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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3161 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3161 Journals sorted alphabetically
A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.655, CiteScore: 2)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.015, CiteScore: 2)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 94, SJR: 1.462, CiteScore: 3)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 2)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.771, CiteScore: 3)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 411, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 7)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.18, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.128, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 249, SJR: 3.263, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.307, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.793, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.331, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.374, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.344, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.671, CiteScore: 5)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 4)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.29, CiteScore: 3)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.611, CiteScore: 8)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 147, SJR: 4.09, CiteScore: 13)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.167, CiteScore: 4)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.384, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.126, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.992, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 2.089, CiteScore: 5)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.61, CiteScore: 7)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31, SJR: 3.043, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.453, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.992, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.713, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.316, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.562, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.977, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.524, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.159, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44, SJR: 5.39, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.354, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 12.74, CiteScore: 13)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.193, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.749, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 4.433, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.938, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.682, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.88, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.027, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.158, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.875, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.579, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.536, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.791, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 62)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.371, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 397, SJR: 0.569, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31, SJR: 2.208, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.262, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 3)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.117, CiteScore: 3)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 341, SJR: 0.796, CiteScore: 3)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.42, CiteScore: 2)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.671, CiteScore: 9)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 446, SJR: 1.238, CiteScore: 3)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.13, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 5)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.156, CiteScore: 4)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.272, CiteScore: 3)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 1.747, CiteScore: 4)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.589, CiteScore: 3)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 0)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.153, CiteScore: 3)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 3)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.142, CiteScore: 4)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.148, CiteScore: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 3.521, CiteScore: 6)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 4.66, CiteScore: 10)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.796, CiteScore: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.108, CiteScore: 3)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 3.267, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.93, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.524, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 7.45, CiteScore: 8)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.062, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.973, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 205, SJR: 2.7, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 3.184, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.289, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.139, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.164, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 1)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.144, CiteScore: 3)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 62, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 1)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 0)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription  
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 4.849, CiteScore: 10)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 5)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 177, SJR: 0.633, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 189, SJR: 1.58, CiteScore: 3)

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Journal Cover
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.814
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 20  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0168-9002
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3161 journals]
  • Crossover artifact in X-ray focusing imaging systems: K-edge subtraction
           imaging
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Volume 910Author(s): B. Bassey, N. Samadi, A. Panahifar, D.M.L. Cooper, D. ChapmanAbstractThe K-edge Subtraction (KES) imaging method is a very powerful synchrotron method which allows functional imaging of biological subjects. KES gives a simultaneous image of the contrast element and an anatomical image from the same data set. For biological subjects, an imaging system that uses focused multiple (two or more) x-ray energy beams to form the images, reduces motion artifact that can be misleading. However, the crossing of beams gives rise to another artifact, termed the “crossover” artifact, if the subject is not at the focus or is spatially extended around the focus. This artifact is addressed in this paper for KES which uses multiple x-ray energy focused beams. The development of multiple energy imaging systems have shown a great deal of utility in extracting multiple contrast materials. Nevertheless, the need for reduction of the crossover artifact is essential for the effective use of these systems for imaging of biological subjects, which will help prevent unnecessary re-imaging, reduce unusable images and dose to the subjects. A unified approach to modeling and reducing of crossover artifact in multiple x-ray energy KES is presented.
       
  • Geometrical corrections for accurate fitting of the field dependent
           surface resistance for superconducting accelerating cavities
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Volume 910Author(s): David LonguevergneAbstractThe different processes at the origin of the dependence of the surface resistance with the RF magnetic field are still not fully understood. Several models have emerged since many years to explain the drop of the quality factor Q0 (commonly called Q-drop) of a superconducting cavity versus the accelerating gradient. Experimental data are commonly fitted by applying a coarse approximation to convert the Q0 (a global property) into a surface resistance (local property). Extracting accurately the surface resistance from experimental data requires to take into account the RF field distribution over the accelerating structure contrary to what is commonly done in the community. Assuming a field dependent surface resistance does not allow anymore to use the well-known formula Q0=G∕Rs. This paper gives a procedure to perform an accurate conversion of the quality factor measured during a cavity test into a surface resistance to avoid any error in the evaluation of fitting parameters due to the geometry.
       
  • LUX trigger efficiency
    • Abstract: Publication date: 11 November 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Volume 908Author(s): D.S. Akerib, S. Alsum, H.M. Araújo, X. Bai, J. Balajthy, P. Beltrame, E.P. Bernard, A. Bernstein, T.P. Biesiadzinski, E.M. Boulton, B. Boxer, P. Brás, S. Burdin, D. Byram, M.C. Carmona-Benitez, C. Chan, J.E. Cutter, T.J.R. Davison, E. Druszkiewicz, S.R. FallonAbstractThe Large Underground Xenon experiment (LUX) searches for dark matter using a dual-phase xenon detector. LUX uses a custom-developed trigger system for event selection. In this paper, the trigger efficiency, which is defined as the probability that an event of interest is selected for offline analysis, is studied using raw data obtained from both electron recoil (ER) and nuclear recoil (NR) calibrations. The measured efficiency exceeds 98% at a pulse area of 90 detected photons, which is well below the WIMP analysis threshold on the S2 pulse area. The efficiency also exceeds 98% at recoil energies of 0.2 keV and above for ER, and 1.3 keV and above for NR. The measured trigger efficiency varies between 99% and 100% over the fiducial volume of the detector.
       
  • Overcoming the planar contact geometry limitation for the measurement of
           transport properties and electric field distribution in X- and gamma ray
           detectors
    • Abstract: Publication date: 11 November 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Volume 908Author(s): Manuele Bettelli, Andrea Santi, Maura Pavesi, Davide Calestani, Andrea ZappettiniAbstractLaser induced transient current technique (LI-TCT) was proven to be a successful tool for measuring at the same time carrier lifetime, carrier mobility, and electric field distribution in X- and gamma ray detectors with plain contacts on opposite surfaces. Unfortunately, the most performing detectors exploit more complicated contact geometries that, hindering hole contribution to signal formation, allow a much better spectroscopy. In this paper, a LI-TCT based method is presented, for the determination of transport parameters as well as electric field distribution directly in single carrier devices. The method’s validity is demonstrated in twin CdZnTe detectors having similar material properties, but different weighting potentials.
       
  • Performance of the multigap resistive plate chambers of the extreme energy
           events project
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 September 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): M. Garbini, M. Abbrescia, C. Avanzini, L. Baldini, R. Baldini Ferroli, L.G. Batignani, M. Battaglieri, S. Boi, E. Bossini, F. Carnesecchi, A. Chiavassa, C. Cicalo, L. Cifarelli, F. Coccetti, E. Coccia, A. Corvaglia, D. De Gruttola, S. De Pasquale, L. Fabbri, V. FrolovAbstractThe Extreme Energy Events (EEE) Project is devoted to the detection and study of high-energy cosmic rays. It is a network of 53 muon tracking telescopes made of three Multigap Resistive Plate Chambers (MRPC), synchronized by GPS and installed inside high schools distributed on the Italian territory. The EEE Project foresees also the direct involvement of students and teachers in the experiment, from the construction of the detectors to the maintenance, data taking and data analysis. The schools are unconventional experimental sites and a unique test field to check the performance of the MRPC technology. Data from recent coordinated data taking periods have been used to measure the performances and the results of this study are here reported.
       
  • Proton radiation damage experiment for X-ray SOI pixel detectors
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 September 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): Keigo Yarita, Takayoshi Kohmura, Kouichi Hagino, Taku Kogiso, Kenji Oono, Kousuke Negishi, Koki Tamasawa, Akinori Sasaki, Satoshi Yoshiki, Takeshi Go Tsuru, Takaaki Tanaka, Hideaki Matsumura, Katsuhiro Tachibana, Hideki Hayashi, Sodai Harada, Ayaki Takeda, Koji Mori, Yusuke Nishioka, Nobuaki Takebayashi, Shoma YokoyamaAbstractIn low earth orbit, there are many cosmic rays composed primarily of high energy protons. These cosmic rays cause surface and bulk radiation effects, resulting in degradation of detector performance. Quantitative evaluation of radiation hardness is essential in development of X-ray detectors for astronomical satellites. We performed proton irradiation experiments on newly developed X-ray detectors called XRPIX based on silicon-on-insulator technology at HIMAC in National Institute of Radiological Sciences. We irradiated 6 MeV protons with a total dose of 0.5 krad, equivalent to 6 years irradiation in orbit. As a result, the gain increases by 0.2% and the energy resolution degrades by 0.5%. Finally we irradiated protons up to 20 krad and found that detector performance degraded significantly at 5 krad. With 5 krad irradiation corresponding to 60 years in orbit, the gain increases by 0.7% and the energy resolution worsens by 10%. By decomposing into noise components, we found that the increase of the circuit noise is dominant in the degradation of the energy resolution.
       
  • Evaluation of Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) surrogate sources for use in
           training and modeling
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 September 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): Z. Scholz, M. Millett, M. SchellAbstractSurrogate radiation sources are used to test detection equipment and train security personnel in the detection and interdiction of special nuclear material (SNM). Some current surrogate sources do not accurately match SNM energy spectra, including for HEU. In this research, we propose and investigate novel source configurations for higher fidelity surrogate SNM sources using thermal neutron capture reactions that result in prompt gammas. The objective is to create a surrogate source that has a more representative spectrum, low cost, and requires minimal security, special handling, and safety precautions.
       
  • Development and commissioning of the 30 ps time resolution MEG II
           pixelated Timing Detector
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 September 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): P.W. Cattaneo, F. Berg, M. Biasotti, G. Boca, M. De Gerone, A. De Bari, M. Francesconi, L. Galli, F. Gatti, U. Hartmann, Z. Hodge, P.-R. Kettle, M. Nakao, D. Nicoló, M. Nishimura, W. Ootani, A. Papa, S. Ritt, M. Rossella, E. SchmidAbstractThe MEG II experiment is designed to improve by an order of magnitude the sensitivity of 4.2×10−13 reached by MEG on the search for μ+→e+γ decay. A pixelated Timing Counter (pTC) has been developed to improve the time resolution by measuring the positron time information independently with several counters. We constructed and installed the pTC and performed commissioning runs at the πE5 beam line at PSI. A resolution of 38.5 ps is obtained with commissioning run data.
       
  • Thermal kinetic inductance detectors for soft X-ray spectroscopy
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 September 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): M. Faverzani, A. Cruciani, A. D’Addabbo, P.K. Day, S. Di Domizio, E. Ferri, P. Fresch, A. Giachero, B. Margesin, R. Mezzena, L. Minutolo, A. Nucciotti, A. Puiu, M. VignatiAbstractSuperconducting microwave microresonators are low temperature detectors (LTDs) suitable for large-scale frequency domain multiplexing readout. A promising approach consists in operating the resonators in quasi-thermal equilibrium mode: the resonator acts as a thermometer sensing the temperature rise of an absorbing material caused by an energy release. Our aim is to develop such detectors to perform spectroscopy in the keV range, with a possible future application to a next generation experiment aimed at directly measuring the neutrino mass. Still, the best configuration in terms of detector design and material must be found. Resonators made of several Ti/TiN multilayer films, which is a high kinetic inductance superconducting material previously developed by our group, were recently produced. The resonators are deposited onto a silicon slab and the sensitive area, thermally coupled to a gold absorber, is kept suspended by means of a SiNx membrane. In this way we plan to exploit the excellent energy resolution of LTDs combined with the simple multiplexing scheme of the resonators. In this contribution we present the devices along with our project, with its status and perspectives.
       
  • Comparison of pulse shape discrimination performance of stilbene and
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 September 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): Willem G.J. Langeveld, Andrew M. Glenn, Steven A. Sheets, Dan A. Strellis, Natalia P. ZaitsevaAbstractWe compare the pulse-shape-discrimination performance of a large Stilbene detector, manufactured at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, to a similarly sized liquid scintillator, made by Eljen Technologies, Inc. (type EJ309), under various high-count-rate scenarios, such as can be expected during Active Interrogation of objects using an electric neutron generator for detecting the presence of Special Nuclear Materials and contraband. Pulse Shape Discrimination (PSD) is performed with an extension of previously described wavelet and event fitting algorithms, which are also used to reject pileup events and to correct the energy calibration for event signals clipped during digitization.We find that strong PSD and pileup rejection cuts are required to function in this high-count-rate environment. Whereas the Stilbene detector has intrinsically better pulse-shape discrimination performance, the pulses of events from the liquid scintillator are somewhat narrower, reducing pileup. We use an event fitting cut that provides simultaneous PSD identification and pileup rejection. When applying the same cut to data taken with both detectors, we find that Stilbene has higher event use efficiency by about a factor of two and retains a better gamma rejection ratio compared to EJ309.
       
  • Neutron flux measurements in the Gran Sasso national laboratory and in the
           Slanic Prahova Salt Mine
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 September 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): Zdzisław Dębicki, Karol Jędrzejczak, Jacek Karczmarczyk, Marcin Kasztelan, Ryszard Lewandowski, Jerzy Orzechowski, Jacek Szabelski, Maria Szeptycka, Przemysław TokarskiAbstractWe performed measurements of thermal and non-thermal neutron flux in underground laboratories in Gran Sasso, Italy and in Slanic Prahova, Romania. The measurements were made with a set of helium counters: bare for thermal neutrons and covered by blocks of moderator for higher energy neutrons. We found that thermal neutron flux in Slanic is four times smaller than in Gran Sasso, probably due to lack of alpha-radioactive sources in the surrounding rocks. In contrast, the flux of higher energy neutrons in Slanic proved to be 1.4 times higher than in Gran Sasso, which can be explained by higher cosmic muon flux in Slanic.Our result for thermal neutron flux is lower than results of most of the previous measurements carried out in LNGS laboratory but thanks to a different method of analysis the reliability of our results is very high. The result for higher energy neutrons agrees with average energy spectrum resulting from previous measurements.Our measurements in Slanic were the first ones ever performed in this laboratory, and can be used as a reference by future experiments.
       
