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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3184 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3184 Journals sorted alphabetically
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.655, CiteScore: 2)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.015, CiteScore: 2)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 100, SJR: 1.462, CiteScore: 3)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 2)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.771, CiteScore: 3)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 432, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 7)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.18, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 295, SJR: 3.263, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.307, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.793, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.331, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.374, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.344, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.671, CiteScore: 5)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 4)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.29, CiteScore: 3)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.611, CiteScore: 8)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 182, SJR: 4.09, CiteScore: 13)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.167, CiteScore: 4)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 2.384, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.126, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.992, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.089, CiteScore: 5)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.61, CiteScore: 7)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32, SJR: 3.043, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.453, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.992, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.713, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.316, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.562, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.977, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.524, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.159, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 49, SJR: 5.39, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 62, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.354, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 12.74, CiteScore: 13)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.193, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.749, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 4.433, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.938, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.682, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.88, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 3.027, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.158, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.875, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.579, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.536, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.791, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 65)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.371, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 416, SJR: 0.569, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 2.208, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.262, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 3)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.117, CiteScore: 3)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 368, SJR: 0.796, CiteScore: 3)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.42, CiteScore: 2)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.671, CiteScore: 9)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 471, SJR: 1.238, CiteScore: 3)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.13, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 5)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.156, CiteScore: 4)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.272, CiteScore: 3)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.747, CiteScore: 4)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.589, CiteScore: 3)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 0)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.153, CiteScore: 3)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 3)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.142, CiteScore: 4)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.148, CiteScore: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 3.521, CiteScore: 6)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 4.66, CiteScore: 10)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.796, CiteScore: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.108, CiteScore: 3)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 3.267, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 1.93, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.524, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 7.45, CiteScore: 8)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.062, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.973, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 239, SJR: 2.7, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 3.184, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.289, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.139, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.164, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 1)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.144, CiteScore: 3)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 64, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 1)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 0)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription  
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 4.849, CiteScore: 10)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 5)
Analytica Chimica Acta : X     Open Access  
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 204, SJR: 0.633, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 210, SJR: 1.58, CiteScore: 3)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.704, CiteScore: 2)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Nuclear Medicine and Biology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.696
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 5  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0969-8051
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3184 journals]
  • [18F]FET purification by disposable cartridges
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 May 2019Source: Nuclear Medicine and BiologyAuthor(s): A. Bogni, L. Laera, C. Cucchi, R. Iwata, E. Seregni, C. Pascali IntroductionO-(2-[18F]Fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine ([18F]FET) is an established radiotracer used for oncology investigations by Positron Emission Tomography (PET). Main limitations to its widespread use are the synthesis itself (time; cost; radiochemical yield; complexity) and a troublesome and time-consuming HPLC purification. Aim of this work was to improve the preparation overall efficiency and, most important, to achieve an efficient and reliable purification by means of disposable cartridges.Methods[18F]FET was synthesized by direct nucleophilic radiofluorination of O-(2-tosyloxy-ethyl)-N-trityl-L-tyrosine t-butylester (TET) followed by acid hydrolysis with HCl. Several conditions and materials were tested for the synthesis and purification step. For the latter, a number of different commercial cartridges, varying in amount, particulate size and adsorbent, were examined. Best results were obtained by a combination of STRATA-X, tC18 and QMA cartridges.ResultsStarting from only 5 mg of TET, up to 11 GBq of injectable solutions of [18F]FET were produced within 36 min with 54–65% radiochemical yield and radiochemical purities>99%. No D-form was observed by chiral HPLC. Chemical purity was 1–2 order of magnitude below the limits imposed by the European Pharmacopoeia's monograph on [18F]FET.A radiochemical purity decrease by radiolysis, observed only on relatively large batches of [18F]FET, was efficiently suppressed by preloading in the receiving final vial a small amount of ethanol (
       
  • Modelling the internalisation process of prostate cancer cells for
           PSMA-specific ligands
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 May 2019Source: Nuclear Medicine and BiologyAuthor(s): Gordon Winter, Anja Vogt, Luis David Jiménez-Franco, Andreas Rinscheid, Elham Yousefzadeh-Nowshahr, Christoph Solbach, Ambros J. Beer, Gerhard Glatting, Peter Kletting IntroductionIn prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-targeting radioligand therapy, small molecules are regularly internalised by the tumour cells. To determine the effectiveness of these ligands, the internalised fraction over time is derived from cell studies. Parameters, such as the ligand concentration and the number of cells, are experiment-specific and therefore a comparison between ligands is difficult. A more objective approach that allows better comparison is desirable. Therefore, the aim of this work was to develop a compartmental model that fully describes all relevant pharmacokinetic interactions of PSMA-specific ligands with prostate cancer cells.MethodsInternalisation studies were performed using the lymph node carcinoma of the prostate cell line LNCaP C4–2 and the prostatic carcinoma cell line PC-3. A new protocol was established for the determination of the PSMA-binding specificity by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The experimental data in combination with parameters from literature were used for the modelling approach.ResultsA compartmental model which includes the relevant physiological mechanisms was developed. The basic model structure and some parameters originate from the literature. The PSMA-specific association and dissociation rates of Ga-PSMA-11 were measured using surface plasmon resonance technology. The ligand-induced internalisation and PSMA synthesis rates were estimated by fitting the developed model to experimental data obtained using LNCaP C4–2 cells. For all [68Ga]Ga-PSMA-11 concentrations and including four various incubation times, the ligand-induced internalisation was determined to be (3.6 ± 0.1) % min−1.ConclusionsThe presented approach is a prerequisite for better estimation and thus comparison of important ligand-cell interaction parameters, by combining SPR measurements, cell experiments and mathematical modelling.Advances in Knowledge and Implications for patientA compartmental model was developed for evaluation and comparison of PSMA-binding small molecules. A SPR protocol was established for the determination of PSMA-binding specificity.
       
