Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3161 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3161 Journals sorted alphabetically
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.655, CiteScore: 2)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.015, CiteScore: 2)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 106, SJR: 1.462, CiteScore: 3)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 2)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.771, CiteScore: 3)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 446, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 7)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.18, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 322, SJR: 3.263, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.307, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.793, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.331, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.374, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.344, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.671, CiteScore: 5)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 4)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.29, CiteScore: 3)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.611, CiteScore: 8)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 188, SJR: 4.09, CiteScore: 13)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.167, CiteScore: 4)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.384, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.126, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.992, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.089, CiteScore: 5)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.61, CiteScore: 7)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35, SJR: 3.043, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.453, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.992, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.713, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.316, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.562, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.977, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.524, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.159, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 52, SJR: 5.39, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 68, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.354, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 12.74, CiteScore: 13)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.193, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.749, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37, SJR: 4.433, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.938, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.682, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.88, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 3.027, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.158, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.875, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.579, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.536, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.791, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 69)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.371, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 430, SJR: 0.569, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.208, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.262, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 3)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.117, CiteScore: 3)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 394, SJR: 0.796, CiteScore: 3)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.42, CiteScore: 2)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 3.671, CiteScore: 9)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 487, SJR: 1.238, CiteScore: 3)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.13, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 5)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.156, CiteScore: 4)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 1.272, CiteScore: 3)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.747, CiteScore: 4)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.589, CiteScore: 3)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 0)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.153, CiteScore: 3)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 3)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.142, CiteScore: 4)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.148, CiteScore: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 3.521, CiteScore: 6)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 4.66, CiteScore: 10)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.796, CiteScore: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.108, CiteScore: 3)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 3.267, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67, SJR: 1.93, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.524, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 7.45, CiteScore: 8)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.062, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.973, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 264, SJR: 2.7, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67, SJR: 3.184, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.289, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.139, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.164, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 1)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.144, CiteScore: 3)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 67, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 1)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 0)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription  
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 4.849, CiteScore: 10)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 5)
Analytica Chimica Acta : X     Open Access  
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 214, SJR: 0.633, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 236, SJR: 1.58, CiteScore: 3)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.704, CiteScore: 2)
Annales d'Endocrinologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Neuropeptides
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.038
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 3  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0143-4179
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3161 journals]
  • Zona incerta projection neurons and GABAergic and GLP-1 mechanisms in the
           nucleus accumbens are involved in the control of gastric function and food
           intake
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 January 2020Source: NeuropeptidesAuthor(s): Qian Wang, Xiaoqian Zhang, Hui Leng, Xiao Luan, Feifei Guo, Xiangrong Sun, Shengli Gao, Xuehuan Liu, Hao Qin, Luo XuAbstractObjectiveOur aim was to explore the effect of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) signaling in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) on promoting gastric function and food intake through glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1)-sensitive gastric distension (GD) neurons under the regulatory control of the zona incerta (ZI).MethodsGABA neuronal projections were traced using retrograde tracing following fluorescence immunohistochemistry. An extracellular electrophysiological recording method was used to observe the firing of neurons in the NAc. HPLC was used to quantify the GABA and glutamate levels in the NAc after electrical stimulation of the ZI. Gastric functions including gastric motility and secretion, as well as food intake, were measured after the administration of different concentrations of GABA in the NAc or electrical stimulation of the ZI.ResultsSome of the GABA-positive neurons arising from the ZI projected to the NAc. Some GABA-A receptor (GABA-AR)-immunoreactive neurons in the NAc were also positive for GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) immunoreactivity. The firing of most GLP-1-sensitive GD neurons was decreased by GABA infusion in the NAc. Intra-NAc GABA administration also promoted gastric function and food intake. The responses induced by GABA were partially blocked by the GABA-AR antagonist bicuculline (BIC) and weakened by the GLP-1R antagonist exendin 9–39 (Ex9). Electrical stimulation of the ZI changed the firing patterns of most GLP-1-sensitive GD neurons in the NAc and promoted gastric function and food intake. Furthermore, these excitatory effects induced by electrical stimulation of the ZI were weakened by preadministration of BIC in the NAc.ConclusionRetrograde tracing and immunohistochemical staining showed a GABAergic pathway from the ZI to the NAc. GABAergic and GLP-1 mechanisms in the NAc are involved in the control of gastric function and food intake. In addition, the interaction (direct or indirect) between the ZI and these NAc mechanisms is involved in the control of gastric function and food intake.
       
