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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3162 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3162 Journals sorted alphabetically
A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.655, CiteScore: 2)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.015, CiteScore: 2)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 97, SJR: 1.462, CiteScore: 3)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 2)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.771, CiteScore: 3)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 412, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 7)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.18, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.128, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 254, SJR: 3.263, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.307, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.793, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.331, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.374, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.344, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.671, CiteScore: 5)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 4)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.29, CiteScore: 3)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.611, CiteScore: 8)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 153, SJR: 4.09, CiteScore: 13)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.167, CiteScore: 4)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.384, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.126, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.992, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.089, CiteScore: 5)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.61, CiteScore: 7)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32, SJR: 3.043, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.453, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.992, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.713, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.316, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.562, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.977, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.524, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.159, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46, SJR: 5.39, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 58, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.354, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 12.74, CiteScore: 13)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.193, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.749, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 4.433, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.938, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.682, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.88, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.027, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.158, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.875, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.579, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.536, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.791, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 64)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.371, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 399, SJR: 0.569, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.208, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.262, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 3)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.117, CiteScore: 3)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 342, SJR: 0.796, CiteScore: 3)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.42, CiteScore: 2)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.671, CiteScore: 9)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 453, SJR: 1.238, CiteScore: 3)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.13, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 5)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.156, CiteScore: 4)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 1.272, CiteScore: 3)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 1.747, CiteScore: 4)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.589, CiteScore: 3)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 0)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.153, CiteScore: 3)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 3)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.142, CiteScore: 4)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.148, CiteScore: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 3.521, CiteScore: 6)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 4.66, CiteScore: 10)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.796, CiteScore: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.108, CiteScore: 3)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 3.267, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.93, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.524, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 7.45, CiteScore: 8)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.062, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.973, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 211, SJR: 2.7, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 3.184, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.289, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.139, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.164, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 1)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.144, CiteScore: 3)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 62, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 1)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 0)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription  
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 4.849, CiteScore: 10)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 5)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 177, SJR: 0.633, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 197, SJR: 1.58, CiteScore: 3)

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Journal Cover
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.814
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 21  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0168-9002
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3162 journals]
  • Fenghuang: High-intensity multi-section neutron powder diffractometer at
           CMRR
    • Abstract: Publication date: 21 January 2019Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Volume 915Author(s): Lei Xie, Xiping Chen, Leiming Fang, Guangai Sun, Chaomei Xie, Bo Chen, Hao Li, V.A. Ulyanov, V.A. Solovei, M.R. Kolkhidashvili, A.P. Bulkin, S.I. Kalinin, Yun Wang, Xiaolin Wang Fenghuang has been upgraded to be the first neutron powder diffractometer at the China Mianyang Research Reactor (CMRR) dedicated to research on the microstructure of materials. It was firstly built in 2005 at the Swimming Pool Research Reactor-300 (SPRR-300) in Mianyang, and then moved to CMRR in 2013. Through the combination of a horizontally focusing neutron guide and a vertically focusing monochromator, the neutron flux at the sample position is up to 2.84 × 106 n s−1cm−2. The resolution of the diffractometer can be adjusted by a horizontal slit for different sample. The superposition scan mode enables each detector to measure the complete diffraction pattern and simplifies the correction of the efficiency of the counting channels. This diffractometer is equipped with temperature and pressure devices, and can be used for research at ambient and extreme conditions.
       
  • Radiochemical detector of spatial distribution of neutron flux density in
           nuclear reactor
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 November 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): S.G. Lebedev, V.E. Yants The paper describes a device for measuring the spatial distribution of the fast neutron flux density in a nuclear reactor based on the experience in a flowing gaseous monitoring of a neutron flux. The device is a cylindrical tube divided into domains with a powdered active substance - calcium oxalate, in which nuclear reactions take place to form a noble radioactive gas 37Ar, which is transported by a carrier gas to a proportional counter, where the 37Ar decay rate is measured. This decay rate is uniquely related to the neutron flux in the core. The device allows real-time monitoring of the distribution of neutron fluxes along the height of the core. Advantages of the device are the absence of mechanical elements, radiation resistance and a wide temperature range. Proposal described allow using the procedure of ”barcode” for the neutron flux density distribution over the height of the nuclear reactor core.
       
  • Characteristic study of a quadruple GEM detector in different electric
           field configurations
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 November 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): Rajendra Nath Patra, Rama Narayan Singaraju, Somnath Dalal, Saikat Biswas, Yogendra P. Viyogi, Tapan K. Nayak A quadruple GEM detector has been assembled and operated using Ar/CO2 90:10 and 70:30 gas mixtures. Detailed study of the effective gain and energy resolution of the detector are performed using the X-ray spectrum of 55Fe source. The gain and energy resolution of the detector are measured and compared for two different electric field configurations, the standard field setting and the ion backflow (IBF) field setting. It is observed that for the standard field configuration the quadruple GEM detector can operate at lower operating voltages and has better energy resolution compared to IBF field setting.
       
  • The monitoring electronics of the laser calibration system in the Muon g-2
           experiment
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 November 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): A. Anastasi, A. Anastasio, S. Avino, F. Bedeschi, A. Boiano, G. Cantatore, D. Cauz, S. Ceravolo, G. Corradi, S. Dabagov, S. Di Falco, S. Di Meo, S. Donati, A. Driutti, G. Di Sciascio, R. Di Stefano, O. Escalante, C. Ferrari, A. Fioretti, C. Gabbanini The new Muon g-2 experiment at Fermilab (E989) will measure the muon anomaly aμ = (gμ -2)/2 to an uncertainty of 16 x 10−11 (0.14 ppm). The experiment is running with a positive muon beam. The decay positrons are detected by 24 electromagnetic calorimeters placed on the inner radius of the magnetic storage ring. As the gain fluctuation of each calorimeter channel must be corrected to a few parts in 104, a state-of-art laser calibration system has been realized which provides short laser pulses to the calorimeters. The monitoring of these light signals is done by specific photo-detectors read by a specialized Monitoring Electronics, which is organized in devoted crates and performs the full data acquisition of the calibration signals starting from pre-amplification, then digitization and finally transfer of the information. Here we describe few key elements of the whole system, namely the single readout channel of the Monitoring Board.
       
  • Performance results of the trigger logic implemented in EUSO-SPB
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 November 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): M. Battisti, J. Bayer, M. Bertaina, A. Cummings, J. Eser, F. Fenu, A. Jung, M. Mignone, H. Miyamoto, K. Shinozaki, for the JEM-EUSO Collaboration EUSO-SPB (Extreme Universe Space Observatory - Super Pressure Balloon) was the first mission of the JEM-EUSO program which implemented the First Level Trigger (FLT) logic to detect Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs) following the scheme developed for the JEM-EUSO mission. Experimental results matched the expected behavior of the logic and satisfied the requirements conceived for the FLT. The sensitivity of EUSO-SPB to the detection of UHECRs was established.
       
  • Directional fast neutron detection using a time projection chamber and
           plastic scintillation detectors
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 November 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): Yidong Fu, Yang Tian, Yulan Li, Jian Yang, Jin Li A new method for directional fast neutron detection is proposed based on a neutron time projection chamber (TPC) and position-sensitive plastic scintillation detectors. The detection system can efficiently locate the approximate location of a hot spot with 4π field-of-view using only the neutron TPC. Then, the system generates a high-resolution image of the hot spot using selected coincidence events in the TPC and the scintillation detectors. A prototype was built and tested using a 252Cf source. An efficiency of 7.1×10−3 was achieved for fast searching. The angular resolution was 7.8°(full width at half maximum, FWHM) for high-resolution imaging using the simple back projection method.
       
  • Directionality properties of the nGEM detector of the CNESM diagnostic
           system for SPIDER
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 November 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): A. Muraro, G. Croci, M. Rebai, E. Perelli Cippo, G. Grosso, M. Cavenago, G. Claps, M. Dalla Palma, M. Fincato, F. Murtas, O. McCormack, R. Pasqualotto, M. Pillon, M. Tardocchi, M. Tollin, G. Gorini The ITER project requires additional heating by two neutral beam injectors, each accelerating up to 1 MV a 40 A beam of negative deuterium ions for one hour. Such requirements have never been reached, so it was decided to build in Padova a facility (PRIMA) that hosts two experimental devices: SPIDER, a 100 kV negative H/D RF beam source, and MITICA, a full-scale injector for the ITER NBI. SPIDER has begun operation in 2018, while MITICA is expected to start after 2020. In both devices the accelerated deuterium beam impinges on an actively cooled beam dump used to stop the deuterons. Detection of fusion neutrons produced between beam-deuterons and dump-embedded deuterons will be used as a means to resolve the horizontal beam intensity profile. A neutron detection system called Close-contact Neutron Emission Surface Mapping (CNESM) is installed right behind the SPIDER beam dump, with the aim to provide the neutron emission map of the beam dump surface. The core of this diagnostic system is an nGEM (neutron-Gas Electron Multiplier) detector which will be able to reconstruct the fast neutron beam profile with an efficiency of about 10−4. A crucial point in order to correctly reconstruct the profile of the deposited D− power is the directionality discrimination capability of the detector. This paper reports on the results of the characterization of the nGEM directionality capabilities, performed at the Frascati Neutron Generator (FNG) using 2.5 MeV neutrons, before installation of the detector inside the SPIDER vacuum vessel.
       
  • Evaluation of LFS continuous scintillation crystals for PET
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 November 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): A. Ros, L. Barrientos, J. Barrio, A. Etxebeste, C. Lacasta, E. Muñoz, J.F. Oliver, J. Roser, G. Llosá The suitability of monolithic Lutetium Fine Silicate (LFS) continuous scintillation crystals coupled to 64-channel SiPM-TSV matrices for small animal PET has been evaluated. Three crystals of size 25.8×25.8×15 mm3 were tested: LYSO white coating, LFS white coating (LFS-W) and LFS specular coating (LFS-S). Electronically collimated measurements were carried out to compare the performance of LYSO and LFS crystals. Mean energy resolutions of 14%, 17% and 19% were measured for LYSO, LFS-S and LFS-W respectively. Similar intrinsic spatial resolutions were found for all three crystals in the central region. Different versions of the light model used to estimate the interaction position of the photons in the detector have been studied. Further measurements with two detector heads of each crystal type in coincidence have also been carried out with a moveable 22Na source. A ML-MLEM image reconstruction code is used to reconstruct the data. Final position resolutions for all three configurations show similar values. Taking into account that LYSO and LFS present similar performance levels (and considering that LFS has better timing resolution than LYSO) we conclude that LFS is a valid substitute for LYSO.
       
  • Medical applications of silicon photomultipliers
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 November 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): Maria Giuseppina Bisogni, Alberto Del Guerra, Nicola Belcari Silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) are becoming the reference photodetectors in many fields. In medicine they are slowly replacing photomultiplier tubes and avalanche photodiodes in medical imaging and in PET in particular. In this paper a broad overview of the current applications of SiPM in medicine is presented. The major fields where the SiPMs are used, namely PET/MR and hadrontherapy are discussed at length.
       
  • Design and preliminary test of a multi-element tissue-equivalent
           proportional counter based on the gas electron multiplier
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 November 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): Weihua Zhang, Chunjuan Li, Zhiqiang Wang, Huirong Qi, Yisheng Zou, Yina Liu, Hailong Luo In order to monitor the intense neutron and gamma radiation, multi-element tissue equivalent proportional counters (TEPC) based on the standard gas electron multiplier (GEM) and ceramic thick GEM (THGEM) foils were designed and respectively tested by implanted  55Fe and  241Am sources which would also be used as calibration sources. The performance testing of GEM-TEPC/THGEM-TEPC detectors at various parameters showed that the detectors could work well. The THGEM-TEPC was also used to measure the linear energy spectra in  241Am-Be and intense (108 ncm−2s−1) neutron radiation fields. The results displayed that THGEM-TEPC was available to do microdosimetric research or be a dosimeter in intense neutron/gamma field.
       
