Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3161 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3161 Journals sorted alphabetically
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.655, CiteScore: 2)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.015, CiteScore: 2)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 106, SJR: 1.462, CiteScore: 3)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 2)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.771, CiteScore: 3)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 446, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 7)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.18, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 322, SJR: 3.263, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.307, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.793, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.331, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.374, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.344, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.671, CiteScore: 5)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 4)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.29, CiteScore: 3)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.611, CiteScore: 8)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 188, SJR: 4.09, CiteScore: 13)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.167, CiteScore: 4)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.384, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.126, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.992, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.089, CiteScore: 5)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.61, CiteScore: 7)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35, SJR: 3.043, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.453, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.992, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.713, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.316, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.562, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.977, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.524, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.159, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 52, SJR: 5.39, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 68, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.354, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 12.74, CiteScore: 13)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.193, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.749, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37, SJR: 4.433, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.938, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.682, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.88, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 3.027, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.158, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.875, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.579, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.536, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.791, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 69)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.371, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 430, SJR: 0.569, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.208, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.262, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 3)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.117, CiteScore: 3)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 394, SJR: 0.796, CiteScore: 3)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.42, CiteScore: 2)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 3.671, CiteScore: 9)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 487, SJR: 1.238, CiteScore: 3)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.13, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 5)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.156, CiteScore: 4)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 1.272, CiteScore: 3)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.747, CiteScore: 4)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.589, CiteScore: 3)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 0)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.153, CiteScore: 3)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 3)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.142, CiteScore: 4)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.148, CiteScore: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 3.521, CiteScore: 6)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 4.66, CiteScore: 10)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.796, CiteScore: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.108, CiteScore: 3)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 3.267, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67, SJR: 1.93, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.524, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 7.45, CiteScore: 8)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.062, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.973, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 264, SJR: 2.7, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67, SJR: 3.184, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.289, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.139, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.164, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 1)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.144, CiteScore: 3)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 67, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 1)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 0)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription  
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 4.849, CiteScore: 10)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 5)
Analytica Chimica Acta : X     Open Access  
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 214, SJR: 0.633, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 236, SJR: 1.58, CiteScore: 3)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.704, CiteScore: 2)
Annales d'Endocrinologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.558
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 20  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0168-583X
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3161 journals]
  • Luminescence of alumina ceramic doped with lanthanum under medium- and
           high-dose irradiation
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 February 2020Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, Volume 465Author(s): S.V. Zvonarev, V.Y. Churkin, V.A. Pankov, K.Yu. Chesnokov, A.V. Chukin, A.V. AbramovAbstractThe synthesis of La-doped alumina ceramics results in a formation of new pulsed cathodoluminescence bands and thermoluminescence peaks which associated with phases of lanthanum aluminate (LaAlO3) and lanthanum aluminium oxide (LaAl11O18). Annealing at high temperatures (up to 1600 °C) with maximum lanthanum concentration allows to create ceramics with high intensity of 510 pulsed cathodoluminescence band and 370 K thermoluminescence peak. The high intensity of new peaks thermoluminescence demonstrates the material sensitivity to ionizing radiation and the possibility of its use as ionizing radiation detectors in the case of expanding the sublinear dose recording range.
       
  • Classification of ion-beam-induced traits in Thai jasmine rice mutants
           using synchrotron radiation FTIR microspectroscopy
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 February 2020Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, Volume 465Author(s): E. Kongmon, M. Jitvisate, B. Panchaisri, J. Techarang, K. Thumanu, S. RimjaemAbstractThai jasmine rice is one of the prominent agricultural products of Thailand. Although it has made high export value for the country, the annual crop yield is limited by its photoperiod sensitivity and low disease resistance. Aiming to improve the rice traits, ion beam-induced genetic modification technique had been applied to the original jasmine rice, resulting in five selected agriculturally stable mutants. To overcome the complexity of conventional chemical test, we utilise the synchrotron-radiation-based FTIR microspectroscopy to investigate the main biochemical contents of rice samples. The infrared spectra were analysed to extract information on interesting components, including relative content quantification. Classification of rice traits based on spectroscopic data was performed by using principal component analysis (PCA). The PCA analysis results of the measured spectra in the carbohydrate region suggest that the mutant rice traits HyKOS3 and HyKOS3-1 are well separated from the original KDML105 rice. In contrast, the mutant rice traits HyKOS21 and HyKOS22 are seem to be inseparable from the original trait. The peak ratio of the crystallinity (1047 cm-1/1022 cm-1) for HyKOS21 shows significantly higher degree of order in the starch granule than the KDML105 rice. The results clearly demonstrate the differences and similarities between rice cultivars, showing the interest of using this technique as a preliminary examination for genetically modified biological samples.
       
  • The implications of sampling approach and geomorphological processes for
           cosmogenic 10Be exposure dating of marine terraces
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 January 2020Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and AtomsAuthor(s): A. Binnie, S.A. Binnie, E.J.R. Parteli, T.J. DunaiAbstractConcentrations of cosmogenic nuclides in rocks at the Earth’s surface are routinely measured by AMS (accelerator mass spectrometry) to obtain exposure ages. One particular application of this technique has been to derive ages for the formation of marine terraces, thus allowing constraints to be placed on rates of tectonic uplift. However, multiple rock samples from the same terrace surface have typically shown an amount of scatter in cosmogenic nuclide concentrations in excess of analytical uncertainties, potentially undermining the confidence in the resulting uplift rates. In addition, earlier works have considered the application of bedrock samples for exposure age dating marine terraces, but little attention has been directed towards the validity of sampling clasts exposed on terrace surfaces. Here, we use 10Be and 26Al measurements from a flight of marine terraces in northern Chile to compare the results from pebbles with those from bedrock samples and to investigate assumptions that sample pre-exposure and burial are negligible. We examine the influence that processes of surface deflation and pebble erosion will have on cosmogenic nuclide concentrations using a Monte Carlo model, the results of which are compared to our 10Be measurements. We find good agreement of 10Be concentrations between bedrock and pebble samples. At the sampled location, sample burial is rare and 10Be inheritance in pebble samples is low relative to the age of the terraces. Our modelling suggests that in arid environments, such as northern Chile, pebble erosion will be a secondary effect compared to surface deflation and that multiple periods of deflation will result in multimodal distributions of 10Be concentrations. More broadly, our findings show that measuring multiple surface clasts from a single marine terrace reveals the geomorphological processes influencing exposure ages, and may also be used to help identify the operation of past surface processes such as episodic deflation.
       
  • Towards micro-samples radiocarbon dating at INFN-LABEC, Florence
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 February 2020Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, Volume 465Author(s): M. Fedi, S. Barone, F. Barile, L. Liccioli, M. Manetti, L. SchiavulliAbstractIn radiocarbon applied research, both in Cultural Heritage and environmental contexts, minimising the invasiveness of the analysis is of fundamental importance. For this reason, at INFN-LABEC in Florence, the CHNet_Lilliput experiment aimed at reducing the graphite sample masses down to a few tens of μg of carbon, while the typical masses collected at the end of our “standard” preparation process are about 700 μg.Here we discuss the necessary hardware upgrades done on the experimental set-up and the results of the first tests with samples of about 50 μg. Reproducibility of radiocarbon concentrations in NIST Oxalic Acid II samples was satisfying, as well as the comparison of concentrations measured in standard reference materials with their certified values. Background resulted to be slightly worse than the typical one measured for larger samples, as somehow expected, even though some improvements are looked-for thanks to a more careful handling of samples.
       