  • Functionalized 198Au nanoparticles for targeted cancer therapy
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 May 2019Source: Nuclear Medicine and BiologyAuthor(s): Rubel Chakravarty, Rubel Chakravarty Sudipta Chakraborty, Apurav Guleria, Chandan Kumar, Amit Kunwar, K.V. Vimalnath Nair, Haladhar Dev Sarma, Ashutosh Dash IntroductionThe emerging concept of intrinsically radiolabeled nanoparticles has the potential to transform the preclinical and clinical studies by improving the in vivo stability and demonstrating minimal alteration in the inherent pharmacokinetics of the nanoparticles. In this paper, a simple and efficient single-step method for clinical scale synthesis of intrinsically radiolabeled 198Au nanoparticles conjugated with cyclic arginine−glycine−aspartate peptide (198AuNP-RGD) is reported for potential use in targeted cancer therapy.MethodsLarge radioactive doses (> 37 GBq) of 198AuNP-RGD were synthesized by reaction of 198Au-HAuCl4 with cyclic RGD peptide. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by various analytical techniques. In vitro cell binding studies were carried out in B16F10 (murine melanoma) cell line. Biodistribution studies were carried out in melanoma tumor bearing C57BL/6 mice to demonstrate the tumor targeting ability of 198AuNP-RGD. The therapeutic efficacy of 198AuNP-RGD was evaluated by carrying out systematic tumor regression studies in melanoma tumor bearing mice after intravenous administration of the radioactive doses.ResultsWell dispersed and biocompatible nanoparticles (~ 12.5 nm diameter) could be synthesized with excellent radiochemical and colloidal stability. In vitro studies exhibited the cell binding affinity and specificity of 198AuNP-RGD towards melanoma cell line. A high uptake of 8.7 ± 2.1%ID/g in the tumor was observed within 4 h post-injection (p.i.). Significant decrease in tumor uptake of 198AuNP-RGD (2.9 ± 0.8%ID/g) at 4 h p.i. on co-injection of a blocking dose of the peptide suggested that tumor localization of the intrinsically radiolabeled nanoparticles was receptor mediated. Administration of 37 MBq of 198AuNP-RGD resulted in significant regression of tumor growth with no apparent body weight loss over a period of 15 d.ConclusionsOverall, these promising results demonstrate the suitability of 198AuNP-RGD as an advanced functional nanoplatform for targeted cancer therapy.
       
  • Evaluation of [11C]KB631 as a PET tracer for in vivo visualisation of
           HDAC6 in B16·F10 melanoma
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 May 2019Source: Nuclear Medicine and BiologyAuthor(s): Koen Vermeulen, Muneer Ahamed, Kaat Luyten, Guy Bormans IntroductionHDAC6, a structural and functional distinct member of the HDAC-family, shows great promise as a target to treat several cancers and neurodegenerative diseases. Several clinical trials are evaluating HDAC6 inhibitors in solid tumours and haematological malignancies, but so far no HDAC6 inhibitor has received marketing authorisation. The availability of an HDAC6-specific PET tracer can potentially aid in cancer diagnosis, select patients for HDAC6 inhibitor treatment and accelerate HDAC6 drug development. We have evaluated the HDAC6 PET tracer [11C]KB631, in vitro and in vivo in B16·F10 melanoma inoculated mice.MethodsIn vitro binding specificity was evaluated by autoradiography studies on rodent brain, B16·F10 melanoma and PC3 prostate carcinoma cryosections. Biodistribution and quantification of plasma radio-metabolites was determined in NMRI-mice in control conditions and after blocking with KB631, Ricolinostat and SAHA. Tracer tumour uptake was evaluated in B16·F10 melanoma inoculated C57BL/6 mice.ResultsIn vitro autoradiography studies showed HDAC6-selective binding to rodent brain, B16·F10 melanoma and PC3 prostate carcinoma tissue slices. Tracer binding in several organs of interest could be partially blocked in NMRI-mice pre-treated with KB631, Ricolinostat or SAHA, indicating specific tracer binding. A biodistribution and 90-min dynamic μPET study on B16·F10 melanoma mice, pre-treated with vehicle or Ricolinostat (50 mg/kg), indicated HDAC6-specific tumour uptake.Conclusions[11C]KB631 shows HDAC6-selective binding in mouse B16·F10 melanoma tumours in vitro and in vivo. [11C]KB631 PET can be used for in vivo investigation of the expression of HDAC6 in tumours.Advances in Knowledge[11C]KB631 shows increased expression of HDAC6 in mouse B16·F10 melanoma tumours and can be used to visualise target engagement of HDAC6 inhibitors.
       