  • Characterization of a depleted monolithic pixel sensors in 150 nm CMOS
           technology for the ATLAS Inner Tracker upgrade
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 November 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): F.J. Iguaz, F. Balli, M. Barbero, S. Bhat, P. Breugnon, I. Caicedo, Z. Chen, Y. Degerli, S. Godiot, F. Guilloux, C. Guyot, T. Hemperek, T. Hirono, H. Krüger, J.P. Meyer, A. Ouraou, P. Pangaud, P. Rymaszewski, P. Schwemling, M. Vandenbroucke This work reports on design and performance of a depleted monolithic active pixel sensor (DMAPS) prototype manufactured in the LFoundry 150 nm CMOS process. DMAPS exploit high voltage and/or high resistivity inclusion of modern CMOS technologies to achieve substantial depletion in the sensing volume. The device used in this work, named LF-Monopix, was designed as a proof of concept of a fully monolithic sensor capable of operating in the environment of outer layers of the ATLAS Inner Tracker upgrade in 2025 for the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC). This type of devices has a lower production cost and lower material budget compared to presently used hybrid designs. In this work, the chip architecture will be described followed by the characterization of the different pixel flavors with an external injection signal and an iron source (5.9 keV x-rays).
       
  • γ -rays+in+liquid+scintillation+detectors+by+using+low+sampling+frequency+ADCs&rft.title=Nuclear+Instruments+and+Methods+in+Physics+Research+Section+A:+Accelerators,+Spectrometers,+Detectors+and+Associated+Equipment&rft.issn=0168-9002&rft.date=&rft.volume=">Digital discrimination of neutrons and γ -rays in liquid scintillation
           detectors by using low sampling frequency ADCs
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 November 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): M. Nakhostin It is well known that the digital pulse-shape discrimination (PSD) of fast neutrons and γ-rays in liquid scintillation detectors can be adversely affected by the low sampling frequency of the analog-to-digital converter (ADC). Previous studies have recommended that using an ADC with a sampling frequency of above 250 MHz is necessary to achieve a PSD performance comparable to that of the analog PSD systems. In the present study, we show that, in principle, a sampling frequency of above 32 MHz is sufficient to fully preserve the pulse-shape information of liquid scintillation detectors, though at such sampling frequencies a significant degradation of the PSD performance may arise from the used PSD algorithm. To avoid this problem, a new PSD algorithm in the frequency domain is presented and its excellent performance at low sampling frequencies is experimentally demonstrated. At the sampling frequency of 32 MHz, a Figure-of-Merit (FOM) of 1.31 ± 0.04 in the light output range of 200–1400 keVee (electron equivalent energy) is achieved with an ADC of 10-bit resolution.
       
  • γ -+and+ α -rays+in+Gd 3 Al 2 Ga 3 O12:Ce+scintillator&rft.title=Nuclear+Instruments+and+Methods+in+Physics+Research+Section+A:+Accelerators,+Spectrometers,+Detectors+and+Associated+Equipment&rft.issn=0168-9002&rft.date=&rft.volume=">Temperature dependence of scintillation properties and pulse shape
           discrimination between γ - and α -rays in
           Gd 3 Al 2 Ga 3 O12:Ce scintillator
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 November 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): K. Nakajima, Y. Tamagawa, I. Ogawa, S. Tomita, A. Masuda, M. Kobayashi The light yield (LY) and decay kinetics of a single crystal scintillator of Gd3Al2Ga3O12(GAGG):Ce were measured for 0.662 MeV γ- and 5.48 MeV α-rays between −100 °C and room temperature. As the temperature decreased, the LY increased by 20% for γ-rays, reaching its maximum at around −70 °C, and increased monotonously by 50% for α-rays. Both the rise and decay times increased gradually. Furthermore, the results indicate that pulse shape discrimination is most effective at room temperature.
       
  • IH-DTL design with modified KONUS beam dynamics for a synchrotron-based
           proton therapy system
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 November 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): Ruo Tang, Qingzi Xing, Shuxin Zheng, Xialing Guan, Chuanxiang Tang, Xuewu Wang, Jinshui Shi A modified Kombinierte Null Grad Struktur (KONUS) beam dynamics for inter-digital H-mode (IH) drift tube linac (DTL) is proposed in this study. This modified KONUS beam dynamics, which is aperiodic and is suitable for a short (
       
  • Compton polarimetry with a multi-layer CdTe focal plane prototype
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 November 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): M. Moita, E. Caroli, J.M. Maia, R.M. Curado da Silva, N. Auricchio, J.B. Stephen, M. Páscoa, A.M.F. Trindade In high-energy astrophysics, polarimetry is a promising subject with a wide scientific potential that is relatively unexplored due to the complexity of the design and technical requirements of the sensors. Often gamma-ray telescope proposals are based on multi-layer spectro-imager instruments with polarimetric capabilities. Herein we study a new Compton polarimeter prototype based on a two-layer CdTe pixelized spectro-imager operated in coincidence. The two CdTe detectors are 2 mm thick anode 8×8 pixels’ segmented matrices with 2 mm pitch. This detection system configuration allows an assessment of the polarimetric potential of multi-layer solution focal planes as well as the polarimetric potential of a possible 3D spectro-imager by analysing the polarimetric performance when varying the distance between the two CdTe detection layers. The polarimetric modulation factors for single-layer (Q∼0.4) and two-layer (up to 0.13) double-events were measured for 6 mm and for 10 mm distance between planes. The measured polarization angle resolution was lower than 10°. The potential of CdTe spectro-imager focal plane solutions with polarimetric capabilities for the next generation space missions based on both Laue lenses and 3D segmented focal planes is also discussed.
       
  • Radiation distribution modeling for development of mobile diagnostic
           radiology with low-dose exposure
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 November 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): Yoonsuk Huh, Jongpil Kim, Jaehyuk Kim, Sujin Park, Daewong Han, Jungha Kim, Jungmin Kim, Yunhee Kim, Jaemoon Jo In the development of a mobile X-ray imaging apparatus, it is needed to pre-calculate the ambient leakage and stray radiation doses of the apparatus because the interest in exposure damage is increasing. This issue is strongly related to the additional radiation damage of the patients, caregivers and radiologists around X-ray emission areas. Monte Carlo simulation with well applied X-ray device’s characteristics is a powerful method to estimate the leakage and stray radiation distribution. The first purpose of this study is to verify an MC simulation model with leakage radiation and stray radiation distribution for accurate scattered dose distribution. The second purpose is to optimize the lead shield part of the X-ray tube and predict various scattered dose distributions with the default and low-dose conditions in three clinical protocols (ChestAP, Abdomen Supine, and Pelvis AP). An X-ray mobile device was imported using a CAD import method for applying its complicated structures easily. X-ray photons were emitted on the anode with skipping the step of electrons hitting the anode for reducing the simulation time. We compared the air-kerma values between the experimental and simulation results under the leakage and stray radiation regulation. Then, we analyzed the dose distribution maps as a function of the size of the lead shield or the distance from the anode focal spot. The experimental and simulation results show similar leakage and stray radiation dose values as functions of the direction and the height, respectively. The analysis of the leakage and stray dose distribution maps shows that the maps strongly depend on the lead shield structures of the X-ray tube. Furthermore, all dose reduction rates of the three clinical protocols were over 40% and similar to the exposure dose reduction rates and remained constant as a function of the distance. This study demonstrates that our proposed simulation model can be used to develop other applications as well as a mobile X-ray imaging device and to protect against additional radiation damage with diverse clinical protocols.
       
  • 3 )+crystals+for+radiation+detector+applications&rft.title=Nuclear+Instruments+and+Methods+in+Physics+Research+Section+A:+Accelerators,+Spectrometers,+Detectors+and+Associated+Equipment&rft.issn=0168-9002&rft.date=&rft.volume=">Material defect study of thallium lead iodide (TlPbI 3 ) crystals
           for radiation detector applications
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 November 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): G. Yang, Q.V. Phan, M. Liu, A. Hawari, H. Kim TlPbI3 is a promising semiconductor material for fabricating room-temperature radiation detectors, which have wide applications in national security, medical imaging, astrophysics research, industrial process monitoring and environmental survey. TlPbI3 has a large energy bandgap at 2.3 eV, a high density (6.04 g/cm3) and high concentrations of the high atomic number elements Tl and Pb. Such physical properties offer great potential to use TlPbI3 to detect gamma-ray at room temperature with high detection efficiency. In this work, we used the positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) measurement and infrared transmission microscopy to study the material defects in bulk TlPbI3 crystals. These crystals were grown with Bridgman method. For the PALS measurements, we used the positron experimental setup at North Carolina State University’s PULSTAR reactor facility. A 15 μCi Na-22 positron source sealed with 7.6μm thick Kapton films was sandwiched between two identical pieces of TlPbI3 samples. Two cylindrical plastic scintillators (1 inch diameter by 1 inch long) combined with Hamamatsu H3378-50 photomultiplier tubes (PMT) were used to detect the 1.27 MeV gamma-rays in coincidence with the 511 keV annihilation gamma-rays as the start and the stop signals, respectively. A LeCroy Wavepro 7300A digital oscilloscope was used to digitize the raw PMT pulses and acquire the PALS spectra. The dominating positron lifetime in TlPbI3 is 393 ps and its intensity is more than 92%. This component is typically attributed to some vacancy type (or more likely, vacancy cluster) positron trapping sites. The first component of ∼ 140 ps could be related to mono-vacancies or positrons annihilate in a delocalized lattice state. Compared with MAPbI3, the higher average lifetime, τav, and the higher intermediate lifetime (τ2) in TlPbI3 indicate the presence of more anion-type vacancies and imply an increase in ionic conductivity. Using infrared transmission microscopy, we also observed the formation of large volume TlPbI3 single crystal even in the transition portion between the conical seeding pocket and the normal growth chunk.
       
  • Impact of single-mask hole asymmetry on the properties of GEM detectors
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 November 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): Aashaq Shah, Archana Sharma, Ashok Kumar, Jeremie Merlin, Md. Naimuddin, On behalf of the CMS-Muon Group A single-mask Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) technique overcomes the cumbersome practice of alignment of two masks and allows the production of foils with very large area as needed for the CMS muon forward region upgrade. However, the holes obtained with refinements in the single-mask technique are asymmetrically bi-conical in shape compared to symmetrically bi-conical holes of double-mask technology. The hole geometry and their uniformity define the performance of the detectors which are constructed with such GEM foils. To evaluate the effect of this asymmetry, the foils have been characterized experimentally using a special prototype with three single-mask GEM foils. The structure allowed to change the orientation of foils, testing from above with foils having a large hole opening, testing from the bottom with all the foils having small hole opening. The effective gain, energy resolution and the charging up behavior are compared for the two different hole orientations.
       
  • Implementation of the code for the simulation of the response of a
           triple-GEM tracker and its comparison to the experimental data
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 November 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): L. Lavezzi, on behalf of the CGEM-IT group In the framework of detector development, Monte Carlo simulations play a key role in the evaluation of the expected performance and the full understanding of the behavior in beam conditions. In particular, a software which simulates the response of the detector to the particle passage is mandatory to test different setups and solutions, like geometries, fields, voltages, etc. and to understand the test beam data. For gas trackers, existing softwares, as GARFIELD, perform a very detailed simulation of the physical processes but are CPU time consuming. For the new cylindrical GEM tracker of BESIII, a faster code which models the results obtained from GARFIELD and adapts them to the experimental data, collected in several test beams, was written. It reproduces the behavior of a planar triple-GEM in different working conditions and, when completed, it will be inserted in the official BESIII code. A description of the procedure, based on different components (ionization, diffusion, magnetic field, avalanche multiplication, signal induction and readout) will be given and its results will be compared to the GARFIELD simulations and to the experimental data.
       
  • Micro-bunching for generating tunable narrow-band THz radiation at the
           FAST photoinjector
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 November 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): J. Hyun, P. Piot, T. Sen, J.C. Thangaraj This paper presents expected THz radiation spectra emitted by micro-bunched electron beams produced using a slit-mask placed within a magnetic chicane in the FAST (Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology) electron injector at Fermilab. Our purpose is to generate tunable narrow-band THz radiation with a simple scheme in a conventional photo-injector. Using the slit-mask in the chicane, we create a longitudinally micro-bunched beam after the chicane by transversely slicing an energy chirped electron bunch at a location with horizontal dispersion. In this paper, we discuss the theory related to the micro-bunched beam structure, the beam optics, the simulation results of the micro-bunched beam and the bunching factors. Energy radiated at THz frequencies from two sources: coherent transition radiation and from a wiggler is calculated and compared. We also discuss the results of a simple method to observe the micro-bunching on a transverse screen monitor using a skew quadrupole placed in the chicane.
       
