diagnosis and therapy of prostate cancer lesions associated to the inflammatory infiltrate. The aim of this review is to summarize the current literature about the role of molecular imaging technique and anatomic pathology in the study of the mutual interaction occurring between prostate cancer and inflammation. Specifically, we reported the more recent advances in molecular imaging and histological methods for the early detection of prostate lesions associated to the inflammatory infiltrate.
  • Synthesis and evaluation of 99mTc-analogues of [123/131I]mIBG prepared via
           [99mTc][Tc(CO)3(H2O)3]+ synthon for targeting norepinephrine transporter
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 January 2019Source: Nuclear Medicine and BiologyAuthor(s): Soumen Das, Navin Sakhare, Anupam Mathur, Madhava B. Mallia, Shubhangi Mirapurkar, M. Sheela, H.D. Sarma, S.S. Sachdev, A. Dash Introductionmeta-[123/131I]Iodobenzylguanidine (mIBG) is a clinical agent used for imaging neuroendocrine tumors, where uptake in tumor is via active transport mechanism through norepinephrine transporters (NET). Our group in past have evaluated a 99mTc-analogue of the above tracer, based on 99mTc-4 + 1 labeling approach, which exhibited significant affinity for NET but suffered from reduced specific uptake in comparison to reference standard no-carrier-added (n.c.a.) [125I]mIBG. The present work attempts to synthesize two new 99mTc-analogues of the radio-iodinated derivative following [99mTc]Tc(CO)31+ approach with an aim to improve the above specific uptake content.MethodsTwo different precursors, xylylenediamine and 1,3-bis(chloromethyl)benzene, were synthetically modified to yield meta-functionalized benzylguanidine derivatives bearing iminodiacetate (IDA) and aminoethylglycine (AEG) tridentate chelating moieties, respectively. These ligands were labeled with technetium-99 m via [99mTc][Tc(CO)3(H2O)3]+ synthon to form desired radioactive complexes 9 and 10. The radiolabeling yields of the complexes obtained were > 90% as confirmed by radio-HPLC. The HPLC purified complexes were used for in vitro and in vivo evaluation to understand the true biological efficacy. Structural characterization of the radiolabeled complexes were carried after synthesizing and characterizing their Re-analogues.ResultsCell uptake studies with the radiolabeled complexes in SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cell lines revealed reduced uptake in the cells (
  • Imaging assessment of Cardioprotection mediated by a Dodecafluoropentane
           oxygen-carrier administered during myocardial infarction
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 January 2019Source: Nuclear Medicine and BiologyAuthor(s): Zhonglin Liu, Christy Barber, Akash Gupta, Li Wan, Young-Wook Won, Lars R. Furenlid, Qin Chen, Ankit A. Desai, Ming Zhao, David A. Bull, Evan C. Unger, Diego R. Martin IntroductionThe objective of this study was to investigate the cardioprotective effects of a dodecafluoropentane (DDFP)-based perfluorocarbon emulsion (DDFPe) as an artificial carrier for oxygen delivery to ischemic myocardium, using 99mTc-duramycin SPECT imaging.MethodsRat hearts with Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) was prepared by coronary ligation for 45-min followed by reperfusion. The feasibility of 99mTc-duramycin in detecting myocardial I/R injury and its kinetic profile were first verified in the ischemic hearts with 2-h reperfusion (n = 6). DDFPe (0.6 mL/kg) was intravenously administered at 10 min after coronary ligation in fifteen rats and saline was given in thirteen rats as controls. 99mTc-duramycin SPECT images were acquired in the DDFPe-treated hearts and saline controls at 2-h (DDFPe-2 h, n = 7 and Saline-2 h, n = 6) or 24-h (DDFPe-24 h, n = 8 and Saline-24 h, n = 7) of reperfusion.ResultsSPECT images, showing “hot-spot” 99mTc-duramycin uptake in the ischemic myocardium, exhibited significantly lower radioactive retention and smaller hot-spot size in the DDFPe-2 h and DDFPe-24 h hearts compared to controls. The infarcts in the Saline-24 h hearts extended significantly relative to measurements in the Saline-2 h. The extension of infarct size did not reach a statistical difference between the DDFPe-2 h and DDFPe-24 h hearts. Ex vivo measurement of 99mTc-duramycin activity (%ID/g) was lower in the ischemic area of DDFPe-2 h and DDFPe-24 h than that of the Saline-2 h and Saline-24 h hearts (P 
  • Validation of hepatobiliary transport PET imaging in liver function
           assessment: Evaluation of 3β-[18F]FCA in mouse models of liver disease
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 December 2018Source: Nuclear Medicine and BiologyAuthor(s): Stef De Lombaerde, Lindsey Devisscher, Jeroen Verhoeven, Sara Neyt, Hans Van Vlierberghe, Christian Vanhove, Filip De Vos Recently, our research group reported on the development of 3β-[18F]Fluorocholic acid (3β-[18F]FCA), a 18F labeled bile acid to detect drug interference with the bile acid transporters (drug-induced cholestasis). It was hypothesized that 3β-[18F]FCA could also be used as a non-invasive tool to monitor (regional) liver function in vivo in different liver diseases through altered expression of bile acid transporters.MethodsHepatobiliary transport of 3β-[18F]FCA was evaluated in four murine liver disease models. Acute liver injury was induced by oral gavage of an acetaminophen (APAP) overdose (300 mg/kg). Chronic cholangiopathy and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) were induced by feeding mice 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl- 1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC) diet or methionine and choline deficient (MCD) diet, respectively. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was evoked by intraperitoneal injection of 35 mg/kg diethylnitrosamine (DEN) once a week for 23 weeks. Gene expression of the murine bile acid transporters was determined by RT-qPCR.ResultsHepatobiliary transport of 3β-[18F]FCA was not significantly altered after an APAP overdose. Mice fed the DDC or MCD diet showed impaired transport of 3β-[18F]FCA compared to baseline, which was associated with altered expression of the bile acid transporters ntcp, oatp4 and mrp2. After recovery from DDC- and MCD-induced liver injury, 3β-[18F]FCA parameters returned to baseline. Global hepatobiliary transport of 3β-[18F]FCA in HCC bearing mice was not significantly different compared to control mice. However, HCC lesions showed reduced hepatic uptake of the tracer (tumor-to-background: 0.45 ± 0.13), which was in line with decreased in expression of basolateral bile acid uptake transporters nctp and oatp4 in tumor tissue.Conclusion3β-[18F]FCA is a useful tool to assess and longitudinally follow-up liver function in several mouse models for liver diseases that are associated with altered expression of the bile acid transporters. These results point towards the (pre)clinical utility of 3β-[18F]FCA as a PET tracer to monitor altered liver functionality in patients with chronic liver diseases.