  • Optimization of solid-phase extraction (SPE) in the preparation of
           [18F]D3FSP: A new PET imaging agent for mapping Aβ plaques
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 May 2019Source: Nuclear Medicine and BiologyAuthor(s): Xinyue Yao, Zhihao Zha, Ruiyue Zhao, Seok Rye Choi, Karl Ploessl, Futao Liu, Lin Zhu, Hank F. Kung IntroductionAlzheimer’s disease is a common neurodegenerative disease that is characterized by the presence of Aβ plaques in the brain. The FDA has approved the use of Amyvid (florbetapir f18, AV-45) as a PET imaging agent for detecting Aβ plaques in the living human brain. In an attempt to reduce N-demethylation in vivo by taking advantage of more stable C-D bonds, an analog of AV-45, [18F]D3FSP ([18F]7), was synthesized to improve image contrast for detecting and monitoring the Aβ plaques. A convenient and improved preparation of [18F]D3FSP ([18F]7) is needed for widespread clinical application. We report herein the optimization of the radiosynthesis and solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure.MethodsRadiosyntheses of [18F]D3FSP ([18F]7) under different fluorination conditions were evaluated, and the intermediate, containing an N-Boc protecting group, was deprotected using different acids. One of the major objectives was to simplify the final purification step via SPE to avoid the commonly employed HPLC purification and maximize the radiochemical yields of [18F]D3FSP ([18F]7) while simultaneously removing several chemical impurities (pseudocarriers). Washing various solid-phase cartridges with different combinations of ethanol/water and acetonitrile/water was explored to optimize the purification step. To evaluate the potential interference in Aβ plaque imaging from the presence of pseudocarriers, each chemical was identified and quantified by LC/MS and HPLC. An in vitro binding assay was employed to evaluate the binding affinities of [18F]D3FSP ([18F]7) and the pseudocarriers to Aβ plaques using postmortem AD brain tissue.ResultsUsing the optimized radiosynthesis method and SPE purification, the final dose of [18F]D3FSP ([18F]7) was obtained in 50 min with a very low content of pseudocarriers (21.7 ± 5.5 μg). The radiochemical yield was 44.4 ± 5.7% (decay corrected), and the radiochemical purity was> 95%. SPE-purified doses of [18F]D3FSP ([18F]7) displayed excellent binding affinity and specificity for Aβ plaques as measured in an in vitro binding assay using AD brain homogenates, and the OH-pseudocarrier, 8 (Ki = 19.5 ± 0.5 nM), and the Cl-pseudocarrier, 10 (Ki = 18.6 ± 3.9 nM), showed lower binding affinities for Aβ plaques than those of AV-45 (Ki = 8.6 ± 0.5 nM) and D3FSP, 7 (Ki = 9.8 ± 0.5 nM).ConclusionsAn optimized radiosynthesis and fast SPE purification method suitable for the preparation of clinical doses of [18F]D3FSP ([18F]7) was accomplished. The results of quality control tests and binding studies suggested that the SPE-purified doses of [18F]D3FSP ([18F]7) are appropriate for imaging Aβ plaques in the human brain.
       
  • Status of the ‘consensus nomenclature rules in radiopharmaceutical
           sciences’ initiative
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 May 2019Source: Nuclear Medicine and BiologyAuthor(s): Heinz H. Coenen, Antony D. Gee, Michael Adam, Gunnar Antoni, Cathy S. Cutler, Yasuhisa Fujibayashi, Jae Min Jeong, Robert H. Mach, Thomas L. Mindt, Victor W. Pike, Albert D. Windhorst
       
  • A Rapid Bead-Based Radioligand Binding Assay for the Determination of
           Target-Binding Fraction and Quality Control of Radiopharmaceuticals
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 May 2019Source: Nuclear Medicine and BiologyAuthor(s): Sai Kiran Sharma, Serge K. Lyaschenko, Hijin A. Park, Nagavarakishore Pillarsetty, Yorann Roux, Jiong Wu, Sophie Poty, Kathryn M. Tully, John T. Poirier, Jason S. Lewis IntroductionDetermination of the target-binding fraction (TBF) of radiopharmaceuticals using cell-based assays is prone to inconsistencies arising from several intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Here, we report a cell-free quantitative method of analysis to determine the TBF of radioligands.MethodsMagnetic beads functionalized with Ni-NTA or streptavidin were incubated with 1 μg of histidine-tagged or biotinylated antigen of choice for 15 min, followed by incubating 1 ng of the radioligand for 15 mins. The beads, supernatant and wash fractions were measured for radioactivity on a gamma counter. The TBF was determined by quantifying the percentage of activity associated with the magnetic beads.ResultsThe described method works robustly with a variety of radioisotopes and class of molecules used as radioligands. The entire assay can be completed within 2 h.ConclusionThe described method yields results in a rapid and reliable manner whilst improving and extending the scope of previously described bead-based radioimmunoassays.Advances in Knowledge.Using a bead-based radioligand binding assay overcomes the limitations of traditional cell-based assays. The described method is applicable to antibody as well as non-antibody based radioligands and is independent of the effect of target antigen density on cells, the choice of radioisotope used for synthesis of the radioligand and the temperature at which the assay is performed.Implications for Patient Care.The bead-based radioligand binding assay is significantly easier to perform and is ideally suited for adoption by the radiopharmacy as a quality control method of analysis to fulfill the criteria for release of radiopharmaceuticals in the clinic. The use of this assay is likely to ensure a more reliable validation of radiopharmaceutical quality and result in fewer failed doses, which could ultimately translate to an efficient release of radiopharmaceuticals for administration to patients in the clinic.
       
  • Tc/Re-NODAGA/NOTA-peptides for SSTR targeting
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 April 2019Source: Nuclear Medicine and BiologyAuthor(s): George Makris, Marina Kuchuk, Fabio Gallazzi, Silvia S. Jurisson, Charles J. Smith, Heather M. Hennkens IntroductionThe aim of this work was to develop diagnostic (99mTc) and therapeutic (186Re) agents for targeting somatostatin receptor (SSTR)-positive neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). In this regard, we evaluated in vitro complexes of the general formula [M(CO)3(L-sst2-ANT)] (M = 99mTc, 186Re), where L denotes NODAGA or NOTA and sst2-ANT denotes the potent SSTR2 antagonist 4-NO2-Phe-c(DCys-Tyr-DTrp-Lys-Thr-Cys)-DTyr-NH2. Moreover, we assessed the in vivo properties of the 99mTc-complexes in an animal SSTR-tumor model.MethodsThe [99mTc]/[186Re][Tc/Re(OH2)3(CO)3]+ precursors were utilized to prepare the 99mTc/186Re-complexes, which were identified by HPLC co-injection with their natRe analogues. The tracers were challenged in vitro at 37 °C against cysteine and histidine in phosphate-buffered saline (pH 7.4) and in rat serum. Biodistribution and micro-SPECT/CT imaging of the 99mTc-tracers were performed in AR42J tumor-bearing female ICR SCID mice.ResultsThe 99mTc-complexes were prepared in high radiochemical yield (RCY > 90%, by HPLC), with lower RCY (≤ 30%) obtained for 186Re-complexes. Tracers remained intact in vitro and displayed low non-specific binding (10–25%) to rat serum proteins. Biodistribution of [99mTc]Tc-NODAGA-sst2-ANT revealed low tumor uptake (2.78 ± 0.27%ID/g) at 1 h, while high tumor uptake (16.70 ± 3.32%ID/g) was found for [99mTc]Tc-NOTA-sst2-ANT. Moderate to low tumor retention was observed for both tracers after 4 and 24 h. Tumor uptake for [99mTc]Tc-NOTA-sst2-ANT was receptor-mediated, as demonstrated by parallel SSTR blocking studies. Rapid renal clearance was observed for both tracers, and SPECT/CT images clearly delineated the tumors, in agreement with the biodistribution data.ConclusionsThe [99mTc]Tc-NOTA-sst2-ANT complex demonstrated high tumor uptake and rapid clearance in a SSTR-tumor mouse model, showing potential for further development.Advances in Knowledge and Implications for Patient Care: Preclinical data support the feasibility of the [99mTc]Tc/[186Re]Re-NOTA/NODAGA labeling strategy for use in the development of theranostic radiopharmaceuticals for translation into the human clinic for targeting of SSTR-expressing NETs.
       