  • Microglia polarization of hippocampus is involved in the mechanism of
           Apelin-13 ameliorating chronic water immersion restraint stress-induced
           depression-like behavior in rats
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 January 2020Source: NeuropeptidesAuthor(s): Shouhong Zhou, Shanshan Chen, Wenxia Xie, Xiaoxiao Guo, Jianfeng ZhaoAbstractChronic stress induces the activation of hippocampal microglia, which produces many inflammatory mediators and mediates the occurrence of depression. Two phenotypes of microglia polarization, the classical M1 and alternative M2, play important regulatory roles in neuroinflammation and are involved in the occurrence and development of depression. Apelin is derived from a precursor peptide consisting of 77 amino acids and is a natural ligand for the orphan G-protein-coupled receptor APJ. Apelin-13 is one of the subtypes of Apelin and has a wide range of biological effects. Studies have shown that Apelin-13 has an antidepressant effect, but its specific mechanism has not been elucidated. In this study, the purpose of this study is to explore the possible mechanism of Apelin-13 to improve depression-like behaviors induced by chronic stress in rats from the perspective of microglial polarization in vivo. Adult male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats received 28 days of chronic water immersion restraint stress (CWIRS). Apelin group was injected with Apelin-13 (2 μg/2 μL) through the intracerebroventricular for 7 days. The results showed that CWIRS can induce depression-like behaviors in rats. Compared with the CWIRS + saline group, the CWIRS + Apelin-13 group was significantly improved the depression-like behaviors in rats. Compared with the CWIRS + saline group, the CWIRS + Apelin-13 group was significantly down-regulated the protein expression of M1-type marker iNOS and the pro-inflammatory factors IL-1β and IL-6 secret by microglia decreased. Compared with the CWIRS + saline group, the protein expression of M2-type marker Arg1 and anti-inflammatory factors IL-4 and IL-10 secreted by microglia was significantly increased in CWIRS + Apelin-13 group. Double-labelling immunofluorescence co-localization showed that, compared with the CWIRS + saline group, CWIRS + Apelin-13 group significantly inhibited the co-localization expression of Iba-1 and iNOS, and promoted the co-localization expression of Iba-1 and Arg1 in hippocampus microglia. Taken together, our study suggests that Apelin-13 improves depression-like behavior in rats induced by CWIRS and its mechanism may be related to the regulation of microglial polarization.
       
  • Phytogenic feed- and water-additives improve feed efficiency in broilers
           via modulation of (an)orexigenic hypothalamic neuropeptide expression
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2020Source: NeuropeptidesAuthor(s): Joshua Flees, Elizabeth Greene, Bhaskar Ganguly, Sami DridiAbstractFueled by consumer preference for natural and antibiotic-free products, phytogenics have become the fastest growing segment of the animal feed additives. Yet, their modes of action are not fully understood. This study was undertaken to determine the effect of 5 phytogenics (3 feed- and 2 water-supplements) on the growth performance of commercial broilers, and their potential underlying molecular mechanisms. Day-old male Cobb 500 chicks (n = 576) were randomly assigned into 48 pens consisting of 6 treatments (Control; AVHGP; SCP; BHGP; AVSSL; SG) in a complete randomized design (12 birds/pen, 8 pens/treatment, 96 birds/treatment). Chicks had ad libitum access to feed and water. Individual body weight (BW) was recorded weekly and feed intake was measured daily. Core body temperatures were continuously recorded using thermo-loggers. At d 35, hypothalamic tissues were excised from the thermo-logger-equipped chickens (n = 8 birds/treatment) to determine the expression of feeding-related neuropeptides.Both feed (AVHGP, SCP, BHGP) and water-supplemented (AVSSL, SG) phytogenics significantly improved feed efficiency (FE) compared to the control birds. This higher FE was achieved via a reduction in core body temperature and improvement of market BW, without changes in feed intake in broilers supplemented with phytogenic water additives as compared to the control group. Broilers fed dietary phytogenics, however, attained higher feed efficiency via a reduction in feed intake while maintaining similar BW as the control group. At the molecular levels, the effects of the phytogenic water additives seemed to be mediated by the activation of the hypothalamic AgRP-ORX-mTOR-S6k1 and inhibition of CRH pathways. The effect of the phytogenic feed additives appeared to be exerted through the activation of AdipoQ, STAT3, AMPK, and MC1R pathways.This is the first report describing the likely central mechanisms through which phytogenic additives improve the growth performance and feed efficiency in broilers.
       