  • High performance DAQ for muon spectroscopy experiments
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 November 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): Mattia Soldani, Giovanni Ballerini, Maurizio Bonesini, Fabio Fuschino, Adrian Hillier, Katsu Ishida, Emiliano Mocchiutti, Piernicola Oliva, Luigi Rignanese, Ludovico Tortora, Andrea Vacchi, Erik Vallazza, Massimiliano Clemenza The main features of the Data AcQuisition systems for the FAMU (on muonic atom physics) and CHNET_TANDEM (on the development of non destructive techniques to archaeometry) INFN projects will be described. Both the experiments exploit the RIKEN-RAL Muon Facility beam of (20,120)MeV∕c muons and the same experimental setup, which includes a wide range of detectors: HPGe detectors for high resolution spectroscopy; LaBr3 scintillators, with both PMT and SiPM readout, for fast and high time resolution spectroscopy; several layers of 32 SiPM readout scintillating fibers for beam monitoring with good spatial and time resolution. The performance of the DAQ in terms of conditioning and processing of such a large number of different detector signals, data storage and analysis and a few examples of the results will be presented.
       
  • MWPC-based Muographic Observation System for remote monitoring of active
           volcanoes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 November 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): László Oláh, Szabolcs J. Balogh, Ádám L. Gera, Gergő Hamar, Gábor Nyitrai, Hiroyuki K.M. Tanaka, Dezső Varga Multi-wire proportional chamber (MWPC) based trackers with exceptional operational stability, high efficiency (> 95 %) and low power consumption (
       
  • 3 (Ce)+detector+array+at+the+national+superconducting+cyclotron+laboratory&rft.title=Nuclear+Instruments+and+Methods+in+Physics+Research+Section+A:+Accelerators,+Spectrometers,+Detectors+and+Associated+Equipment&rft.issn=0168-9002&rft.date=&rft.volume=">Commissioning of the LaBr 3 (Ce) detector array at the national
           superconducting cyclotron laboratory
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 November 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): B. Longfellow, P.C. Bender, J. Belarge, A. Gade, D. Weisshaar The timing and energy resolution properties of LaBr3(Ce) scintillators are well suited for use in γγ fast-timing experiments. Using standard 60Co, 88Y, and 152Eu sources, the 16-element array of 1.5 inch × 1.5 inch right-cylindrical LaBr3(Ce) detectors and the associated readout electronics at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory were commissioned by measuring the lifetimes of excited states and the angular correlations of γ rays emitted in cascade. Excited-state lifetimes in 152Sm and 152Gd were measured using the exponential slope of the decay and a method based on the centroids of time-difference spectra. Results for the lifetimes are consistent with the well-known literature values which cover a range from a few picoseconds to several nanoseconds. Furthermore, the γγ angular correlations for the 4+→2+→0+ cascade in 60Ni and the 3−→2+→0+ cascade in 88Sr were measured and shown to agree with GEANT4 simulations that take into account the expected angular correlations within the cascades as well as the geometry of the array.
       
  • e e + +charge+spectrometer+taking+into+account+recent+measurements+of+coherent+interactions+in+a+bent+crystal&rft.title=Nuclear+Instruments+and+Methods+in+Physics+Research+Section+A:+Accelerators,+Spectrometers,+Detectors+and+Associated+Equipment&rft.issn=0168-9002&rft.date=&rft.volume=">Towards a novel high energy e − ∕ e + charge spectrometer
           taking into account recent measurements of coherent interactions in a bent
           crystal
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 November 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): Enrico Bagli, Alexander Howard The atomic order of a crystalline structure generates an electrostatic field capable of confining charged particle trajectories. Depending on the charge sign, points of equilibrium of the oscillatory motion under channeling lie between or on atomic planes for positive and negative particles, respectively. This forces positive particles to stably oscillate far from the planes, while negative ones repeatedly cross them, causing a tremendous discrepancy between the deflection efficiency of positive and negative particles under channeling. We suggest the use of charged-particle interactions in oriented bent crystals as a novel non-cryogenic passive charge spectrometer for the measurement of the positron to electron ratio to aid the search for Dark Matter in the Universe in space-borne experiments.
       
  • Design and performance studies of the calorimeter system for an FCC-hh
           experiment
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 November 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): C. Helsens, on behalf of the FCC-hh detector working group The physics reach and feasibility of the Future Circular Collider are currently being investigated in the form of a Conceptual Design Report. The ultimate goal of the FCC is to collide protons with a centre–of–mass energies of 100 TeV, thus extending the reach of the current HEP facilities. This high-energy regime opens new opportunities for the discovery of physics beyond the standard model, but also new constraints on the detector design. As at 100 TeV a large fraction of the W, Z, H bosons and top quarks are produced with a significant boost, it implies an efficient reconstruction of high energetic objects. The reconstruction of those boosted objects sets the calorimeter performance requirements in terms of energy resolution, containment of highly energetic hadron showers, and high transverse granularity. The detectors designed for the FCC experiments need to tackle harsh conditions of the unprecedented collision energy and instantaneous luminosity. They also must be able to deal with a very high number of collisions per bunch crossings (pile-up). Excellent energy and angular resolution, also for low energetic particles, are therefore needed in order to meet the demands based on the physics benchmarks like Higgs self-couplings. In this proceedings are presented the current baseline technologies for the calorimeter system of the FCC-hh reference detector and present first results of the performance studies with the combined calorimeters, meeting the energy resolution goal.
       
  • Signal formation in THGEM-like detectors
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 November 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): Purba Bhattacharya, Luca Moleri, Shikma Bressler Numerical simulations were used to study signal formation in a Thick Gaseous Electron Multiplier (THGEM) and in THGEM -based Thick-WELL (THWELL) and Resistive-Plate WELL (RPWELL) detectors. The signal shapes were simulated in mixtures of Argon and Neon with 5% Methane under irradiation with soft x-rays and muons. Anode-induced raw signals were convoluted with the response functions of charge-sensitive and current-sensitive pre-amplifiers. The simulation toolkit was validated by the good agreement reached between the simulated and measured response, with different pre-amplifiers. It indicates that our simulations framework provides valid insight into the inherent complex dynamical processes of the various detectors.
       
  • On the imprecisions that may be induced when applying the Blaugrund
           approximation for the analysis of Doppler-shift attenuation lifetime
           measurements
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 November 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): P. Petkov, C. Müller-Gatermann It is shown that the Blaugrund approximation could have led to some imprecise lifetime determinations in the past which used the Doppler-shift attenuation method (DSAM). Comparison with Monte Carlo simulations of the slowing-down process show that there is not an easy way to judge using them on the reliability of old data.
       
  • Statistical significance of CP violation in long baseline neutrino
           experiments
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 November 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): Walter Toki, Thomas W. Campbell, Erez Reinherz-Aronis The p-value or statistical significance of a CP conservation null hypothesis test is determined from counting electron neutrino and antineutrino appearance oscillation events. The statistical estimates include cases with background events and different data sample sizes, graphical plots to interpret results and methods to combine p-values from different experiments. These estimates are useful for optimizing the search for CP violation with different amounts of neutrino and antineutrino beam running, comparing results from different experiments and for simple cross checks of more elaborate statistical estimates that use likelihood fitting of neutrino parameters.
       
  • Simulation and experimental study of the angle-dependent sensitivity of
           the thick pinhole used for gamma imaging
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 November 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): Jianhua Zhang, Qiang Yi, Linbo Li, Faqiang Zhang, Dingyang Chen, Jinchuan Chen, Zhiguo Xi, Hongwei Xie, Jianlun Yang, Faxin Chen, Dengpan Tang, Yanyun Chu The angle-dependent sensitivity of rotationally symmetric thick pinholes used for gamma imaging was investigated using a geometric algorithm and Monte Carlo numerical simulations for the thick pinholes with different structural parameters. The effect of the pinhole diameter, the thickness of the straight-hole portion, and the half conical angle were analyzed. The point source was demonstrated to be a feasible replacement for the homogeneous plane source through theoretical deduction, numerical calculations, and experimental measurements of the angle-dependent sensitivity. A small quasi-point source was established based on a 10K curie level 60Co gamma ray source in the experimental measurement of the angle-dependent sensitivity. The image position remained unchanged and image distortion was avoided by rotating the thick pinhole around the pinhole center. The experimental result was in good agreement with the theoretical calculation, indicating the potential of this measurement method.
       
  • Study of eddy current effect in BRing at HIAF
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 November 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): Xiaoqiang Chen, Jiancheng Yang, Jiawen Xia, Guodong Shen, Shuang Ruan, Geng Wang, Jie Liu, Jingjing Zhang, Fucheng Cai In the Booster Ring (BRing) of High Intensity heavy ion Accelerator Facility (HIAF), the magnetic field with a ramping speed of 12 T/s will generate non-negligible eddy current in the magnet and the metal vacuum chamber. The eddy current effect will deteriorate the quality of beam. The attenuation and hysteresis effect of magnetic field, eddy loss and eddy-current Lorentz force are analyzed by the code OPERA 3D. Moreover, the effect of eddy-current-induced multi-pole field on the optical parameters is studied by the code MAD. In order to reduce the attenuation and hysteresis effect, the 0.3 mm thick ultra-thin vacuum chamber is selected and the varying curve of magnetic field is corrected. The results show that the maximum temperature of magnet and vacuum chamber caused by eddy loss is below 60.7 °C. The influence of eddy-current Lorentz force on the vacuum chamber is negligible. The chromaticity shift caused by eddy-current-induced sextupole field is large, and the strength of sextupole-correction magnets is modified to fulfill the requirement of chromaticity correction.
       
  • The HEPD detector on board CSES satellite: In flight performance
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 November 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): G. Osteria, V. Scotti, for the CSES-Limadou Collaboration CSES (China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite) is a scientific mission dedicated to monitoring electromagnetic field, plasma and particles perturbations of atmosphere and inner Van Allen belts caused by solar and terrestrial phenomena and to the study of the low energy component of the cosmic rays. The satellite hosts several instruments onboard: two magnetometers, an electrical field detector, a plasma analyser, a Langmuir probe and two particle detectors. It has been successfully launched from the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center located in west of inner Mongolia on February 2 2018 and is now orbiting in nominal condition. The high energy particle detector (HEPD), designed and built by the Italian “Limadou” collaboration, aims at investigating precipitation of trapped particles induced by atmospheric EM emissions, as well as by the seismo-electromagnetic disturbances. HEPD provides good energy resolution and high angular resolution for electrons (3–100 MeV) and proton (30–200 MeV). The instrument consists of: 2 planes of double-side silicon microstrip sensors placed on the top of the instrument (direction of particle); 2 two layers of plastic scintillators (trigger) and a calorimeter (constituted by other 16 scintillators and a layer of LYSO sensors). A scintillator veto system completes the instrument. The commissioning of the HEPD and the other instruments on board is in progress and will last several months. In this contribution we will describe the HEPD detector and the (preliminary) performance in flight.
       
  • ATLAS TileCal low voltage power supply upgrade hardware and testing
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 November 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): Michael Hibbard, on behalf of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter System The Phase II upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will raise the luminosity of the LHC by at least five times. Due to the aging of the current electronics in the detectors and increased expected radiation from higher luminosity, all electronics of the ATLAS central hadronic calorimeter will be upgraded. Improved prototypes of all the front-end detector electronics have been designed, manufactured and tested for the Phase II upgrade. The results of the design and upgrade process of the Low Voltage Power Supply (LVPS) of TileCal are reported.
       
  • Performance of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter in the LHC Run II
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 November 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): N. Bartosik, on behalf of the CMS Collaboration Many physics analyses using the CMS detector require accurate, high resolution electron and photon energy measurements. The increase of instantaneous luminosity and of the number of concurrent p-p collisions (pileup) makes precise energy reconstruction more challenging. Presented are the performance of the CMS ECAL during LHC Run II, as well as the calibration and monitoring strategies to keep these effects to the minimum.
       