  • 68Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT in the localization of head and neck paraganglioma
           compared with 18F-DOPA PET/CT and 123I-MIBG SPECT/CT
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 April 2019Source: Nuclear Medicine and BiologyAuthor(s): Alexander Stephan Kroiss, Christian Uprimny, Barry Lynn Shulkin, Leonhard Gruber, Andreas Frech, Christoph Url, Herbert Riechelmann, Georg Mathias Sprinzl, Claudius Thomé, Giorgio Treglia, Andreas Kjaer, Gustav Fraedrich, Irene Johanna Virgolini Purpose18F-Fluoro-L-dihydroxyphenylalanine (18F-DOPA) PET offers high sensitivity and specificity in the imaging of non-malignant head and neck paraganglioma (HNPGL) but lower sensitivity in metastatic disease of these neuroendocrine tumours (NET). In contrast to the radiotracer 18F-DOPA, both 123I-meta-iodo-benzylguanidine (123I-MIBG) and 68Ga-DOTA-Tyr3-octreotide (68Ga-DOTA-TOC) offer valuable clinical information on norepinephrine and somatostatin (SST) receptor status for planning 131I-MIBG and radionuclide peptide therapy (PRRT), respectively.Therefore, we compared 68Ga-DOTA-TOC and 18F-DOPA PET/CT with 123I-MIBG planar and SPECT/CT imaging, for the detection of HNPGL. Combined cross-sectional imaging was the reference standard.MethodsA total of 3 men and 7 women (age range 22 to 73 years) with anatomical and/or histologically proven HNPGL were included in this study. Of these patients, 3 patients had metastatic HNPGL. Comparative evaluation included morphological imaging with CT and functional imaging with 68Ga-DOTA-TOC and 18F-DOPA PET, including 123I-MIBG imaging. The imaging results were analysed on a per-patient and per-lesion basis.ResultsOn a per-patient analysis, the detection rate of both 68Ga-DOTA-TOC PET/CT and 18F-DOPA PET/CT was 100%, that of planar 123I-MIBG imaging 10.0% and that of SPECT/CT 20.0%.On a per-lesion basis and in reference to diagnostic CT, the sensitivity of 68Ga-DOTA-TOC PET/CT was 100% (McNemar, P 
       
  • Blood and urine analyses after radioembolization of liver malignancies
           with [166Ho]Ho-acetylacetonate-poly(L-lactic acid) microspheres
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 April 2019Source: Nuclear Medicine and BiologyAuthor(s): Robbert C. Bakker, Remmert de Roos, F.F. Tessa Ververs, Marnix G.E.H. Lam, Martijn K. van der Lee, Bernard A. Zonnenberg, Gerard C. Krijger Background[166Ho]Ho-acetylacetonate-poly(L-lactic acid) microspheres were used in radioembolization of liver malignancies by intra-arterial administration. The primary aim of this study was to assess the stability and biodistribution of these microspheres.Materials and methodsPeripheral blood and urine samples were obtained from two clinical studies. Patient and in vitro experiment samples were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), gamma-ray spectroscopy, light microscopy, Coulter particle counting, and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).ResultsThe median percentage holmium compared to the total amount injected into the hepatic artery was 0.19% (range 0.08–2.8%) and 0.32% (range 0.03–1.8%) in the 1 h blood plasma and 24 h urine, respectively. Both the blood plasma and urine were correlated with the neutron irradiation exposure required for [166Ho]Ho-AcAc-PLLA microsphere production (ρ = 0.616, p = 0.002). After a temporary interruption of the phase 2 clinical study, the resuspension medium was replaced to precipitate [166Ho]Ho3+ pre-administration using phosphate. The in vitro near-maximum neutron irradiation experiments showed significant [166Ho]Ho-AcAc-PLLA microsphere damage.ConclusionThe amount of holmium in the peripheral blood and urine samples after [166Ho]Ho-AcAc-PLLA microsphere intrahepatic infusion was low. A further decrease was observed after reformulation of the resuspension solution but minimization of production damage is necessary.
       