  • Characterization of SiPM arrays with common bias and common readout for
           applications in liquid argon
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 September 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): Marta Babicz, Tommaso Cervi, Alessandro Menegolli, M.C. Prata, Gian Luca Raselli, Massimo RossellaAbstractWe have built a number of test arrays made of 16 SiPMs of 3 × 3 mm2 with a mixed series-parallel configuration and common bias and readout. With this technique it is possible to increase the total active area keeping low the bias voltage and readout channels. To further increase the total area we connected few arrays together. Tests were performed in terms of pulse amplitude, charge and timing features.
       
  • Parameters of a fine-grained scintillator detector prototype with 3D WLS
           fiber readout for a T2K ND280 neutrino active target
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 September 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): O. Mineev, A. Blondel, S. Fedotov, A. Khotjantsev, A. Korzenev, Yu. Kudenko, A. Mefodiev, E. Noah, D. Sgalaberna, A. Smirnov, N. YershovAbstractAn upgrade of the long baseline neutrino experiment T2K near detector ND280 is currently being designed. The upgrade program includes the development a new highly granular fully active scintillator neutrino detector as a neutrino target. The baseline concept of the detector represents an array of about 2×106 small scintillator cubes each of 1 cm3. The 3D signal readout from each cube is provided by three orthogonal 1.0 mm Kuraray Y11 multiclad WLS fibers read out by SiPMs. A small prototype of the detector assembled of 125 cubes was tested in a beam of charged particles as well as with cosmic muons. Obtained parameters of the prototype are reported in this paper.
       
  • Neutrino-antineutrino identification in a liquid scintillator detector:
           Towards a novel decay-at-rest-based neutrino CPV framework
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 September 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): M. Grassi, F. Pessina, A. Cabrera, S. Dusini, H. Nunokawa, F. SuekaneAbstractWe introduce a novel approach to investigate CP violation in the neutrino sector, based on the simultaneous detection of νe and ν̄e stemming from the oscillation of νμ and ν̄μ produced in the decay at rest of πs and μs at a beam dump. This approach relies on a novel liquid scintillator detector technology expected to yield unprecedented identification of νe and ν̄e charged-current interactions, which we investigate by means of Monte Carlo simulations. Here we report preliminary results concerning both the detection technique and its physics reach.
       
  • Characterization of a large-area iQID imager for safeguards applications
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 September 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): Ardelia M. Clarke, Ben S. McDonald, Mital A. Zalavadia, Dustin M. Kasparek, Brian W. MillerAbstractEnvironmental sampling and sample analyses by the International Atomic Energy Agency is a key method for verifying declarations in international safeguards agreements. Quantitative Digital Autoradiography for Environmental Samples is a system developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to examine environmental swipe samples (ESS) prior to subsequent, destructive analysis. This approach is passive and noninvasive for imaging beta and gamma emissions, which transmit through the plastic bags containing the ESS. Alpha particle imaging is also possible with different ESS containers. This technology is based on a portable, real-time, event-counting, high spatial resolution system called iQID (ionizing-radiation Quantum Imaging Detector), which is made from commercial, off-the-shelf components. This includes a scintillator in direct contact with a micro-channel plate image intensifier and a lens for imaging the intensified scintillation events onto a CCD/CMOS camera. The QDARES large-area iQID includes a fiber-optic taper coupled to the image intensifier which increases the imaging area to a ∼100 cm square with a 105 mm x 105 mm taper. In this paper, we describe new characterization results, including spatial resolution, energy response, minimum detectable activity for several isotopes, detector uniformity, and count-rate capability.
       
  • 0 . 18 μ m +CMOS+technology+for+CMOS+Monolithic+Active+Pixel+Sensors+application&rft.title=Nuclear+Instruments+and+Methods+in+Physics+Research+Section+A:+Accelerators,+Spectrometers,+Detectors+and+Associated+Equipment&rft.issn=0168-9002&rft.date=&rft.volume=">A 3.2-Gb/s serial link transmitter in 0 . 18 μ m CMOS technology for
           CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors application
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 September 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): Quan Sun, Guangyu Zhang, Datao Gong, Binwei Deng, Wei Zhou, Bihui You, Le Xiao, Jian Wang, Dongxu Yang, Tiankuan Liu, Chonghan Liu, Guo Di, Jun Liu, Christine Hu-Guo, Frederic Morel, Isabelle Valin, Xiangming Sun, Jingbo YeAbstractWe present a 3.2-Gb/s serial link transmitter for MAPS application in future subatomic physics experiments. The transmitter features the inclusion of Reed-Solomon codes to achieve low transmission error rate. A CML driver with pre-emphasis in the transmitter allows serial transmission over low mass cables. The critical digital circuits are triplicated to resist SEU. The transmitter is fabricated in a 0.18μm CMOS Technology. A power consumption of 135 mW was measured at a typical setting. A frame data rate of 3⋅10−12 with confidence level of 94.5% was obtained through a FPGA based receiver, corresponding to a payload BER of 1.2⋅10−14 with confidence level of 94.9%. The transmitter functions well after being irradiated with 4.5 Mrad TID.
       
  • Predicting hadron-specific damage from fast hadrons in crystals for
           calorimetry
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 September 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): G. Dissertori, C. Martin Perez, F. Nessi-TedaldiAbstractFast hadrons have been observed to cause a cumulative damage in Lead Tungstate and LYSO crystals. The underlying mechanism has been proven to be the creation of fission tracks, which act as scattering centres, thus reducing the light collection efficiency. For calorimetry applications in an environment where large, fast hadron fluences are anticipated, predictions about damage in crystals are of great importance for making an informed choice of technology. In the study presented here, simulations using the FLUKA package have been performed on Lead Tungstate, LYSO and Cerium Fluoride, and their results have been compared with measurements. The agreement that is found between simulation results and experimental measurements allows to conclude that the damage amplitude in a given material can be predicted with a precision that is sufficient to anticipate the damage expected during detector operation.
       
  • CR-39 nuclear track detector: An experimental guide
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 September 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): Mukhtar Ahmed RanaAbstractThe influence of preservation period of CR-39 detectors, in refrigerator and in the laboratory atmosphere, on bulk etch rate is studied. The effect of etching solution usage time on the bulk etch rate is also investigated. Analyses and quantitative results in the said cases are presented. Finally, precision results on the use of CR-39 as a charged particle detector are presented in a systematic manner. These results are selected from our radiation detection and measurement experiments, ranged over last two decades. Selected results (unpublished and published) include CR-39 measurements of 5.9 MeV antiprotons, 6.12 MeV alpha particles and spontaneous fission fragments of 252Cf. Our published results, presented here, are further analyzed and presented in comparison with new results and discussion. Experimental procedures of exposures, chemical etching, track measurements using the optical microscopy are described, keeping in view the new users and research students. Computer codes TRACK_Vision and SRIM were employed to provide a comparison with measurements of track parameters, where possible.
       
  • 7 LYC+scintillators+in+fast+neutron+spectroscopy&rft.title=Nuclear+Instruments+and+Methods+in+Physics+Research+Section+A:+Accelerators,+Spectrometers,+Detectors+and+Associated+Equipment&rft.issn=0168-9002&rft.date=&rft.volume=">Applications of C 7 LYC scintillators in fast neutron spectroscopy
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 September 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): T. Brown, P. Chowdhury, E. Doucet, E.G. Jackson, C.J. Lister, A.J. Mitchell, C. Morse, A.M. Rogers, G.L. Wilson, N. D’Olympia, M. Devlin, N. Fotiades, J.A. Gomez, S.M. Mosby, R.O. NelsonAbstractThe capabilities of 7Li-enriched Cs27LiYCl6 (C7LYC) scintillation detectors for fast neutron spectroscopy are explored in benchmark experiments that exploit its excellent pulse-shape discrimination between neutrons and γ rays, and its unprecedented ≈10% energy resolution for fast neutrons in the few MeV range, obtained through the 35Cl(n,p) reaction. Energy- and angle-resolved elastic and inelastic neutron scattering cross-section measurements of 56Fe(n,n’) were performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory with a pulsed white neutron source and an array of 1″×1″ C7LYC crystals. The results convincingly establish the utility of this dual n/γ scintillator for fast neutron spectroscopy. Intrinsic efficiency measurements of both 1″×1″ and the first ever 3″×3″ C7LYC crystal have been initiated, using mono-energetic fast neutron beams at UMass Lowell generated via the 7Li(p,n) reaction. The spectroscopic capabilities and potential of C7LYC are discussed in the context of developing this emerging scintillator for targeted science applications.
       
  • Monolithic sensors in LFoundry technology: Concepts and measurements
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 September 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): R. Schimassek, R. Blanco, R. Casanova, F. Ehrler, I. Perić, E. Vilella, H. ZhangAbstractIn the LFoundry LF15A 150 nm HVCMOS process, detector chips with several matrices were developed and produced on different resistivity substrates for process evaluation. These matrices focus on different aspects offering innovative approaches including grouped readout and waveform sampling. Both grouped readout and waveform sampling were demonstrated to work for reducing readout bandwidth with triggering and cluster readout in first case and offline post-processing in second case.
       
  • Thin-film neutron detector based on CdTe and 6Li layers
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 September 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): Alvin Compaan, Ford B. Cauffiel, Anthony J. Matthews, Song Cheng, Ambalanath Shan, Robert D. Fisher, Victor V. Plotnikov, Ralph BeckerAbstractWe report an innovative, low-cost, solid-state neutron detector based on the technology of thin-film CdTe solar cells activated with layers of isotopically enriched metallic Li-6. The technology leverages recent advances in thin-film solar-module manufacturing and lithium sources for electrochromic window fabrication. Our detector inherently has very high rejection of gamma events and strong directional sensitivity; it is readily scalable in size from personal radiation monitors to radiation portal monitors. The thermal neutron response of a double detector stack is competitive with and/or exceeds responses reported for other portable detectors such as a small He-3 tube, a CLYC-based scintillator, or a microstructured semiconductor detector.
       
  • Influence of the bridges on prism-array lens focusing for high energy
           X-rays
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 September 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): Jing Liu, Weiwei Zhang, Guangcai Chang, Futing YiAbstractA kind of prism-array refractive lens (PRL) for X-ray focusing composed of different prisms with the same width is designed and fabricated. In order to stabilize the whole structure and reduce the fabrication difficulty, bridges are introduced between the opposite two lines of tooth-like segments. The influence of the bridges on the focusing is investigated in theory, which will broaden the width of the focus. Furthermore, two PRLs with and without bridges for 50 keV X-rays are fabricated on the same substrate by X-ray lithography and are tested at BL13W1 beamline in Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facilities (SSRF). The bridges are designed a width of 5μm andthe PRL sample with bridges has the better morphology than the one without bridges after fabrication. The on-line focusing test results show that the focal line width of the samples with and without bridges are 4.20μm and 6.34μm respectively, which implies that the bridges are necessary for the PRL with this fabrication method.
       
  • A reconfigurable miniaturized transducer based on rotating coils for
           testing particle accelerator magnets
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 September 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): G. Severino, P. Arpaia, A. EspositoAbstractThe design of a reconfigurable transducer, based on rotating coils realized by printed circuit board (PCB), is proposed for testing magnets in particle accelerators. Despite classical rotating coils, the sensitivity of this transducers is not completely established with the design. Different configurations allow to tune sensitivity to the specific components of the magnetic flux density to be measured. At this aim, specific field harmonics such as dipole, quadrupole, sextupole, octupole, and decapole can be suppressed. Thus, the same accuracy level can be ensured in measuring the field quality of several types of magnets.In this paper, first, conventional design criteria are recalled. Then, the design of the reconfigurable transducer based on four coils to suppress undesired field harmonics, from dipole up to decapole, is illustrated. The possibility of using both radial and tangential geometry, without affecting compensation quality, is highlighted too.Finally, a metrological analysis about the transducer manufacturing is reported, proving that the uncertainty arising from the PCB production is made negligible.
       
  • Fast timing monolithic silicon pixel sensor for TOF-PET
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 September 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): D. Hayakawa, G. Iacobucci, L. Paolozzi, P. Valerio, E. Ripiccini, M. Benoit, O. Ratib, R. Cardarelli, S. Bruno, A. CaltabianoAbstractThe Thin-TOF PET (TT-PET) project aims at the construction of a small-animal PET scanner based on silicon monolithic pixel sensors with 30ps time resolution for 511keV photons, equivalent to 100ps time resolution for minimum ionizing particles. The high time resolution of the pixel sensor allows for precise time of flight measurement of the two photons and a significant improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio of images. The TT-PET scanner also has sensitivity for photon depth of interaction, thus improving the spatial resolution across the whole view of the scanner. The performance of the scanner estimated by a GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulation is presented. In order to achieve the high time resolution, the SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistor technology (SG13S from IHP) was chosen for fast integration, low equivalent noise charge and low power consumption. TCAD simulations were used to design the appropriate guard rings for the pixel sensor. Laboratory measurements of the first test chip show the correct functionality of the guard ring up to a bias potential of 200V applied to the pixels and a good signal-to-noise ratio for the detection of electrons from a 90Sr source. A test beam measurement with an un-thinned chip shows more than 99% efficiency and approximately 200ps time resolution for minimum ionizing particles despite the absence of wafer thinning and post-processing.
       
  • A new technique for luminosity measurement using 3D pixel modules in the
           ATLAS IBL detector
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 September 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): Peilian Liu, on behalf of the ATLAS CollaborationAbstractThe Insertable B-Layer (IBL) is the innermost layer of the ATLAS tracking system. It consists of planar pixel modules in the central region and 3D pixel modules at the two extremities. We use the longitudinal cluster-size distributions in 3D modules of the IBL to determine the number of pixel clusters per bunch crossing produced by primary charged particles in randomly triggered collision events, and to suppress the associated backgrounds. This Pixel-Cluster-Counting algorithm can provide both bunch-integrated and bunch-by-bunch relative-luminosity measurements, and thereby contribute independent constraints to the understanding and the evaluation of the systematic uncertainties that dominate the luminosity determination at the ATLAS experiment.
       