  • 68Ga-labelled NOTA-RGD-GE11 peptide for dual integrin and
           EGFR-targeted tumour imaging
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 November 2018Source: Nuclear Medicine and BiologyAuthor(s): Chien-Jen Chen, Chen-Hsin Chan, Kun-Liang Lin, Jyun-Hong Chen, Chun-Hao Tseng, Ping-Yen Wang, Chuan-Yi Chien, Hung-Man Yu, Wuu-Jyh Lin IntroductionMultiple peptide receptors are co-rexpressed in many types of cancers. Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) and GE11 peptides specifically target integrin αVβ3 and EGFR, respectively. Recently, we designed and synthesized a heterodimer peptide NOTA-c(RGDyK)-GE11 (NOTA-RGD-GE11). The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of NOTA-RGD-GE11 for dual receptor imaging.MethodsNOTA-RGD-GE11 heterodimer was labelled with 68Ga. The dual receptor binding affinity was investigated by antibodies competition binding assay. The in vitro and in vivo characteristics of [68Ga]Ga-NOTA-RGD-GE11 was investigated and compared with that of monomeric peptides [68Ga]Ga-NOTA-RGD and [68Ga]Ga-NOTA-GE11.ResultsNOTA-RGD-GE11 had binding affinities with both integrin αVβ3 and EGFR. The dual receptor targeting property of [68Ga]Ga-NOTA-RGD-GE11 was validated by blocking studies in a NCI-H292 tumour model. [68Ga]Ga-NOTA-RGD-GE11 showed higher tumour uptake than [68Ga]Ga-NOTA-RGD and [68Ga]Ga-NOTA-GE11 in biodistribution and PET/CT imaging studies.ConclusionThe dual receptor targeting and enhanced tumour uptake of [68Ga]Ga-NOTA-RGD-GE11 warrant its further investigation for dual integrin αVβ3 and EGFR-targeted tumour imaging.
  • In Vivo imaging characterization and anticancer efficacy of a novel HER2
           Affibody and Pemetrexed conjugate in lung Cancer model
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 November 2018Source: Nuclear Medicine and BiologyAuthor(s): Honglei Jiao, Xinming Zhao, Jiahui Liu, Tuo Ma, Zhaoqi Zhang, Jingmian Zhang, Jianfang Wang IntroductionIn this study, a new agent consisting of HER2-specific affibody ZHER2:V2 and chemotherapy drug pemetrexed was synthesized to develop a new targeted drug. Its biological characteristics and anticancer efficacy were assessed in cells level and xenografts models by radiolabeling with technetium-99 m.MethodsAfter the ZHER2:V2-pemetrexed conjugate was synthesized, radiolabeling of the conjugate was performed using its C-terminal 4 amino acids (Gly-Gly-Gly-Cys) as the chelating moiety. The radiochemical yield of the [99mTc]Tc-ZHER2:V2-pemetrexed was identified by instant thin-layer chromatography (ITLC). Stability of the radiolabeled conjugate was investigated both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro binding affinity and cell internalization study of the probe were performed in A549 cells (HER2-positive). Tumor uptake was evaluated by in vitro uptake assay in A549 cells and H23 cells (HER2-negative), and by in vivo biodistribution and SPECT imaging in A549 and H23 tumor-bearing mice. The antitumor efficacy of the ZHER2:V2-pemetrexed conjugate was evaluated in cells and xenograft models.ResultsThe ZHER2:V2-pemetrexed was successfully synthesized and conjugated with technetium-99 m, and acquired the radiochemical yield of 97.0 ± 0.3%. The stability of [99mTc]Tc- ZHER2:V2- pemetrexed was good in both physiological saline and human serum. The radiolabeled agent displayed excellent HER2-binding specificity and affinity in vitro,and was gradually internalized into the cells. Biodistribution study revealed obvious tumor uptake in A549 xenografts (percentage injected dose per gram, 2.6 ± 1.0%ID/g at 4 h postinjection), while the uptake in HER2-negative H23 tumors was much lower (0.2 ± 0.1%ID/g at 4 h postinjection, P 
  • Table of Contents & Barcode
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Nuclear Medicine and Biology, Volume 66Author(s):
  • Synthesis, characterization and biological studies of rhenium,
           Technetium-99 m and Rhenium-188 Pentapeptides
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 November 2018Source: Nuclear Medicine and BiologyAuthor(s): Vanessa A. Sanders, David Iskhakov, Dalya Abdel-Atti, Matthew Devany, Michelle C. Neary, Ken R. Czerwinski, Lynn C. Francesconi A pentapeptide macrocyclic ligand, KYCAR (lysyl-tyrosyl-cystyl-alanyl-arginine), has been designed as a potential chelating ligand for SPECT imaging and therapeutic in vivo agents. This study shows the synthesis and characterization of KYCAR complexes containing nonradioactive rhenium, 99mTc, or 188Re. The metal complexes were also biologically evaluated to determine in vivo distribution in healthy mice. The overall goals of this project were (1) to synthesize the Tc/Re pentapeptide complexes, (2) to identify spectroscopic methods for characterization of syn versus anti rhenium peptide complexes, (3) to analyze the ex vivo stability, and (4) to assess the biological properties of the [99mTc]TcO-KYCAR and [188Re]ReO-KYCAR complexes in vivo. Details on these efforts are provided below.MethodsNatRe/99mTc/188ReO-KYCAR complexes were synthesized, and macroscopic species were characterized via HPLC, IR, NMR, and CD. These characterization data were compared to the crystallographic data of ReO-KYC to assist in the assignment of diastereomers and to aid in the determination of the structure of the complex.ResultsThe radiometal complexes were synthesized with high purity (>95%). HPLC, IR, NMR and CD data on the macroscopic natReO-KYCAR complexes confirm the successful complexation as well as the presence of two diastereomers in syn and anti conformations. Tracer level complexes show favorable stabilities ex vivo for 2+ hours.ConclusionMacroscopic metal complexes form diastereomers with the KYCAR ligand; however, this phenomenon is not readily observed on the tracer level due to the rapid interconversion. It was determined through pKa measurements that the macroscopic natReO-KYCAR complex is 0 at physiological pH. The [99mTc]TcO-KYCAR is stable in vitro while the [188Re]ReO-KYCAR shows 50% decomposition in PBS and serum. Biologically, the tracer level complexes clear through the hepatobiliary pathway. Some decomposition of both tracers is evident by uptake in the thyroid and stomach.