  • Novel cell labelling method for PET
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 April 2019Source: Nuclear Medicine and BiologyAuthor(s): A. Socan, M. Petrik, P. Kolenc Peitl, M. Krošelj, C. Rangger, Z. Novy, U. Svajger, T. Gmeiner, C. Decristoforo IntroductionIndium-111 when formulated as indium-111 oxine remains the gold standard for long term cell tracking, whereas radiometals for improved PET applications still have to be established. We here describe the on-cartridge formation of gallium-68, zirconium-89 and copper-64 complexes in small volumes suitable for cell labelling, including labelling of red blood cells (RBC) and white blood cells (WBC) and their biological evaluation in vivo.MethodsSmall volumes (1–2 mL) of tracers (oxine, tropolone) were directly prepared on an anion exchange cartridge (Sep-Pak QMA). Cells were radiolabelled and the labelling efficiency and efflux were evaluated. The in vivo biodistribution of copper-64-labelled WBC using [64Cu][Cu(oxinate)2] and [64Cu][Cu(tropolonate)2] was monitored in an infection and inflammation animal model using BALB/c mice.ResultsOn-cartridge concentration of gallium-68, zirconium-89 and copper-64 enabled formation of oxine and tropolone tracers in small volumes with good yields (≥50%) and quality (extraction ≥90%). Prepared tracers radiolabelled the RBC comparable to indium-111 tracers and in vivo biodistribution of copper-64 labelled WBC showed clear accumulation of cells at the site of infection and inflammation.ConclusionsThis on-cartridge preparation method enables simple formation of various PET tracers for cell radiolabelling. Zirconium-89 and copper-64 tracers radiolabelled cells with sufficient stability. Due to their longer half-life this approach could be promising for routine applications where longer evaluation periods for cell tracking are needed.ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PATIENT CARE:This novel approach for on-cartridge concentration and preparation of oxine and tropolone precursors with different positron emitters, in small volume and suitable pH, offers a versatile tool towards cell labelling for preclinical and clinical PET applications.
       
  • Cyclotron production of 68Ga in a liquid target: Effects of solution
           composition and irradiation parameters
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 April 2019Source: Nuclear Medicine and BiologyAuthor(s): Mukesh K. Pandey, John F. Byrne, Katherine N. Schlasner, Nicholas R. Schmit, Timothy R. DeGrado ObjectivesTo optimize 68Ga production using a liquid cyclotron target, investigations were performed to compare production yields using different concentrations of [68Zn]Zn(NO3)2, nitric acid, and irradiation parameters.MethodsDifferent concentrations of [68Zn]Zn(NO3)2 (0.6 M, 1.2 M and 1.42 M) in varying normality of nitric acid (0.8–1.5 N) were prepared and irradiated with protons (incident energy ~14 MeV) using a BMLT-2 liquid target at different beam currents (30–50 μA) and irradiation times (30–60 min). The 68Ga production and saturation yields were calculated and compared. [68Ga]GaCl3 was isolated using in-house developed hydroxamate resin and optimized for routine application. Recycling of [68Zn]Zn(NO3)2 from the recovered target solution was also investigated.ResultsOn increasing concentration of [68Zn]Zn(NO3)2 from 0.6 M to 1.2 M in 0.8 N nitric acid, decay corrected yield of 68Ga at EOB was found to be 1.64 GBq (44.4 mCi) and 3.37 GBq (91.0 mCi), respectively at 30 μA beam current, indicating production yield was proportional to zinc nitrate concentration for a 30 min irradiation. However, when beam current was increased to 40 μA while maintaining nitric acid concentration at 0.8 N, the proportional relationship of 68Zn-concentration with 68Ga production yield was lost [0.6 M, 2.29 GBq (61.9 mCi); 1.2 M, 3.6 GBq (97.3 mCi)] for a 30 min irradiation. In fact, the effect was more profound for 60 min irradiations [0.6 M, 2.96 GBq (80.0 mCi); 1.2 M, 4.25 GBq (115 mCi)]. Increasing nitric acid concentration to 1.25–1.5 N improved 68Ga production yield for 40 μA, 60-min irradiations (1.2 M; 5.17 GBq (140 mCi)). MP-AES analysis showed metal impurities as
       
  • Synthesis and preclinical evaluation of the CRTH2 antagonist
           [11C]MK-7246
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 April 2019Source: Nuclear Medicine and BiologyAuthor(s): Jonas Eriksson, Tamal Roy, Supaporn Sawadjoon, Kim Bachmann, Christian Sköld, Mats Larhed, Jan Weis, Ram Kumar Selvaraju, Olle Korsgren, Olof Eriksson, Luke R. Odell IntroductionMK-7246 is a potent and selective antagonist for chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on Th2 cells (CRTH2). Within the pancreas CRTH2 is selectively expressed in pancreatic β-cells where it is believed to play a role in insulin release. Reduction in β-cell mass and insufficient insulin secretion in response to elevated blood glucose levels is a hallmark for type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Reported here is the synthesis of [11C]MK-7246 and initial preclinical evaluation towards CRTH2 imaging. The aim is to develop a method to quantify β-cell mass with PET and facilitate non-invasive studies of disease progression in individuals with type 2 diabetes.MethodsThe precursor N-desmethyl-O-methyl MK-7246 was synthesized in seven steps and subjected to methylation with [11C]methyl iodide followed by hydrolysis to obtain [11C]MK-7246 labelled in the N-methyl position. Preclinical evaluation included in vitro radiography and immune-staining performed in human pancreatic biopsies. Biodistribution studies were performed in rat by PET-MRI and in pig by PET-CT imaging. Saturable tracer binding was examined in pig by scanning before and after administration of MK-7246 (1 mg/kg). Predicted dosimetry of [11C]MK-7246 in human males was estimated based on the biodistribution in rat.Results[11C]MK-7246 was obtained with activities sufficient for the current investigations (270 ± 120 MBq) and a radiochemical purity of 93 ± 2%. The tracer displayed focal binding in areas with insulin positive islet of Langerhans in human pancreas sections. Baseline uptake in pig was reduced in tissues with known expression of CRTH2 after administration of MK-7246; pancreas (66% reduction) and spleen (88% reduction). [11C]MK-7246 exhibited a safe human predicted dosimetry profile as extrapolated from the rat biodistribution data.Conclusions.Initial preclinical in vitro and in vivo evaluation of [11C]MK-7246 show binding and biodistribution properties suitable for PET imaging of CRTH2. Further studies are warranted to assess its potential in β-cell mass imaging and CRTH2 drug development.
       