  • Bunch length evaluation for typical low-energy beam injectors based on
           RF-phasing techniques
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 November 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): T.N. Hu, Y.J. Pei, G.Y. Feng As a challenging task in the development of picosecond beam injectors, effective evaluation for bunch length is of utmost importance in precisely characterizing high brightness bunches, but conventional diagnostics usually involve dedicated devices and techniques, which result in complicated peripheral sub-systems and high costs. Techniques based RF-phasing, however, present the potential to be more convenient and efficient by maximizing online components commonly contained in typical injectors, such as RF sections and energy spectrometers. By adjusting the standard RF-phasing techniques to adapt the space-charge-dominated beams, we propose cost-efficient methods and derive analytical formulas to directly calculate the bunch length. Furthermore, to validate the feasibility and reliability for such methods, both dynamic simulations and verification experiments were carried with use of the HUST THz-FEL injector, which was similar to the typical injectors. Elaborate comparisons and analyses for the measurements from different formulas demonstrate that the direct calculation methods based on the RF-phasing techniques present as economically supplements to involved injectors.
       
  • Divergence of neutron microbeams from planar waveguides
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 November 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): S.V. Kozhevnikov, V.D. Zhaketov, T. Keller, Yu.N. Khaydukov, F. Ott, F. Radu Neutron planar waveguides are focusing devices generating a narrow neutron beam of submicron width. Such a neutron microbeam can be used for the investigation of local microstructures with high spatial resolution. The essential parameter of the microbeam is its angular width. The main contribution to the microbeam angular divergence is Fraunhofer diffraction on a narrow slit. We review and discuss various ways to characterize the angular divergence of the neutron microbeam using time-of-flight and fixed wavelength reflectometers.
       
  • Novel methods for measuring the optical parameters of the water Cherenkov
           detector
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 November 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): Xiurong Li, Huihai He, Gang Xiao, Xiong Zuo, Shaohui Feng, Lingyu Wang, Cong Li, Mohsin Saeed, Zhen Cao, Xiangdong Sheng, Ning Cheng, for the LHAASO collaboration In this paper, novel methods are presented to measure the optical properties of the cylindrical water Cherenkov detector with high-reflectivity and diffuse reflection dominated Tyvek material as the inner surface. The mean transmission distance of photons between each reflection in the cylindrical water Cherenkov detector (the mean step length), is constant when there is a sufficient number of photons with random directions in the tank. The time distribution of the photons collected by the photomultiplier tube (PMT) in the water Cherenkov detector is approximately exponential, and the decay factor of the time distribution is determined by the absorption length of photons in the water, the reflectivity of the inner Tyvek surface, the mean step length of photons reflected in the tank, and the ratio of reflective Tyvek area to the total inner surface area. By considering the principles of photon propagation in the water Cherenkov detector, we developed novel methods to measure the water absorption length, Tyvek reflectivity, and mean step length of photons in the tank. The water absorption length and Tyvek reflectivity can be measured simultaneously by changing the height of the water, while the step length and Tyvek reflectivity in air can be measured simultaneously by changing the area of Tyvek, and the mean step length of photons can also be measured even all other parameters unknown. The proposed novel methods are supported by the deduction of formulae and verified by GEANT4 simulations and the prototype experiment.
       
  • Design and prototyping of simplified multipole magnets
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 November 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): Jingyu Tang, Changdong Deng, Xi Wu, Shuai Li, Yuwen Wu, Wen Kang, Xiyin Zhang This paper presents the design and prototyping of novel structure magnets – simplified multipole magnets, one octupole and one dodecapole. The field measurements of the prototypes show very good agreement with the numerical field calculations. The octupole prototype can produce either an anti-symmetric or a symmetric field distribution. Magnets with this novel structure can supply much higher saturation fields, e.g. doubled pole-gap strength of 0.6 T for the dodecapole prototype. The intrinsic field errors for the integrated field distribution are within ±1% for a rectangular shape of good field region, which are acceptable for some applications such as beam spot uniformization. Some key technical issues of building the magnets are also discussed. The success of the prototyping will pave the way for applications of the magnet family.
       
  • Temperature dependence of scintillation responses in rare-earth-ions-doped
           LiCaAlF6 single crystals
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 November 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): Noriaki Kawaguchi, Go Okada, Kentaro Fukuda, Takayuki Yanagida We have tested high-temperature responses of prototype neutron detectors equipping Ce-doped lithium silicate glass (GS20), LiCaAlF6:Ce, LiCaAlF6:Eu, LiCaAlF6:Ce, Na, and LiCaAlF6:Eu, Na. These detectors were prepared by coupling of the scintillators to a photomultiplier tube (PMT) for high-temperature environments (R1288, Hamamatsu). In the pulse height spectra under thermal neutron irradiation in the temperature range from 25 °C to 150 °C, peak heights of all the samples decreased with increasing temperatures. The decreasing rates for the peak heights of LiCaAlF6 scintillators were lower than that of GS20. The LiCaAlF6scintillators can be used in the temperature range from 25 °C to 150 °C.
       
  • Charge sharing of single photons in finely segmented pixel detectors
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 November 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): S. Monzani, A. Andreazza, M. Citterio, P. Fontana, M. Ianna, T. Lari, V. Liberali, F. Ragusa, C. Sbarra, A. Sidoti, A. Stabile Monochromatic X and gamma rays are a standard calibration tool for semiconductor detector. For finely segmented pixel detectors, like the ones foreseen for HL-LHC detector upgrades, the single pixel spectrum is affected by charge sharing across nearby pixels, due to diffusion and the finite range of photoelectrons, resulting in a low energy continuum below the photoelectric peak. In this paper a systematic simulation study will be presented. The shape of the transition between the photoelectric peak and the continuum is determined by diffusion and needs to be unfolded for a correct estimation of the energy resolution. Simulation results are compared with data collected with different high-resistivity CMOS devices with 50 × 250 μm2 pixel size and photon energies between 13 and 60 keV. They show a good agreement, highlighting the potential usage of the whole single pixel spectrum to derive device characteristics.
       
  • Simulation of 3D-Silicon sensors for the TIMESPOT project
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 November 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): A. Loi, A. Lai, G.F. Dalla Betta, R. Mendicino, S. Vecchi The experimental conditions in future High Luminosity LHC experiments require new detector systems with increased performances compared to the current state of the art. In this context, increasing spacial resolution and including time measurement with a resolution of less than 50 ps for particle tracking systems can avoid false track reconstruction due to event pile up. For this kind of future tracking detectors the 3D silicon sensor technology appears as a good option. In this context the TIMESPOT initiative was launched. Concerning the development of the sensor, different geometrical solutions have been explored and simulated to optimize the timing response of the single pixel sensor using Sentaurus TCAD. The configuration with the best electric field characteristics for timing was selected for signal simulation. In order to compensate the very time-consuming behavior of TCAD simulations, a faster charge transport simulator with TCAD and Geant4 support is under development. Further sensor configurations, including a first primitive capacitive and resistive load, were also simulated and evaluated. This paper shows a general overview of the project with particular attention to the silicon sensor development. First results are presented.
       
  • New hybrid metaheuristic algorithm for scintillator gamma ray spectrum
           analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 November 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): Davood Alizadeh, Saleh Ashrafi The Sodium Iodide detector (NaI(Tl)) is one of the most widely used nuclear devices in gamma-ray spectrometry due to its high efficiency and low price. However, this detector has low energy resolution and spectra measured by this detector are associated with Gaussian broadening. Therefore, the detector cannot resolve the photopeaks with very close energies. To overcome this problem, spectral deconvolution methods such as boosted ML-EM and boosted Gold algorithms have been proposed, that somewhat resolve the complex spectrum. But these methods cannot obtain a spectrum consisting of narrow photopeaks. Therefore, due to the importance of spectral deconvolution and its applications, there is always a need for a more efficient and precise method. In this study, a new multi-step method based on metaheuristic algorithms is introduced for deconvolution of NaI(Tl) detector spectrum. The new method is used for deconvolution of measured and simulated complex spectra and results are compared with the results of previous methods. The results show that the new multi-step spectral deconvolution method has a very high accuracy and efficiency in deconvolution of the complex spectra.
       
  • A frequency domain multiplexing system to readout the TES bolometers on
           the LSPE/SWIPE experiment
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 October 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): D. Vaccaro, A.M. Baldini, F. Cei, L. Galli, M. Grassi, D. Nicolò, M. Piendibene, A. Tartari, F. Spinella, G. Signorelli LSPE/SWIPE is a balloon-borne experiment aimed at measuring the B-mode polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) exploiting the reionization peak at ℓ
       
  • Development of the proton beam monitor based on the thin diamond crystal
           for the COMET Experiment
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 October 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): Y. Fujii, H. Nishiguchi, S. Mihara, Y. Hashimoto In the COMET experiment, it is essential to establish the online monitor that enables to detect few residual protons between consecutive main proton bunches to search for the muon-to-electron(μ-e) conversion with a sensitivity below 10−16. A thin diamond based detector is proposed because of its ideal characteristics. To realise the diamond based residual proton monitor, a noise suppression is essential since the number of electron–hole pairs generated by a single proton is relatively small in a thin diamond (∼5000 e-h/100μm). The prototype detector based on a 0.5 mm thick diamond was developed to evaluate the proton counting capability. The beam test using a 30 GeV proton beam was performed with this prototype and the result is reported in this paper.
       
  • Ultrafast waveguiding Quantum Dot scintillation detector
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 October 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): K. Dropiewski, A. Minns, M. Yakimov, V. Tokranov, P. Murat, S. Oktyabrsky Picosecond timing of energetic charged particles and photons is a challenge for many high-energy physics and medical applications. InAs Quantum Dots (QDs) embedded in GaAs matrix are expected to have singular scintillation properties. The advantages come from highly efficient energy conversion, as well as from fast electron capture and radiative recombination in QDs. We present design considerations and demonstration of an ultrafast, high photon yield room-temperature semiconductor scintillator. Due to the high refractive index of GaAs, the scintillator is fabricated in the form of a 20μm thick planar waveguide with an integrated InGaAs photodiode. QD luminescence of about 60% efficiency at room temperature has been shown, and modal attenuation stabilized at 1 cm−1. Scintillation responses from 5.5 MeV alpha particles show an extremely fast decay time of 280 ps, a collection efficiency of 11% and a time resolution of 60 ps. This data confirms the unique potential properties of this scintillation detector.
       
  • TID-Tolerant Inverter Designs for radiation-hardened digital systems
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 October 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): Sunghoon Kim, Juyun Lee, Inyong Kwon, Dongsuk Jeon This work experimentally compares total ionizing dose (TID) effects on various inverter designs, which are fundamental components for implementing radiation hardening by design (RHBD) digital circuits. Based on prior works, which reported that leakage current variation of NMOS transistors is significantly larger than that of PMOS, this work suggests design methodologies to alleviate TID effects on NMOS transistors with the following inverter topologies: stacked NMOS inverter, pseudo PMOS inverter, PMOS-only inverter, and dummy transistor inverter. We have also investigated different sizes of the inverters as well as different PN ratios to optimize them for a more robust design that can operate under high radiation environments. These designs are fabricated in the 180 nm CMOS process and measured performance degradations by using a 60Co source. Experimental results show that the stacked NMOS inverter provides best performance in terms of switching point variation, area, and power consumption. In addition, one with larger transistor size and PN ratio is more helpful in TID hardening. Given that an inverter is an essential and basic building block of digital systems, the proposed techniques can be adopted in any systems requiring operation under radiation-emitting circumstances, e.g., measurement devices in nuclear power plants or electronics in space.
       