  • Research on 129I measurement with 300 kV AMS system at
           CIAE
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 February 2020Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, Volume 465Author(s): Gong Jie, He Ming, Zhao Qingzhang, Hu Pan, Pang Yijun, Bao Yiwen, You Qubo, Li Kangning, Su Shengyong, Hu Yueming, Wu ShaoyongAbstractSystemic research of 129I AMS measurement was carried out based on the 300 kV terminal voltage accelerator mass spectrometry system which designed and constructed by China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). Through ion transport, gas stripping, charge state selection, interference exclusion, this method get high efficiency, high sensitivity for 129I. Measurement efficiency of system is about 28% and measurement sensitivity of 129I/127I is 1 × 10−14.
       
  • Measurement of talc in flour by the 14 MeV neutron activation
           analysis method
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 February 2020Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, Volume 465Author(s): Xu Xu, Jingbin Lu, Yi Chang, Wanyue Tang, Yuanming Sun, Long Zhao, Jiaxi Liu, Chengqian Li, Xiaoyi Li, Renzhou Zheng, Yu WangAbstractThe 14 MeV neutron activation analysis method was used to measure talc in flour. The neutron yield of a D-T neutron generator was maintained at 1.32 × 107n∙s−1 to irradiate flour samples for one hour. A 1779 keV characteristic γ-ray produced by the 28Si(n,p)28Al reaction and 1369 and 2754 keV characteristic γ-rays produced by the 24Mg(n,p)24Na reaction were measured by a 3-inch NaI(Tl) detector and a 2-inch LaBr3(Ce) detector, respectively. The accuracy and detection limit of the talc content measured by the two detectors with different characteristic γ-rays were discussed. The results show that the best scheme for measuring talc content is measuring the 1779 keV γ-ray with the 3-inch NaI(Tl) detector. The detection limit reaches 0.07%, and the relative error of multiple measurements of the same sample is 2.07%. The relationship among the mass thickness of the sample, the talc content and the characteristic peak area was plotted.
       
  • A new compact AMS facility at the Dongguk University
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 February 2020Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, Volume 465Author(s): Sang-Hun Lee, Sae-Hoon Park, Min-Ji Kong, Yu-Seok KimAbstractA compact accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) system dedicated to measuring 14C was installed at the Dongguk University, Korea. Standards SRM 4990B (Ox-I), SRM 4990C (Ox-II), IAEA C-7, and IAEA C-8 were used to conduct the acceptance tests. Phthalic acid and IAEA C-1 were used to measure the background level. The results of the acceptance tests demonstrated the radiocarbon dating precision capabilities for 14C/12C and the background level. Moreover, a graphitization system for radiocarbon dating was installed. After installation, the AMS and graphitization systems were used to analyze archaeological, environmental, and petrochemical materials. The environmental samples were measured with AMS to study the relationship between CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and urban environmental variables. Analysis of leaves showed that urban population densities and CO2 emissions from fossil fuels were not significantly related. The cause of CO2 emissions in cities remains under study.
       
  • Tracing biodistribution of essential and toxic elements in rat liver
           through PIXE
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 January 2020Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and AtomsAuthor(s): Rajbinder K. Virk, M. Shafique, Kalyan Vaid, Shivcharan Verma, Mohinder P. Bansal, Mohan L. Garg, Biraja P. MohantyAbstractElements like Ca, Co, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, and Zn are essential to life. Within a living organism, these elements are either present as a free pool or are bound to some biomolecules. Multielemental analysis of biological samples such as tissues, bio-fluids and purified proteins has been useful in the diagnosis of acute/chronic exposure to elements that are foreign to the body. These xenobiotics may induce toxicity either by generation of reactive oxygen species or may displace a native element from its binding site rendering the protein/peptide inactive. In order to explore this proposition, herein, centrifugal filters of varying molecular weight cut-off were used in conjunction with Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) to quantitatively map the distribution of elements in different molecular weight fractions, segregated from the post mitochondrial fraction (PMF) isolated from the liver tissue of control and arsenic supplemented animals (rats). In addition to this, the whole liver tissue of control and arsenic supplemented animals were also analysed by PIXE. In the liver tissue of rats, treated with chronic human equivalent dose of As, the concentration of As was found to be 6 ppm, whereas, it was below detection limit (
       
  • First principles modelling of the N-doped Co0.5-terminated (0 0 1) Co3O4
           surface
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 February 2020Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, Volume 465Author(s): G.A. Kaptagay, T.M. Inerbaev, A.T. Akilbekov, N.O. Koilyk, A.U. Abuova, N.A. SandibaevaAbstractN-doped Co3O4 is a promising electrocatalyst. By means of first principles calculations, various concentrations and spatial arrangements of NO atoms on the surface of Co2O4 were modelled. Mutual interaction of the dopant atoms was analyzed with respect to single NO atom. Charge redistribution, caused by doping, was calculated.
       
  • Effects of ultraviolet illumination on 4H-SiC Schottky barrier diodes
           irradiated by swift heavy ions
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 February 2020Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, Volume 465Author(s): Fan Lan, Min Gong, Mingmin Huang, Yun Li, Shaomin Wang, Jie Liu, Youmei Sun, Pengfei Zhai, Yao Ma, Zhimei YangAbstractIn this study, the capacitance-voltage (C-V) and current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of 4H-SiC Schottky barrier diode (SBD) irradiated by swift heavy ions (SHI) are studied under different ultraviolet (UV) conditions. The effective carrier concentration (ND), reverse current (IR), series resistance (RS), ideal factor (n) and Schottky barrier height (SBH) are calculated and analyzed. Furthermore, by analyzing the parameters, especially, ND, IR and n, a physical model is built. The UV illumination dependence of the recombination center states for defects or defect-states is presented.
       
  • Influence of defects on thermoluminescence in pristine and doped
           LiMgPO4
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 February 2020Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, Volume 465Author(s): M. Kalinkin, R. Abashev, A. Surdo, N. Medvedeva, D. KellermanAbstractPure and terbium-doped lithium-magnesium phosphate LiMgPO4 was investigated with respect to its thermoluminescent properties. The samples were synthesized by solid state, ultrasonic spray pyrolysis, as well as by melting and quenching methods. To predict the terbium site, ab initio calculations were carried out. Additional treatment in atmospheres with different oxygen partial pressures was used. The larger is the concentration of oxygen in the atmosphere and, accordingly, the smaller is the quantity of surface oxygen vacancies, the greater is the intensity of thermoluminescence. For a better understanding of thermoluminescence in LiMgPO4 and LiMgPO4:Tb, the TL spectra were recorded. It was concluded that the thermoluminescence of LiMgPO4:Tb is additively composed of the signals of the matrix and activator ions.
       
  • Design and construction of an electron accelerator for a pulsed neutron
           facility at AIST
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2020Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, Volume 464Author(s): Brian E. O'Rourke, Takeshi Fujiwara, Kazuro Furukawa, Michihiro Furusaka, Noriyosu Hayashizaki, Hidetoshi Kato, Koichi Kino, Ryunosuke Kuroda, Koji Michishio, Takemi Muroga, Kazuyuki Nigorikawa, Takashi Obina, Hiroshi Ogawa, Nagayasu Oshima, Daisuke Satoh, Norihiro Sei, Tamao Shishido, Ryoichi Suzuki, Masahito Tanaka, Yo TomotaAbstractA new electron accelerator has been designed and is now under construction at AIST, Tsukuba, Japan. The accelerator will be used to produce a pulsed neutron beam for materials analysis. The design maximizes the yield of slow neutrons with high pulse temporal resolution as described in a previous publication [K. Kino et al., Nuclear Inst. and Methods in Physics Research, A 927 (2019) 407–418]. The accelerator is composed of a thermal cathode type electron gun with S-Band buncher/accelerator cavity followed by three, 2.9 m long S-Band acceleration cavities. High power RF is supplied by three klystron units, with klystron No.1 supplying both the electron gun and the 1st cavity, and klystrons No.2 and No.3 connected to the 2nd and 3rd cavities respectively. The design parameters of the accelerator are; pulse rate: 100 Hz, pulse length: 10 μs, electron current: 250 mA, electron energy: 40 MeV. Operating at these parameters a maximum beam power of around 10 kW will be delivered to the water-cooled Ta target for neutron production. In this report we will describe the design and construction of the electron accelerator.
       