  • Deuterated stilbene (stilbene-d12): An improved detector for
           fast neutrons
    • Abstract: Publication date: 11 November 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Volume 908Author(s): F.D. Becchetti, R.O. Torres-Isea, A. Di Fulvio, S.A. Pozzi, J. Nattress, I. Jovanovic, M. Febbraro, N. Zaitseva, L. CarmanAbstractWe have developed and evaluated two prototype fast neutron deuterated-stilbene scintillators. The largest scintillator is hexagonal in shape with volume 32 cm3, comprised of deuterated crystalline trans-stilbene (stilbene-d12). These samples were grown using a solution-based crystal growing method developed at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory to grow conventional 1H-based stilbene scintillator crystals. The stilbene-d12 prototype detectors show excellent neutron/gamma discrimination, noticeably better than 1H-stilbene, and appear to have less asymmetry in the response to neutrons incident from different directions. Like other deuterated scintillators, the stilbene-d12 detectors in many applications can provide incident neutron energy spectra, without time of flight, by suitably unfolding the neutron light-output spectra.
       
  • 20 gas gaps Multigap Resistive Plate Chamber: Improved rate capability
           with excellent time resolution
    • Abstract: Publication date: 11 November 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Volume 908Author(s): Z. Liu, F. Carnesecchi, O.M. Rodriguez, M.C.S. Williams, A. Zichichi, R. ZuyeuskiAbstractA 20 gas gaps multigap resistive plate chamber (MRPC) was built with thin (0.28 mm) glass sheets and 0.16 mm gas gap size. This chamber reaches 97% efficiency at 18.4 kV and a time resolution of 32 ps (sigma) at an instantaneous particle flux around 2.5 kHz/cm2. Compared to a 6 gaps MRPC with 0.22 mm gas gap, this 20-gap MRPC shows a higher rate capability and much better time resolution. The efficiencies of the 20-gap MRPC reach 95%, 93% and 88% at instantaneous fluxes of 10 kHz/cm2, 14.5 kHz/cm2 and 20 kHz/cm2, respectively. The efficiencies of the 6-gap MRPC at the same flux are 90%, 85% and 77%. The time resolution of 20-gap MRPC degrades with the increase of particle flux. However, a time resolution of 39 ps was obtained at an instantaneous flux of 10 kHz/cm2.
       
  • γ t +in+the+isochronous+mode+of+the+HIRFL-CSRe&rft.title=Nuclear+Instruments+and+Methods+in+Physics+Research+Section+A:+Accelerators,+Spectrometers,+Detectors+and+Associated+Equipment&rft.issn=0168-9002&rft.date=&rft.volume=">Experimental investigation of the transition energy γ t in the
           isochronous mode of the HIRFL-CSRe
    • Abstract: Publication date: 11 November 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Volume 908Author(s): W.W. Ge, Y.J. Yuan, J.C. Yang, R.J. Chen, X.L. Yan, H. Du, Z.S. Li, J. Yang, D.Y. Yin, L.J. Mao, X.N. Li, W.H. Zheng, G.D. Shen, B. Wu, S. Ruan, G. Wang, H. Zhao, M. Wang, M.Z. Sun, Y.M. XingAbstractThe Isochronous Mass Spectrometry (IMS) based on storage rings is a powerful technique for mass measurement of short-lived exotic nuclei. The transition energy γt of the storage ring is a vital parameter of the IMS technique. It is difficult to measure the γt and its relation to momentum spread or circulating length, especially to monitor the variation of γt during experiments. An experimental investigation on the γt has been performed for the IMS experiment at the Cooler Storage Ring of the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL-CSRe). With the velocity measured by two time-of-flight (TOF) detectors, the γt as a function of orbital length can be determined. The influences of higher order magnetic field components on the γt function were inferred for isochronous correction. This paper introduces and investigates the influence of dipole magnetic fields, quadrupole magnetic fields and sextupole magnetic fields on the γt function. With the quadrupole magnets and sextupole magnets corrections, a mass resolution of 171332 (FWHM) and σ(T)∕T=1.34×10−6 were reached, which shall be compared with 31319 (FWHM) and σ(T)∕T=7.35×10−6 obtained without correction.
       
  • Q 2 = 2 . 5 , 5 . 2 , 6 . 8 +and+ 8 . 5 GeV 2 ”&rft.title=Nuclear+Instruments+and+Methods+in+Physics+Research+Section+A:+Accelerators,+Spectrometers,+Detectors+and+Associated+Equipment&rft.issn=0168-9002&rft.date=&rft.volume=">Technical supplement to “Polarization transfer observables in elastic
           electron-proton scattering at Q 2 = 2 . 5 , 5 . 2 , 6 . 8 and
           8 . 5 GeV 2 ”
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 September 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): A.J.R. Puckett, E.J. Brash, M.K. Jones, W. Luo, M. Meziane, L. Pentchev, C.F. Perdrisat, V. Punjabi, F.R. Wesselmann, A. Afanasev, A. Ahmidouch, I. Albayrak, K.A. Aniol, J. Arrington, A. Asaturyan, H. Baghdasaryan, F. Benmokhtar, W. Bertozzi, L. Bimbot, P. BostedAbstractThe GEp-III and GEp-2γ experiments, carried out in Jefferson Lab’s Hall C from 2007-2008, consisted of measurements of polarization transfer in elastic electron–proton scattering at momentum transfers of Q2=2.5,5.2,6.8, and8.54 GeV 2. These measurements were carried out to improve knowledge of the proton electromagnetic form factor ratio R=μpGEp∕GMp at large values of Q2 andto search for effects beyond the Born approximation in polarization transfer observables at Q2=2.5GeV2. The final results of both experiments were reported in a recent archival publication. A full reanalysis of the data from both experiments was carried out in order to reduce the systematic and, for the GEp-2γ experiment, statistical uncertainties. This technical note provides additional details of the final analysis omitted from the main publication, including the final evaluation of the systematic uncertainties.
       
  • Design and performance evaluation of front-end electronics for COMET straw
           tracker
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 September 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): Kazuki Ueno, Eitaro Hamada, Shohei Hashimoto, Masahiro Ikeno, Satoshi Mihara, Hajime Nishiguchi, Tomohisa Uchida, Hiroshi YamaguchiAbstractThe COMET experiment at J-PARC aims to search for the charged lepton flavor violating process of neutrinoless muon-to-electron conversion with an improvement of a sensitivity by a factor of 10000 to the current limit. We plan to use a straw tube tracker with high momentum resolution as an electron detector. To read out the signal from the tracker precisely, optimal front-end electronics is needed, and we have developed the readout electronics board called ROESTI, which contains all the front-end processes; preamplification, pulse shaping, discrimination, and digitization. All the functionalities are controlled by FPGA. Using the prototype, we have constructed the calibration method and evaluated the fundamental performance. In this paper, we report the details of the design and performance for the ROESTI prototype.
       
  • The impact of reactor neutron irradiation on total ionizing dose
           degradation in MOSFET
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 September 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): Chenhui Wang, Xiaoming Jin, Wei Chen, Shanchao Yang, Yan Liu, Xiaoqiang GuoAbstractThree kinds of MOSFETs with thick oxide layer and long channel were designed to do experiments and analysis on the impact of reactor neutron irradiation on total ionizing dose (TID) degradation in MOSFET. The individual gamma irradiation and the sequential irradiation of reactor neutrons and gamma rays were accomplished on the transistors. The results demonstrate that reactor neutron irradiation enhanced subsequent TID degradation in MOSFET, which was further analyzed by Geant4 simulation. Neutron irradiation can also induce total ionizing dose effects rather than displacement effects in MOSFETs. The mechanism of the enhanced degradation under the sequential neutron and gamma irradiation is that ionizing energy loss by incident neutrons also makes ionizing dose accumulation in MOSFET, and neutron-induced and gamma-induced TID degradation are added together, leading to more severe degradation than that under the individual gamma irradiation.
       
  • Study of n-on-p sensors breakdown in presence of dielectrics placed on top
           surface
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 September 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): C. Helling, L. Poley, A.A. Affolder, V. Fadeyev, Z. Galloway, M. Gignac, S. Kachiguine, Z. Luce, Y. UnnoAbstractThe ATLAS upgrade strip module design has readout flex circuits glued directly on top of the sensor’s active area to facilitate the assembly process and minimize the radiation length. The process requires radiation-hard adhesives compatible with the sensor technology. We report on the studies of the breakdown behavior with miniature versions of the prototype sensors, where candidate adhesives were placed in several locations on top of the sensor, including the strip area, guard ring region, and sensor edge. Thermal cycling tends to attenuate the observed cases of breakdown with glue on top of the guard ring. Glue reaching the sensor edge results in low breakdown voltage if it also covers AC- or DC- pads or bias ring openings. Glue placement on top of guard ring region was performed on a large-format sensor, with generally similar results to the miniature sensor tests, except for a large glue deposition, which resulted in a permanent reduction of the breakdown voltage. Post-irradiation measurements were performed for some of the glues deposited on top of the strip area, without any sign of the early breakdown. To help rank the candidate glue, we studied them with differential scanning calorimetry to find the glass transition and degree of curing.
       
  • Scintillation and ionization ratio of liquid argon for electronic and
           nuclear recoils at drift-fields up to 3 kV/cm
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 September 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): T. Washimi, M. Kimura, M. Tanaka, K. YoritaAbstractA two-phase argon detector has high discrimination power between electron recoil and nuclear recoil events based on the pulse shape discrimination and the ionization/scintillation ratio (S2/S1). This character is very suitable for the dark matter search to establish the low background experiment. However, the basic properties of S2/S1 of argon are not well known, as compared with xenon. We report the evaluation of S2/S1 properties with a two-phase detector at drift-fields of 0.2–3.0 kV/cm. Finally, the discrimination power against electron recoil background of S2/S1 is discussed.
       
  • A new neutron detector designed for (n,2n) and (n,3n) reaction cross
           section measurements
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 September 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): Jianqi Chen, Xiongjun Chen, Xichao Ruan, Weixiang Yu, Jie Ren, Liyang JiangAbstractA large 4π liquid scintillator was commonly used as the neutron detector to measure nucleus (n,2n) and (n,3n) reaction cross sections in the past direct neutron counting method. However, this type of detector was often criticized for its high γ-rays background. Hence we constructed a new 4π3He array detector to substitute the large liquid scintillation detector, which can effectively suppress the γ-rays. This work mainly studies the detection efficiency and moderation time of this new detector through experimental and simulational methods. Due to its spherical configuration, a relatively stable and weak angular dependence detection efficiency is obtained for the secondary neutrons from (n,2n) and (n,3n) reactions. In addition, the character that the moderation time is nearly independent of neutron energy guarantees gate width has a same influence on the detection efficiency of the secondary neutrons from different samples. These features make it a good candidate detector for (n,2n) and (n,3n) reaction cross section measurements. At last, the preliminary experiment plan and the corresponding calculation method are briefly described.
       
  • Large area PPAC development at the Rare Isotope Science Project
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 September 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): Charles Akers, Kwang Bok Lee, Young Jin Kim, Takashi Hashimoto, Eun Hee Kim, Hyo Sang Lee, Jin Hyung Park, Min Sang Ryu, Kyoungho Tshoo, Byoung Hwi Kang, Young Kwan KwonAbstractLarge area position sensitive parallel plate avalanche counters (PPACs) have been fabricated for the Rare Isotope Science Project. These detectors have active areas of 20 × 20 cm2 and 40 × 20 cm2, and utilize a stripped electrode structure, together with a delay-line readout, to extract position information. The 20 × 20 cm2 detector performance was tested with 3 MeV/u 12C and 16O beams. A position resolution better than 1 mm, full width at half maximum, and a detection efficiency of 94% were measured with an incident beam intensity of 2 × 106 particles per second. A new production technique, using photolithography, that makes the fabrication of stripped PPAC electrodes larger in area than was previously possible, is also presented.
       
  • Characterization of a CMOS sensor array for small field fluence
           measurement of a low energy proton beam
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 September 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): Julie Constanzo, Marie Vanstalle, Mathieu Guillot, Marc Rousseau, Christian FinckAbstractSmall fields and sharp dose gradients typically encountered in proton irradiation for preclinical research require high spatial resolution dosimetric measurements, especially below 10 mm beam diameter. This study aims to characterize a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensor for fluence measurement of small radiation fields (2 mm, 5 mm and 10 mm diameter) delivered by a 25 MeV proton beam dedicated to preclinical irradiations. The beam fluence was characterized in air with a MIMOSA28 CMOS sensor and EBT3 films and compared to Geant4 simulations. The measured flatness for the 10 mm field was found within ±2.5 % with both the CMOS sensor and EBT3 films. Lateral profiles were in agreement within a distance of 0.1 mm between the two detectors and Geant4 simulations. Also, with a fixed particle rate, the fluence measured by the CMOS sensor was constant at the entrance of the proton beam path, regardless the field size, while EBT3 showed a 10% increased fluence for the 2 mm collimated beam. The CMOS sensor demonstrated a high spatial resolution and its fluence-response is independent of the radiation field sizes that seems promising for future developments in dosimetry of small field proton beams for precise irradiation platforms dedicated to preclinical research, as well as in nuclear research and laser accelerated particle beam characterization
       
  • 50 μ m+thin+HPK+UFSD+after+neutron+irradiation+up+to+6   1015+neq/cm2&rft.title=Nuclear+Instruments+and+Methods+in+Physics+Research+Section+A:+Accelerators,+Spectrometers,+Detectors+and+Associated+Equipment&rft.issn=0168-9002&rft.date=&rft.volume=">Comparison of 35 and 50 μ m thin HPK UFSD after neutron irradiation up
           to 6  ⋅  1015 neq/cm2
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 September 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): Y. Zhao, N. Cartiglia, E. Estrada, Z. Galloway, C. Gee, A. Goto, Z. Luce, S.M. Mazza, F. McKinney-Martinez, R. Rodriguez, H. F.-W. Sadrozinski, A. Seiden, V. Cindro, G. Kramberger, I. Mandić, M. Mikuž, M. ZavrtanikAbstractWe report results from the testing of 35 μm thick Ultra-Fast Silicon Detectors (UFSD) produced by Hamamatsu Photonics (HPK), Japan and the comparison of these new results to data reported in a previous paper on 50 μm thick UFSD produced by HPK. The 35 μm thick sensors were irradiated with neutrons to fluences of 1 ⋅ 1014, 1 ⋅ 1015, 3 ⋅ 1015, 6 ⋅ 1015 neq/cm2. The sensors were tested pre-irradiation and post-irradiation with minimum ionizing particles (MIPs) from a 90Sr β-source. The leakage current, capacitance, internal gain and the timing resolution were measured as a function of bias voltage at −20 °C and −27 °C. The timing resolution was extracted from the time difference with a second calibrated UFSD in coincidence, using the constant fraction discrimination method for both devices. Within the fluence range measured, 35 μm thick UFSD present advantages in timing accuracy, bias voltage and power consumption.
       