  • Detector characterization for quantitative spectral radiography of uranium
           powder samples
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 October 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): D.M. Kasparek, B.S. McDonald, A.J. Gilbert, R.S. Wittman The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is responsible for verifying the mass of elemental uranium in various forms (powders, pellets, scrap) as part of inspections at nuclear fuel fabrication facilities. Current methods require in-field dissolution chemistry, which is time consuming and imposes operational challenges. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing a prototype spectral x-ray radiography (SpecX) nondestructive assay system for noninvasive material mass quantification of uranium-bearing powders. The SpecX system uses a custom material estimation algorithm, which requires a high-fidelity pixel-by-pixel detector response model for accurate quantification. We performed a detailed characterization and built a model of a High-Energy X-ray Imaging Technology (HEXITEC) CdTe pixelated spectral detector. Here we present the detector characterization which led to that model, including a determination of the pixel-wise energy calibration, the detection efficiency, the detector uniformity, the detector stability, and a comparison of methods to remove charge-shared events.
       
  • 6 LiF+based+scintillation+neutron+detector+at+high+counting+rates&rft.title=Nuclear+Instruments+and+Methods+in+Physics+Research+Section+A:+Accelerators,+Spectrometers,+Detectors+and+Associated+Equipment&rft.issn=0168-9002&rft.date=&rft.volume=">Evaluation of a ZnS: 6 LiF based scintillation neutron detector at
           high counting rates
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 October 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): A. Stoykov, J.-B. Mosset, M. Hildebrandt In this work we revisit the problem of the restricted count rate capability of thermal neutron detectors utilizing the ZnS scintillator. The effect of the long afterglow of the scintillator on the detector performance at high counting rates is studied. A count rate capability substantially above values currently regarded as feasible is demonstrated.
       
  • Improving spatial and PID performance of the high transparency Drift
           Chamber by using the Cluster Counting and Timing techniques
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 October 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): G. Chiarello, C. Chiri, G. Cocciolo, A. Corvaglia, F. Grancagnolo, A. Miccoli, M. Panareo, C. Pinto, F. Renga, G.F. Tassielli, C. Voena The Helium based ultra-low mass and high granularity Drift Chambers are an optimal solution as tracking systems in modern High Energy Physics experiments for the search of extremely rare processes (MEG-II) and for experiments at future high luminosity e+e− colliders (FCC/CEPC). For the search of rare processes in the cLFV sector the tracking resolutions are dominated by multiple scattering contributions and this impose the use of a ultra-light tracking system. For the future collider in addition to a high tracking performances, a great particle identification (PID) capabilities can have a great impact. We present how, in Helium based gas mixtures, by counting and measuring the arrival times of each individual ionization cluster and by using statistical tools it is possible to have a bias free estimate of the impact parameter and a better PID discrimination by using the dN/dx technique instead of the dE/dx.
       
  • TM +Photosensors+for+the+IceCube+experiment&rft.title=Nuclear+Instruments+and+Methods+in+Physics+Research+Section+A:+Accelerators,+Spectrometers,+Detectors+and+Associated+Equipment&rft.issn=0168-9002&rft.date=&rft.volume=">ABALONE TM Photosensors for the IceCube experiment
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 October 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): Daniel Ferenc, Andrew Chang, Cameron Saylor, Sebastian Böser, Alfredo Davide Ferella, Lior Arazi, John R. Smith, Marija Šegedin Ferenc The ABALONETM Photosensor Technology (U.S. Pat. 9,064,678) is a modern technology specifically invented for cost-effective mass production, robustness, and high performance. We present the performance of advanced fused-silica ABALONE Photosensors, developed specifically for the potential extension of the IceCube neutrino experiment, and stress-tested for 120 days. The resulting performance makes a significant difference: intrinsic gain of ≈6×108, total afterpulsing rate of only 5×10−3 ions per photoelectron, sub-nanosecond timing resolution, single-photon sensitivity, and unique radio-purity and UV sensitivity, thanks to the fused silica components—at no additional cost to the assembly process.
       
  • Radiation and thermal stress test on diamond detectors for the Radial
           Neutron Camera of ITER
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 October 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): F. Pompili, B. Esposito, D. Marocco, S. Podda, M. Riva, S. Baccaro, A. Cemmi, I. Di Sarcina, L. Quintieri, D. Bocian, K. Drozdowicz, M. Curylo, J. Dankowski, J. Kotula, W. Maciocha, T. Nowak, J. Swierblewsk, L. Vermeeren, W. Leysen The Radial Neutron Camera (RNC) of ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) is a multichannel detection system designed to measure the uncollided neutron flux from the fusion plasma, providing information on the neutron emissivity profiles and source strength. Fission chambers and diamond detectors are candidate detectors for the RNC In-port subsystem. This is a high radiation environment (up to ∼5 MGy gamma dose and ∼2×1016 n/cm2 neutron fluence) where about 500 baking cycles up to 240 °C are foreseen over the whole ITER lifetime. In order to assess the feasibility of using diamond detectors in such harsh conditions, and to study the best technological solutions, we are currently performing a set of tests to understand the behavior of diamond detectors under radiation and thermal stresses: (1) thermal stress tests at constant temperature of 240 °C and thermal cycling between 100 °C and 240 °C; (2) gamma-hardness test up to a total dose of 4.7 MGy; (3) neutron-hardness test (limited to 2 ×1014 n/cm2 in this work).
       
  • Real-time wireless personal dosimeter for Interventional Radiology
           Procedures
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 October 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): L. Servoli, L. Alunni Solestizi, M. Biasini, L. Bissi, A. Calandra, L. Chiatti, R. Cicioni, R. Di Lorenzo, A.C. Dipilato, S. Fabiani, K. Kanxheri, M. Italiani, D. Magalotti, M. Paolucci, P. Placidi, A. Scorzoni, S. Trivisonne Medical procedures where real-time X-ray imaging is needed have rapidly increased in number in the past decades. Consequently, the personnel dosimetry for medical staff has become more important, also in light of the revision of worker safety regulations. Detailed knowledge of the dose-rate is needed to reduce the total absorbed dose during a single procedure. Real-time monitoring through wearable active devices would greatly facilitate this task. In this work, we will present the characterization of the RAPID wireless device (based on CMOS imager as X-ray sensing detector) in clinical conditions, with PMMA phantoms. The prototype has shown the capability to measure dose-rates with a frequency in the range of few Hz, and an uncertainty smaller than 10%.
       
  • A normally-distributed crosstalk model for silicon photomultipliers
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 October 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): J.O.D Williams, S.R. Rosen, J.S. Lapington Optical crosstalk (OCT) in silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) occurs when photon detection in a microcell leads to the production of further photons that are also detected. Various models have been considered to predict experimental data with varying degrees of success. In this paper, we introduce the Normally-Distributed Crosstalk Model (NDCM), where the probability of triggering additional microcells is given by a 2-d normal distribution with a standard deviation of σ: a device-specific parameter representing OCT photon propagation path length in terms of microcell pitch. Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of NDCM are compared to existing models and experimental data from the CHEC-S camera developed for the Cherenkov Telescope Array, which suggests that OCT occurs with a σ≈ 5 microcells in this device.
       
  • Optimized MPGD-based Photon Detectors for high momentum particle
           identification at the Electron-Ion Collider
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 October 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): J. Agarwala, C. Chatterjee, A. Cicuttin, P. Ciliberti, M.L. Crespo, S. Dalla Torre, S. Dasgupta, M. Gregori, S. Levorato, G. Menon, F. Tessarotto, Y. Zhao Particle IDentification (PID) is a central requirement of the experiments at the future EIC. Hadron PID at high momenta by RICH techniques requires the use of low density gaseous radiators, where the challenge is the limited length of the radiator region available at a collider experiment. By selecting a photon wavelength range in the far UV domain, around 120 nm, the number of detectable photons can be increased. Ideal sensors are gaseous Photon Detectors (PD) with CsI photocathode, where the status of the art is represented by the MPGD-based PDs at COMPASS RICH. Detector optimization is required for the application at EIC.Here we report about a dedicated prototype where the sensor pad-size has been reduced to preserve the angular resolution. A new DAQ system based on the SRS readout electronics has been developed for the laboratory and test beam studies of the prototype.
       
  • Particle-identification techniques and performance at LHCb in Run 2
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 October 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): M. Hushchyn, V. Chekalina, on behalf of the LHCb collaboration One of the most challenging data analysis tasks of modern High Energy Physics experiments is the identification of particles. In this proceedings we review the new approaches used for particle identification at the LHCb experiment. Machine-Learning based techniques are used to identify the species of charged and neutral particles using several observables obtained by the LHCb sub-detectors. We show the performances of various solutions based on Neural Network and Boosted Decision Tree models.
       
  • Refraction driven X-ray caustics at curved interfaces
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 October 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): S. Evsevleev, B.R. Müller, A. Lange, A. Kupsch X-ray refraction related interaction has received rising interest since about two decades in the field of imaging, beam shaping and analysis although being discovered a century ago. Due to refraction at interfaces in inhomogeneous media X-rays undergo natural focusing (or defocusing) of waves, revealing caustics. Such kind of intensity patterns are well-known for visible light, but have been sparsely discussed for X-rays. The variation of irradiation density may be predicted in case of known shapes. Analogously to light optics, the intensity distributions cover several orders of magnitude including complete extinction. The partly convergent (and divergent) caustic stripes originate from narrow zones of typical size of some 10−6 of the boundary curvature radius. For the deflection of plane wave synchrotron radiation (energy in the range of some keV to some ten keV) at rods and tubes of several μm diameter, we find good agreement between experiments and modeling by ray tracing according to Snell’s law without additional diffraction contributions. Apart from basic research implications, caustics may influence the performance of irradiation technologies such as sterilization or molecular cross-linking.
       
  • Dependency of the capture of field emitted electron on the phase velocity
           of a high-frequency accelerating structure
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 October 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): Thomas Geoffrey Lucas, Theodorous Argyopolous, Mark James Boland, Nuria Catalan-Lasheras, Roger Paul Rassool, Claudio Serpico, Matteo Volpi, Walter Wuensch Surface electric fields within high gradient linear accelerators can exceed 200 MV/m and lead to field emitted (FE) electrons entering the structure. When the accelerating field conditions permit, these FE electrons can become captured in the RF fields and be transported through the accelerating structure as a dark current. Understanding the capture and transport of these FE currents in high frequency linear accelerators, and at accelerating gradients well above the capture threshold, is important for the operation of CERN’s X-band test stands and other high gradient linear accelerators. Such dark current leads to a background radiation, which dictates shielding requirements and can damage adjacent instrumentation, as well as a background current within the structure, which can affect beam diagnostics and in the most extreme cases can cause transverse kicks on bunches. The capture of field emitted electrons is described analytically in a one dimensional approximation and is then evaluated numerically for a test structure geometry. A particular focus for the analysis is how the interaction varies with phase velocity. We demonstrate how the phase velocity varies with respect to the nominal driver frequency and structure operational temperature. Measurements on the X-band test stands at CERN demonstrate that the capture increases 12%–28% for a 1 MHz increase in the driver frequency. A three dimensional RF and particle simulation found a similar order of magnitude result for a 1 MHz increase corrborating the measurements.
       
  • Upgrade of the ATLAS detectors and trigger for the High Luminosity LHC:
           Tracking and timing for pile-up suppression
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 October 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): M. Testa, on behalf of the ATLAS Collaboration The High Luminosity-Large Hadron Collider is expected to start data-taking in 2026 and to provide an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb−1, giving a factor 10 more data than that will be collected by 2023. This high statistics will make it possible to perform precise measurements in the Higgs sector and improve searches of new physics at the TeV scale. The peak luminosity is expected to be 7.5 × 1034 cm−2 s−1, corresponding to about 200 proton–proton interactions per event (pile-up), which will increase the rates at each level of the trigger and degrade the reconstruction performance. To cope with such a harsh environment many sub-detectors of the ATLAS experiment will be upgraded and some completely substituted. The Trigger-DAQ system will be upgraded. In this talk an overview of two new sub-detectors enabling powerful pile-up suppression, a new Inner Tracker and a High Granularity Timing Detector, will be given, describing the two technologies, their performance, and their interplay. Emphasis will also be given to the possibility of using tracking and timing information at the earliest, hardware based, ATLAS trigger stage.
       