  • Design, synthesis and evaluation of [111In]-labeled, DOTA-conjugated
           tetrapeptides having high affinity and selectivity for mu opioid receptors
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 March 2019Source: Nuclear Medicine and BiologyAuthor(s): John R. Lever, Emily A. Fergason-Cantrell, Terry L. Carmack, Lisa D. Watkinson, Fabio Gallazzi IntroductionPeripheral mu (μ) opioid receptors are implicated in pain, bowel dysfunction and the progression of certain cancers. In an effort to identify radioligands well suited for imaging these peripheral sites, we have prepared and evaluated four hydrophilic [111In]-labeled, DOTA (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid) conjugated μ tetrapeptides.MethodsPeptides were prepared by solid-phase techniques, using orthogonal strategies to achieve branching to DOTA, and then characterized by HPLC, mass spectroscopy and amino acid analysis. Scaffolds included novel peptide H-Dmt-D-Ala-Phe-Orn-NH2 (DAPO), where Dmt = 2′,6′-dimethyltyrosine, and known peptide H-Dmt-D-Arg-Phe-Lys-NH2 ([Dmt1]DALDA). Constructs had DOTA conjugation at the Orn4 or Lys4 side chains, or to the C-terminal through a hexanoic acid - lysine linker. Indium(III) complexation and [111In]-radiolabeling were accomplished by standard methods. Protein binding and Log D7.4 were determined. Binding and pharmacological profiles were obtained in vitro. Biodistribution and radiometabolite studies were conducted using male CD-1 mice.ResultsAll four indium(III)-DOTA conjugates derived from DAPO and [Dmt1]DALDA showed good selectivity and subnanomolar affinity for μ opioid receptors. One radioligand, H-Dmt-D-Ala-Phe-Orn(δ-[111In]DOTA)-NH2, showed 25% specific binding in vivo to μ sites in mouse gut. Notably, this was the least polar of the series, and also showed low sensitivity to modulation of binding by sodium ions. All radioligands showed high kidney uptake of radiometabolites.ConclusionsVisualizing peripheral μ opioid receptors using [111In]-labeled, DOTA-conjugated tetrapeptides appears feasible, but structural modifications to enhance specific binding and metabolic stability, as well as to reduce kidney uptake, will be required.Advances in knowledge.This study shows in vivo labeling of peripheral μ opioid receptors by a tetrapeptide radioligand, and provides information that should prove useful in the design of peptide radioligands having optimal properties.
       
  • [89Zr]Zr-DFO-nimotuzumab ImmunoPET of EGFR
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 February 2019Source: Nuclear Medicine and BiologyAuthor(s): Yu Tang, Yingjiang Hu, Weihao Liu, Lin Chen, Yan Zhao, Huan Ma, Jijun Yang, Yuanyou Yang, Jiali Liao, Jiming Cai, Yue Chen, Ning Liu IntroductionThe potential of the positron-emitting zirconium-89 (89Zr) (t1/2 = 78.4 h) has been recently reported for immune positron emission tomography (immunoPET) radioimmunoconjugates design. In our work, we explored the optimized preparation of [89Zr]Zr-DFO-nimotuzumab, and evaluated 89Zr-labeled monoclonal antibody (mAb) construct for targeted imaging of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) overexpressed in glioma.MethodsTo optimize the radiolabeling efficiency of 89Zr with DFO-nimotuzumab, multiple immunoconjugates and radiolabeling were performed. Radiolabeling yield, radiochemical purity, stability, and activity assay were investigated to characterize [89Zr]Zr-DFO-nimotuzumab for chemical and biological integrity. The in vivo behavior of this tracer was studied in mice bearing subcutaneous U87MG (EGFR-positive) tumors received a 3.5 ± 0.2 MBq/dose using PET/CT imaging. One group mice bearing subcutaneous U87MG (EGFR-positive) tumors received [89Zr]Zr-DFO-nimotuzumab (3.5 ± 0.2 MBq, ~3 μg) (nonblocking) for immunoPET; the other group had 30 μg predose (blocking) of cold nimotuzumab 24 h prior to [89Zr]Zr-DFO-nimotuzumab.Results[89Zr]Zr-DFO-nimotuzumab was prepared with high radiochemical yield (>90%), radiochemical purity (>99%), and specific activity (115 ± 0.8 MBq/mg). In vitro validation showed that [89Zr]Zr-DFO-nimotuzumab had an initial immunoreactive fraction of 0.99 ± 0.05 and remained active for up to 5 days. A biodistribution study revealed excellent stability of [89Zr]Zr-DFO-nimotuzumab in vivo compared with 89Zr as a bone seeker. High uptake in the liver and heart and modest penetration in the brain were observed, with no significant accumulation of activity in other organs. ImmunoPET studies also indicated prominent image contrast that remarkably high uptake up to ~20%ID/g for nonblocking and ~2%ID/g for blocking in tumor between 12 and 120 h after administration.ConclusionThese studies developed a radiopharmaceutical [89Zr]Zr-DFO-nimotuzumab with optimized synthesis. The potential utility of [89Zr]Zr-DFO-nimotuzumab in assessing EGFR status in glioma was demonstrated in this study.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
       