  • Development of [18F]FAMTO: A novel fluorine-18 labelled positron emission
           tomography (PET) radiotracer for imaging CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 enzymes in
           adrenal glands
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 November 2018Source: Nuclear Medicine and BiologyAuthor(s): Salvatore Bongarzone, Filippo Basagni, Teresa Sementa, Nisha Singh, Caleb Gakpetor, Vincent Faugeras, Jayanta Bordoloi, Antony D. Gee IntroductionPrimary aldosteronism accounts for 6–15% of hypertension cases, the single biggest contributor to global morbidity and mortality. Whilst ~50% of these patients have unilateral aldosterone-producing adenomas, only a minority of these have curative surgery as the current diagnosis of unilateral disease is poor. Carbon-11 radiolabelled metomidate ([11C]MTO) is a positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer able to selectively identify CYP11B1/2 expressing adrenocortical lesions of the adrenal gland. However, the use of [11C]MTO is limited to PET centres equipped with on-site cyclotrons due to its short half-life of 20.4 min. Radiolabelling a fluorometomidate derivative with fluorine-18 (radioactive half life 109.8 min) in the para-aromatic position ([18F]FAMTO) has the potential to overcome this disadvantage and allow it to be transported to non-cyclotron-based imaging centres.MethodsTwo strategies for the one-step radio-synthesis of [18F]FAMTO were developed. [18F]FAMTO was obtained via radiofluorination via use of sulfonium salt (1) and boronic ester (2) precursors. [18F]FAMTO was evaluated in vitro by autoradiography of pig adrenal tissues and in vivo by determining its biodistribution in rodents. Rat plasma and urine were analysed to determine [18F]FAMTO metabolites.Results[18F]FAMTO is obtained from sulfonium salt (1) and boronic ester (2) precursors in 7% and 32% non-isolated radiochemical yield (RCY), respectively. Formulated [18F]FAMTO was obtained with>99% radiochemical and enantiomeric purity with a synthesis time of 140 min from the trapping of [18F]fluoride ion on an anion-exchange resin (QMA cartridge). In vitro autoradiography of [18F]FAMTO demonstrated exquisite specific binding in CYP11B-rich pig adrenal glands. In vivo [18F]FAMTO rapidly accumulates in adrenal glands. Liver uptake was about 34% of that in the adrenals and all other organs were 
  • Al18F-complexation of DFH17, a NOTA-conjugated adrenomedullin analog, for
           PET imaging of pulmonary circulation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 October 2018Source: Nuclear Medicine and BiologyAuthor(s): Luis Michel Alonso Martinez, François Harel, Quang T. Nguyen, Myriam Létourneau, Caroline D'Oliviera-Sousa, Bernard Meloche, Vincent Finnerty, Alain Fournier, Jocelyn Dupuis, Jean N. DaSilva IntroductionAdrenomedullin receptors are highly expressed in human alveolar capillaries and provide a molecular target for imaging the integrity of pulmonary microcirculation. In this work, we aimed to develop a NOTA-derivatized adrenomedullin analog (DFH17), radiolabeled with [18F]AlF, for PET imaging of pulmonary microcirculation.MethodsHighly concentrated [18F](AlF)2+ (15 μL) was produced from purified 18F in NaCl 0.9%. Various complexation experiments were carried out at Al-to-NOTA molar ratios ranging from 1:1 to 1:40 to assess optimal radiolabeling conditions before using the peptide. DFH17 peptide (2 mM, pH 4) was radiolabeled with [18F](AlF)2+ for 15 min at 100 °C in a total volume of 60 μL. As part of the radiolabeling process, parameters such as fluorine-18 activity (~37 and 1480 MBq), concentration of AlCl3 (0.75, 2, 3, 6 or 10 mM) and the effects of hydrophilic organic solvent (aqueous vs ethanol 50%) were studied. The final formulation was tested for purity, identity and stability in saline. Initial in vivo evaluation of [18F]AlF-DFH17 was performed in normal rats by PET/CT.ResultsThe scaled-up production of [18F]AlF-DFH17 was performed in high radiochemical and chemical purities in an overall radiochemical yield of 22–38% (at end-of-synthesis) within 60 min. The final formulation was stable in saline at different radioactive concentrations for 8 h. PET evaluation in rats revealed high lung-to-background ratios and no defluorination in vivo up to 1 h post-injection.ConclusionThe novel radioconjugate [18F]AlF-DFH17 appears to be a promising PET ligand for pulmonary microcirculation imaging.