  • Tensile, flexural, and light output measurements of selected organic
           scintillators for evaluation of their potential as structural materials
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 October 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): Caleb Redding, Alexandra Hackett, Mitchell Laubach, Rui Feng, Patrick Feng, Chuck Hurlbut, Peter Liaw, Jason P. Hayward In order to design structures, such as unmanned vehicle structures, out of plastic scintillator, e.g., for radionuclide searches, suitable materials must either be identified or developed. In searches utilizing unmanned vehicles, the absence of an additional detector attached to the vehicle body as a payload could enable the vehicle to travel faster, carry a longer lived battery, or carry other auxiliary equipment which may be useful for search and/or response. To this end, four mechanical characteristics of selected organic scintillators manufactured by Eljen technologies, Sandia Livermore, and Lawrence Livermore National Lab have been measured. Specifically, tensile and flexural tests have been performed to ASTM specifications on organic scintillators with polyvinyl toluene (PVT), polystyrene (PS), or crosslinked versions of these bases. In addition to these mechanical tests, light output testing was performed in order to quantify whether crosslinking or adding organometallic complexes affects light output in the particular scintillator compositions we measured. We found that the tested plastic scintillators have strengths that are comparable to common structural plastics. We also show that chemically modifying the polymer base can show improvements in the mechanical properties without being overly detrimental to the scintillator light output.
       
  • Employing MCNP to optimize experimental design for compressed sensing
           neutron source imaging
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 October 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): Nuraslinda Anuar, Craig Marianno, Ryan G. McClarren Compressed sensing theory has been applied in the signal processing stage of many existing imaging systems. This research attempts to incorporate compressed sensing principles in conjunction with the collimator design. Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP) was used to design a proof-of-concept experimental apparatus. This was accomplished by running simulations to determine: the height of water required to stop thermal neutrons from a 252Cf source; collimator array dimensions; the collimator material; and the collimator size for the experiment. The simulations were run using a cylindrical water tank and a 2 × 2 array of channels acting as collimator. Three different materials were simulated to determine the best collimator composition for the experiment. An array configuration was defined as a random combination of air-filled and water-filled channels. Neutron counts were measured for each configuration and the image of the source was constructed using non-negative least squares with MATLAB. Another MCNP model with a rectangular tank was created with an 11 × 11 collimator array. Several images as a function of the number of measurements, K, were produced to observe the minimum K that would result in accurate image quality. These simulations have resulted in the decision to proceed with the assembly of an imaging system made of a water-filled 250-gallon tank with an array of 0.5-inch 11 × 11 polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipes. The K required for a conventional raster scan method would be the total pixels, which is K=121 in the 11 × 11 case. It was found that the source shape and location can be obtained with K that is 50% of the total pixels.
       
  • CALPRO, an unconventional calorimetry approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 October 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): M. Iacovacci, S. Mastroianni, B. Cimmino, R. Messi, D. Moricciani We propose a calorimetry approach unconventional and innovative. The method is based on the measurement of the lateral distribution of charged particles around the shower axis, it has been used for the first time in the energy determination of Extensive Air Showers at very high energy (> 100 TeV) with single layer detector, providing an energy determination with resolution of about 10% for energies above 100 TeV. It has some peculiar characteristics which can be summarized in the following three points: 1) measurement of the shower energy by means of a single sampling; 2) calorimetry which renounces the classic concept of containment of the shower; 3) possibility to separate primary masses. In order to extend this technique at lower energies, specific simulations have been performed through GEANT4 in the energy range 100 GeV – 10 TeV for different particles.
       
  • Optimization of LANSCE proton beam performance for isotope production
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 October 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): Yuri K. Batygin The LANSCE Isotope Production Facility (IPF) utilizes a 100-MeV proton beam with average power of 23 kW for isotope production in the fields of medicine, nuclear physics, national security, environmental science and industry. Typical tolerable fractional beam loss in the 100-MeV beamline is 4 ×10−3. Experimental beam study was made to minimize the beam losses. Adjustments to the ion source’s extraction voltage resulted in the removal of tails in phase space. Beam based steering in beamlines led to the reduction of beam emittance growth. Readjustment of the 100-MeV quadrupole transport resulted in the elimination of excessive beam envelope oscillations and removed significant parts of the beam halo at the target. Careful beam matching in the drift tube linac (DTL) provided high beam capture (75%) in the DTL. After improvements, beam losses in the 100-MeV beamline were reduced by an order of magnitude and reached the fractional level of 5×10−4.
       
  • Aging phenomena and discharge probability studies of the triple-GEM
           detectors for future upgrades of the CMS muon high rate region at the
           HL-LHC
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 October 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): F. Fallavollita, on behalf of the CMS Muon Group We present the results of aging and discharge probability studies of CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) triple-GEM detectors. These studies has been performed in the framework of an R&D activity on triple-GEM detectors for the innermost region of the muon spectrometer of the CMS experiment in order to confirm the robustness of the triple-GEM technology and evaluate the effect of the irradiation and neutron-induced discharges on the long-term detector operation.
       
  • Well structure engineering to improve the responsivity of p-on-n SiPM
           developed at KAIST-NNFC
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 October 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): Kyung Taek Lim, Hyoungtaek Kim, Jisung Hwang, Junhyeok Kim, Woo Suk Sul, Gyuseong Cho This paper describes the electrical and optical properties of the p-on-n silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) developed at KAIST-NNFC. In particular, we present a comparison of the new and old versions in terms of several SiPM characteristics to highlight the improvements achieved through internal structure engineering. The new-version sensors were fabricated on a 200 mm n-doped epitaxial silicon wafer with an abrupt p+/n junction structure identical to that used in the old-version sensors using 0.18μm CMOS technology. Based on the previous work, several changes were applied to the improved sensors, such as rapid thermal processing (RTP) conditions and ion implantation conditions for junction formation. In the work, we demonstrate that the reverse current is reduced by more than a factor of 104 with the modified RTP conditions. Furthermore, we show that the breakdown voltage is decreased by nearly 20% and the PDE in the blue-light regime is enhanced by nearly a factor of two as a result of internal structure engineering.
       
  • Gamma-ray tracking for high energy gamma-ray imaging in pixelated CdZnTe
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 October 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): Daniel Shy, Zhong He Sequencing gamma-ray interactions within a detector system is an integral component of Compton imaging. In detectors with poor timing resolution compared to the time interval of successive interactions, algorithms which order gamma-ray interactions must be implemented using only energy and position information. This work examines previous algorithms and inspects interaction kinematics to increase the sequencing algorithm’s speed and effectiveness. The proposed method, in which the first interaction is assumed to deposit the largest energy, has improved sequencing performance by greater than 20% for full energy gamma ray depositions larger than 1 MeV that do not contain pair-production. In addition, the algorithm shows a decrease in computational costs for sequence reconstruction to allow for better real time reconstruction. Experimental results show an almost twofold increase in the signal to noise ratio (SNR) for simple backprojection images of a 22Na source. Additional measurements of the 2.2 MeV gamma rays from H1(n,γ)D2 neutron capture demonstrates the proposed algorithm’s superior performance.
       
  • The construction technique of the new MEG II tracker
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 October 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): G. Chiarello, A.M. Baldini, G. Cavoto, F. Cei, M. Chiappini, A. Corvaglia, M. Francesconi, L. Galli, F. Grancagnolo, M. Grassi, M. Hildebrandt, A. Miccoli, D. Nicoló, A. Papa, M. Panareo, C. Pinto, F. Raffaelli, F. Renga, G. Signorelli, G.F. Tassielli The MEG experiment, at the PSI, aims to search for the charged lepton flavor violating decay μ+→e+γ. MEG has established the world best upper limit for the branching ratio: BR(μ+→e+γ)
       
  • High precision mapping of single-pixel Silicon Drift Detector for
           applications in astrophysics and advanced light source
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 October 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): D. Cirrincione, M. Ahangarianabhari, F. Ambrosino, I. Bajnati, P. Bellutti, G. Bertuccio, G. Borghi, J. Bufon, G. Cautero, F. Ceraudo, Y. Evangelista, S. Fabiani, M. Feroci, F. Ficorella, M. Gandola, F. Mele, G. Orzan, A. Picciotto, M. Sammartini, A. Rachevski A Silicon Drift Detector with 3x3 mm2 sensitive area was designed by INFN of Trieste and built by FBK-Trento. It represents a single-pixel precursor of a monolithic matrix of multipixel Silicon Drift Detectors and, at the same time, a model of one cell Fluorescence Detector System (XAFS) for SESAME. The point-by-point mapping tests of the detector were carried out in the X-ray facilities at INAF-IAPS in Rome, equipped with a motorized two-axis micrometric positioning system. High precision characterization of this detector was done with a radioactive 55Fe source and a collimated Ti X-ray tube equipped with a Bragg crystal monocromator.The mapping in different positions and bias condition was specifically-aimed to the detailed analysis of the charge collection efficiency at the edge of the detector. The result is important to understand and verify the aspects related to the collection of the signal with respect to the position of interactions of the photons, especially in consideration of the new design and development of monolithic multipixel detectors.
       
  • Low energy light yield of fast plastic scintillators
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 October 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): T.A. Laplace, B.L. Goldblum, J.A. Brown, D.L. Bleuel, C.A. Brand, G. Gabella, T. Jordan, C. Moore, N. Munshi, Z.W. Sweger, A. Sweet, E. Brubaker Compact neutron imagers using double-scatter kinematic reconstruction are being designed for localization and characterization of special nuclear material. These neutron imaging systems rely on scintillators with a rapid prompt temporal response as the detection medium. As n-p elastic scattering is the primary mechanism for light generation by fast neutron interactions in organic scintillators, proton light yield data are needed for accurate assessment of scintillator performance. The proton light yield of a series of commercial fast plastic organic scintillators—EJ-200, EJ-204, and EJ-208—was measured via a double time-of-flight technique at the 88-Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Using a tunable deuteron breakup neutron source, target scintillators housed in a dual photomultiplier tube configuration, and an array of pulse-shape-discriminating observation scintillators, the fast plastic scintillator light yield was measured over a broad and continuous energy range down to proton recoil energies of approximately 50 keV. This work provides key input to event reconstruction algorithms required for utilization of these materials in emerging neutron imaging modalities.
       
  • Neutron spectroscopy and spectral unfolding with  4He fast
           neutron scintillators
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 October 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): Yinong Liang, Ting Zhu, Sasmit S. Gokhale, Cody E. Parker, Andrea L. Richard, Thomas N. Massey, Rico Chandra, Heather Ray, Kelly A. Jordan, Andreas Enqvist Time-of-flight measurements were performed to determine the 4He pressurized fast neutron scintillation detectors response function and the ability of the detectors to be applied as a spectrometer. An experimentally validated neutron energy response function was used in conjunction with an iterative least squares unfolding technique to unfold a 252Cf spontaneous fission spectrum, a PuBe (α, n) spectrum, and a deuterium-deuterium (D-D) fusion reaction spectrum. The ability of the detectors to retain incident neutron energies makes them suitable for applications such as nuclear non-proliferation and spent nuclear fuel monitoring.
       
  • FluDAG: A CAD based tool for high energy physics
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 October 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): Andrew Davis, Janet Barzilla, Alfredo Ferrari, Kerry T. Lee, Vasillis Vlachoudis, Paul P.H. Wilson As part of the expansion of the Direct Accelerated Geometry Monte Carlo (DAGMC) toolkit to support other Monte Carlo codes, FluDAG (FLUKA integrated with DAGMC) was developed. There has been increasing demand from the high energy physics community regarding Computer Aided Design (CAD) geometry support in Monte Carlo codes. In this paper, the development and validation of FluDAG is discussed and its application to a number of high energy physics experiments is demonstrated, along with its validity relative to native FLUKA calculations.
       
  • Precise measurement of 3D-position of SiPMs in the liquid xenon gamma-ray
           detector for the MEGII experiment
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 October 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): Satoru Kobayashi, Marco Francesconi, Luca Galli, Kei Ieki, Toshiyuki Iwamoto, Terence Libeiro, Nobuo Matsuzawa, William Molzon, Toshinori Mori, Mitsutaka Nakao, Shinji Ogawa, Rina Onda, Wataru Ootani We developed two complementary ways to measure the position of SiPMs inside liquid xenon detector for MEG II experiment; one uses laser tools and the other uses an X-ray beam. We measured the position of all SiPMs to an accuracy of 320 μm.
       