  • Spectral and polarization characteristics of X-ray hybrid radiation
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2020Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, Volume 464Author(s): M. Shevelev, A. Konkov, B. AlekseevAbstractVavilov-Cherenkov emission and transition radiation are the well-known phenomena and find a broad application for different scientific communities. In the case of simultaneous generation of both types of radiation, there is a possibility of interference between radiation fields. Thus, the emitted radiation could possess both transition radiation and Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation properties, that is why it should be considered as hybrid radiation. In this paper, we present the results of the theoretical investigation of X-ray hybrid radiation. Using the polarization current approach and the atomic scattering factor formalism to account anomalous dispersion of the complex permittivity we study spectral-angular distributions and polarization states of X-ray hybrid radiation when a charge obliquely falls on a foil. The theoretical results greatly contribute to understanding of X-ray Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation as well as the development of the X-ray narrow band radiation sources based on Vavilov-Cherenkov effect.
       
  • γ-Irradiation effects in borosilicate glass studied by EPR and
           UV–Vis spectroscopies
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2020Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, Volume 464Author(s): T.T. Wang, X.Y. Zhang, M.L. Sun, X. Du, M. Guan, H.B. Peng, T.S. WangAbstractAssessing the behavior of borosilicate glass used for nuclear waste immobilization under irradiation is essential for determining the long-term behavior of the high-level waste. In this work, the γ irradiation induced structural properties of the borosilicate glass have been studied via ultraviolet–visible (UV–Vis) spectroscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The optical band gap (Eg) and the Urbach energy (Eu) deduced from the UV–Vis spectra of borosilicate glasses. The Eg decreased and the Eu increased with the increase of absorbed dose, which indicated the increase of non-bridging oxygen and disorder in the glass network. The EPR results revealed that there formed the following paramagnetic defects: hole center associated with boron (BOHC), hole centers near alkaline ions (HC1 center), E′ centers (Si), peroxy radical (Oxy defect), non-bridging oxygen hole centers (NBOHC), BO3− center, Si − BOHC (BOSi) and B–O–B–iso center (HOHOBOH-O·-BOHOH).
       
  • Evaluation of saturation dose in spatial distributions of color centers
           generated by 18 MeV proton beams in lithium fluoride
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2020Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, Volume 464Author(s): E. Nichelatti, M. Piccinini, C. Ronsivalle, L. Picardi, M.A. Vincenti, R.M. MonterealiAbstractThe paper concerns the analysis of spatial distributions of visible photoluminescence of optically active F2 and F3+ color centers created in lithium fluoride crystals by irradiation with proton beams. Spectrally integrated photoluminescent maps are detected in a fluorescence microscope and numerically elaborated to gather pieces of information regarding both the beam characteristics and the material response. A method based on two independent measurements (Bragg curve and beam transversal map) is developed to evaluate the saturation dose defined as the value above which the photoluminescence intensity begins saturating up to an asymptotic maximum. The paper describes the procedure and demonstrates its application to the experimental case of LiF crystals irradiated by a proton beam of 18 MeV nominal energy.
       
  • Luminescence of self-trapped excitons in alkali halide crystals at low
           temperature uniaxial deformation
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2020Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, Volume 464Author(s): L. Myasnikova, K. Shunkeyev, N. Zhanturina, Zh. Ubaev, A. Barmina, Sh. Sagimbaeva, Z. AimaganbetovaAbstractThe processes of temperature quenching of the luminescence of the self-trapped excitons (STEs) from 93 to 200 K in the conditions of applied elastic low-temperature deformation for several alkali-halide crystals (AHCs) are presented in the paper. The theoretical explanation of the influence of low-temperature uniaxial deformation on the formation of the luminescence of the STEs was done. The increase in activation energy of the temperature quenching of the luminescence of the STEs, narrowing of the emission bands, increase in the frequency of the active oscillations of the STEs and the decrease in the Huang-Rhys parameter are shown as the results. These changes indicate a weakening of the exciton-phonon interaction in elastically deformed AHCs, which, in turn, leads to an increase in the probability of radiative annihilation of excitons.
       
  • Ion modification of alumina ceramics
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2020Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, Volume 464Author(s): S. Ghyngazov, V. Kostenko, S. Shevelev, E. Lysenko, A. SurzhikovAbstractThe patterns of depth microhardness, nanohardness and modulus of elasticity of alumina ceramics were investigated by microindentation and nanoindentation methods after treatment with a beam of ions of the composition: carbon ions (C+, Cn+) and protons (H+) in a ratio of 85%/15%. The accelerating voltage was 180 keV. The experiments were performed at pulse energy density (W) of 0.3, 1 and 1.5 J/cm2. It is shown that ion treatment increases the strength of the surface layers of ceramics at depth that exceeds the penetration depth of accelerated ions by an order of magnitude or more. That is, there is a long-range effect characteristic of the ion treatment of metals and alloys. The analysis of the processes of energy release and structural changes in the surface layers shows that melting and recrystallization of the thin surface layer of ceramics observed in ion treatment are not the determining factors that change the strength properties of ceramics under these layers. It is shown that hardening of these layers occurs by the shock-wave mechanism initiated by local overheating of the surface layers of ceramics by intense pulsed ion beam.
       
  • Automating the setup and control of the pre-sample charge measurement
           system at the Lund Ion-beam Analysis Facility
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2020Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, Volume 464Author(s): R.J.W. Frost, N. De La Rosa, P. Kristiansson, J. PallonAbstractIn many IBA applications the aim is to obtain quantitative figures characterising the sample, usually requiring a reliable measurement of the beam current for normalisation. To avoid the drawbacks associated with on-sample and post-sample charge measurement systems a pre-sample measurement system can be used.In this work an upgrade to the pre-sample charge measurement system at the Lund Ion-beam Analysis Facility is presented, in which a custom built control module based around a Teensy 3.2 micro-controller has been added to the existing system. The new control module allows for remote handling and monitoring of the deflection system, operated via USB connection to a PC running a graphical user interface. Details of the control modules functionality, design and programming are given, as well as the functionality of the user interface. An example of how the new control module can be used for automated calibration of the deflection system is also presented.
       
  • Erbium-ion implantation of single- and nano-crystalline ZnO
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2020Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, Volume 464Author(s): J. Cajzl, P. Nekvindová, K. Jeníčková, A. Jagerová, P. Malinský, Z. Remeš, N. Neykova, Y.Y. Chang, J. Oswald, U. Kentsch, A. MackováAbstractThis paper reports on the results of Er+ ion implantation into various ZnO structures – standard single crystal c-plane (0001) ZnO, nanostructured thin films and nanorods. Er+ ions were implanted using an ion implantation energy of 400 keV and implantation fluences in the range of 5 × 1014 to 5 × 1015 ions/cm2. Er concentration depth profiles and the degree of crystal damage were measured using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and RBS/channelling (RBS/C). Additionally, Raman spectroscopy was used to analyse structural modifications of the prepared samples. The main focus was placed on the luminescence properties of various ZnO structures. The results showed that the characteristic bands of ZnO, i.e. near-band-edge (NBE) luminescence and deep-level emission (DLE) – that can be influenced by the excitation wavelength – appeared in the spectra of single crystals and nanorods. The characteristic luminescence bands of erbium ions in the NIR region appeared in non-annealed ZnO single-crystal samples and nano-crystalline films.
       