  • Review of active interrogation techniques
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 September 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): Joseph BendahanAbstractThere is a need to inspect cargo for general contraband, explosives, drugs, Radiological Materials (RM), and Special Nuclear Materials (SNM). Radiation Portal Monitors (RPMs) have been widely deployed for detecting mainly radiological materials. The most widely deployed systems to inspect cargo are based on X-ray technologies where analysis of the images is used to detect contraband. There is large variety of X-ray systems tailored for specific applications, space availability, customer preference and price. The detection of shielded RM or SNM using primary X-ray systems result in an alarm rate larger than desired and require a suitable alarm resolution. Secondary systems that are more specific to SNM have been used to clear the alarms. These systems use high-energy X-rays or neutrons to induce fissions and detect the SNM signatures. The Transportation Security Agency (TSA), Science and Technology (S&T), and the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) from Department of Homeland Security (DHS) have performed tests of many of these systems to determine the detection envelope of the various technologies. A summary of selected primary and secondary active interrogation techniques is presented.
       
  • Lightweight fast rotating Fermi-chopper, proof of principle for a scalable
           array chopper
    • Abstract: Publication date: 11 November 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Volume 908Author(s): Daniel F. Förster, Felix Müller, Ulrich Giesen, Bernd Lindenau, Thorsten Ortmanns, Jörg Wolters, Ulrich Pabst, Michael Butzek, Robin Woracek, Tadeusz Kozielewski, Michael MonkenbuschAbstractThe concept of the Fermi chopper array based on small Fermi rotors is explored. The advantages of such an array would be very low stored kinetic energy even for very fast running large area choppers and emerging possibilities for new and very flexible focussing schemes. The work comprises the investigation of a drive concept with a small motor and the design of a precise phase control. Further the rotor mechanics (stress and deformation) at high rotation frequencies has been optimised by FE-calculations. A chopper concept is studied with a small high speed motor connected to the rotor by means of an elastic shaft. This concept is comparable to the model of the “de Laval” or “Jeffcott” rotor.The development from a first layout of the Fermi rotor to a prototype aiming at high running speeds up to 1000 Hz is described and results for transmission, blocking and pulse shapes obtained at the ESS test beamline are reported.
       
  • 3 +nanoparticles&rft.title=Nuclear+Instruments+and+Methods+in+Physics+Research+Section+A:+Accelerators,+Spectrometers,+Detectors+and+Associated+Equipment&rft.issn=0168-9002&rft.date=&rft.volume=">Luminescence of polystyrene composites loaded with CeF 3 nanoparticles
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: 11 November 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Volume 908Author(s): T.M. Demkiv, V.V. Vistovskyy, O.O. Halyatkin, Malyi T., P.M. Yakibchuk, A.V. Gektin, A.S. VoloshinovskiiAbstractLuminescence and kinetic characteristics of polystyrene nanocomposites with luminescence impurities of p-Terphenyl, POPOP and CeF3 nanoparticles were studied. Intensity of X-ray excited luminescence of the polystyrene scintillation composites containing CeF3 nanoparticles (40 wt%) has been established to substantially increase (up to 16 times), mainly due to excitation energy transfer from the CeF3 nanoparticles to the polystyrene matrix by means of the electron escape mechanism.
       
  • Electron spectroscopy with a commercial 4H-SiC photodiode
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 September 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): S. Zhao, G. Lioliou, S. Butera, M.D.C. Whitaker, A.M. BarnettAbstractA Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) 4H-SiC p-n photodiode (sold as a UV detector) was investigated as detector of electrons (β− particles) over the temperature range 100 °C to 20 °C. The photodiode had an active area of 0.06 mm2. The currents of the photodiode were measured in dark condition and under the illumination of a 63Ni radioisotope β− particle source (endpoint energy = 66 keV). The photodiode was then coupled to a custom-made low-noise charge-sensitive preamplifier to make a direct detection particle counting electron spectrometer. 63Ni β− particle spectra were accumulated with the spectrometer operating at temperatures up to 100 °C. The quantum efficiency of the photodiode as well as the spectrum expected to be detected were calculated via Monte Carlo simulations produced using the CASINO computer program. Comparisons between the simulated and detected 63Ni β− particle spectra are presented. The work was motivated by efforts to apply COTS technologies to develop low-cost space science instrumentation; a low-cost electron spectrometer of this type could be included on a university-led CubeSat mission for space plasma physics and magnetosphere experiments.
       
  • Monte-Carlo based performance assessment of ASACUSA’s antihydrogen
           detector
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 September 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): Y. Nagata, N. Kuroda, B. Kolbinger, M. Fleck, C. Malbrunot, V. Mäckel, C. Sauerzopf, M.C. Simon, M. Tajima, J. Zmeskal, H. Breuker, H. Higaki, Y. Kanai, Y. Matsuda, S. Ulmer, L. Venturelli, E. Widmann, Y. YamazakiAbstractAn antihydrogen detector consisting of a thin BGO disk and a surrounding plastic scintillator hodoscope has been developed. We have characterized the two-dimensional positions sensitivity of the thin BGO disk and energy deposition into the BGO was calibrated using cosmic rays by comparing experimental data with Monte-Carlo simulations. The particle tracks were defined by connecting BGO hit positions and hits on the surrounding hodoscope scintillator bars. The event rate was investigated as a function of the angles between the tracks and the energy deposition in the BGO for simulated antiproton events, and for measured and simulated cosmic ray events. Identification of the antihydrogen Monte Carlo events was performed using the energy deposited in the BGO and the particle tracks. The cosmic ray background was limited to 12 mHz with a detection efficiency of 81%. The signal-to-noise ratio was improved from 0.22 s−1∕2 obtained with the detector in 2012 to 0.26 s−1∕2 in this work.
       
  • Reasons for high charge collection efficiency of silicon detectors at
           HL-LHC fluences
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 September 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): G. KrambergerAbstractPosition sensitive silicon detectors are more resilient to radiation then predicted from extensive measurements over the R&D phase for Large Hadron Collider. It was demonstrated over the past few years that they can be successfully operated also at the upgraded LHC (HL-LHC) and even beyond. A review of silicon properties affecting charge collection after irradiation will be given with special emphasis on their changes in very harsh radiation environments such as HL-LHC. Mainly three reasons: charge multiplication, high electric fields in undepleted bulk and saturation of trapping probabilities lead to better than expected performance of the silicon detectors. Initial acceptor removal, important for novel detector technologies such as Low Gain Avalanche Detectors and depleted CMOS sensors, will be also addressed.
       
  • Construction of the new silicon microstrips tracker for the Phase-II ATLAS
           detector
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 September 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): Zhijun Liang, for the ATLAS collaborationAbstractThe Upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider to the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) is scheduled to start operation in less than ten years from now and will result in the delivery of ten times more integrated luminosity to the experiments. To withstand the much harsher radiation and occupancy conditions of the HL-LHC, the inner tracker of the ATLAS detector must be redesigned and rebuilt completely. The design of the ATLAS Upgrade inner tracker (ITk) has already been defined. It consists of several layers of silicon particle detectors. The innermost layers will be composed of silicon pixel sensors, and the outer layers will consist of silicon microstrip sensors. This paper will focus on the latest research and development activities performed by the ITk strips community with respect to the assembly and test of the strip modules and the stave and petal structures.
       
  • Δ E-TOF+detector+of+the+FOOT+experiment:+Experimental+tests+and+Monte+Carlo+simulations&rft.title=Nuclear+Instruments+and+Methods+in+Physics+Research+Section+A:+Accelerators,+Spectrometers,+Detectors+and+Associated+Equipment&rft.issn=0168-9002&rft.date=&rft.volume=">The Δ E-TOF detector of the FOOT experiment: Experimental tests and Monte
           Carlo simulations
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 September 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): E. Ciarrocchi, N. Belcari, N. Camarlinghi, P. Carra, A. Del Guerra, M. Francesconi, L. Galli, A. Kraan, M. Morrocchi, S. Muraro, M. Pullia, V. Rosso, G. Sportelli, M. BisogniAbstractThe FOOT experiment aims at identifying the fragments produced in the human body during hadrontherapy and at measuring their cross sections. The apparatus is composed of several detectors which allow a complete reconstruction of the tracks of the fragments. In particular, the ΔE-TOF detector measures the energy released in a thin plastic scintillator and the time of flight of the fragments. In this work, we report the energy and time resolution of a ΔE-TOF detector prototype with proton and carbon irradiations, and we compare the results with a Monte Carlo simulation of the optical transport in the detector. With carbon ions, we measured time resolutions of ∼50 ps and energy resolutions of ∼6%. The Monte Carlo simulation was able to model the dependence of the number of detected photons on the proton interaction position.
       
  • β -source&rft.title=Nuclear+Instruments+and+Methods+in+Physics+Research+Section+A:+Accelerators,+Spectrometers,+Detectors+and+Associated+Equipment&rft.issn=0168-9002&rft.date=&rft.volume=">Characterization of the fused silica surface quality with a β -source
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 September 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): A. Natochii, L. Burmistrov, F. Addesa, O. Bezshyyko, D. Breton, V. Chaumat, G. Cavoto, S. Dubos, Y. Gavrikov, F. Iacoangeli, J. Maalmi Di Bello, S. Montesano, V. Puill, R. Rossi, W. Scandale, A. StocchiAbstractA method to characterise the quality of a fused silica surface using a β-source is presented. Two fused silica bars (5×10×400mm3) were fabricated for the Cherenkov detector for proton Flux Measurement installed at vacuum chamber of the Super Proton Synchrotron at CERN. The resolution of such device is defined by the collection efficiency of the Cherenkov light, which is produced by relativistic charged particles in the fused silica. Thus, the surface quality of the radiator should be as good as possible to avoid light losses. The method is based on the scanning of the radiator surface with a 90Sr radioactive source and measurements of the Cherenkov light rate, detected by a PMT attached to the quartz bars. The data have been compared with a Monte-Carlo simulation, providing an estimation of the radiator’s probability of the total internal reflection and inefficient area at the edges of the bars.
       
  • Development of a radiation tolerant fine pitch planar pixel detector by
           HPK/KEK
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 September 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): Koji Nakamura, Junki Suzuki, Hitomi Tokutake, Kazuyuki Sato, Yohei Abo, Osamu Jinnouchi, Kazunori Hanagaki, Kazuhiko Hara, Shintaro Kamada, Yuto Nakamura, Hajime Nanjyo, Yoichi Ikegami, Yasunori Sawada, Manabu Togawa, Kazuki Uchiyama, Yoshinobu Unno, Sayaka Wada, Daiki Yamamoto, Hirokazu Yamamoto, Kazuhisa YamamuraAbstractIn the recent development of pixel detectors for the inner part of the ATLAS detector upgrade of the High Luminosity LHC, a thin, typically 150 μm, planar pixel detector has been developed. To reduce hit occupancy, the pixel size is smaller compared to the currently operating pixel detector in ATLAS and the 2 pitch options, 50 μm×50μm and 25μm×100μm, are readout by the same 50μm×50μm pitch readout ASIC. To evaluate the performance of the fine pitch pixel detector, two methods are tested, a) emulated using the current ASIC (FE-I4) using non-uniform size of pixel, where two 50μm×250μm pixels are spitted to 50μm×50μm and 50μm×450μm, (b) used new ASIC (FE65p2) with full 50μm×50μm pitch. The FE65p2 is the prototype ASIC produced by TSMC using 65 nm CMOS process, with an expected lower noise than FE-I4. In this paper, basic devices performance and testbeam results before and after irradiation are presented.
       
  • Characterization of high purity germanium point contact detectors with low
           net impurity concentration
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 September 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): S. Mertens, A. Hegai, D.C. Radford, N. Abgrall, Y.-D. Chan, R.D. Martin, A.W.P. Poon, C. SchmittAbstractHigh Purity germanium point-contact detectors have low energy thresholds and excellent energy resolution over a wide energy range, and are thus widely used in nuclear and particle physics. In rare event searches, such as neutrinoless double beta decay, the point-contact geometry is of particular importance since it allows for pulse-shape discrimination, and therefore for a significant background reduction. In this paper we investigate the pulse-shape discrimination performance of ultra-high purity germanium point contact detectors. It is demonstrated that a minimal net impurity concentration is required to meet the pulse-shape performance requirements.
       
  • Detection of Vacuum Ultra-Violet light by means of SiPMs
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 September 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): Maurizio Bonesini, Tommaso Cervi, Carlo De Vecchi, Andrea Falcone, Alessandro Menegolli, Marco C. Prata, Gian Luca Raselli, Massimo Rossella, Marta TortiAbstractSilicon Photo-Multipliers (SiPMs) are widely proposed as light detectors in many high energy physics experiments. The performance of these devices for the detection of scintillation light of liquefied noble gases, such as LXe or LAr, emitting photons in the Vacuum Ultra-Violet (VUV) region, will be presented.
       