  • Unexpected decrease in in vivo binding of [3H]QNB in the mouse cerebral
           cortex in the developing brain - a comparison with [11C]NMPB
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 October 2018Source: Nuclear Medicine and BiologyAuthor(s): Osamu Inoue, Toshiyuki Sato, Kaoru Kobayashi, Antony Gee, Miho Shukuri, Ming-Rong Zhang IntroductionSignificant discrepancies between in vitro and in vivo binding of the muscarinic receptor ligand - 3H-labeled Quinuclidinyl Benzylate (QNB) - have been well documented. Discernable in vivo cerebellar [3H]QNB binding has been observed in mouse brain, despite the maximum number of binding sites (Bmax) being low. In order to understand this unique in vivo binding phenomenon, the binding of two muscarinic receptor ligands -[3H]QNB and N-[11C]methylpiperidyl Benzylate ([11C]NMPB) - were compared in vivo and in vitro in 3- and 8-week-old mice.MethodIn vitro binding parameters of [3H]QNB were determined using brain homogenates. The time course of radioactivity concentration (TACs) in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum were measured following injection of [3H]QNB and [11C]NMPB with or without 3 mg/kg of carrier QNB in 3- and 8 week old mice using a dual tracer administration technique. A graphical method was employed for the quantitative analysis of in vivo binding of these radioligands.ResultsIn vitro, the available number of binding sites for cerebral cortical muscarinic receptors increased by 17% during the developmental period studied. Paradoxically, in vivo, we observed a decrease of [3H]QNB binding in the cerebral cortex, whilst [11C]NMPB binding was markedly increased. In vivo saturation analysis of [3H]QNB in 3-week-old mice revealed an apparent positive cooperativity of binding in the cerebral cortex.ConclusionsOur results support the hypothesis that microenvironmental factors proximal to muscarinic receptors cause a local decrease in the cortical free-ligand concentration of [3H]QNB and that this ‘ligand barrier’ is modulated during brain development.Advances in knowledgeThe present study demonstrates that the combined use of radiolabeled QNB and NMPB has the potential to reveal the important effects of receptor microenvironmental factors on receptor function in the living brain.
  • Tumor uptake and tumor/blood ratios for 89Zr-DFO-trastuzumab-DM1 on
           microPET/CT images in NOD/SCID mice with human breast cancer xenografts
           are directly correlated with HER2 expression and response to
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 October 2018Source: Nuclear Medicine and BiologyAuthor(s): Noor Al-saden, Zhongli Cai, Raymond M. Reilly IntroductionOur objective was to determine correlations between the tumor uptake and T/B ratios for 89Zr-labeled T-DM1 (89Zr-DFO-T-DM1) in mice with human BC xenografts by microPET/CT and biodistribution studies with HER2 expression and response to treatment with trastuzumab-DM1 (T-DM1).MethodsThe tumor and normal tissue uptake and T/B ratios for 89Zr-DFO-T-DM1 (10 μg; 7.0 MBq) incorporated into a therapeutic dose (60 μg) was determined by microPET/CT and biodistribution studies at 96 h p.i. in NOD/SCID mice with s.c. MDA-MB-231 (5 × 104 HER2/cell), MDA-MB-361 (5 × 105 HER2/cell) and BT-474 (2 × 106 HER2/cell) human BC xenografts. Mice bearing these tumors were treated with T-DM1 (3.6 mg/kg every 3 weeks) and the tumor doubling time estimated by fitting of tumor volume vs. time curves. A tumor doubling time ratio (TDR) was calculated by dividing the doubling time for T-DM1 and normal saline treated control mice. The clonogenic survival (CS) of BC cells with increasing HER2 expression treated for 72 h in vitro with T-DM1 or trastuzumab (0–100 μg/mL) were compared. Correlations were determined between the T/B ratios for 89Zr-DFO-T-DM1 and HER2 expression, TDR and CS, and between CS and TDR.ResultsUptake of 89Zr-DFO-T-DM1 in MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-361 and BT-474 tumors was 2.4 ± 0.4%ID/g, 6.9 ± 2.2%ID/g and 9.8 ± 1.1%ID/g, respectively. There was a non-linear but direct correlation between the T/B ratios for 89Zr-DFO-T-DM1 and HER2 expression with the T/B ratio ranging from 4.5 ± 0.7 for MDA-MB-231 to 18.2 ± 1.8 for MDA-MB-361 and 35.9 ± 5.1 for BT-474 xenografts. Tumor intensity on microPET/CT images was proportional to HER2 expression. The standard uptake value (SUV) for the tumors on the images was strongly correlated with the T/B ratio in biodistribution studies. There was a direct linear correlation between the T/B ratio for 89Zr-DFO-T-DM1 and TDR, with TDR ranging from 0.9 for MDA-MB-231 to 1.6 for MDA-MB-361 and 2.1 for BT-474 tumors. The cytotoxicity of T-DM1 in vitro on BC cells was dependent on HER2 expression but T-DM1 was more potent than trastuzumab. There was an inverse correlation between the TDR for mice treated with T-DM1 and CS of BC cells exposed in vitro to T-DM1.ConclusionsBased on the direct correlations between the T/B ratio for 89Zr-DFO-T-DM1 by PET and HER2 expression and response to T-DM1, our results suggest that PET with 89Zr-DFO-T-DM1 may predict response of HER2-positive BC to treatment with T-DM1.Advances in Knowledge and Implications for Patient Care.Our results suggest that PET with 89Zr-DFO-T-DM1 may predict response to treatment with T-DM1 in HER-positive BC.