  • Fracture resistance of imperfect filler particles within nuclear graphite
           during irradiation
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2020Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, Volume 464Author(s): Qing Huang, Qiantao Lei, Hui Tang, Qi Deng, Yongqi WangAbstractAlthough there have been many in-reactor experiments of nuclear graphite in history, its microstructure evolution during irradiation have not been well studied. One filler particle within nuclear graphite was investigated during ion irradiation. Remarkable dimensional changes and distortion of graphite filler were observed. Different from the well-known Mrozowski crack, cracks formed by graphite sheets fracture were found in filler and showed continuous opening during irradiation, resulting in porosity increase and decline in integrity of nuclear graphite. But evidences show that these cracks did not grow along the c-axis, indicating a strong resistance to irradiation-induced fracture of un-fractured graphite sheets. Although the dimensional evolution of graphite crystallite continues at the highest dose of 10 dpa, the Raman spectra showed that the structure of damaged graphite lattice became very stable at doses above 0.84 dpa during room-temperature irradiation.
       
  • Bulk etch rate for PADC CR-39 at extended concentration range of NaOH
           mixed with ethanol and etchant viscosity study
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2020Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, Volume 464Author(s): E.M. Awad, Sameh Hassan, Eman Bebers, Y.S. RammahAbstractBulk etch rate of PADC CR-39 detector in a mixture of NaOH and ethanol alcohol aqueous solution of (8 ml of NaOH + X ml of ethanol: X = 0, 1, 2, 3) at 70 °C was determined using fission track diameter method. Wide range of NaOH concentration, never covered before, from 2 to 30 N was studied. Higher NaOH concentrations and ethanol increase the detector etching rate dramatically leading to a reaction rate far from equilibrium. Arrhenius and multi hit equations are no longer hold and therefore a need for new equations is arise. Viscosity of (NaOH + ethanol) in such wide concentration range was also studied at different temperatures to explain the reaction rate. Many efforts and different fitting equations were used to manipulate the data. Some of these equations are statistically as well as chemically rejected and finally three equations seem to read the data quit well are suggested.
       
  • Depth-sensitive analysis of metals to investigate the corrosion process in
           oil pipelines by confocal 3D-XRF and SEM-EDS
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2020Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, Volume 464Author(s): Peng Zhou, Zhiguo Liu, Xinran Ma, Zhaoying Meng, Zhujun Xiang, Xingyi Wang, Tianxi Sun, Xiaoyan Lin, Yude LiAbstractTwo paint fragments from an oil pipeline were analyzed with a confocal three-dimensional micro-X-ray fluorescence (3D-XRF) spectrometer. The depth distributions of iron (Fe), titanium (Ti) and zinc (Zn) metal elements were obtained based on confocal 3D-XRF analysis. The quantitative element results were obtained by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). The corrosion process of the oil pipeline was investigated based on the experimental results, which provided information for designing an oil pipeline protection scheme.
       
  • Measurement of beryllium-10 in terrestrial carbonate deposits from South
           China: A pilot study
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2020Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, Volume 464Author(s): Hiroko Miyahara, Kazuho Horiuchi, Wataru Sakashita, Hiroyuki Matsuzaki, Hongyang Xu, Limin ZhouAbstractCosmogenic nuclides contained in the annual layers of natural materials record temporal variations in the galactic cosmic ray flux. 14C in tree rings and 10Be in ice cores from polar regions are often used to retrieve accurate histories of galactic cosmic rays. However, the variation in 14C produced in the atmosphere is strongly attenuated in the carbon cycle and the amplitude of decadal scale variations in tree rings is approximately 0.2‰. In the case of 10Be in ice cores, the variation remains at a relatively large amplitude; however, the records are accompanied by dating uncertainties. Another material that contains 10Be is sediment in continental areas. Terrestrial carbonate deposits sometimes form clear annual layers; however, detailed analyses on such deposits have not yet been widely conducted. Therefore, we evaluate the possibility of retrieving information concerning the galactic cosmic ray flux from the terrestrial carbonate deposits. In this paper, we report our preliminary results obtained from the measurements of 10Be in travertine and tufa samples from South China. We find that the 10Be flux obtained from the travertines is comparable to the level produced by galactic cosmic rays and that travertines might have potential as a tool for investigating past cosmic-ray variations with annual resolution.
       
  • New results on the nat V(p,x)43Sc cross section: Analysis of the
           discrepancy with previous data
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2020Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, Volume 464Author(s): G. Pupillo, L. Mou, F. Haddad, A. Fontana, L. CantonAbstractThis work deals with the new cross section data obtained for the natV(p,x)43Sc nuclear reaction. We focus on this specific channel because we found a significant discrepancy with a recent NIM B publication, reporting extensive data on activation cross-sections induced by proton-Vanadium collisions up to 65 MeV. Proton-irradiation and γ-spectrometry were performed at ARRONAX facility (Nantes, France) by means of activation of stacked-foils targets up to 70 MeV. Our new experimental values are compared with all the previous measurements and supported by the results obtained with the reaction codes FLUKA, EMPIRE and TALYS. A discussion is given about the possible origin of the observed discrepancy.
       
  • Coherent THz transition radiation for polarization imaging experiments
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2020Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, Volume 464Author(s): Siriwan Pakluea, Sakhorn Rimjaem, Jatuporn Saisut, Chitrlada ThongbaiAbstractTHz radiation is reflected by conducting materials and has the capability to penetrate a wide variety of non-conducting materials. With such abilities, THz radiation has great potential for imaging applications, e.g., screening and inspection for packaged electronics chips and electronics circuit boards. High intensity THz radiation have been produced by the accelerator-based radiation source at the Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Chiang Mai University, Thailand. The coherent THz transition radiation was generated from short electron bunches of around 8 MeV and an Al-foil tilted by 45°. Characterization of the backward transition radiation properties was conducted, including spatial distribution, polarization and radiation spectrum. The THz radiation was then used to create THz images of a print circuit board by reflective THz imaging setup. THz imaging with polarized transition radiation is demonstrated. With selected radiation polarization, reflective THz imaging can be improved.
       
  • Features of changes in the structure and properties of titanium nickelide
           irradiated with MeV xenon ions
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2020Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, Volume 464Author(s): Sergei Ghyngazov, Valentina Poltavtseva, Alexander Larionov, Damir SatpaevAbstractThe effect of irradiation with 141 MeV and 231 MeV xenon ions and irradiation temperatures T = 100 and 250 °C on the structural-phase state and properties of titanium nickelide in its initial martensitic-austenitic and austenitic states was experimentally studied. The radiation effects revealed are as follows: changed phase composition caused by B19′ → B2, B2 → R transformations and recovery of the martensitic phase B19′ at 250 °C; increased nanohardness, microhardness and electrical resistance at 100 °C due to formation of track nanostructures and radiation-induced defects; radiation-induced accumulation of xenon in the near-surface layer. In addition, softening of the near-surface area and decreased electrical resistance were found for the martensitic-austenitic state at irradiation temperature of 250 °C, which was caused by the changed content of the Ni-Ti phase with the B2 phase and R phase.
       