  • High energy neutrino beam generation based on crystal optics
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 September 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): Yu. A. Chesnokov, V.A. MaisheevAbstractThe problem of creation of high energy neutrino beams on the basis of modern and future circular proton accelerators with the help of traditional technology seems to be expensive and difficult. Because of this, we propose the solution of this problem based on the usage of focusing bent single crystals. In the paper we demonstrate the possibilities of acceptance and focusing of a pion beam with the help of a crystal optical lens system. As an illustration of these features the calculated neutrino fluxes for energy of circulating proton beam equal to 6.5 TeV are presented.
       
  • Performance of the CMS muon system in LHC Run-2
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 September 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): C. Battilana, on behalf of the CMS CollaborationAbstractThe CMS muon system has played a key role for many physics results obtained from the LHC Run-1 and Run-2 data. It presently consists of three detector technologies equipping different regions of the spectrometer. Drift Tube chambers (DT) are installed in the CMS muon system barrel, while Cathode Strip Chambers (CSC) cover the CMS end-caps; both serve as tracking and triggering detectors. Moreover, Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) complement DT and CSC in barrel and end-caps respectively and are mostly used in the trigger. Finally, Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) chambers are going to be installed in the muon spectrometer endcaps at different stages of the CMS upgrade programme. A slice test consisting of 10 GEM chambers is being presently operated in parallel to the rest of the muon spectrometer. The performance of the different muon detectors and the muon trigger, evaluated using data collected at 13 TeV centre-of-mass energy during the LHC Run2, will be presented in this report in all of its aspects.
       
  • Temperature characterisation of spectroscopic InGaP X-ray photodiodes
    • Abstract: Publication date: 11 November 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Volume 908Author(s): S. Butera, G. Lioliou, A.B. Krysa, A.M. BarnettAbstractIn this paper for the first time, an InGaP photodiode was used in a high temperature tolerant X-ray spectrometer. The use of InGaP in X-ray spectrometers shows a significant advance within this field allowing operation up to 100 °C. Such results are particularly important since GaP and InP (the InGaP binary parent compounds) are not spectroscopic even at room temperature. The best energy resolution (smallest FWHM) at 5.9 keV for the InGaP spectrometer was 1.27 keV at 100 °C and 770 eV at 20 °C, when the detector was reverse biased at 5 V. The observed FWHM were higher than the expected statistically limited energy resolutions indicating that other sources of noise contributed to the FWHM broadening. The spectrometer’s Si preamplifier electronics was the limiting factor for the FWHM rather than the InGaP photodiode itself. The InGaP electron–hole pair creation energy (εInGaP) was experimentally measured across the temperature range 100 °C to 20 °C. εInGaP was 4.94 eV ± 0.06 eV at 20 °C.
       
  • Study of ageing in glass MRPCs
    • Abstract: Publication date: 11 November 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Volume 908Author(s): F. Carnesecchi, D.W. Kim, Z. Liu, O. Maragoto Rodriguez, W. Park, M.C.S. Williams, A. Zichichi, R. ZuyeuskiAbstractThe Multigap Resistive Plate Chamber (MRPC) is used in many experiments due to its excellent efficiency and time resolution. We have studied the ageing effect on MRPC’s glass sheets. In particular we analysed an MRPC built with glass sheets that had been used for ten years in a cosmic ray study. We extracted the glass sheets from these old chambers and built a new MRPC chamber. We used different configurations; significant changes in the efficiency and time resolution have been observed.
       
  • Upgrade of the ATLAS muon system for the HL-LHC
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 September 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): Ch. Amelung, on behalf of the ATLAS CollaborationAbstractThe muon spectrometer of the ATLAS detector will be significantly upgraded during the Phase-II upgrade in Long Shutdown 3 in order to cope with the operational conditions at the High-Luminosity LHC in Run 4 and beyond. Most of the electronics for the Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC), Thin Gap Chambers (TGC), and Monitored Drift Tube (MDT) chambers will be replaced to make them compatible with the higher trigger rates and longer latencies necessary for the new level-0 trigger. The MDT chambers will be integrated into the level-0 trigger in order to sharpen the momentum threshold. Additional RPC chambers will be installed in the inner barrel layer to increase the acceptance and robustness of the trigger. Some of the MDT chambers in the inner barrel layer will be replaced with new small-diameter MDTs. New TGC triplet chambers in the barrel-endcap transition region will replace the current TGC doublets to suppress the high trigger rate from random coincidences in this region. The power system for the RPC, TGC, and MDT chambers and electronics will need to be replaced due to component obsolescence, aging, and radiation damage. A high-η tagger is under consideration to extend the angular acceptance for muon identification. The Phase-II upgrade concludes the process of adapting the muon spectrometer to the ever increasing performance of the LHC, which started with the Phase-I upgrade New Small Wheel project that will replace the Cathode Strip Chambers and the MDT chambers of the innermost endcap wheels by Micromegas and small-strip TGCs.
       
  • Operational experience with and performance of the ATLAS Pixel Detector at
           the Large Hadron Collider
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 September 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): A. Grummer, on behalf of the ATLAS CollaborationAbstractThe operational experience and requirements to ensure optimum data quality and data taking efficiency with the 4-layer ATLAS Pixel Detector are discussed. The detector has undergone significant hardware and software upgrades to meet the challenges imposed by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The LHC is exceeding expectations for instantaneous luminosity by more than a factor of two (to more than 2×1034 cm−2 s−1). Emphasizing radiation damage effects, the key status and performance metrics are described.
       
  • Testbeam studies of a TORCH prototype detector
    • Abstract: Publication date: 11 November 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Volume 908Author(s): N.H. Brook, L. Castillo García, T.M. Conneely, D. Cussans, M.W.U. van Dijk, K. Föhl, R. Forty, C. Frei, R. Gao, T. Gys, T.H. Hancock, N. Harnew, J. Lapington, J. Milnes, D. Piedigrossi, J. Rademacker, A. Ros GarcíaAbstractTORCH is a novel time-of-flight detector that has been developed to provide charged-particle identification between 2 and 10 GeV/c momentum. TORCH combines arrival times from multiple Cherenkov photons produced within a 10 mm-thick quartz radiator plate, to achieve a 15 ps time-of-flight resolution per incident particle. A customised Micro-Channel Plate photomultiplier tube (MCP-PMT) and associated readout system utilises an innovative charge-sharing technique between adjacent pixels to obtain the necessary 70 ps time resolution of each Cherenkov photon. A five-year R&D programme has been undertaken, culminating in the construction of a small-scale prototype TORCH module. In testbeams at CERN, this prototype operated successfully with customised electronics and readout system. A full analysis chain has been developed to reconstruct the data and to calibrate the detector. Results are compared to those using a commercial Planacon MCP-PMT, and single photon resolutions approaching 80 ps have been achieved. The photon counting efficiency was found to be in reasonable agreement with a GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulation of the detector. The small-scale demonstrator is a precursor to a full-scale TORCH module (with a radiator plate of 660×1250×10mm3), which is currently under construction.
       
  • 3 + +activated+scintillation&rft.title=Nuclear+Instruments+and+Methods+in+Physics+Research+Section+A:+Accelerators,+Spectrometers,+Detectors+and+Associated+Equipment&rft.issn=0168-9002&rft.date=&rft.volume=">15 lutetium compounds screened for Ce 3 + activated scintillation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 September 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): Stephen E. Derenzo, Gregory A. Bizarri, Edith Bourret, Ramesh Borade, Yetta Eagleman, Gautam Gundiah, Christopher RosenAbstractWe report the scintillation luminosities, decay times, and emission wavelengths of eight new Ce3+ activated lutetium scintillators, two of which are also new compounds. Candidate compounds were (1) selected by empirical estimates of densities, bandgaps, and the potentials for Ce3+ activation; (2) synthesized as crystalline granules in arrays of automated furnaces; (3) verified by X-ray diffractometery; and (4) measured by X-ray luminescence spectroscopy and pulsed X-rays. By calibrating with Lu2SiO5:Ce crystals of similar grain size (average 0.5 mm) we estimate that the luminosities of the eight new scintillators range from 1000 to 27,000 photons/MeV and all show the characteristic Ce3+ doublet emission. The same undoped compounds have intrinsic scintillation with lower luminosities and different emission spectra. While most of these scintillators do not have properties that make them candidates for widespread use, their data will contribute to a deeper understanding of the factors that limit scintillation performance. In addition, we list seven lutetium compounds whose intrinsic scintillation was quenched by the incorporation of Ce3+.
       
  • The use of electron linac for high quality thermal neutron radiography
           unit
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 September 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): J.G. FantidisAbstractA Thermal neutron radiography facility based on photoneutrons which produced by an electron linac was studied with the final goal to suggest an attractive alternative to the nuclear research reactors neutron sources which are used for radiographic purposes. The design and the optimization of the facility have been simulated using the MCNPX Monte Carlo code. The relevant with thermal neutron radiography parameters such as the thermal neutron flux, the L/D ratio and the thermal neutron content calculated for an extensive range of values. The results specify that the proposed facility meets all the required values for quality thermal neutron radiographies. The overall evaluation of the unit was also realized through the comparison between the studied facility and some published works.
       
  • Methodology for a fast determination of EDX Si(Li) detector response
           function in the 5 keV to 15 keV range
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 September 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): A.P.L. Bertol, P.C. Chaves, R. Hinrichs, M.A.Z. Vasconcellos, M.A. ReisAbstractStandard methods used for establishing EDX Si(Li) detectors response functions (DRF) are tedious and require a significant amount of work and beam time, which is not always available. That fact frequently leads to the disregard of the specific DRF at the time of the measurement, and to the fit of spectra using “general” response functions, which were determined on detectors with different characteristics. The accurate description of the low energy side asymmetry of the peaks is necessary to quantify trace elements accurately and to determine fundamental parameters like X-ray intensity ratios and ionization cross sections. In the present work, a simple method to monitor the energy dependence of EDX detectors response function in the 5 keV to 15 keV range is presented. Four PIXE generated X-ray spectra of thin mono-elemental (Ti, Fe, Ni, and Au) films are shown to be enough for this purpose. The methodology can be used as a laboratory-based protocol to establish the DRF and to monitor it over time.
       
  • Activation measurement of neutron production and transport in a thick lead
           target and a uranium blanket during 4 GeV deuteron irradiation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 September 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): M. Suchopár, V. Wagner, O. Svoboda, J. Vrzalová, P. Chudoba, P. Tichý, M. Majerle, A. Krása, A. Kugler, J. Adam, L. Závorka, A. Baldin, W. Furman, M. Kadykov, J. Khushvaktov, A. Solnyshkin, V. Tsoupko-Sitnikov, S. TyutyunnikovAbstractSeveral simple accelerator-driven system (ADS) setups were irradiated by relativistic proton and deuteron beams in last years at the Nuclotron synchrotron site of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna, Russia. This paper is dedicated to a 4 GeV deuteron irradiation of a setup called Energy plus Transmutation (E+T), consisting of a lead target, natural uranium blanket, and polyethylene shielding. This paper represents the finalization of data analysis and concludes systematics of the proton and deuteron experiments carried out with the E+T setup. Activation detectors served for monitoring of proton and deuteron beams and for measurements of neutron field distribution in model ADS studies. Products of reactions with thresholds up to 106 MeV as well as non-threshold reactions were observed in the samples. The yields of the produced isotopes were determined using the gamma-ray spectrometry and compared with Monte Carlo simulations performed with the MCNPX transport code.
       
  • DC vacuum breakdown in an external magnetic field
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 August 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): S. Lebedynskyi, O. Karpenko, R. Kholodov, V. Baturin, Ia. Profatilova, N. Shipman, W. WuenschAbstractThe subject of the present theoretical and experimental investigations is the effect of the external magnetic field induction on dark current and a possibility of breakdown. The generalization of the Fowler-Nordheim equation makes it possible to take into account the influence of a magnetic field parallel to the cathode surface on the field emission current. The reduction in the breakdown voltage due to the increment in electron-impact ionization was theoretical predicted. Experimentally shown that the presence of a magnetic field about a tenth as a large as the cutoff magnetic field (Hull, 1921) reduces the breakdown voltage by 10% to 20% for practically all cathodes no matter what their surface treatment.
       
  • Low-cost vacuum compatible liquid cell for hard X-ray absorption
           spectroscopy
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 August 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): C. Marini, R. Boada, J. Prieto Burgos, N. Ramanan, I. García Domínguez, J. Zhao, T. Xiao, L. SimonelliAbstractWe present the design, fabrication, and commissioning of a new liquid cell for X-ray absorption spectroscopy, compatible with measurement in both transmission and fluorescence modes. The design consists of easily demountable and replaceable parts: body, windows, elastomer spacer, washers and a holding screw. The pathlength of the liquid chamber can be adjusted by simply selecting the appropriate thickness of the spacer, making the cell extremely customizable to overcome experimental constraints. The cell has probed to be leak tight under low vacuum conditions. The compact and simple design makes the cell compatible with cryogenic applications. Finally, the possibility of 3D printing for manufacturing the cell makes it readily available and very competitive from a cost point of view (each unit is estimated less to be than 10 €).
       
  • Luminosity reduction caused by phase modulations at the HL-LHC crab
           cavities
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 August 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): E. Yamakawa, R. Apsimon, P. Baudrenghien, R. Calaga, A.C. DexterAbstractThe design of the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) requires two pairs of crab cavities to be installed either side of Interaction Points (IPs) 1 (ATLAS) and 5 (CMS) to compensate for the geometric reduction in luminosity due to the beam crossing angle at the IP. The HL-LHC beam current is a factor of two larger than the LHC design value. The existing RF system has insufficient power to use the existing low level RF (LLRF) scheme for HL-LHC and therefore a new scheme is proposed which results in an irregular bunch pattern in the ring; here in referred to as a phase modulation. In this paper we study the effect of this phase modulation on the crab cavity scheme and the resulting impact on peak luminosity. We have developed an analytical model to calculate the luminosity and its dependence on the related beam and RF parameters. We compare this model to tracking simulations in PYTRACK and show a good agreement between the model and simulations. In the case of a coherent phase error between the counter-rotating bunch trains, having the maximum expected time shift of 100 ps (0.25 radians at the RF frequency), the reduction of analytical peak luminosity is found to be 1.89% when the crabbing voltage is 6.8 MV. For incoherent phase errors, the luminosity reduction for a 100 ps phase error is 5.67%; however the expected incoherent phase error is significantly less than 100 ps. These reductions are not foreseen as an issue when the crabbing scheme is used for luminosity levelling during physics experiments.
       