  • [18F]DiFA as a novel hypoxia PET probe
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 February 2019Source: Nuclear Medicine and BiologyAuthor(s): Norihito Nakata, Masato Kiriu, Yuki Okumura, Songji Zhao, Ken-ichi Nishijima, Tohru Shiga, Nagara Tamaki, Yuji Kuge, Hiroki Matsumoto IntroductionHypoxia, a common feature of most solid tumors, is an important predictor of tumor progression and resistance to radiotherapy. We developed a novel hypoxia imaging probe with optimal biological characteristics for use in clinical settings.MethodsWe designed and synthesized several new hypoxia probes with additional hydrophilic characteristics compared to [18F]fluoromisonidazole ([18F]FMISO). These were 1-(2,2-Dihydroxy-methyl-3-[18F]-Fluoropropyl) azomycin ([18F]DiFA, formerly [18F]HIC101) and its analogs ([18F]F1 and [18F]F2). Biodistribution studies with EMT6 mammary carcinoma cell-bearing mice were performed 1 and 2 h after injection of each probe. Small-animal positron emission tomography (PET) imaging studies were conducted using [18F]DiFA and [18F]FMISO in the same mice. Tumoral hypoxia was confirmed via pimonidazole staining. Ex vivo digital autoradiographs were obtained for confirming the co-localization of [18F]DiFA and pimonidazole in the tumor tissues.ResultsThe EMT6 tumors used had pimonidazole-positive regions. In biodistribution studies, the tumor-to-blood ratio and tumor-to-muscle ratio of [18F]DiFA was significantly higher than the respective [18F]FMISO ratios 1 h after injection. Hence, we selected [18F]DiFA as the best hypoxia probe among those tested. Small-animal PET imaging studies showed time-dependent increases in the tumor-to-normal tissue ratio of [18F]DiFA uptake. Rapid clearance from the rest of the body was observed primarily via the renal system. Ex vivo autoradiography showed a positive correlation between [18F]DiFA uptake and the regions of pimonidazole distribution, indicating that [18F]DiFA selectively accumulated in the tumor tissue's hypoxic region.ConclusionsA better contrast image and a shorter waiting time may be obtained with [18F]DiFA than with [18F]FMISO.Advances in Knowledge.By optimizing LogP based on the [18F]FMISO structure, we demonstrated that [18F]DiFA could detect tumor hypoxia regions at an early time point.Implications for patient Care.[18F]DiFA imaging facilitates the evaluation of various cancer hypoxic states due to the lower uptake of normal tissues and could contribute to novel treatment development.
       
  • Dual-isotope antibody imaging
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 February 2019Source: Nuclear Medicine and BiologyAuthor(s): James C. Knight, Michael J. Mosley, Veerle Kersemans, Gemma M. Dias, P. Danny Allen, Sean Smart, Bart Cornelissen While radiolabelled antibodies have found great utility as PET and SPECT imaging agents in oncological investigations, a notable shortcoming of these agents is their propensity to accumulate non-specifically within tumour tissue. The degree of this non-specific contribution to overall tumour uptake is highly variable and can ultimately lead to false conclusions. Therefore, in an effort to obtain a reliable measure of inter-individual differences in non-specific tumour uptake of radiolabelled antibodies, we demonstrate that the use of dual-isotope imaging overcomes this issue, enables true quantification of epitope expression levels, and allows non-invasive in vivo immunohistochemistry. The approach involves co-administration of (i) an antigen-targeting antibody labelled with zirconium-89 (89Zr), and (ii) an isotype-matched non-specific control IgG antibody labelled with indium-111 (111In). As an example, the anti-HER2 antibody trastuzumab was radiolabelled with 89Zr, and co-administered intravenously together with its 111In-labelled non-specific counterpart to mice bearing human breast cancer xenografts with differing HER2 expression levels (MDA-MB-468 [HER2-negative], MDA-MB-231 [low-HER2], MDA-MB-231/H2N [medium-HER2], and SKBR3 [high-HER2]). Simultaneous PET/SPECT imaging using a MILabs Vector4 small animal scanner revealed stark differences in the intratumoural distribution of [89Zr]Zr-trastuzumab and [111In]In-IgG, highlighting regions of HER2-mediated uptake and non-specific uptake, respectively. Normalisation of the tumour uptake values and tumour-to-blood ratios obtained with [89Zr]Zr-trastuzumab against those obtained with [111In]In-IgG yielded values which were most strongly correlated (R = 0.94; P = 0.02) with HER2 expression levels for each breast cancer type determined by Western blot and in vitro saturation binding assays, but not non-normalised uptake values. Normalised intratumoural distribution of [89Zr]Zr-trastuzumab correlated well with intratumoural heterogeneity HER2 expression.
       
  • RM2-PET/CT of prostate cancer compared to histopathology
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 January 2019Source: Nuclear Medicine and BiologyAuthor(s): Thomas F. Fassbender, Florian Schiller, Michael Mix, Helmut R. Maecke, Selina Kiefer, Vanessa Drendel, Philipp T. Meyer, Cordula A. Jilg IntroductionProstate cancer (PCa) often shows an overexpression of the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPr). Therefore, GRPr is a possible theragnostic target. An interesting antagonist GRPr-ligand is RM2 or BAY86–7548. This study examines the accuracy of positron emission tomography (PET) with [68Ga]Ga-RM2 for diagnostic imaging of primary PCa (pPCa) compared to histopathology in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP).Methods[68Ga]Ga-RM2-PET examinations were performed in 15 patients before RP. All prostate specimens were histopathologically examined based on predefined spatial octants. Each prostate volume on PET was subdivided into octants, which were correlated to histopathology and evaluated according to presence of tumor by two experienced examiners. Additionally, PET data was evaluated by volume of interest (VOI) analyses in terms of maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) and normalized SUVmax relative to background activity (rSUVmax). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for SUVmax and rSUVmax were calculated.ResultsAt least one focus of increased [68Ga]Ga-RM2 uptake corresponding to a tumor manifestation on histology was found in 14 of 15 patients (93%). Spatial concordance of visual PET readings with histopathology was very variable. Intraindividual agreement reached from ≤2 octants in three, 3–5 octants in six to ≥6 octants in six patients, resulting in a relatively low correlation of visual PET readings with histopathology (accuracy = 0.63; p = 0.0018). Lesion-based analysis found a sensitivity of 69% and a positive predictive value of 73%. Concordantly, the octant-based ROC curves for SUVmax and rSUVmax indicated a relatively low diagnostic performance (area under the curve of 0.59 and 0.61, respectively).Conclusions[68Ga]Ga-RM2-PET shows only a relatively low diagnostic accuracy for pPCa compared to histopathology on an octant basis, which may be explained to some extent by methodological weaknesses. Further studies need to explore, whether the observed high interindividual variability of agreement between [68Ga]Ga-RM2-PET and histopathology can be explained by different tumor biologies or other coincident prostatic pathologies.
       