  • Projectile X-ray identification tests for 63Ni and 90Sr accelerator mass
           spectrometry
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2020Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, Volume 464Author(s): M. Schiffer, L. Bussmann, S. Herb, R. Spanier, A. Stolz, C. Mueller-Gatermann, G. Hackenberg, S. Heinze, E. Strub, A. DewaldAbstractIn the field of nuclear waste management is the determination of difficult to measure isotopes important for the isotopic nuclide inventory in disposal material. Accelerator mass spectrometry propose a new precise and reliable way for the quantification of the radioactive material by the means of direct atom counting. For the radiological characterization of radioactive material, the reference nuclides 60Co or 152Eu are normally used, because they are relatively easy to measure by gamma ray spectroscopy. The disadvantages are the relatively short half-lives and in the case of reactor concrete they are produced at trace elements. In addition, the technique of projectile X-ray AMS (PXAMS) offers the opportunity to measure medium mass isotopes like 63Ni and 90Sr, by the measurement of characteristic X-rays. We investigated the X-ray production yields for different target materials in a projectile ion energy range of 0.35 MeV/u to 1.80 MeV/u for the determination of attainable sensitivities.
       
  • Comparison of dose values predicted by FLUKA to measured values using
           Luxel+ Ta type dosimeters
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2020Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, Volume 464Author(s): Brian BewerAbstractA 250 MeV electron linear accelerator was used to expose a beam stop to a high radiation field for several minutes. The beam stop was covered with a lattice pattern of Luxel+ Ta type dosimeters which were then sent to Landauer for reading. The deep dose equivalent values reported from Landauer were then compared to dose values predicted by the FLUKA Monte Carlo software. The four radiation weighting coefficient sets available in FLUKA from ICRP 74, for ambient dose, anterior-posterior irradiation, rotational irradiation geometry, and the worst possible geometry for irradiation were calculated and compared to the measured values. The best agreement for total dose were found to be the worst possible geometry for irradiation and anterior-posterior irradiation coefficients, however for separate photon and neutron dose scaling factors were needed for every dose weighting coefficient set.Synopsis: FLUKA Monte Carlo simulations of a 250 MeV electron LINAC beam stop exposure are scored for ICRP74 dose equivalent coefficient sets and are compared to the Landauer Luxel+ deep dose equivalent reports.
       
  • Computational study of fragmentation cross-sections for 28Si ions in
           various media using GEANT4
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2020Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, Volume 464Author(s): Nitika Sangwan, Summit Jalota, Ashavani KumarAbstractThe comparison of simulated data with experimental results is needed for the accuracy and reliability of the transport codes. In this work, we performed a comparative study of simulated results of projectile fragmentation cross-sections (PFXS) for three different models. The obtained results also compared with published experimental data. For simulation purposes, the GEANT4 simulation toolkit based on the Monte Carlo (MC) codes is used. The models in Geant4 employed to compute the PFXS are the Binary Cascade (BIC), the Quantum Molecular Dynamics (QMD), and the Intranuclear cascade (INCL). In the present study we reported the interaction of 28Si ion beam for the energy range 270–1200 A MeV incident on carbon (C), aluminium (Al), copper (Cu), tin (Sn), and lead (Pb) targets. The QMD, the BIC, and the INCL model coupled with the de-excitation models reproduce the results in agreement with experimental fragmentation cross-sections.
       
  • Stability of small vacancy clusters in tungsten by molecular dynamics
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2020Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, Volume 464Author(s): Jan Fikar, Robin SchäublinAbstractThe vacancies produced in collision cascades of irradiated metals form voids and vacancy clusters. The stability of vacancy clusters and voids is usually studied by kinetic Monte-Carlo methods. We investigated the stability of these vacancy defects at high temperatures using molecular dynamics and recent embedded-atom method potential. We confirm that the vacancy cluster dissociation is thermally activated. We have obtained dissociation energies and characteristic temperatures, both increasing with the number of vacancies and tending to saturate at 3.5 eV and 1200 K, respectively, for large vacancy clusters. Our results qualitatively agree with Monte-Carlo results, but predict somewhat smaller values for both the dissociation energy and characteristic temperature.
       
  • Multi-elemental analysis of roots and leaves from Oryza glaberrima rice
           plants at vegetative stage of growth by combined PIGE, RBS, PIXE and
           GC-TDS methods
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 December 2019Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and AtomsAuthor(s): S. Fernandes, A. Traoré, O. Fleury, V. Havránek, J. Kučera, A.S. NdaoAbstractThis study aims at understanding the bioaccumulation and transport mechanisms of both micronutrients and macronutrients in the leaves and roots of African rice Oryza glaberrima Steud (OG) plants cultivated in Senegal during the wet season at the vegetative stage of growth and to evaluate the suitability of OG rice plants for phytoremediation. A comparative analysis of the elemental composition of roots and leaves of OG plants, provided information on the bioaccumulation of nutrients necessary for plant growth which can become detrimental if their toxicity level is reached. The elemental analysis of basic nutrients (C, H, O), macronutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S) and micronutrients (Cl, Fe, Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn) in the OG roots and leaves was made possible by several elemental analytical techniques (PIGE, RBS, PIXE and GC-TDS). All methods were validated by analysis of pure substances and certified reference materials. The high accumulation rate of Cu (5 x), Al (4 x), Zr (≥ 2 x) and Fe (~ 2 x) in the OG rice roots relative to the leaves indicates the existence of low translocation factors for these metals from root to leaves probably due to the existence of plant mechanisms to limit their transport and to preferentially accumulate Si (5.2 ± 0.5 % mass) in the rice leaves. The high accumulation rates of Cr, Mn, Ni and Rb in the OG leaves relative to the roots, and of Al, Fe, Cu and Zr in the OG roots relative to the leaves, shows that these metals can be partially removed from soil through phytoextraction processes by harvesting the shoot and root tissues.
       
  • Editorial
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 December 2019Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and AtomsAuthor(s):
       
  • Reaching for copper pigments speciation with High Resolution Energy
           Dispersive PIXE
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 December 2019Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and AtomsAuthor(s): M.A. Reis, S. Pessanha, P.C. Chaves, M.L. CarvalhoAbstractThe C2TN XMS-PIXE system based on a first generation X-ray Microcalorimeter Spectrometer (XMS) having 1.5% relative energy resolution at Si Kα 1.739 keV and 0.5% relative energy resolution at Fe Kα 6.403 keV, became operational in 2008, presaging various developments to emerge from its use and from connected or related but independent advancements by other laboratories. More than ten years having passed since the C2TN XMS-PIXE system first results, knowledge about XMSs use for PIXE has grown meaningfully and new applications are now envisaged and in progress. In the present work, results on the analysis of different copper compounds are presented, and used as an assessment of the capacity of High Resolution Energy Dispersive PIXE (HiRED-PIXE) to provide answers to the problem of copper pigments speciation in Cultural Heritage studies. Related issues of XMS spectra generation and calibration are discussed, as well as first generation systems limitations and its overcome by the use of second and third generation systems.
       
  • Contribution of molecular orbital promotion to inelastic energy losses in
           ion-solid collisions
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 December 2019Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and AtomsAuthor(s): A.N. Zinoviev, P.Yu. Babenko, D.S. Meluzova, A.P. SherginAbstractA model for estimating the contribution of autoionization state formation to inelastic energy losses in collisions of keV-energy ions with solids is proposed. Using the suggested scaling for L and M shell excitation it is possible to estimate the ionization cross sections and the contribution of the ionization processes to the electronic stopping power dE/dx. The model predicts a threshold behavior of dE/dx. In the cases studied the formation of autoionization states gives important contribution to the value of dE/dx.
       
  • Variations in elemental concentrations of toxic metals in beard samples
           measured over twelve years, a case study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 December 2019Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and AtomsAuthor(s): K. Sera, S. Goto, T. Hosokawa, Y. SaitohAbstractBeard samples were collected every day from a single person (55 [at start] to 66- [at end] years old) over a 12-year period. Beard hair samples were analyzed by particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) to determine variations in concentrations of aluminum, chromium, arsenic, mercury and lead over the sampling period. Only mercury showed a gentle upward trend with age, and a significant increase of 20–30% was observed. This fact was consistent with the results of our previous studies on more than 1250 hairs collected from healthy people. It was also found that concentrations of many toxic elements tended to be higher in summer than in winter, except for chromium. In particular, arsenic and mercury concentrations significantly increased in summer. Their concentrations in the winter dropped to less than 50% and 86% of those in the summer, respectively. These seasonal changes can be attributed to changes in the ingestion of season-specific foods, such as marine products. These findings indicate that beard analyses are a powerful tool for evaluating the exposure to toxic-element.
       