  • l-glutamine,+an+important+tracer+for+glutamine+utilization&rft.title=Nuclear+Medicine+and+Biology&rft.issn=0969-8051&">Automated radiosynthesis of 5-[11C]l-glutamine, an important tracer for
           glutamine utilization
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 October 2018Source: Nuclear Medicine and BiologyAuthor(s): Adam J. Rosenberg, Michael L. Nickels, Michael L. Schulte, H. Charles Manning IntroductionThe natural amino acid l-Glutamine (Gln) is essential for both cell growth and proliferation. In addition to glucose, cancer cells utilize Gln as a carbon source for ATP production, biosynthesis, and as a defense against reactive oxygen species. The utilization of [11C]Gln has been previously reported as a biomarker for tissues with an elevated demand for Gln, however, the previous reports for the preparation of [11C]Gln were found to be lacking several crucial aspects necessary for transition to human production. Namely, the presence of unreacted precursor and the use of non-commercialized, custom built, reaction platforms. Herein, we report the development and utilization of methodology for the automated production of [11C]Gln that meets institutional criteria for human use.MethodsThe preparation of [11C]Gln was carried out on the GE FX2N platform. Briefly, after trapping of [11C]HCN with a solution of CsHCO3 in DMF, the [11C]CsCN was reacted with a commercially available precursor. This intermediate was then purified by HPLC and deprotected/hydrolyzed under acidic conditions. Following pH adjustment, the product was filtered to give the desired [11C]Gln as a sterile injectable. The resulting product was then analyzed for quality assurance.ResultsAutomated production by this method reliably provides over 3.7 GBq (100 mCi) of [11C]Gln. The resulting final drug product was found to have a>99% radiochemical purity,
  • Efficient cartridge purification for producing high molar activity
           18F-glycoconjugates via oxime formation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 October 2018Source: Nuclear Medicine and BiologyAuthor(s): Outi Keinänen, Denisa Partelová, Osku Alanen, Maxim Antopolsky, Mirkka Sarparanta, Anu J. Airaksinen Introduction18F-fluoroglycosylation via oxime formation is a chemoselective and mild radiolabeling method for sensitive molecules. Glycosylation can also improve the bioavailability, in vivo kinetics, and stability of the compound in blood, as well as accelerate clearance of biomolecules. A typical synthesis procedure for 18F-fluoroglycosylation with [18F]FDG (2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-d-glucose) and [18F]FDR (5-deoxy-5-[18F]fluoro-d-ribose) involves two HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) purifications: one after 18F-fluorination of the carbohydrate to remove its labeling precursor, and a second one after the oxime formation step to remove the aminooxy precursor. The two HPLC purifications can be time consuming and complicate the adaptation of the synthetic strategy in nuclear medicine applications and automated synthesis. We have developed a procedure in which SPE (solid phase extraction) and resin purification methods replace both of the needed HPLC purification steps.MethodsWe used [18F]FDR and [18F]FDG as prosthetic groups to radiolabel two aminooxy-modified model molecules, a tetrazine and a PSMA (prostate specific membrane antigen) inhibitor. After fluorination, the excess carbohydrate precursor was removed by derivatizing it with 4,4′-dimethoxytrityl chloride (DMT-Cl). The DMT moiety increases the hydrophobicity of the unreacted precursor making the separation from the fluorinated precursor possible with simple C18 Sep-Pak cartridge. For removal of the aminooxy precursor, we used a commercially available aldehyde resin (AminoLink, Thermo Fisher Scientific). C18 Sep-Pak SPE cartridge was used to separate [18F]FDR and [18F]FDG from the 18F-fluoroglycoconjugate end product.Results[18F]FDR and [18F]FDG were efficiently purified from their precursors, free fluorine-18, and other impurities. The aldehyde resin quantitatively removed the unreacted aminooxy precursors after the oxime formation. The fluorine-18 labeled oxime end products were obtained with high radiochemical purity (> 99%) and molar activity (> 600 GBq μmol−1).ConclusionsWe have developed an efficient cartridge purification method for producing high molar activity 18F-glycoconjugates synthesized via oxime formation.
  • Molar activity – the keystone in 11C-radiochemistry: an explorative
           study using the gas phase method
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 October 2018Source: Nuclear Medicine and BiologyAuthor(s): Verena Pichler, Thomas Zenz, Cécile Philippe, Chrysoula Vraka, Neydher Berrotéran-Infante, Sarah Pfaff, Lukas Nics, Marius Ozenil, Oliver Langer, Matthäus Willeit, Tatjana Traub-Weidinger, Rupert Lanzenberger, Markus Mitterhauser, Marcus Hacker, Wolfgang Wadsak IntroductionRadiochemists/radiopharmacists, involved in the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals are regularly confronted with the requirement of continuous high quality productions in their day-to-day business. One of these requirements is high specific or molar activity of the radiotracer in order to avoid e.g. receptor saturation and pharmacological or even toxic effects of the applied tracer for positron emission tomography. In the case of 11C-labelled radiotracers, the reasons for low molar activity are manifold and often the search for potential 12C-contaminations is time-consuming.MethodsIn this study, diverse 12C-contaminations were analyzed and quantified, which occurred during more than 450 syntheses of six PET tracers using [11C]CO2 or [11C]CH3I generated via the gas phase method in a commercially available synthesizer. Additionally, non-radioactive syntheses were performed in order to identify the origins of carbon-12.ResultsThe manifold contributions to low molar activity can be attributed to three main categories, namely technical parameters (e.g. quality of target gases, reagents or tubings), inter/intralaboratory parameters (e.g. maintenance interval, burden of the module, etc.) and interoperator parameters (e.g. handling of the module).ConclusionOur study provides a better understanding of different factors contributing to the overall carbon load of a synthesis module, which facilitates maintenance of high molar activity of carbon-11-labelled radiopharmaceuticals.