  • A facility for production and laser cooling of cesium isotopes and isomers
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 August 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): Alexandros Giatzoglou, Tanapoom Poomaradee, Ilkka Pohjalainen, Sami Rinta-Antila, Iain D. Moore, Philip M. Walker, Luca Marmugi, Ferruccio RenzoniAbstractWe report on the design, installation, and test of an experimental facility for the production of ultra-cold atomic isotopes and isomers of cesium. The setup covers a broad span of mass numbers and nuclear isomers, allowing one to directly compare chains of isotopes and isotope/isomer pairs. Cesium nuclei are produced by fission or fusion-evaporation reactions using primary proton beams from a 130 MeV cyclotron impinging upon a suitable target. The species of interest is ejected from the target in ionic form, electrostatically accelerated, mass separated, and routed to a science chamber. Here, ions are neutralized by implantation in a thin foil, and extracted by thermal diffusion. A neutral vapor at room temperature is thus formed and trapped in a magneto-optical trap. Real-time fluorescence imaging and destructive absorption imaging provide information on the number of trapped atoms, their density, and their temperature. Tests with a dedicated beam of  133Cs+ ions at 30 KeV energy confirm neutralization, evaporation, and laser cooling to 150 μK, with an average atomic density of 1010 cm−3. Availability of cold and dense atomic samples of Cs isotopes and isomers opens new avenues for high-precision measurements of isotopic and isomeric shifts thereby gaining deeper insight into the nuclear structure, as well as for sensitive measurements of isotopes’ concentration ratios in trace quantities. The facility also constitutes the core for future experiments of many-body physics with nuclear isomers.
       
  • Longitudinal bunch size measurement using an RF deflector
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 August 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): M. Otani, K. Futatsugawa, K. Hirano, Y. Kondo, A. Miura, H. Oguri, Y. LiuAbstractIt is extremely important to diagnose beams in accelerators to improve accelerator operation. In the low velocity section of a proton or heavy ion linac, the diagnostic method for longitudinal beam properties is less established compared to that for transverse properties. We have developed a new diagnostic method for the longitudinal bunch size by utilizing an RF deflector. We evaluated the uncertainty in bunch size measurement through simulation, and it was obtained as 0.5°. In addition, we measured longitudinal beam emittance through bunch size measurements at several RF amplitudes of an upstream buncher. The measured emittance was 0.13±0.01π deg.MeV, which was consistent with the simulation result.
       
  • Characterization of the STS/MUCH-XYTER2, a 128-channel time and amplitude
           measurement IC for gas and silicon microstrip sensors
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 August 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): K. Kasinski, A. Rodriguez-Rodriguez, J. Lehnert, W. Zubrzycka, R. Szczygiel, P. Otfinowski, R. Kleczek, C.J. SchmidtAbstractNew physics experiments at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt require application-optimized detector readout circuits. The STS/MUCH-XYTER2 (or SMX2) is a new, 128-channel prototype ASIC for silicon strip detectors and gas electron multiplier (GEM) detectors in the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment. It provides self-triggered amplitude and time measurement of incoming charge and serial streaming of digitized data. The 10 mm × 6.75 mm chip was fabricated employing the UMC CMOS 180 nm process. It comprises of an analog front-end with dual-path processing including a timing comparator in one path and a continuous-time 5-bit analog-to-digital converter in the other path, a digital back-end with time pre-sorting, advanced monitoring and throttling features and multiple 320 Mbps, serial links targeted for a GBT-based data acquisition structure. Specific conditions of the detector systems will be discussed prior to the structure and the features of the ASIC together with measurement results.
       
  • Towards in-jet resonance ionization spectroscopy: An injection-locked
           Titanium:Sapphire laser system for the PALIS -facility
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 August 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): M. Reponen, V. Sonnenschein, T. Sonoda, H. Tomita, M. Oohashi, D. Matsui, M. WadaAbstractThis article presents a pulsed narrowband injection-locked Titanium:Sapphire laser aimed for high-resolution in-jet resonance ionization spectroscopy at the SLOWRI/PALIS at RIKEN. The laser has been integrated into the PALIS laser laboratory enabling it to be utilized with the existing broadband Titanium:Sapphire and dye lasers. The seed efficiency has been evaluated to be close to unity over the master laser wavelength range ∼ 753 to 791 nm, and the slope efficiency, namely the ratio of the pump power to the output power, was determined to be ∼ 30 % at 780 nm. A two-step ionization scheme with 386.4016 nm first step and 286.731 nm second step into an autoionizing state was developed for resonance ionization spectroscopy of 93Nb. Magnetic hyperfine coupling constants of 1866±8 MHz and 1536±7 MHz were measured for the ground and excited state, respectively, in a good agreement with the literature values. A Gaussian dominated Voigt linewidth of 434.5 ± 7.4 MHz was extracted from the hyperfine spectra measured for niobium. In addition, the resolution of the in-jet resonance ionization in PALIS is estimated through numerical methods.
       
  • 12 C 6 + +and+ 16 O 8 + +ion+beams+at+heavy+ion+storage+ring+CSRe&rft.title=Nuclear+Instruments+and+Methods+in+Physics+Research+Section+A:+Accelerators,+Spectrometers,+Detectors+and+Associated+Equipment&rft.issn=0168-9002&rft.date=&rft.volume=">Longitudinal modulation of electron-cooled 12 C 6 + and
           16 O 8 + ion beams at heavy ion storage ring CSRe
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 August 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): H.B. Wang, W.Q. Wen, Z.K. Huang, D.C. Zhang, B. Hai, M. Bussmann, D. Winters, D.M. Zhao, X.L. Zhu, J. Li, X.N. Li, L.J. Mao, R.S. Mao, T.C. Zhao, D.Y. Yin, J.X. Wu, J.C. Yang, Y.J. Yuan, X. MaAbstractThe longitudinal dynamics of electron-cooled and radio-frequency (RF)-bunched 12C6+ and 16O8+ ion beams have been investigated at a heavy-ion experimental cooler storage ring CSRe. An rf-buncher was employed to longitudinally modulate the ion beams. A new resonant Schottky pick-up was applied to monitor the intensities and longitudinal dynamics of stored and electron-cooled ion beams. Using electron-cooling, the separated Schottky noise signals of the 12C6+ and 16O8+ ions were clearly observed in the Schottky spectrum. The storage times and the particle numbers of both ion beams were measured by Schottky noise, which demonstrated the ability to perform Schottky mass spectrometry measurements and also the measurement of highly charged ions at the CSRe. In addition, an enhancement of the Schottky noise signals was observed for rf-bunched ion beams, which could be used to diagnose the intensity ion beams at storage rings. Finally, a broadly longitudinal manipulation of the ion beams by scanning the bunching frequency was realized. The investigation of electron-ion recombination experiment at ultra-low collision energies by scanning the bunching frequency of the ion beams at the storage ring CSRe is proposed.
       
  • Trajectory measurements for individual dust particles on the colorado dust
           accelerator
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 August 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): William Goode, Tobin Munsat, David James, Zach UlibarriAbstractThe Dust Coordinate Sensor (DCS) is a dual detector instrument located on the beamline of the 3 MV hypervelocity dust accelerator at the University of Colorado Institute for Modeling Plasma, Atmospheres and Cosmic Dust (IMPACT). This instrument non-destructively measures the three-dimensional trajectories of charged, hypervelocity (3-8 km/s), micron-sized dust particles in flight by utilizing the image charge induced on grids of wire electrodes. Where previous peak detection was typically limited to dust particles carrying charges >∼100 fC, new signal processing techniques developed for DCS allow for effective trajectory measurements on particles carrying charges as small as 6 fC. The new signal processing also effectively eliminates false signal detections completely. The position measurements are matched by timestamp to the charge and velocity for each launched dust particle. Verification of the system was performed with independent impact location measurements on a target placed in the beamline. These measurements agree to within 1 mm2 of the predicted locations using DCS trajectories. This study demonstrates the capability of the instrument including new processing methods. Precise trajectory measurement along the beamline enables new options for instrument calibration, scientific experiments, and improvement of the accelerator performance.
       
  • Modeling of a HPGe well detector using PENELOPE for the calculation of
           full energy peak efficiencies for environmental samples
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 August 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): J.G. Guerra, J.G. Rubiano, G. Winter, A.G. Guerra, H. Alonso, M.A. Arnedo, A. Tejera, P. Martel, J.P. BolivardAbstractWhen determining the activity concentration of radionuclides using gamma-ray spectrometry the Full Energy Peak Efficiency (FEPE) for the energies of interest must be known. Determination of the FEPE can be made by means of either experimental calibration or theoretical-mathematical methods, such as Monte Carlo simulations. Given the difficulties related to experimental calibration and improvements in the capabilities of modern computers, Monte Carlo simulation is an increasingly widely used alternative, but requires an accurate model of the detector. The purpose of this work is to generate and validate a computational model, based on Monte Carlo simulation, of an HPGe well detector that permits the performance of FEPE calculations with appropriate precision and accuracy for the measurement of environmental samples. To achieve this, an optimization methodology is applied to the model that minimizes the differences between a set of computational FEPEs and a set of experimental FEPEs used as a benchmark. The resulting optimized model is used to calculate computational FEPEs for 25 different samples with different reference materials and sample heights, which are measured by means of the well detector modeled here. To validate the optimized model, the abovementioned computational FEPEs are used during the calibration of the corresponding spectra, to enable the subsequent comparison of the results of the analyses with the expected values. The measured activities differ from the reference values by less than 10% in most cases and are compatible with these considering the uncertainties involved, thus confirming the validity of the model.
       
  • Development of an array of liquid-scintillator-based bar detectors: SABRE
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 August 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): M. Febbraro, D. Walter, K.A. Chipps, S.D. Pain, E. Temanson, R. Toomey, A. Atencio, C.R. Thornsberry, K. Smith, J. O’Neill, K.L. Jones, C.C. HavenerAbstractAn array of neutron detectors based on liquid scintillator technology has been developed for nuclear reaction studies, in particular measurements with radioactive ion beams (RIBs). Reaction measurements with RIBs often involve low reaction yields and high gamma-induced backgrounds, which requires high solid angle coverage, high efficiency, and background reduction capability. The kinematics of the reaction neutrons require energy and position determination with good resolution, but preferably without a large number of readouts to minimize cost. To address these requirements, the Scintillation Array of Bars for Reaction Experiments (SABRE) consists of five 12” long, 2” diameter bar detectors filled with organic liquid scintillator and capped at both ends with individually read-out superbialkali photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). In-house purification of the scintillator mixtures resulted in improved light collection. Discussion of the liquid scintillator development and the design and commissioning of SABRE will be presented.
       
  • Beam position monitor for superconducting post-linac in RAON
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 August 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): J.W. Kwon, H.J. Woo, G.D. Kim, Y.S. Chung, E.-S. KimAbstractThe Rare-isotope Accelerator complex for ON-line experiments (RAON) is an accelerator for heavy ions, such as uranium and oxygen. To correct the beam trajectory in the post-linac with low- β, we developed a beam position monitor. In the post-linac, the beam is accelerated from 0.5 MeV/u to 18.5 MeV/u, and each bunch has an electric charge of less than 10 pC. To achieve higher signal strength and better linearity, we investigated stripline- and button-type beam position monitor (BPM) and designed the BPMs with CST Particle Studio. We have fabricated a button-type BPM. We tested 10 BPMs by using a wire test stand to achieve the characterization of each BPM, including the calibration factor with single-pass H electronics of I-Tech. The developed wire test stand has a stretched wire and is movable in the 2D plane with servomotors. In this paper, we present the results of the design, fabrication, and off-line test of a button-type BPM for a low- β, heavy-ion beam.
       
  • New method for measuring the time integral of neutron flux in a reactor
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 August 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): Sylvian Kahane, Yacov Finkelstein, Raymond MorehAbstractA new method for measuring the time integral of thermal neutron flux of a nuclear Reactor is proposed. This method utilizes two consecutive (n,γ) reactions on the 58Ni isotope of a natural nickel sample placed near the core of a reactor, 58Ni(n,γ)→59Ni(n,γ)→60Ni(n,γ). Natural nickel contains 68% 58Ni producing an intense 8.999 MeV γ-line leading to the 59Ni ground state via the 58Ni(n,γ) reaction. The 59Ni isotope produced in this manner undergoes another (n,γ) reaction, emitting a γ-line at 11.388 MeV leading to the 60Ni ground state. By measuring the intensity ratio of the two γ-lines at 8.999 and 11.388 MeV using a HPGe detector, it is possible to deduce the integral over time of the neutron flux necessary for producing the 59Ni isotope. Good accuracy can be obtained with this method due to the low gamma background at such high energies.
       
  • Development of a high-power X-band compact RF rotary joint
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 August 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): Jiayang Liu, Jiaru Shi, Jiaqi Qiu, Huaibi Chen, Xiaowei WuAbstractA high-power X-band (9.3 GHz) compact RF rotary joint has been designed, fabricated and tested in Tsinghua University. Simulation results illustrated that RF parameters (the scattering matrix) of this rotary joint keep stable in different rotation angle. Cold measurement using Vector Network Analyzer confirmed the simulation results. The maximum reflection was below −25 dB, the insertion loss was less than 0.1 dB, and the variance of output phase shifts was below 0.2 degree while rotating the joint. High-power test under a 1.6 MW X-band magnetron also showed good results. The design, cold measurement and high-power test of the RF rotary joint are presented in this paper.
       