  • Scientific investigations on Byzantine pottery from Castellum 22,
           Romania
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 December 2019Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and AtomsAuthor(s): Roxana Bugoi, Cristina Talmaţchi, Constantin Haitǎ, Daniele CeccatoAbstractForty five ceramic shards discovered in archaeological excavations at Castellum 22 site, Constanţa County, southeastern Romania, and dated to the 10th–11th centuries AD, were subjected to scientific investigations in order to get clues about the raw materials and manufacturing techniques employed by the potters from the Lower Danube zone at the end of the 1st millennium AD.The analyzed shards were selected according to archaeological criteria. The characteristics of the fabric, such as texture, porosity and microstructure, as well as the surface treatments and firing conditions, were studied using Optical Microscopy (OM).Chemical composition was determined using Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique at AN2000 accelerator of LNL, INFN, Italy. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the PIXE data for the ceramic bodies highlighted two main groups of shards with distinct compositional signatures.Micro-PIXE maps of the interfaces between the olive green or yellow glaze and the underlying ceramic body indicated that the decorative layers are strongly enriched in lead.The results of these investigations were compared to the ones previously obtained on coeval pottery from other archaeological sites, such as Hârşova, Oltina, Păcuiul lui Soare, and Valu lui Traian, in a trial to get some insights about the life and customs of the people from the Lower Danube region during the Byzantine period.
       
  • Elemental extraction factor from ground to drinking coffee as a function
           of the water temperature
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 November 2019Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and AtomsAuthor(s): Rafaela Debastiani, Carla Eliete Iochims dos Santos, Mateus Maciel Ramos, Vanessa Sobrosa Souza, Livio Amaral, Johnny Ferraz DiasAbstractSeveral factors influence the elemental composition of drinking coffee including the method of preparation, the grain size of the ground coffee and the water quality and temperature. In the present study, the extraction factor of elements from ground coffee during the drip brewing process was evaluated as a function of the water temperature. Drip brewing coffee was prepared using Brazilian ground coffee and mineral water temperatures varying from 20 °C to 80 °C. Samples of ground and spent coffee were prepared for each temperature and analyzed with the Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique. The results indicate different extraction factor patterns for each element despite some similarities among elements were observed. The extraction for K and P from the ground coffee increased linearly up to the water temperature of 45 °C, then reduced from 45 °C to 70 °C, with a slightly increase at 80 °C. Cl and Rb also seem to have similar extraction factor patterns with different extraction levels for each temperature. The absorption of elements from the water by the ground coffee was observed for Ca, Si and Cu. Moreover, K and Cl have the highest extraction ratios from ground to drinking coffee for all temperatures.
       
  • MicroPIXE analysis of removal of aqueous U(VI) by S. intermedia and P.
           stratiotes in the presence of Th(IV)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 November 2019Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and AtomsAuthor(s): E.M. de la Fournière, N.A. Vega, N.A. Müller, M.E. DebrayAbstractIn this work, Spirodela intermedia and Pistia stratiotes, autochthonous floating macrophytes, were used to remove aqueous UO22+ (1 and 10 mg.L−1) under laboratory conditions. The influence of Th4+(1 mg.L−1) was studied for the highest concentration of U(VI).All the parameters of the bioremediation process, bioconcentration factors (BCFs) in roots and leaves and translocation factors (TFs), were achieved by microPIXE quantification. This analysis was carried out using a 50-MeV 16O5+ beam with the aid of the heavy-ion microprobe at the TANDAR Laboratory in Buenos Aires. High resolution 2D maps of the in vivo elemental distribution in macrophytes for different conditions were obtained. Both plants have the ability to accumulate a large amount of U(VI) yielding BCFs > 500. Only S. intermedia can additionally uptake Th(IV) reaching a high BCF (>300 at 96 h) but the plant does not survive; Th was detected within the chlorenchyma ([Th] ≅ 30 µg.g−1).
       
  • Microscopic analyses on Zr adsorbed IDA chelating resin by PIXE and EXAFS
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 November 2019Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and AtomsAuthor(s): Yoichi Arai, Sou Watanabe, Shimpei Ohno, Kazunori Nomura, Fumiya Nakamura, Tsuyoshi Arai, Noriaki Seko, Hiroyuki Hoshina, Naoto Hagura, Toshio KubotaAbstractRadioactive spent solvent waste containing U and Pu is generated from reprocessing process of spent nuclear fuel. The nuclear materials removal is important for safety storage or disposal. Imino diacetic acid (IDA) type chelating resin is promising adsorbent, and its characterization is performed by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) analyses on Zr in order to evaluate adsorption mechanism. PIXE succeeded in quantitative analysis on few microgram of adsorbed Zr, and EXAFS suggested that Zr in the aqueous solution and in the solvent can be trapped by IDA group with different mechanisms.
       
  • Information depths of analytical techniques assessing whitefish otolith
           chemistry
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 August 2019Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and AtomsAuthor(s): J-O. Lill, V. Finnäs, Y. Heimbrand, M. Blass, S. Fröjdö, Y. Lahaye, J.M.K. Slotte, J. Nyman, E. Jokikokko, M. von Numers, H. HägerstrandAbstractThe elemental composition of otoliths provides historical information on migration and provenance of fish. Due to the complex structure of the otoliths, the depth from which the elemental information originates has to be considered. In this work, three analytical methods often used to assess otolith chemistry are compared. The information depths are calculated for µ-XRF and PIXE and measured for LA-ICP-MS. The information depth in PIXE depends on the energy of the incident particles and on the element to be analysed while in XRF it depends mostly on the element to be analysed as the energy of the incident X-rays usually is high enough to excite atoms at depths of several hundreds of micrometres. If we assume that the otolith is exposed to X-rays from a Rh-tube (20.16 keV) about 50% of the detectable Sr(Kα) X-rays will be emitted from a depth ranging from 0 to 114 µm. In the case of PIXE with 3 MeV protons the corresponding range is 0–15 µm. The information depths in LA-ICP-MS were determined by measuring the depth of the laser-ablated craters or trenches that remained on the otolith surface. The depths measured with a scanning white light interferometer (SWLI) were found to be about 40 µm (spots) and 11 µm (trenches).The correlation between strontium concentrations obtained by spot analysis of whitefish otoliths with PIXE and LA-ICP-MS was excellent (92%), although different spot sizes were used. A comparison of strontium concentration profiles measured with µ-XRF and LA-ICP-MS showed that the higher information depth of µ-XRF in combination with the 52 degree angle of the incident X-rays smoothens out the sharp edges seen in the LA-ICP-MS profiles. Otoliths from whitefish captured in the Baltic Sea (n = 30) were analysed in this comparison of methods. Among these whitefish there are sea spawners, river spawners and stocked fish with different life history and different otolith chemistry.
       