  • [18F]F-DPA for the detection of activated microglia in a mouse model of
           Alzheimer's disease
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 September 2018Source: Nuclear Medicine and BiologyAuthor(s): Thomas Keller, Francisco R. López-Picón, Anna Krzyczmonik, Sarita Forsback, Anna K. Kirjavainen, Jatta S. Takkinen, Obada Al-Zghool, Johan Rajander, Simo Teperi, Fanny Cacheux, Annelaure Damont, Frédéric Dollé, Juha O. Rinne, Olof Solin, Merja Haaparanta-Solin IntroductionNeuroinflammation is associated with several neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). The translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO), due to its overexpression during microglial activation and relatively low levels in the brain under normal neurophysiological conditions, is commonly used as an in vivo biomarker for neuroinflammation. Reported here is the preclinical evaluation of [18F]F-DPA, a promising new TSPO-specific radioligand, as a tool for the detection of activated microglia at different ages in the APP/PS1–21 mouse model of AD and a blocking study to determine the specificity of the tracer.Methods[18F]F-DPA was synthesised by the previously reported electrophilic 18F-fluorination methodology. In vivo PET and ex vivo brain autoradiography were used to observe the tracer distribution in the brains of APP/PS1–21 and wildtype mice at different ages (4.5–24 months). The biodistribution and degree of metabolism of [18F]F-DPA were analysed and the specificity of [18F]F-DPA for its target was determined by pre-treatment with PK11195.ResultsThe in vivo PET imaging and ex vivo brain autoradiography data showed that [18F]F-DPA uptake in the brains of the transgenic animals increased with age, however, there was a drop in the tracer uptake at 19 mo. Despite the slight increase in [18F]F-DPA uptake with age in healthy animal brains, significant differences between wildtype and transgenic animals were seen in vivo at 9 months and ex vivo already at 4.5 months. The specificity study demonstrated that PK11195 can be used to significantly block [18F]F-DPA uptake in all the brain regions studied.ConclusionsIn vivo time activity curves plateaued at approximately 20–40 min suggesting that this is the optimal imaging time. Significant differences in vivo are seen at 9 and 12 mo. Due to the higher resolution, ex vivo autoradiography with [18F]F-DPA can be used to visualise activated microglia at an early stage of AD pathology.
  • Issues in preclinical radiopharmaceutical research: Significance,
           relevance and reproducibility
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 September 2018Source: Nuclear Medicine and BiologyAuthor(s): Michael R. Kilbourn, Peter J.H. Scott
  • Assessing the feasibility of intranasal radiotracer administration for in
           brain PET imaging
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 August 2018Source: Nuclear Medicine and BiologyAuthor(s): Nisha Singh, Mattia Veronese, Jim O'Doherty, Teresa Sementa, Salvatore Bongarzone, Diana Cash, Camilla Simmons, Marco Arcolin, Paul Marsden, Antony Gee, Federico E. Turkheimer IntroductionThe development of clinically useful tracers for PET imaging is enormously challenging and expensive. The intranasal (IN) route of administration is purported to be a viable route for delivering drugs to the brain but has, as yet, not been investigated for the delivery of PET tracers. If the intranasal (IN) pathway presents a viable option, it extends the PET imaging field by increasing the number of tracers available for human use.Here we report the results of a rodent study testing the feasibility of the IN route to administer radiotracers for brain PET imaging.MethodsWe used two different, well characterised, brain penetrant radiotracers, [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG) and [18F]fallypride, and aimed to evaluate the pharmacokinetics after administration of the tracers via the intranasal route, and contrast this to intravenous administration. Image acquisition was carried out after tracer administration and arterial blood samples were collected at different time intervals, centrifuged to extract plasma and gamma counted. We hypothesised that [brain region]:[plasma] ratios would be higher via the intranasal route as there are two inputs, one directly from the nose to the brain, and another from the peripheral circulation. To assess the feasibility of using this approach clinically, we used these data to estimate radiation dosimetry in humans.ResultsContrary to our hypothesis, in case of both radiotracers, we did not see a higher ratio in the expected brain regions, except in the olfactory bulb, that is closest to the nose. It appears that the radiotracers move into the olfactory bulb region, but then do not progress further into other brain regions. Moreover, as the nasal cavity has a small surface area, the extrapolated dosimetry estimations for intranasal human imaging showed an unacceptably high level (15 mSv/MBq) of cumulative skin radiation exposure.ConclusionsTherefore, although an attractive route for brain permeation, we conclude that the intranasal route would present difficulties due to non-specific signal and radiation dosimetry considerations for brain PET imaging.
  • Dynamic TSPO-PET for assessing early effects of cerebral hypoxia and
           resuscitation in new born pigs
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 August 2018Source: Nuclear Medicine and BiologyAuthor(s): Charlotte de Lange, Rønnaug Solberg, Jon Erik Holtedahl, Andreas Tulipan, Jon Barlinn, William Trigg, Torild Wickstrøm, Ola Didrik Saugstad, Eirik Malinen, Mona Elisabeth Revheim IntroductionInflammation associated with microglial activation may be an early prognostic indicator of perinatal hypoxic ischemic injury, where translocator protein (TSPO) is a known inflammatory biomarker. This piglet study used dynamic TSPO-PET with [18F]GE180 to evaluate if microglial activation after global perinatal hypoxic injury could be detected.MethodsNew born anesthetized pigs (n = 14) underwent hypoxia with fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2)0.08 until base excess -20 mmol/L and/or a mean arterial blood pressure decrease to 20 mmHg, followed by resuscitation with FiO2 0.21 or 1.0. Three piglets served as controls and one had intracranial injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Whole body [18F]GE180 Positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) was performed repeatedly up to 32 h after hypoxia and resuscitation. Volumes of interest were traced in the basal ganglia, cerebellum and liver using MRI as anatomic correlation. Standardized uptake values (SUVs) were measured at baseline and four time-points, quantifying microglial activity over time. Statistical analysis used Mann Whitney- and Wilcoxon rank test with significance value set to p 
  • Preliminary evaluation of a novel 18F-labeled PARP-1 ligand for PET
           imaging of PARP-1 expression in prostate cancer
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 August 2018Source: Nuclear Medicine and BiologyAuthor(s): Dong Zhou, Jinbin Xu, Cedric Mpoy, Wenhua Chu, Sung Hoon Kim, Huifangjie Li, Buck E. Rogers, John A. Katzenellenbogen IntroductionPoly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) plays many roles in prostate cancer (PC), such as mediating DNA damage repair, transcriptional regulation and nuclear hormone receptor signaling. Because of this, PARP-1 has been targeted for therapy in PC, and non-invasive imaging of PARP-1 could help predict which patients are likely to respond to such therapy. Several PARP-1 positron emission tomography (PET) imaging agents have been developed and show promise for imaging PARP-1 expression in breast, brain, and lung cancer in small animals, but not as yet in prostate cancer. [18F]WC-DZ-F is an analogue of [18F]FluorThanatrace (FTT) and [125I]KX1, which are well-established PARP-1 ligands for measuring PARP-1 expression. Herein, we evaluated the potential of [18F]WC-DZ-F for the imaging PARP-1 expression in PC.Methods[18F]WC-DZ-F was synthesized by a two-step sequence. [18F]WC-DZ-F was evaluated by in vitro uptake studies in PC-3 cells and by in vivo biodistribution and microPET imaging using PC-3 tumor xenografts. Ex vivo autoradiography of PC-3 tumors after microPET imaging was also performed.Results[18F]WC-DZ-F has high, PARP-1-specific uptake in PC-3 cells. In the microPET imaging study, [18F]WC-DZ-F accumulated in PC-3 xenograft tumors over 2 h, and the uptake was significantly reduced by blocking with olaparib. PC-3 tumors were clearly visualized in microPET images, and the imaging results were further confirmed by autoradiography of PC-3 tumors ex vivo. In the biodistribution study [18F]WC-DZ-F washed out quickly from most tissues within 2 h, except for the liver in which the uptake was not blockable by olaparib.ConclusionsWe synthesized a novel PARP-1 radioligand, [18F]WC-DZ-F. The preliminary evaluation of [18F]WC-DZ-F indicates that it is a suitable PET imaging agent for measuring PARP-1 expression in prostate cancer and should be applicable to other types of cancers.