  • Level-1 track finding with an all-FPGA system at CMS for the HL-LHC
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 October 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): L.E. Ardila-Perez, on behalf of the CMS collaboration The CMS experiment at the LHC is designed to study a wide range of high energy physics phenomena. It employs a large all-silicon tracker within a 3.8 T magnetic solenoid, which allows precise measurements of transverse momentum (pT) and vertex position. This tracking detector will be upgraded to coincide with the installation of the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), which will provide up to about 1035cm−2s−1 to CMS, or up to 200 collisions per 25 ns bunch crossing. This new tracker must maintain the nominal physics performance in this more challenging environment. Novel tracking modules that utilize closely spaced silicon sensors to discriminate on track pT have been developed to allow the readout of only hits compatible with pT > 2-3 GeV tracks to off-detector trigger electronics. This would enable the use of tracking information to produce the Level-1 trigger of the experiment, a requirement to keep the Level-1 triggering rate below the 750 kHz target, while maintaining physics sensitivity. A concept for an all-FPGA based track finder using a fully time-multiplexed architecture is presented. Hardware demonstrators have been used to prove the feasibility and capability of such a system using two different reconstruction algorithms. The proposed scaling of the demonstrators to the final system is showed as well as the new technologies used in the first prototypes.
       
  • Development of a Silicon Photomultiplier based dual readout calorimeter:
           The pathway beyond the proof-of-concept
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 October 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): M. Antonello, M. Caccia, R. Ferrari, L. Pezzotti, R. Santoro, on behalf of the RD-52 and INFN RD-FA Collaborations A first dual-readout fibre calorimeter readout with Silicon Photomultipliers was designed, constructed and tested on beam. This first test completed the proof-of-concept and pointed out some issues to be address in future beam tests. Possible solutions and strategies to overcome these challenges are summarized in this paper.
       
  • An integrated remote data collection system for macromolecular
           crystallography beamline at SSRF
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 October 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): Qisheng Wang, Bo Sun, Huan Zhou, Zhijun Wang, Feng Yu, Jianhua He Remote data collection is a rapidly growing area in many synchrotrons. With the increasing requirement for remote data collection from users of macromolecular crystallography beamline BL17U1 in Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF), an integrated remote data collection system based on Blu-Ice/DCS has been developed. Owing to the advances in the beamline instruments, the process of diffraction data collection which include the sample mount, crystal centering and data set collection can be executed full automatically on site. To let the external users access the intranet of SSRF, a VPN is set with authorization. The authorized user could login to the control computer and lunch the user graphic interface under the beam time management system. The remote users conduct their experiment from the virtual desktop by NoMachine client. To improve the efficiency on the high data-rate macromolecular crystallography beamline, data process pipeline display the results by web page.
       
  • The partial truncated icosahedron phoswich array for detection of low
           energy charged pions and light charged particles
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 October 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): A. Zarrella, E. Churchman, J. Gauthier, K. Hagel, L. Heilborn, A. Jedele, Y.-W. Lui, A.B. McIntosh, A. Rodriguez Manso, A. Wakhle, M.D. Youngs, S.J. Yennello The Partial Truncated Icosahedron (ParTI) phoswich array has been designed for the detection of low energy charged pions and other light charged particles for the study of pionic fusion reactions. The array consists of 15 plastic/CsI(Tl) phoswich detector units arranged in approximately one hemisphere of a truncated icosahedron geometry. The phoswich detectors’ particle identification capabilities have been characterized. A pulse shape discrimination technique has demonstrated isotopic identification for Z = 1 and Z = 2 particles and elemental identification up to at least Z = 3. Utilization of digital electronics allows for increased sensitivity in event triggering and independent verification of pion detection. A calibration technique for the array has also been developed.
       
  • Radiation study of FPGAs with neutron beam for COMET Phase-I
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 October 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): Yu Nakazawa, Yuki Fujii, Eitaro Hamada, MyeongJae Lee, Yuta Miyazaki, Akira Sato, Kazuki Ueno, Hisataka Yoshida, Jie Zhang The COMET Phase-I experiment plans to search for muon to electron conversion. In order to get a good signal-to-noise ratio and time resolution, all the front-end readout boards are installed near the detector region where the radiation level is high. The radiation effects, in particular from neutrons, onto FPGA hardware will be a severe problem. We developed high reliable firmware with auto-recovery schemes for three different series of FPGAs, and evaluated them with a neutron beam. In these tests, soft error rates were measured and good performances of the schemes were demonstrated.
       
  • Magnetic and mechanical design of large-aperture variable-period permanent
           magnet undulator
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 October 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): I. Davidyuk, O.A. Shevchenko, V.G. Tcheskidov, N.A. Vinokurov The design of the large-aperture variable-period undulator developed for the Novosibirsk free electron laser (FEL) is described. This undulator has a remarkably large (1.4) ratio of the aperture (inner diameter) to the minimum period. High amplitude of on-axis field is achieved due to the arc shape of the magnet blocks and poles of the undulator. Such large-aperture undulators can be used not only for long-wavelength FELs, but also as short-period undulators of modern storage-ring-based high-brightness x-ray sources and x-ray FELs. Results of computer modelling and calculated basic characteristics of the undulator are presented.
       
  • Development of a neutron detector with a high position resolution at
           intermediate energies
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 October 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): Y. Kubota, M. Sasano, T. Uesaka, M. Dozono, M. Itoh, S. Kawase, M. Kobayashi, C.S. Lee, H. Matsubara, K. Miki, H. Miya, Y. Ono, S. Ota, K. Sekiguchi, T. Shima, T. Taguchi, T.L. Tang, H. Tokieda, T. Wakasa, T. Wakui A high position resolution neutron detector for time-of-flight measurements is being developed to measure the (p,pn) reaction in inverse kinematics with an excitation energy resolution of 1 MeV at the RIKEN RI Beam Factory. In this study, a new method based on the segmentation of the neutron detector part is employed to achieve a position resolution on the order of mm with a prototype neutron detector. The prototype detector consists of 8 × 8 scintillating fibers, two multi-anode photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) and two light guides. The scintillating fibers have a cross sectional area of 3.75×3.75mm2. The prototype’s performance is studied using the neutron and proton beams provided at the Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center (CYRIC), Tohoku University and the Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University. It is confirmed that the hit pattern analysis correctly recognizes the neutron detection position within the fiber size of 3.75 mm. The obtained TOF resolution of 350 ps (FWHM), lateral position resolution of 2.5 mm (FWHM), and longitudinal position resolution of 50–60 mm (FWHM) satisfy the requirements to achieve an excitation energy resolution of 1 MeV. The typical detection efficiency is ∼2.0% for a neutron with a kinetic energy of 50–200 MeV. The detailed investigation of the detection efficiency in conjunction with the neutron hit position reveals the existence of the non-uniformity of the efficiency. It is shown that the non-uniformity can be mitigated by reducing the threshold level, and by increasing the detector size. For a larger neutron detector, based on the design of the prototype detector, the non-uniformity will thus be negligible.
       
  • Measuring neutron leakage spectra using spherical benchmarks with 252Cf
           source in its centers
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 October 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): Martin Schulc, Michal Košťál, Evžen Novák, Vojtěch Rypar The presented paper summarizes the methodology of fast neutron leakage fluxes measurement using a stilbene scintillation detector on spherical benchmark assemblies. The experiments are realized in a spherically simple geometry, which does not need validation of the neutron transport model. Hence, this type of experiment is suitable for validation of the nuclear cross sections of various isotopes. The 252Cf neutron source is always placed in the center of a sphere of different pure materials. The selection is focused on structural materials used in the nuclear industry. In the presented set, the materials include light water, heavy water and nickel. For example, the light and heavy water spheres can be used to eliminate the effect of hydrogen and estimate the effect of oxygen. The neutron spectra in the region of 1–10 MeV are measured in a room where the background could substantially influence the final result. For this reason, the estimation of the scattered neutrons is crucial for the correct evaluation of the experiment. The comparison of the calculated and measured neutron fluxes and background signal share are presented. Calculations were performed using the MCNP6 program with the ENDF/B-VII.1 nuclear data library.
       
  • Computational investigation of arranged scintillating particle composites
           for fast neutron detection
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 October 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): Brenden W. Wiggins, Andrea Favalli, Metodi L. Iliev, Kiril D. Ianakiev, Markus P. Hehlen Composite materials have the potential to play an important role in enabling high-performance and cost-effective neutron detectors for fundamental science, global security, and dosimetry applications. This study presents neutron and gamma transport simulation results on composites consisting of  6Li-containing GS20 scintillator glass particles arranged in an organic matrix. These composites achieve high sensitivity for neutrons while suppressing signals from gamma rays. The simulations successfully identified optimal composite parameters such as particle size, geometry, and inter-particle pitch. This information is key to the subsequent fabrication and scale-up of the desired GS20-in-acrylic composite. The simulation results presented in this paper demonstrate that arranged composites can provide high neutron detection efficiency with gamma misidentification values of
       
  • Empirical study of the spatial variation of recombination, polarity and
           polarization effects in ionization chambers
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 October 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): Duncan J. Butler, Toby Beveridge, Joerg Lehmann, Chris P. Oliver, Tracy E. Bailey, Andrew W. Stevenson, Jayde Livingstone We present measurements of the spatial response of two ionization chambers obtained by scanning them through a 0.1 mm diameter beam of synchrotron radiation (weighted-average energy 95 keV). The technique was used to investigate the spatial variation of effects associated with recombination, bias voltage and beam polarization on the signal. The chamber types investigated were the PTW model 30013 0.6 cm3 Farmer-type chamber and the Exradin model A5 100 cm3 spherical chamber. Recombination was found to vary according to the local electric field strength inside the chamber and the volume of air presented to the beam. The bias polarity effect was found to be small and relatively uniform across the chamber. Within the accuracy of the measurements, no difference could be determined between response scans with the electric field vector of the incident beam aligned parallel and orthogonal to the chamber axis.
       
  • A C-14 beam monitor using silicon solid state sensor for cultural heritage
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 October 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): F. Barile, S. Barone, M.E. Fedi, L. Liccioli, V. Paticchio, R. Perrino, S. Schiavulli, F. Taccetti We report the design and preliminary test results of a 14C beam monitor developed for the online monitoring for radiocarbon dating. The challenge of the INFN CHNet-Lilliput experiment is to measure the amount of carbon in very small samples (down to a few micro-grams) with a very low concentration of radiocarbon. For this purpose, a new dedicated beam monitor for 14C ions (Energy ≃ 10 MeV) uses a silicon solid state detector made of 4 independent sectors, active area 50 × 50 mm2 and 300 μm thickness. The detector was preliminary tested in the INFN Laboratory of Bari and then installed on the final part of the Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) beam line at the INFN-LABEC Laboratory of Firenze (Italy) where sample measurements for radiocarbon dating are performed since 2004.
       
  • Operation of microchannel plate PMTs with TOFPET multichannel timing
           electronics
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 October 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): Steven A. Leach, Jon S. Lapington, James S. Milnes, Tom Conneely, Ricardo Bugalho, Stefaan Tavernier We describe an experimental programme to evaluate TOFPET multichannel timing electronics using microchannel plate PMTs in single photon counting mode. Time resolution measurements were made using: (i) the on-board electronic stim signal; (ii) a Photek PMT210 high speed single anode MCP photomultiplier detector, and; (iii) imaging with a PMT240MA multi-anode MCP detector using a pixelated multi-layer ceramic readout.Experimental measurements using an electronic stim with the ASIC electronics gave a time resolution of 43 ps rms. Detector timing of the PMT210 detector was evaluated using a 40 ps wide pulsed laser with amplitude walk correction using the time over threshold capability of the TOFPET electronics. Single photon timing resolution of better than 100 ps rms was demonstrated.Furthermore, 256 discrete pixel imaging has been demonstrated by coupling a multi-anode pixelated MCP detector to the TOFPET system.
       