  • IN13 Neutron guide and primary spectrometer upgrade
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 August 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): Andrew J.C. Dennison, Francesca Natali, Emmanuel Farhi, Giuliana Manzin, Pierre Courtois, Judith PetersAbstractWe discuss the proposed upgrade of the IN13 neutron backscattering spectrometer at the Institut Laue-Langevin (Grenoble, France) and the resulting changes in instrument performance. The effect of using a temperature gradient monochromator on instrument flux and resolution is presented and reproduced using a multi-layer monochromator model for the Monte Carlo neutron ray tracing package McStas. Simulations of the combined effect of varying crystal mosaicity in conjunction with the gradient monochromator on supermirror guides are also shown.
       
  • Study of light yield for different configurations of plastic scintillators
           and wavelength shifting fibers
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 August 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): Zizhao Zong, Giulia Hull, Miktat Imre, Michaël Josselin, Alain Maroni, Tiina Suomijärvi, Kai Daumiller, Ralph Engel, Hermann-Josef Mathes, Michael Riegel, Markus Roth, Radomir Šmída, Alexander Streich, Darko VeberičAbstractIn the effort of the AugerPrime scintillator surface detector R&D activity, we investigated the performances of different extruded and cast plastic scintillators that were read out with wavelength-shifting (WLS) optical fibers and then coupled to a PMT. In particular we compared the light yield of eighteen scintillator/fiber configurations, obtained combining eight different scintillator bars with six fiber types, in order to investigate which was satisfying the AugerPrime specifications in terms of light production (>12 photoelectrons per minimum ionizing particle). In this paper, we present the results of the study on different scintillator bar geometries, scintillator production techniques, and wavelength-shifting optical fiber types. We also propose an effective way to optically couple the fibers to the PMT entrance window.
       
  • The high level application architecture of the control system for SHINE
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 August 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): Huihui Lv, Yongbin Leng, Yingbing Yan, Heyun WangAbstractShanghai HIgh repetition rate XFEL aNd Extreme light facility(SHINE) is a quasi-continuous wave hard X-ray free electron laser facility, which is currently under construction. Such kind of accelerators typically comprise more than hundreds of devices, and control systems are required to manage all the devices in a uniform manner. The control system of SHINE will be based on Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) with a dedicated high-speed data channel and an integrated information system to fulfill the requirement of high repetition rate. Then the high level control applications are designed to hold the information base as well as a set of cooperating services for data access. Modular design is utilized to simplify development and deployment. Modules of parameter and lattice/model are introduced as examples.
       
  • Determination of a neutron beam divergence after the rocking curve concept
           using Richardson-Lucy’s unfolding algorithm
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 August 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): E.S. Souza, M.I. Silvani, G.L. Almeida, R.T. LopesAbstractThermal neutron radiographs acquired under high beam divergences suffer the impact of intense penumbrae degrading their final quality. As a divergence reduction is not always feasible, one possible alternative is an a posteriori treatment to restore the degraded images, such as the Richardson-Lucy – RL unfolding algorithm. Such a procedure requires the characterization of the spoiling agent Point Spread function – PSF in order to apply it in the inverse way. It can be deduced from the blur in the radiograph of a shielding blade edge. This blur depends upon the beam divergence and the object-detector gap. Due to the complex scattering of neutrons along a reactor channel, it is usual to express this divergence as the inverse of an L/D ratio. A novel approach based on the concept of Rocking Curve – RC, a term borrowed from the X-ray diffraction field, has been recently proposed which yielded slightly better quantitative results. After this concept, every sub-element of a surface source emits neutrons anisotropically following a bell-shaped profile. The RC angular semi-width incorporating neutron scattering and geometrical blur, is assigned as the beam divergence. The present work aims at its assessment through a quantitative determination ratified by a qualitative evaluation of radiographs unfolded by the RL algorithm. Its main purpose is an additional ratification of the soundness, consistency and robustness of the RC concept by comparison with formerly obtained quantitative results. In spite of the utterly different approaches and techniques, the outcome has corroborated the novel concept. All data treatment is simple and performed by an ad hoc written Fortran 90 program embedding the required algorithms.
       
  • Comparison of the pulse shape discrimination performance of plastic
           scintillators coupled to a SiPM
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 August 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): M.P. Taggart, P.J. SellinAbstractWe report on the pulse shape discrimination (PSD) performance of plastic scintillators manufactured by Eljen Corporation and Amcrys. In this study we investigate the fast neutron and gamma performance of the plastic scintillators when coupled to the SensL J-series silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) and read out with fast waveform digitizers with an ADC resolution of 14-bits and a sample rate of 500 MS/s. The investigation observes a significant PSD performance increase for the SensL J-series SiPM in comparison to the previous C-series, and also for the latest variants of plastic scintillator from both suppliers.Analysis was performed using a Synchronous Charge Integration Pulse Shape Discrimination (PSD) algorithm which was applied to data acquired from a mixed fast neutron/gamma radiation field from an AmBe neutron source. The collected pulses were processed offline with the energy and PSD parameters calculated. The quality of the PSD performance was characterised by a common figure of merit (FoM). The best n-γ separation was found by the newer Eljen EJ-276 scintillator with a FoM value of 3.03 ± 0.03 at an energy of 1.5 MeV gamma equivalent. The Amcrys UPS-113NG material achieved a FoM value of 2.60 ± 0.04.
       
  • New methods to identify low energy 3He with Silicon-based
           detectors
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 August 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): M. Assié, A. Matta, B. Le Crom, M. Chabot, D. Mengoni, D. Beaumel, Y. Blumenfeld, J.-J. Dormard, B. Genolini, F. Hammache, J. Guillot, A. Jallat, E. Rauly, N. de Séréville, D. SuzukiAbstractMethods to discriminate low energy mass-3 particles using Silicon detectors are reviewed. The time-of-flight technique based on analog electronics and measuring time between a reference signal and the charge signal from the Silicon detector does not allow to discriminate 3He from 3H. One method consists in adding a thin layer of Silicon (typically of 20μm) to recover the standard discrimination by ΔE-E identification matrix. Strong inhomogeneities in thickness are observed for these thin detectors. Difficulties in handling such detectors have led to investigate numerical approaches using reverse-mounted neutron transmutation doped Silicon detectors. First, the pulse shape analysis (PSA) technique has been investigated on the current and charge signals. PSA enables the discrimination of tritons and 3He and also 3He and 4He with good figures of merit. Secondly, the time of flight between two digitized signals (a reference signal from the beam pulse and the current or the charge signal) is presented. Both numerical techniques give promising results for the identification of light particles with Silicon detectors.
       
  • Novel silicon photomultipliers suitable for dual-mirror small-sized
           telescopes of the Cherenkov telescope array
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 August 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): G. Romeo, G. Bonanno, G. Sironi, M.C. TimpanaroAbstractMany of the characteristics of Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs), such as high Photon Detection Efficiency (PDE), are well matched to the requirements of the cameras of the Small-Sized Telescopes (SSTs) proposed for the Cherenkov Telescope Array. In fact, compared to a single mirror, the double mirror Schwarzschild-Couder configuration provides a much better Point Spread Function over a large field of view. It allows better correction of aberrations at large off-axis angles and facilitates the construction of compact telescopes. Moreover, the small plate scale of the dual-mirror SSTs allows the use of SiPM detectors despite their small pixel sizes. These sensors have two further advantages compared to the Photo Multipliers Tubes: the low cost and the possibility to observe in very high Night Sky Background (NSB) light level without any damage. However, one area in which SiPM performance has required improvement is Optical Cross-Talk (OCT), where multiple avalanches are induced by a single impinging photon. OCT, coupled with the typical NSB rate of 25 MCnts/s per pixel during Cherenkov observations, can place severe constraints on the triggering capability of the cameras. This paper describes the performance of novel Low Voltage Reverse (LVR) 2nd and 3rd generation Multi-Pixel Photon Counters manufactured by Hamamatsu Photonics. These are designed to have both enhanced PDE and reduced OCT. Two 7 × 7 mm2 S14520 LVR2 MPPCs with 75μm micro-cells are tested and compared with detectors of the same pixel size with 50μm micro-cells. A comparative analysis of a 3×3 mm2 S14520 LVR2 device and an S14520 LVR3 device is also carried out, demonstrating that the LVR3 gives better photon detection in the 240 – 380 nm wave-length range. Finally, the effect of an infrared filter on the OCT is analysed.
       
  • Performance test of the MAIKo active target
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 August 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): T. Furuno, T. Kawabata, H.J. Ong, S. Adachi, Y. Ayyad, T. Baba, Y. Fujikawa, T. Hashimoto, K. Inaba, Y. Ishii, S. Kabuki, H. Kubo, Y. Matsuda, Y. Matsuoka, T. Mizumoto, T. Morimoto, M. Murata, T. Sawano, T. Suzuki, A. TakadaAbstractA new active target named MAIKo (Mu-PIC based Active target for Inverse Kinematics∘) has been developed at Kyoto University and Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University. MAIKo is suited for missing-mass spectroscopy of unstable nuclei at forward scattering angles in inverse kinematics. MAIKo consists of a time projection chamber (TPC), which incorporates a micro-pixel chamber (μ-PIC) as the electron multiplication and collection system. In MAIKo, the medium gas also plays the role of a reaction target, thus allowing detection of low-energy recoil particles with high position resolution. The MAIKo TPC was commissioned with He(93%)+iso-C4H10(7%) and He(93%)+CO2(7%) mixture gasses at 430 hPa. The gas gain and the angular resolution of MAIKo were evaluated with an alpha source and a 4He beam at 56 MeV. The TPC was stably operated up to 1000-kcps beam intensity. A tracking algorithm using the Hough transform method has been developed to analyze scattering events. An angular resolution of 1.3°was achieved for scattered 4He particles.
       
  • Efficiency response of an aged PIPS detector used in high-resolution
           alpha-particle spectrometry
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 August 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): Huynh Nguyen Phong Thu, Nguyen Van Thang, Le Cong HaoAbstractThe experimental characterization of an aged PIPS detector used in an alpha-particle spectrometry is performed using a standard mixed source of 238U, 234U, 239Pu, and 241Am. The variations in the detector efficiency and resolution (FWHM) at the main energy lines of the 238U, 234U, 239Pu and 241Am source were investigated at all possible source-detector distances under chamber air pressure of ∼ 1.33 Pa. Finding shows that on average, the counting efficiency data obtained from measurements are lower than those obtained by theoretical data and Monte Carlo simulation (SOLANG and AASI) methods. A combination of polymeric strippable coating and both traditional wiping and cleaning method for the detector decontamination works only show a significant reduction in the background activity. The counting efficiency improvement process by an increase of the higher voltages within the recommended range results in a good agreement in the counting efficiency comparison and a slight decrease of the detector dead layer thickness. Novel method to evaluate the dead layer thickness for PIPS detector via the variations in experimental energy loss with respect source to detector distance using alpha standard sources of 242Pu has been proposed. This method can help to predict a default dead layer thickness value which will be as close as it was originally, is less than 50 nm from the manufacturer.
       
  • Evaluation of Eu:LiCAF for neutron detection utilizing SiPMs and portable
           electronics
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 August 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): Michael A. Ford, Buckley E. O’Day, John W. McClory, Manish K. Sharma, Areg DanagoulianAbstractWith the increasing cost and decreasing availability of 3He, there have been many efforts to find alternative neutron detection materials. Lithium calcium aluminum fluoride (LiCAF) enriched to 95% 6Li doped with europium was evaluated here as a replacement material for 3He. Wafers 0.5 cm thick, consisting of LiCAF crystals in a rubberized matrix, were embedded with wavelength shifting fibers (WSF) and mated to silicon photo-multipliers (SiPMs) to measure the photon response in a flux of neutrons from a DD neutron generator. Excellent discrimination was realized between neutrons and gammas, and both pulse-height discrimination and pulse-shape analysis were explored. A Figure of Merit (FoM) of 1.03 was achieved. By applying pulse-shape analysis, a simple neutron count output was generated by utilizing a low-pass filter to suppress fast pulses from the SiPM output and subsequently applying a threshold to the remaining signal. Custom electronics were built to bias the SiPMs, then amplify, filter, discriminate, and digitize the LiCAF/WSF scintillation photons, resulting in a digital pulse that can easily be counted with any microcontroller or field programmable gate array. A significant advantage of LiCAF is that it can be fabricated into any shape/size (when embedded in a rubberized matrix), and the light output and transparency is sufficient to allow for thicker scintillators which enable detection of both thermal and epithermal neutrons. This work demonstrated that Eu:LiCAF is capable of discriminating gammas from neutrons and is a potential replacement material for 3He, especially for nuclear security applications and neutron spectroscopy.
       
  • Pendellösung interferometry by using pulsed neutrons
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 August 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): Shigeyasu Itoh, Masaya Nakaji, Yuya Uchida, Masaaki Kitaguchi, Hirohiko M. ShimizuAbstractPendellösung interferometry is one of the technique for accurate determination of the structure factors of crystals. Observation method of Pendellösung fringes by using pulsed cold neutrons and the time-of-flight analysis were established. We measured the nuclear scattering length of silicon by the Pendellösung fringes with pulsed neutrons as (4.125±0.003(stat.)±0.028(syst.)). This indicates the applicability of Pendellösung interferometry at high-intensity pulsed neutron facilities for various precision measurements.
       
  • Thermal consideration and optimization for high-power operation of a
           cyclotron RF cavity
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 August 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): Guang Liu, Yuntao Song, Gen Chen, Yanping Zhao, Xin zhangAbstractRF cavity which establishes an electric field to accelerate the charged particles is one of the most critical and complicated components in cyclotron. When the cavity is in a high-power operation, there will be a high temperature in RF cavity due to its own thermal loss. And it will cause mechanical deformation and frequency deviation to cavity. Those series of factors may influence the performances of cavity negatively. In this paper, thermal situation of RF cavity has been analyzed during high-power operation, and some optimizations are made to improve thermal performance. Frequency deviation of cavity is simulated through multi-physics analysis. Moreover, a low-power (∼20 kW) test has verified the thermal consideration, and the performances of prototype cavity in high-power operation which are estimated comply with the design goal.
       