  • Synthesis and evaluation of an N-[18F]fluorodeoxyglycosyl amino acid for
           PET imaging of tumor metabolism
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 August 2018Source: Nuclear Medicine and BiologyAuthor(s): Zhifang Wu, Jingxin Ma, Anna-liisa Brownell, Hongliang Wang, Chaomin Li, Xiaxia Meng, Ling Yuan, Haiyan Liu, Sijin Li, Jun Xie IntroductionThe limitations of [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (18F]FDG), including producing false-positive or -negative results, low image contrast in brain tumor diagnosis and poor differentiation of tumor and inflammatory, necessitate the development of amino acid based radiopharmaceuticals. In the present study, a novel [18F]fluoroglycoconjugate tracer, [18F]FDGly-NH-Phe, for tumor metabolism imaging was prepared and evaluated.Methods[18F]FDGly-NH-Phe was prepared by condensing [18F]FDG with l-4-aminophenylalanine in an acidic condition, and purified with semi-preparative-high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The in vitro stability study was conducted in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, pH 6.5–9.18) at room temperature (RT) and in fetal bovine serum (FBS) at 37 °C. The preliminary cellular uptake studies were performed in Hep-2 cell. The bio-distribution studies, PET/CT imaging and metabolism studies were performed and compared with [18F]FDG on ICR mice.Results[18F]FDGly-NH-Phe was derived from direct condensation of [18F]FDG with l-4-aminophenylalanine with high stability in PBS at pH of 6.5–9.18 and in FBS. The bio-distribution of [18F]FDGly-NH-Phe in normal ICR mice showed faster blood radioactivity clearance, and lower uptake in brain and heart than [18F]FDG. The performance of PET/CT imaging of [18F]FDGly-NH-Phe in the tumor models manifested excellent tumor visualization, high tumor-to-background ratios, and low accumulation in inflammatory lesions. Metabolism studies for [18F]FDGly-NH-Phe indicated high in vivo stability in plasma and urine and decomposition into [18F]FDG in the tumor microenvironment.ConclusionThe results demonstrated that [18F]FDGly-NH-Phe as a novel PET tracer showed the capability to differentiate tumor from inflammation, and the potentials for future clinical applications.
  • [99mTc]duramycin, a potential molecular probe for early prediction of
           tumor response after chemotherapy
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 August 2018Source: Nuclear Medicine and BiologyAuthor(s): Yi Li, Cheng Liu, Xiaoping Xu, Xiaoling Lu, Jianming Luo, Brian Gray, Koon Y. Pak, Jingyi Cheng, Yingjian Zhang ObjectiveApoptosis plays a crucial role in many biological processes, especially in cancer. However, real-time monitoring of apoptosis is challenging. [99mTc]duramycin can selectively target an apoptosis biomarker: phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), which is normally located on the intracellular cell-membrane surface but redistributes onto the outer cell-membrane upon apoptosis. Therefore, 99mTc-duramycin is a potential probe for non-invasive detection of apoptosis in real-time. The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of [99mTc]duramycin for detecting early apoptotic response in tumors after chemotherapy, thus providing a tool for early prediction of curative effects in tumors.MethodsHuman breast cancer MDA-MB-468 model mice, randomly divided into two groups, were injected with cisplatin or vehicle once per day. [99mTc]duramycin imaging was performed for group 1 before treatment and 24 h after the third day of treatment to evaluate treatment response through animal single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT/CT). Mice in group 2 were treated for 10 days consecutively, to observe treatment response by tumor volume changes. Treatment response was further demonstrated through TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) and cleaved caspase-3 (CC3).Results[99mTc]duramycin uptake in MDA-MB-468 tumors was significantly higher in the treatment group than the control group after as few as 3 days of cisplatin treatment (p = 0.0001), and it also increased after treatment as comparison with that before treatment (p = 0.0001). Moreover, [99mTc]duramycin uptake in tumors clearly correlated with immunohistochemistry results (TUNEL: r = 0.892, p = 0.0001, and CC3: r = 0.89, p = 0.0001). Additionally, tumor size reduction, indicating effective treatment, was not observed until the eighth day after treatment, far later than the time when diagnosis could be made through [99mTc]duramycin imaging.Conclusions[99mTc]duramycin SPECT/CT provides a non-invasive molecular imaging strategy for early detection of tumor apoptosis after chemotherapy and thus may have great potential value in the clinic.