  • Mini-review: Targeted radiopharmaceuticals incorporating reversible, low
           molecular weight albumin binders
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 January 2019Source: Nuclear Medicine and BiologyAuthor(s): Marie Brandt, Jens Cardinale, Carolina Giammei, Xabier Guarrochena, Barbara Happl, Nedra Jouini, Thomas L. Mindt The combination of low molecular weight, reversible human serum albumin (HSA) binders with targeted radiopharmaceuticals in dual-targeted radioconjugates holds great promise, in particular for endoradiotherapy. Attachment of HSA-binders to radiopharmaceuticals extends their blood circulation time and results in an enhanced tumour uptake as well as often in an improved pharmacokinetic profile. In this mini-review, an overview of currently pursued approaches of this novel strategy is provided.
       
  • Evaluation of agonist 5-HT1B PET radioligands
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 January 2019Source: Nuclear Medicine and BiologyAuthor(s): Anton Lindberg, Shuiyu Lu, Sangram Nag, Magnus Schou, Jeih-San Liow, Sami S. Zoghbi, Michael P. Frankland, Robert L. Gladding, Cheryl L. Morse, Akihiro Takano, Nahid Amini, Charles S. Elmore, Yong Sok Lee, Robert B. Innis, Christer Halldin, Victor W. Pike IntroductionThe serotonin 1B receptor subtype is of interest in the pathophysiology and treatment of depression, anxiety, and migraine. Over recent years 5-HT1B receptor binding in human brain has been examined with PET using radioligands that are partial but not full agonists. To explore how the intrinsic activity of a PET radioligand may affect imaging performance, two high-affinity full 5-HT1B receptor agonists (AZ11136118, 4; and AZ11895987, 5) were selected from a large compound library and radiolabeled for PET examination in non-human primates.Methods[11C]4 was obtained through Pd(0)-mediated insertion of [11C]carbon monoxide between prepared iodoarene and homochiral amine precursors. [11C]5 was obtained through N-11C-methylation of N-desmethyl precursor 6 with [11C]methyl triflate. [11C]4 and [11C]5 were studied with PET in rhesus or cynomolgus monkey. [11C]4 was studied with PET in mice and rats to measure brain uptake and specific binding. Ex-vivo experiments in rats were performed to identify whether there were radiometabolites in brain. Physiochemical parameters for [11C]4 (pKa, logD and conformational energetics) were evaluated.ResultsBoth [11C]4 and [11C]5 were successfully produced in high radiochemical purity and in adequate amounts for PET experiments. After intravenous injection of [11C]4, brain radioactivity peaked at a low level (0.2 SUV). Pretreatment with tariquidar, an inhibitor of the brain P-gp efflux transporter, increased brain exposure four-fold whereas pretreatment with a high pharmacological dose of the 5-HT1B antagonist, AR-A000002, had no effect on the binding. Ex-vivo experiments in rats showed no radiometabolites entering brain. [11C]5 also failed to enter monkey brain under baseline conditions.Conclusions[11C]4 and [11C]5 show too low brain uptake and specific binding to be useful PET radioligands. Low brain uptake is partly ascribed to efflux transporter action as well as unfavorable conformations.
       
  • Imaging assessment of Cardioprotection mediated by a Dodecafluoropentane
           oxygen-carrier administered during myocardial infarction
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 January 2019Source: Nuclear Medicine and BiologyAuthor(s): Zhonglin Liu, Christy Barber, Akash Gupta, Li Wan, Young-Wook Won, Lars R. Furenlid, Qin Chen, Ankit A. Desai, Ming Zhao, David A. Bull, Evan C. Unger, Diego R. Martin IntroductionThe objective of this study was to investigate the cardioprotective effects of a dodecafluoropentane (DDFP)-based perfluorocarbon emulsion (DDFPe) as an artificial carrier for oxygen delivery to ischemic myocardium, using 99mTc-duramycin SPECT imaging.MethodsRat hearts with Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) was prepared by coronary ligation for 45-min followed by reperfusion. The feasibility of 99mTc-duramycin in detecting myocardial I/R injury and its kinetic profile were first verified in the ischemic hearts with 2-h reperfusion (n = 6). DDFPe (0.6 mL/kg) was intravenously administered at 10 min after coronary ligation in fifteen rats and saline was given in thirteen rats as controls. 99mTc-duramycin SPECT images were acquired in the DDFPe-treated hearts and saline controls at 2-h (DDFPe-2 h, n = 7 and Saline-2 h, n = 6) or 24-h (DDFPe-24 h, n = 8 and Saline-24 h, n = 7) of reperfusion.ResultsSPECT images, showing “hot-spot” 99mTc-duramycin uptake in the ischemic myocardium, exhibited significantly lower radioactive retention and smaller hot-spot size in the DDFPe-2 h and DDFPe-24 h hearts compared to controls. The infarcts in the Saline-24 h hearts extended significantly relative to measurements in the Saline-2 h. The extension of infarct size did not reach a statistical difference between the DDFPe-2 h and DDFPe-24 h hearts. Ex vivo measurement of 99mTc-duramycin activity (%ID/g) was lower in the ischemic area of DDFPe-2 h and DDFPe-24 h than that of the Saline-2 h and Saline-24 h hearts (P 
       
 
 
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