  • Ion beam analysis facility at the centre for energy research & development
           at Ile-Ife Nigeria and its applications in research
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 August 2019Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and AtomsAuthor(s): E.I. Obiajunwa, G.A. Osinkolu, F.I. Ibitoye, D.A. PelemoAbstractThe Centre for Energy Research and Development (CERD), Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria, acquired a NEC 1.7 MV Tandem Pelletron accelerator with one beamline in 2008 for ion beam experiments. This was upgraded in 2014, with the addition of a second beamline equipped with NEC RC 43 end station. This paper presents an overview of the accelerator, its capabilities, and its applications in research.A full description of the first end-station designed and built at iThemba Labs, South Africa, is also presented. A number of PIXE and RBS experiments have been carried out using this facility and the results are also presented. This paper further discusses the diverse areas of application of the accelerator, including solid minerals/geology, biomedical samples, materials science, environmental pollution, and agriculture.
       
  • Ion beam techniques for source fingerprinting fine particle air pollution
           in major Asian-Pacific cities
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 July 2019Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and AtomsAuthor(s): David D. Cohen, Armand Atanacio, Jagoda Crawford, Rainer SiegeleAbstractFine particle air pollution is a significant problem in large urbanised areas across the Asian region. With funding from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) fifteen countries in Asia have been collecting weekly samples on filters of fine and coarse particles in major cities for the past 15 years. These filters have been analysed for over 20 different chemical species from hydrogen to lead using a range of analytical techniques including accelerator based ion beam techniques such as PIXE, PIGE, PESA, RBS, as well as XRF and NAA. These data have been included into a major database, which is generally available, containing over 17,000 combined sampling days from these fifteen countries spanning an area of the globe from ± 50° latitude and from 70° to 180° longitude. That is, the sampling covers an area north-south from Mongolia to New Zealand and west-east from Islamabad, Pakistan to Wellington, NZ.
       
  • Investigation of aerosol pollution inside trams in Debrecen, Hungary
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 November 2019Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and AtomsAuthor(s): E. Papp, D. Nagy, Z. Szoboszlai, A. Angyal, Zs. Török, Á. Csepregi, E. Furu, Zs. KertészAbstractFine (PMfine) and coarse (PMcoarse) particulate matter concentrations and elemental compositions were investigated inside trams during travelling in heating and non-heating seasons. New CAF and older KCSV tramcars were involved in the study. The results obtained for the trams were compared with the outside air quality measured at a nearby urban background site. The coarse (particles with aerodynamic diameter larger than 2.5 µm) and the fine (particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 µm) mass concentrations were determined by gravimetric method. The elemental analysis of the collected samples was carried out by particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method at the Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences (MTA-Atomki) Debrecen, Hungary. The mass concentrations inside the vehicles were 5–20 times higher than in the outdoor air. The elemental composition was similar inside the trams and outdoors in both size fractions. However, some elements (Cr, Zn, Cu) were enriched in the trams and could be derived from outdoor sources such as the re-suspended dust, the rail abrasion, the abrasion of the overhead wire. According to the results the new CAF tram type was less polluted than the old KCSV one.
       
  • In-air micro-particle-induced X-ray emission imaging and spectroscopy of
           air-borne particles collected hourly from an automated sampling unit of
           the atmospheric environmental regional observation system
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 October 2019Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and AtomsAuthor(s): W. Kada, S. Nakatsu, T. Imayoshi, K. Kumagai, H. Tago, T. Satoh, M. Koka, K. Miura, O. Hanaizumi, T. KamiyaAbstractParticulate matter (PM) collected hourly by an automated sampling unit of the Atmospheric Environmental Regional Observation System (AEROS) was characterized by external micro-particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis and imaging. Micro-PIXE analysis revealed the overall elemental composition and differences in the elemental composition ratios of PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 collected as individual spots on Teflon tape filters from the unit, and the blank Teflon tape showed a clean background. Moreover, micro-PIXE imaging visualized regions with different elemental compositions in PM2.5 and PM2.5-10. Accumulation of PM2.5 particles was found frequently on tape filters which accounted approximately for 70% of particular elemental composition including heavy metals like iron, compared to that from whole area. The results suggest that PIXE effectively reveals elemental composition of hourly-collected PM by AEROS system for futuristic application for source apportionment of those over Japan.
       
  • Feasibility study of TlBr semiconductor detectors for PIXE applications
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 October 2019Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and AtomsAuthor(s): Mitsuhiro Nogami, Keitaro Hitomi, Toshiyuki Onodera, Kio Matsumoto, Kenichi Watanabe, Atsuki Terakawa, Keizo IshiiAbstractSemiconductor detectors for PIXE applications were fabricated using TlBr crystals. The TlBr detectors had a multiple-electrode detector design to minimize the pulse-height loss due to hole trapping. Electrodes containing thallium metal were employed for the TlBr detectors to suppress the polarization phenomena. Energy resolutions of 2.4, 3.3, and 3.8 keV FWHM for 5.9, 22.1, and 59.5 keV photons, respectively, were obtained for a TlBr detector operating at −50 °C.
       
  • Micro-ion beam-induced luminescence spectroscopy for evaluating SiAlON
           scintillators
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 October 2019Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and AtomsAuthor(s): W. Kada, T. Satoh, S. Yamada, M. Koka, N. Yamada, K. Miura, O. HanaizumiAbstractIon beam-induced luminescence (IBIL) spectroscopy was used for luminescent material characterization and analysis for the investigation of new scintillator families. Under continuous 3 MeV proton microbeam irradiation, the crystal structures of α-SiAlON:Eu, β-SiAlON:Eu, and CaAlSiN3 (CASN) emitted bright luminescence at peak wavelengths of 605, 540, and 670 nm, respectively. As the irradiation progressed, the IBIL intensity of the conventional ZnS:Ag scintillator decreased sharply, whereas that of the SiAlONs and CASN remained within the detection limit. IBIL spectroscopy was performed on individual grains of the SiAlON scintillators. IBIL imaging and spectroscopy of two grains of β-SiAlON:Eu showed that the main peak in the IBIL spectrum of β-SiAlON:Eu obtained from a large-area beam scan consisted of several small peaks, which were observed in spectra from individual grains. Our experimental results suggest that microscopic spectroscopy of IBIL is an effective tool for microscopic material characterization of luminescent targets.
       
  • Chronological assessment of della Robbia sculptures by using PIXE,
           neutrons and luminescence techniques
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 October 2019Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and AtomsAuthor(s): M.I. Dias, A.L. Rodrigues, Imre Kovács, Zoltán Szőkefalvi-Nagy, M.I. Prudêncio, Zsolt Kasztovszky, Boglárka Maróti, R. Marques, P. Flor, G. CardosoAbstractPortuguese museums and private collectors gather a variety of Italian glazed terracotta sculptures attributed to the della Robbia workshop, particularly active between the 15th and 16th centuries. Compositional studies of the paste using INAA, PGAA and XRD and enamel using PIXE, and luminescence protocols, were used as a tool to ascertain the attribution of the sculptures to della Robbia workshop. Geochemical and mineralogical patterns were defined enabling to express the production recipe. The luminescence ages were found to be between 1380 and 1640 in some cases with high uncertainties. The compositions of the blue glazes were proved to be similar to other measured on della Robbia sculptures from French and Italian collections based on cobalt pigments. Arsenic behaviour, which is associated to cobalt in most cobalt-minerals, is rather peculiar, as it was already found in other della Robbia sculptures enabling a chronological framework, pointing to a production after 1520. Based on the results, most of the analysed sculptures implies a della Robbia production, and only a few point to a composition and chronology not related with that workshop.
       