  • Effects of adding an albumin binder chain on [177Lu]Lu-DOTATATE
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 August 2018Source: Nuclear Medicine and BiologyAuthor(s): Etienne Rousseau, Joseph Lau, Zhengxing Zhang, Carlos F. Uribe, Hsiou-Ting Kuo, Chengcheng Zhang, Jutta Zeisler, Nadine Colpo, Kuo-Shyan Lin, François Bénard Introduction[177Lu]Lu-DOTATATE peptide receptor radionuclide therapy is used for treatment of neuroendocrine tumours. We investigated whether prolonging blood residence time of [177Lu]Lu-DOTATATE with albumin binders could increase tumour accumulation and tumour-to-kidney ratios for improved therapeutic efficacy.MethodsDOTATATE and its derivatives with an albumin-binder motif (GluAB-DOTATATE and AspAB-DOTATATE) were prepared by solid-phase peptide synthesis. Binding affinities of the Lu-labeled peptides for human somatostatin receptor 2 (SSTR2) were measured with membrane competition binding assays. Compounds were radiolabeled with [177Lu]LuCl3 and purified by HPLC. SPECT imaging and biodistribution studies (1, 4, 24, 72, and 120 h) were performed in immunodeficient mice bearing AR42J pancreatic tumour xenografts.ResultsGluAB-DOTATATE and AspAB-DOTATATE were synthesized in 18.8% and 14.3% yields, while Lu-GluAB-DOTATATE and Lu-AspAB-DOTATATE were obtained in 86.5% and 50.0% yields, respectively. The compounds exhibited nanomolar binding affinity (Ki: 8.72–8.95 nM) for SSTR2. The 177Lu-labeled peptides were obtained in non-decay-corrected isolated yields of ≥41%, with>96% radiochemical purity, and molar activities in the range of 314–497 GBq/μmol. In vivo, [177Lu]Lu-GluAB-DOTATATE and [177Lu]Lu-AspAB-DOTATATE had significantly higher blood activity at 1, 4 and 24 h compared to [177Lu]Lu-DOTATATE. Tumour uptake of [177Lu]Lu-DOTATATE was 21.35 ± 5.90%ID/g at 1 h and decreased to 10.10 ± 5.78%ID/g at 120 h. For [177Lu]Lu-GluAB-DOTATATE tumour uptake increased from 21.89 ± 6.86%ID/g at 1 h to 24.44 ± 5.84%ID/g at 4 h, before decreasing to 12.02 ± 1.84%ID/g at 120 h. For [177Lu]Lu-AspAB-DOTATATE tumour uptake was 11.12 ± 3.18%ID/g at 1 h, 18.41 ± 4.36%ID/g at 24 h, and decreased to 16.90 ± 8.97%ID/g at 120 h. Renal uptake was 7.49 ± 1.62%ID/g for [177Lu]Lu-DOTATATE, 31.14 ± 7.06%ID/g for [177Lu]Lu-GluAB-DOTATATE, and 28.82 ± 13.82%ID/g for [177Lu]Lu-AspAB-DOTATATE at 1 h and decreased thereafter.ConclusionThe addition of albumin binder motifs to [177Lu]Lu-DOTATATE enhanced mean residence time in blood. Increased tumour uptake was observed for [177Lu]Lu-AspAB-DOTATATE compared to [177Lu]Lu-DOTATATE at later time points, but its higher kidney uptake diminished the therapeutic index.
  • [18F]diphenyl sulfide derivatives for imaging serotonin
           transporter (SERT) in the brain
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 July 2018Source: Nuclear Medicine and BiologyAuthor(s): Yan Zhang, Futao Liu, Hao Xiao, Xinyue Yao, Genxun Li, Seok Rye Choi, Karl Ploessl, Zhihao Zha, Lin Zhu, Hank F. Kung ObjectivesSerotonin transporters (SERT) play an important role in controlling serotonin concentration in the synaptic cleft and in managing postsynaptic signal transduction. Inhibitors of SERT binding are well known as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) such as fluoxetine, sertraline, paroxetine, and escitalopram, that are commonly prescribed antidepressants. Positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission tomography (SPECT) imaging agents targeting SERT may be useful for studying its function and providing a tool for monitoring drug treatment.MethodsA series of novel 18F-labeled diphenyl sulfide derivatives were prepared and tested for their binding affinity. Among them, 2-((2-((dimethylamino)-methyl)-4-(2-(2-fluoroethoxy)ethoxy)phenyl)thio)aniline, 1, which showed excellent binding toward serotonin transporter (SERT) in the brain (Ki = 0.09 nM), was selected for further evaluation. An active OTs intermediate, 7, was treated with [18F]F−/K222 to provide [18F]1 in one step and in high radiochemical yields. This new SERT targeting agent was evaluated in rats by biodistribution studies and animal PET imaging studies.ResultsThe radiolabeling reaction led to the desired [18F]1. After HPLC purification no-carrier-added [18F]1 was obtained (radiochemical yield, 23–47% (n = 10,); radiochemical purity>99%; molar activity, 15–28 GBq/μmol). Biodistribution studies with [18F]1 showed good brain uptake (1.04% dose/g at 2 min post-injection), high uptake into the hypothalamus (1.55% dose/g at 30 min), and a high target-to-non-target (hypothalamus to cerebellum) ratio of 6:10 at 120 min post-injection. A PET imaging study in normal rats showed excellent uptake in the midbrain and thalamus regions known to be rich in SERT binding sites at 60 min after iv injection. Chasing experiment with escitalopram (iv, 2 mg/kg) in a rat at 60 min after iv injection caused a noticeable reduction in the regional radioactivity and the target-to-non-target ratio, suggesting binding by [18F]1 was highly specific and reversible for SERT binding sites in the brain.ConclusionsA novel diphenyl sulfide derivative, [18F]1 for SERT imaging was successfully prepared and evaluated. Results suggest that this new chemical entity is targeting SERT binding sites in the brain, and it is a suitable candidate for future commercial development.
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