  • High energy resolution thermal microcalorimeters for the HOLMES experiment
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 October 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): M. Faverzani, B. Alpert, D. Becker, D. Bennet, M. Biasotti, V. Ceriale, M. De Gerone, E. Ferri, J. Fowler, G. Gallucci, J. Gard, F. Gatti, A. Giachero, J. Hays-Wehle, G. Hilton, J. Mates, A. Nucciotti, A. Orlando, G. Pessina, A. Puiu HOLMES is an experiment aimed at directly measuring the neutrino mass through the calorimetric measurement of the 163Ho electron capture decay. The final goal of the project consists in providing a sensitivity on the neutrino mass below 2 eV; in addition, it will establish the potential of this approach to achieve a sub–eV sensitivity. The detectors performances play a crucial role in achieving the desired sensitivity. Indeed, for such an experiment, the following characteristics are required: short response time (∼1μs) to solve pile–up events, great energy resolution (∼1 eV @ 2.8 keV) and compatibility to be multiplexed in large detector arrays (≳1000). HOLMES will deploy 1000 Transition Edge Sensors which will be readout with the microwave multiplexing technique. In this contribution we outline the experimental setup used in the characterization phase of the detectors.
       
  • +38 mm+diameter)+KCaI3:Eu+scintillator+crystals&rft.title=Nuclear+Instruments+and+Methods+in+Physics+Research+Section+A:+Accelerators,+Spectrometers,+Detectors+and+Associated+Equipment&rft.issn=0168-9002&rft.date=&rft.volume=">Growth of large size ( ≥ 38 mm diameter) KCaI3:Eu scintillator crystals
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 October 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): Matthew Loyd, Adam Lindsey, Yuntao Wu, Luis Stand, Micah Folsom, Daniel Rutstrom, Merry Koschan, Charles L. Melcher, Mariya Zhuravleva KCaI3:Eu is a scintillator composition that is promising for national security applications, with a high light yield and good energy resolution (∼70,000 ph/MeV and ∼3% E.R. at 662 keV, respectively). In addition to its high performance, we have been successful at growing KCaI3:Eu at larger sizes (38 mm diameter) without cracking. In this work we utilized a multi ampoule growth station to grow four 38 mm diameter crystals simultaneously. Three of these crystals achieved an energy resolution of ∼ 4% at 662 keV. The three crystals were hermetically packaged and a collimation study was carried out. This study revealed that light yield at a given irradiation location is dominated by photon path lengths and self-absorption, while the energy resolution dependence is affected heavily by local crystal quality. A 50 mm diameter KCaI3:Eu crystal was grown that achieved an energy resolution of 4.6% at 662 keV. GEANT4 was used to model a gap-style package that results in reduced photon path lengths, and therefore reduced self-absorption probability.
       
  • Spatial resolution of triple-GEM detectors
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 October 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): V.N. Kudryavtsev, T.V. Maltsev, L.I. Shekhtman Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) based detectors are widely used in numerous collider experiments and, in particular, at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP). In order to determine the best possible spatial resolution, the simulation of charged particle registration process is accomplished. The simulation shows that spatial resolution is definitely less than 20μm for applied operation configurations. The simulation of electron transport through single GEM and through GEM-cascade shows that an electron cluster is compressed by GEM holes and an effective transverse diffusion is reduced by approximately 15% as maximum. The experimental part of the work is devoted to the operability tests of the designed detector with orthogonal strips readout with a pitch of 250μm andthe measurements of its characteristics including the dependence of gain on GEM-voltage, the registration efficiency and the spatial resolution. Spatial resolution of the studied detector is measured as 31.5±0.9(stat.)−7.5+6.9(syst.)μm.
       
  • A fast and quasi non-invasive muon beam monitor working at the intensity
           frontier
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 October 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): A. Papa, G. Rutar, F. Barchetti, M. Hildebrandt, P.-R. Kettle A new and high-performance generation of detectors based on scintillating fibres coupled to silicon photomultiplier (SiPM, MPPC) is under development. We focus here on the use of this technology as a beam monitoring detector with the following characteristics: high granularity, high detection efficiency, fast timing response, accurate position resolutions, minimal material budget and insensitivity to magnetic fields. We present a scintillating fibre and silicon photomultiplier-based beam monitoring detector used in one of the most intense muon beam in the world (few ×108μ+∕s). A full detector prototype was built and successfully tested at the πE5 beam line of the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI). Beam profile and rate measurements were made with a precision of better than 1% and together with particle identification capability, are consistent with standard techniques confirming the viability of this technology for high-rate applications.
       
  • A feasibility test run for the MUonE project
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 October 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): G. Ballerini, G. Abbiendi, M. Bonanomi, C. Brizzolari, U. Marconi, V. Mascagna, C. Matteuzzi, M. Prest, A. Principe, M. Soldani, E. Vallazza, G. Venanzoni The 3.4 σ discrepancy between the experimental value of the muon anomalous magnetic moment g-2 and the Standard Model prediction is one of the most intriguing indications of physics beyond the Standard Model. The MUonE project plans to measure the leading hadronic corrections to the muon g-2 by scattering high energy (∼150 GeV) muons off the atomic electrons of a low-Z target through the elastic process μ+e →μ+e. The angles of the incoming muons and the outcoming muons and electrons have to be measured precisely, to exploit the kinematical correlation of the μ-e collision. To reach this goal a modular target is foreseen, consisting of 60 low-Z (Be or C) elements, 1 cm thick, each sandwiched in layers of Si-microstrip detectors, organized in XY, XU and VY planes (±45 °, to disentangle double tracks). In 2018, a feasibility test at the CERN North Area is foreseen, running parasitically on the beamline behind COMPASS. The setup consist of 16 layers with an area of 9.5×9.5 cm2, 410μm thick, single side AGILE silicon detectors, which have a readout pitch of 242μm anda floating strip scheme, resulting in a position resolution of the order of 40μm. The DAQ rate is of the order of a few kHz. The contribution will describe the setup, the DAQ system and the first data collected during the commissioning phase in April/May.
       
  • Consideration of neutron moderation at large depths inside solid deuterium
           converter of ultracold neutron sources using an alternative approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 October 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): R. Gheisari, H. Mohammadi The paper presents a new approach to consider neutron moderation at large depths inside solid deuterium (sD2) converter of ultracold neutron (UCN) sources. One- and three-dimensional neutron balance equations have been solved in the Matlab program linked to the MCNPX computer code. To consider neutron moderation, neutron scattering kernels have been constructed and implemented into our calculations. Moreover, UCN source geometry has been improved in order to optimize the cold neutron flux inside the sD2 converter. The results indicate that the optimal length of the sD2 converter equals approximately 9 cm and most thermal neutrons are cooled near a depth of 15 cm.
       
  • Experimental test and characterization of BASIC64, a new mixed-signal
           front-end ASIC for SiPM detectors
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 October 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): M.G. Bisogni, P.A.P. Calò, F. Ciciriello, F. Corsi, C. Marzocca, G. Matarrese, S. Petrignani BASIC64 is a new multichannel front-end ASIC for Silicon photomultiplier detectors used in PET systems. The preamplifier input resistance is ∼50 Ω, low enough not to further affect the slope of incoming current pulses, already plagued by the presence of stray series inductance. For each channel, the signals generated by the detector follow two parallel processing paths, respectively for timing and energy measurements. The results of experimental test and characterization for timing accuracy and gain linearity are presented and confirm that BASIC64 is suitable for PET applications.
       
  • Scintillation response to gamma-rays measured at wide temperature range
           for Tl doped CsI with SiPM readout
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 October 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): L. Swiderski, M. Moszyński, W. Czarnacki, K. Brylew, M. Grodzicka-Kobylka, Z. Mianowska, T. Sworobowicz, A. Syntfeld-Każuch, T. Szczesniak, W. Klamra, R.T. Williams, S. Gridin, X. Lu, M.R. Mayhugh, A. Gektin, S. Vasyukov, C. Piemonte, F. Acerbi, A. Ferri, A. Gola A custom design cryostat was constructed to study the temperature dependence of relative light yield and non-proportionality trends of scintillators between −182 °C and +152 °C. CsI:Tl crystal response to γ-rays and X-rays was investigated between 14 keV and 662 keV. Scintillation light was detected by a SiPM device, which was installed on a copper frame separated from the crystal and the cooling rod to enable operating the device at room temperature. The scintillation efficiency of CsI:Tl is peaked at about room temperature. The light yield of CsI:Tl at temperature close to liquid nitrogen boiling point is reduced by a factor of 15 in comparison to room temperature conditions. The non-proportionality of CsI:Tl scintillation response is high at low temperatures and is getting more proportional with increasing temperature.
       
  • Pulse shape discrimination with a low-cost digitizer using commercial
           off-the-shelf components
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 October 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): M.C. Recker, E.J. Cazalas, J.W. McClory Pulse shape discrimination of neutrons and gammas is demonstrated using a FemtoDAQ, a low-cost digitizer that uses commercial off-the-shelf components. This digitizer is paired with a CLYC scintillator coupled to a photomultiplier tube to concurrently detect neutrons and gammas. Python code was written to analyze the detector waveforms to determine the energy deposited and distinguish neutron and gamma events within the CLYC crystal. The energy of each waveform is determined by the summation of the discrete amplitudes recorded by the digitizer for each pulse. This method is compared to a traditional multichannel analyzer operating with commercial software for validation and shown to produce the same energy spectrum. Pulse shape discrimination is accomplished by measuring and summing the amplitudes of the prompt portion of each waveform (first 80 ns) and the delayed portion (following 500 ns) and then calculating a ratio of the delayed region to the total. This technique was able to clearly distinguish thermal neutron events from gamma events with a figure of merit of 1.42.
       
  • Monte Carlo simulation of a Cs2 6LiYCl6:Ce-based composite scintillator
           for neutron and gamma detection
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 October 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): Francesco L. Ruta, Stephanie Lam, John Fiala, Ivan Khodyuk, Shariar Motakef We report on the development of a Geant4 Monte Carlo model of composite scintillators based on cerium-doped, 6Li-enriched Cs2LiYCl6 (CLYC) embedded in a plastic matrix. Simulated pulse height spectra of detectors with CLYC pillars in an EJ-290 polyvinyltoluene (PVT) matrix reproduced measured spectra. Simulated pulse shape discrimination (PSD) by a composite detector irradiated by 239PuBe also reproduced experimental results. The features of the PSD histogram were interpreted by tracking relevant particles in the simulation. Then, the model was used to characterize various CLYC-PVT geometric designs for neutron detection and gamma spectroscopy. Optimizing the design for neutron detection (5.99-7.05 cm high-density polyethylene moderation and>6.3 cm CLYC pillar spacing) came with a tradeoff in photopeak efficiency. Calculated neutron detection and photopeak efficiencies of 1”, 1.5”, 2”, 3”, and 4”-diameter CLYC crystals were comparable to those of equivalent amounts of smaller CLYC pillars in EJ-290. These results encourage the development of large-area CLYC-PVT arrays, to achieve detection efficiencies exceeding those of the largest CLYC crystals grown to date.
       
  • Calorimeter prototyping for the iMPACT project pCT scanner
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 October 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): Nicola Pozzobon, Filippo Baruffaldi, Dario Bisello, Chiara Bonini, Benedetto Di Ruzza, Piero Giubilato, Serena Mattiazzo, Devis Pantano, Luca Silvestrin, Walter Snoeys, Jeffery Wyss The iMPACT project aims at building a novel pCT scanner for protons of medical energies in the range between 200 and 300 MeV, a proton tracking system that provides accurate information to create a map of the tissue density of human organs. Such information is crucial for an accurate aiming of proton-therapy beams and is currently provided by X-rays CT scans, with an accuracy lower than the one which could be achieved by using protons. One of its core elements is a high-granularity scintillator-based range calorimeter, designed to measure the proton residual energy after it travels the patient’s body. Here we review the design features of the iMPACT calorimeter, together with an all-around qualification of prototypes of its core components through test-bench measurements and proton beam data. We focus, in particular, on the qualification of the calorimeter elements towards a large-scale prototype, and a calibration study which will eventually allow to operate such a high granularity calorimeter with a fully digital readout at the target proton rate.
       
 
 
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