  • Structural characterization of Eu-HONTA complexes by IBIL and EXAFS
           analyses
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 October 2019Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and AtomsAuthor(s): Sou Watanabe, Yuichi Sano, Makoto Okada, Haruaki Matsuura, Naoto Hagura, Wataru KadaAbstractIBIL and EXAFS analyses were carried out on Eu-HONTA complexes formed in solvent extraction and adsorbent systems. EXAFS analysis suggested that there was not significant difference in the structure observed in the two systems. Characteristic peaks in IBIL spectra were attributed to transition of 4f electrons in Eu3+ ion in complexes with HONTA, and distinct difference was found in the profile of 5D0 → 7F4 transition. Since the number of the nearest neighboring O atoms around Eu and the nearest Eu-O distance must be the same for all conditions, the difference in the IBIL profile was considered to be caused by different symmetry of HONTA or NO3− around a Eu3+ ion. Combination of those two techniques was shown to be an effective method to investigate complexes with organic compounds, and further analysis on the IBIL spectra is expected to reveal precise structure of complexes formed in the adsorbent and the solvent systems.
       
  • Geochemical markers of Ilex paraguariensis determined by PIXE
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 October 2019Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and AtomsAuthor(s): Diego Adalberto Amarillo Caniza, Agueda M. Turatti, Flávia Fernandes, Johnny Ferraz Dias, Carla Eliete Iochims Dos SantosAbstractThe knowledge of the geographical origin of food is related to the consumer’s safety and usually aggregates market value to the product. One way to identify the geographical origin of foodstuff is through the determination of geochemical markers. The aim of this work is to determine the elemental composition of the mate tealeaves (Ilex paraguariensis) and identify possible elements which could be considered as geochemical markers. To that end, packaged tealeaves from nine different South American regions were analyzed by Particle-Induced X-Ray Emission. Moreover, tealeaves of a particular brand manufactured and packed in Brazil and commercialized in Brazil and Uruguay were analyzed as well. Results showed that Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr and Ba are present in the mate tealeaves. Considering the average concentrations of the elements from each region, there are significant differences among the regions for all elements but S. Multivariate statistical analysis indicates that the variability of the elements could be used to characterize the provenance of Ilex paraguariensis. Some elements such as Mg, Cu, Sr, Mn and Ni are correlated, which could be used to identify the geographical origin of this product.
       
  • Use of micro-PIXE for elemental characterization and iron uptake
           evaluation in zebrafish larvae exposed to iron oxide nanoparticles
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 October 2019Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and AtomsAuthor(s): M.R. Caloni, E.M.N. Oliveira, D. de V. Bauer, M.R. Vianna, J.F. Dias, R.M. PapaléoAbstractWe report on the evaluation of iron content and biodistribution in zebrafish larvae (Danio rerio) exposed to dextran-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION-DX) using the micro-PIXE technique. We compare results of elemental 2D maps and Fe quantification obtained from two different sample preparation procedures: one using sagittal slices prepared by cryo-sectioning and another using entire dehydrated larvae. Independently of the preparation method used, the Fe content in the tissues of exposed animals is significantly higher than in the controls, but the increase is not proportional to the exposure level. In addition, 2D elemental maps show a somewhat homogeneous Fe distribution in the larvae, with some samples showing a slight enhancement in Fe content near the gut. From the PIXE data a curve correlating the exposure (nanoparticle concentration in the fish water) to the iron content in the body was obtained, which shows a saturation trend towards high exposure doses.
       
  • Physics beyond PIXE
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 September 2019Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and AtomsAuthor(s): Ž. ŠmitAbstractThe paper reveals geometrical effects that govern the accuracy of PIXE measurements: distinction between thin and thick targets, misorientation of the sample, surface roughness and contribution of the invisible matrix. It shows an importance of the mean X-ray production distance and its application in differential measurements. It further reviews the data base needed for thick target calculations and the importance of developing more accurate theoretical models based on the semiclassical picture and coupled channel approach. An example of transitions in a perturbed harmonic oscillator demonstrates that the united atom limit does not exist at adiabatic collisions and that the cross section likely exhibits an oscillatory behaviour.
       
  • Long-term variations of the elemental concentration of table cream
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 September 2019Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and AtomsAuthor(s): T.M. Ferrari, D.V. Bauer, R. Debastiani, L. Amaral, J.F. DiasAbstractNowadays, most of the food available for human consumption goes through some sort of processing before reaching the table of consumers. Usually, modern societies consume packed food preserved in cardboard boxes and cans. In the context of food science and technology, analytical techniques capable of characterizing the elemental composition of foodstuff and their respective containers are a powerful tool to monitor modifications over time. In particular, ion beam analytical techniques like Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) have already been employed in the investigation of canned food, providing valuable information about the interaction of food and its container.In this work, the PIXE technique was employed in order to study the elemental composition of canned table cream focusing on variations occurred over several years of production as well as on the possible diffusion of Fe from the cans to the table cream as a function of the storage time of the product.The qualitative analysis showed the presence of 10 characteristic elements in the table cream, with prevalence of potassium and calcium. Bromine and rubidium were found in some samples as well. For long storage times, it was observed a rising trend for the concentration of iron in the product. Moreover, the analysis indicated a sudden rise in the levels of sodium and chlorine, which could indicate an adulteration of the product.
       
  • Calculated proton-induced L-shell ionisation and X-ray production cross
           sections for Tc, Pm, Os, Po, At, Rn, Ra and Ac
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 September 2019Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and AtomsAuthor(s): Adedamola D. Aladese, Felix S. OliseAbstractThe L-shell ionisation and X-ray production cross sections of the elements: Tc, Pm, Os, Po, At, Rn, Ra and Ac, whose experimental cross sections are scanty due to their radioactive, toxic and unstable nature have been calculated. Computer codes were employed in the targets cross sections calculation for incident protons of 1.00–10.00 MeV energy range. The obtained cross sections were validated in a similar procedure for Osmium (Z2=76) induced by protons of energies 0.10–1.00 MeV and were compared with experimental data. The calculated cross sections for the Osmium target were in good agreement with the experimental data. Hence, the calculated cross sections for the considered industrially relevant targets will be a valuable addition to existing database of elements induced by protons.
       
  • Castanea sativa shells and fruits: Compositional analysis by
           proton induced X-ray emission
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 September 2019Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and AtomsAuthor(s): Victoria Corregidor, Amilcar L. Antonio, Luís C. Alves, Sandra Cabo VerdeAbstractChestnut fruits, from Castanea sativa Miller species, have been previously characterized mainly to study the nutritional and biochemical parameters, with mineral contents receiving less attention from the researchers, although these minerals are essential for several mechanisms in human body. In this study, a detailed elemental compositional analysis was performed using Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) to characterize two varieties of Castanea sativa Miller chestnuts (Longal and Judia). This study comprises the composition of the outer shells (pericarp), inner shells (episperm) and the edible fruits. From our knowledge, this is the first time that the presence of up to 20 elements on the shells and the fruits are reported. Furthermore, by PIXE it was possible to quantify them, allowing significant improvements in the assessment of chestnuts composition. Essential and non-essential elements were quantified on a food item that is used mainly for human consumption but it is also incorporated in animal feeding.
       
  • Editorial
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 September 2019Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and AtomsAuthor(s): Brigitte Ban d'Etat, Clara Grygiel, Isabelle Monnet, Hermann Rothard, Daniel Severin
       
  • Analysis of Roman and other archaeological glasses by 12 MeV proton
           activation analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 September 2019Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and AtomsAuthor(s): Chaturvedula S. Sastri, Florian Duval, Thierry Sauvage, Arun Banerjee, Christian HumburgAbstract14 elements were determined, at trace level, in Roman and other archaeological glasses by 12 MeV proton activation analysis. The results show that the natural glass from Mongolia and Brazilian quartz are the purest of all the samples analysed with detection limits at 1 ppm level for Ti, V, Cr, As, Sr, Y and Zr. In several cut pieces of one variety of Roman glass, using the concentration of Ca, Ti, Fe, Sr and Sb as markers, the homogeneity of glass production and their potential use in provenance studies were discussed.
       
  • Editorial
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 August 2019Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and AtomsAuthor(s):
       
 
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