  • Design of a 7-MeV APF DTL with robust considerations
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 August 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): Xiucui Xie, Yuehu Pu, Fan Yang, Xuan Li, Jian Qiao, Deming Li, Minghua Zhao, Zhentang ZhaoAbstractA design principle with robust considerations has been applied to design a new alternating phase focused (APF) drift tube linear accelerator (linac) for particle beam therapy. By assuming a sinusoidal synchronous phase formula and a linearly increasing electrode voltage scheme, the structure of the APF linac is automatically optimized with a cost function including robustness using the nonlinear correlated stacking optimization method (CSM). The design procedure includes the radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) to drift tube linac (DTL) matching, and an end-to-end simulation of the APF acceleration beam dynamics. Moreover, the stability of the solution obtained is analyzed with respect to various independent errors as well as a number of joint errors. The designed APF DTL linac together with an already established RFQ is planned to replace the existing Alvarez-type permanent magnet focused DTL linac aiming at easier manufacturing and cost reduction.
       
  • Using the JCC-71 neutron coincidence collar as a benchmark for detector
           characterization with PTR-32 list mode data acquisition
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 August 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): A.T. Simone, S. Croft, J.P. Hayward, L.G. WorrallAbstractAugmenting or interchanging current international safeguards shift register−based data acquisition systems with list mode data acquisition systems gives nondestructive assay (NDA) systems greater versatility. Neutron list mode data analysis offers comparable analytical results to the more widely used shift register analysis in nuclear material quantification applications and offers several diagnostic tools that are specifically beneficial to in-laboratory characterization and calibration measurements. These benefits include identification of non-ideal behavior, optimization of operational parameters from a single measurement, and an improved understanding of the physics–based behavior of NDA systems for a more precise system representation and more confident assay results. In this work the advantages of using list mode data acquisition for detector characterization are demonstrated experimentally. Two commercial-off-the-shelf International Atomic Energy Agency–supported technologies are used for a typical detector characterization procedure and their performance is compared. Specifically, a 3He-based Canberra Industries JCC-71 Neutron Coincidence Collar is characterized using the Hungarian Institute of Isotopes’ Pulse Train Recorder-32 (PTR-32) list mode data acquisition system, and the results are compared to those obtained using the standard Canberra Industries JSR-15 model shift register. The quantitative results from the two systems are in agreement, which demonstrates that the PTR-32 is a technically viable alternative to conventional shift register electronics for this task. A suitable procedure for full instrument characterization is described, and the added benefits of list mode for characterization and data collection are discussed. This is an important step toward establishing a procedure for the routine use of list mode data acquisition and analysis for neutron NDA system characterization in safeguards field applications.
       
  • Operation of the prospective beamline calorimeter in the high-radiation
           forward environment of the international linear collider
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 August 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): Bruce A. Schumm, Benjamin SmithersAbstractResults on electromagnetically-induced radiation damage to silicon diode sensors, obtained from the T506 experiment at SLAC, are used in concert with detailed shower simulations to project the effects of radiation damage on the proposed International Linear Collider Beamline Calorimeter (BeamCal) detector system. The study makes use of the FLUKA Monte Carlo to simulate electromagnetic showers in both the T506 apparatus and the prospective BeamCal detector system. Under the conservative assumption that damage leading to sensor leakage currents is dominated by the neutron component of the electromagnetic shower, and assuming that resulting leakage currents depend linearly on neutron fluence, the power consumption required to operate the BeamCal detector at a temperature of −10° C would be expected to increase by approximately 100 W per year of operation. Lowering the operating temperature to −30° C would be expected to reduce the growth in power consumption to approximately 10 W per year. Results on fluences of both electromagnetic and hadronic particles in regions peripheral to the bulk of the BeamCal detector system, where front-end electronics would be mounted, are also presented.
       
  • Measurement and calculation of decay heat in ISIS spallation neutron
           target
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 August 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): D.J.S. Findlay, G.P. Škoro, G.M. Allen, D.J. Haynes, D.M. Jenkins, D. WilcoxAbstractThermal powers from radioactive decays (‘decay heat’) within a proton-driven neutron-producing tungsten target on the ISIS Spallation Neutron Source have been measured. Very good agreement is found with calculations using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX.
       
  • Computational study of a chromium self-powered detector for neutron flux
           monitoring in the test blanket module of ITER
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 August 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): Prasoon Raj, Maurizio Angelone, Ulrich Fischer, Axel KlixAbstractSelf-powered detectors (SPD) are online detectors for the monitoring of neutron and photon fluxes in nuclear reactors. The simplicity of design and operation of an SPD, its compactness, low-cost, reliability, and durability make it a candidate for active detectors in the European test blanket modules (TBM) of ITER. In this paper, we analyze a chromium emitter based SPD, which is proposed as a fast neutron detector for integration in the European TBMs. We describe a computational technique with Monte-Carlo modeling to predict the response of an SPD in the ITER environment and present the results of a demonstrative study. At first, the neutron and photon flux intensities and their energy spectra are calculated in the TBM through simulations in an MCNP model of ITER. Then, a multi-step multi-particle transport approach is adapted for calculation of the SPD sensitivity to the neutron and the photon spectra. Starting with the information on the composition of the SPD layers, main processes involved in the creation of the detector current are evaluated, corresponding to each of which a partial sensitivity is determined. Finally, a time-profile of the signal and its various components are constructed for one plasma pulse of ITER, with typical duration and fusion power. The range of electric currents achievable with SPDs is obtained, its adequacy for flux monitoring in TBMs is discussed, and finally, some design improvements are suggested.
       
  • Resolving power of pixel detector Timepix for wide-range electron, proton
           and ion detection
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 August 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): Carlos Granja, Jan Jakubek, Stepan Polansky, Vaclav Zach, Pavel Krist, David Chvatil, Jan Stursa, Marek Sommer, Ondrej Ploc, Satoshi Kodaira, Maria MartisikovaAbstractThe resolving power of the Timepix detector for wide-range charged particle detection has been examined and evaluated in defined radiation fields. The goal is to broadly characterize mixed-radiation fields consisting namely of X-rays and charged particles in terms of particle-types (species), spectral response (energy loss) and direction in wide field-of-view (essentially 2π) with a single compact tracking detector. Tests and calibration measurements were performed with the same device at electron, proton and ion fields at various energies and incident directions. Event-by-event detection, together with pattern recognition analysis of the single particle tracks, are exploited to analyze events according to three degrees of freedom – the particle type (X-rays, light and heavy charged particles), energy range (low or high energy – depending on their range being smaller or larger than the pixel size of the detector semiconductor sensor) and direction (incident angle to the sensor plane). Characteristic values are determined for the cluster analysis morphology parameters, the particles stopping power or Linear Energy Transfer and derived correlated quantities. Ratios and correlations between selected parameters are analyzed including 2D-scatter plots. A physics-based wide-range classification is proposed for a total of 8 broad event groups – in terms of light charged particles (electrons, muons) of both low and high energy incident perpendicular (type 1, including X-rays) or high energy non-perpendicular (type 5), protons of low energy omnidirectional (type 2) and high energy non-perpendicular (type 6), alpha particles and light ions of low energy omnidirectional (type 3) and high energy non-perpendicular (type 7), and heavy ions of low energy omnidirectional (type 4) and high energy non-perpendicular (type 8).
       
  • Description of the luminosity evolution for the CERN LHC including dynamic
           aperture effects. Part II: application to Run 1 data
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 August 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): M. Giovannozzi, F.F. Van der VekenAbstractIn recent years, modelling the evolution of beam losses in circular proton machines starting from the concept of dynamic aperture its time evolution has been the focus of intense research. Results from single-particle non-linear beam dynamics have been used to build simple models that proved to be in good agreement with beam measurements. These results have been generalised, thus opening the possibility to describe also the luminosity evolution in a circular hadron collider. In a companion paper Giovannozzi and Van der Veken (0000), the derivation of a scaling law for luminosity, which includes both burn off and pseudo-diffusive effects, has been carried out. In this paper, the proposed models are applied to the analysis of the data collected during the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Run 1. A data set referring to the proton physics runs for the years 2011 and 2012 has been analysed and the results are proposed and discussed in detail in this paper.
       
  • Design and experimental test of a novel double stack MRPC detector for
           medical imaging applications
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 August 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): B. Sharifi, S. SaramadAbstractThe Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) are parallel-plate gaseous detectors, thanks to their good spatial resolution and high time resolution in comparison to the scintillation detectors, have been recently used for time of flight measurements in PET imaging systems. In this work, design and testing of a new Multi-gap RPC (MRPC) with a suitable time and energy resolution for medical imaging application is proposed. This MRPC detector, consists of glass plates with optimum thickness to achieve acceptable detection efficiency. In addition, the optimum thickness of gas gaps is estimated to improve the time response by reducing the space-charge effect. The electrodes which are used to apply the electric field are special graphite foils (0.07 mm thick, 0.7 g/cm3 density and 3kΩ/cm2 surface resistivity) with the purity of 99.95%. The arrangement of the vertical and horizontal readout strips are also optimized to achieve more uniformity of electric field in each pixel. The Monte Carlo simulation and experimental results show that this low-cost detector has a suitable ability to be used in PET imaging applications.
       
  • Performance of a GridPix detector based on the Timepix3 chip
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 August 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): C. Ligtenberg, K. Heijhoff, Y. Bilevych, K. Desch, H. van der Graaf, F. Hartjes, J. Kaminski, P.M. Kluit, G. Raven, T. Schiffer, J. TimmermansAbstractA GridPix readout for a TPC based on the Timepix3 chip is developed for future applications at a linear collider. The GridPix detector consists of a gaseous drift volume read out by a single Timepix3 chip with an integrated amplification grid. Its performance is studied in a test beam with 2.5 GeV electrons. The GridPix detector detects single ionization electrons with high efficiency. The Timepix3 chip allowed for high sample rates and time walk corrections. Diffusion is found to be the dominating error on the track position measurement both in the pixel plane and in the drift direction, and systematic distortions in the pixel plane are below 10 μm. Using a truncated sum, an energy loss (dE/dx) resolution of 4.1% is found for an effective track length of 1 m.
       
  • GDML based geometry management system for offline software in JUNO
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 August 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): Kaijie Li, Zhengyun You, Yumei Zhang, Jiang Zhu, Tao Lin, Ziyan Deng, Weidong LiAbstractIn the JUNO experiment, a geometry management system has been developed in offline software. The system is based on Geometry Description Markup Language (GDML) to provide consistent detector description for different applications, such as simulation, reconstruction, visualization and analysis. It works for different detector designs with flexibility and has been successfully used for detector optimization and performance evaluation with Monte Carlo data.
       
  • Autonomous NaI(Tl) gamma-ray spectrometer for in situ underwater
           measurements
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 August 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): A. Naumenko, S. Andrukhovich, V. Kabanov, D. Kabanau, Yu. Kurochkin, B. Martsynkevich, Dz. Shoukavy, P. ShpakAbstractAn automated low-background NaI(Tl) gamma-ray spectrometer for in situ underwater measurements consisting of a submersible unit with a radiation detector and of a surface microcomputer unit is developed and described. Along with an ultra low-background NaI(Tl) radiation sensor, the submersible unit contains a specially designed FPGA-based electronics with low energy consumption and with abilities both for remote data acquisition by a 1200m conducting cable and for an autonomous operation mode. The unit is enclosed in a waterproof polyacetal housing withstanding a pressure of 4 MPa at a depth of 400 meters. The surface microcomputer unit contains an all-in-box software for acquisition, storage, and processing of data from the detector unit, for real-time monitoring of activities of dissolved radionuclides, for their identification and quantification. The software functions are accessed remotely by a web- interface using Wi-Fi or Ethernet. Several techniques for gain control (including an auto-adjustment of the gain by setting a selected photopeak in a prescribed channel) together with the corresponding approaches to the energy-scale calibration are implemented and examined over a wide temperature range −10÷+50°C in a thermo-chamber calibration experiment with 152Eu point gamma-ray sources. Calibrating the energy resolution of the detector is performed from line-width measurements of reference gamma-ray sources. The detection-efficiency calibration is carried out using Monte Carlo simulations based on the GEANT4 code taking into account the materials and geometry of the detector as well as the water environment. In addition, the efficiency of the detector immersed in a 8m3 water tank with dissolved gamma-ray sources of 139Ce, 137Cs and 40K of known activities is determined experimentally and compared with the theoretical findings. Finally, a trial deployment of the gamma- spectrometer in the Yellow Sea together with test measurements of the activity concentrations of dissolved radionuclides is fulfilled. The Minimum Detectable Activity concentrations (MDA) for 137Cs in fresh and sea water are calculated from the water tank experiment and from the test deployment experiment correspondingly.
       
  • Transport and analysis of electron beams from a laser wakefield
           accelerator in the 100 MeV energy range with a dedicated magnetic line
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 August 2018Source: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated EquipmentAuthor(s): A. Maitrallain, T.L. Audet, S. Dobosz Dufrénoy, A. Chancé, G. Maynard, P. Lee, A. Mosnier, J. Schwindling, O. Delferrière, N. Delerue, A. Specka, P. Monot, B. CrosAbstractElectron bunches generated by laser driven wakefield acceleration are transported and analyzed using a magnetic line composed of a triplet of quadrupoles and a dipole. Short pulse bunches with a total charge of ≈130pC, and broad band energy spectra in the range 45 to 150MeV are generated by ionization assisted injection in a gas cell. The electron source is imaged about one meter away from the exit of the gas cell by the magnetic line, delivering electron bunches at a stable position in the image plane where a charge density of ≈2.9pC∕mm2 at an energy of 69.4±0.6MeV is achieved. This magnetic line improves dramatically the accuracy of energy determination of this electron source, leading to an energy error as low as 8.6‰ in the 70MeV range for 5mrad divergence electron bunch and considering the resolution of the entire detection system. The transport of bunches with improved stability and energy selection paves the way to various applications including multi-stage laser plasma acceleration.
       
 
 
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