  • Neurotransmitters, neuropeptides and their receptors interact with immune
           response in healthy and psoriatic skin
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 December 2019Source: NeuropeptidesAuthor(s): Ana Karen Sandoval-Talamantes, B.A. Gómez-González, D.F. Uriarte-Mayorga, M.A. Martínez-Guzman, Katia Alejandra Wheber-Hidalgo, Anabell Alvarado-NavarroAbstractPsoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease with a multifactorial origin that affects the skin. It is characterized by keratinocyte hyperproliferation, which results in erythemato-squamous plaques. Just as the immune system plays a fundamental role in psoriasis physiopathology, the nervous system maintains the inflammatory process through the neuropeptides and neurotransmitters synthesis, as histamine, serotonin, calcitonin gene-related peptide, nerve growth factor, vasoactive intestinal peptide, substance P, adenosine, glucagon-like peptide, somatostatin and pituitary adenylate cyclase polypeptide. In patients with psoriasis, the systemic or in situ expression of these chemical mediators and their receptors are altered, which affects the clinical activity of patients due to its link to the immune system, provoking neurogenic inflammation. It is important to establish the role of the nervous system since it could represent a therapeutic alternative for psoriasis patients. The aim of this review is to offer a detailed review of the current literature about the neuropeptides and neurotransmitters involved in the physiopathology of psoriasis.
       
  • Melatonin exerts neuroprotective effects by attenuating astro- and
           microgliosis and suppressing inflammatory response following spinal cord
           injury
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 December 2019Source: NeuropeptidesAuthor(s): Zhijie Yang, Yingying Bao, Weigang Chen, Yuqin HeAbstractReactive gliosis and inflammatory reaction are common pathological change to spinal cord injury (SCI). Whereas, the effects of melatonin (MT) on the astro- and microgliosis and their related inflammatory response in the injured spinal cord are not fully understood. In this study, MT's effects on the accumulation and proliferation of microglia and astrocytes and their related inflammatory response were investigated in an acute SCI model. The effects of MT on oxidative stress, neuronal survival and behavioral performance were also tested. It was found that MT treatment significantly suppressed the accumulation and the proliferation of microglia and astrocytes. Quantitative PCR data showed that MT significantly down-regulated the pro-inflammatory markers iNOS, IL-1β and TNF-α expressions. The data showed that MT led to the rise in SOD, CAT and GSH-Px contents and the decrease in MDA content. Western blotting analysis verified that MT significantly down-regulated caspase-3, Bax and GFAP expressions, up-regulated Bcl-2 expression. Compared with the SCI vehicle-treated group, the SCI MT-treated group exhibited a greater Basso Mouse Scale (BMS) locomotor rating score. On the whole, these findings implied that MT exerts its neuroprotective effects by suppressing the accumulation and the proliferation of microglia and astrocytes and reducing the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which might be one of the underlying mechanisms of the MT's neuroprotective effect after SCI. Accordingly, MT may be a promising therapeutic candidate for acute SCI.
       
  • Expressions of spinal microglia activation, BDNF, and DREAM proteins
           correlated with formalin-induced nociceptive responses in painful and
           painless diabetic neuropathy rats
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 December 2019Source: NeuropeptidesAuthor(s): Che Aishah Nazariah Ismail, Rapeah Suppian, Che Badariah Ab Aziz, Idris LongAbstractThe complications of diabetic polyneuropathy (DN) determines its level of severity. It may occur with distinctive clinical symptoms (painful DN) or appears undetected (painless DN). This study aimed to investigate microglia activation and signalling molecules brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator (DREAM) proteins in spinal cord of streptozotocin-induced diabetic neuropathy rats. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats (200-230 g) were randomly assigned into three groups: (1) control, (2) painful DN and (3) painless DN. The rats were induced with diabetes by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg) whilst control rats received citrate buffer as a vehicle. Four weeks post-diabetic induction, the rats were induced with chronic inflammatory pain by intraplantar injection of 5% formalin and pain behaviour responses were recorded and assessed. Three days later, the rats were sacrificed and lumbar enlargement region of spinal cord was collected. The tissue was immunoreacted against OX-42 (microglia), BDNF and DREAM proteins, which was also quantified by western blotting. The results demonstrated that painful DN rats exhibited increased pain behaviour score peripherally and centrally with marked increase of spinal activated microglia, BDNF and DREAM proteins expressions compared to control group. In contrast, painless DN group demonstrated a significant reduction of pain behaviour score peripherally and centrally with significant reduction of spinal activated microglia, BDNF and DREAM proteins expressions. In conclusions, the spinal microglia activation, BDNF and DREAM proteins correlate with the pain behaviour responses between the variants of DN.
       
  • Activation of NPY receptor subtype 1 by [D-His26]NPY is sufficient to
           prevent development of anxiety and depressive like effects in the single
           prolonged stress rodent model of PTSD
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 December 2019Source: NeuropeptidesAuthor(s): Chiso Nwokafor, Lidia I. Serova, Roxanna J. Nahvi, Jaclyn McCloskey, Esther L. SabbanThe neuropeptide Y (NPY) system plays an important role in mediating resilience to the harmful effect of stress in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It can mediate its effects via several G-protein coupled receptors: Y1R, Y2R, Y4R and Y5R. To investigate the role of individual NPY receptors in the resilience effects of NPY to traumatic stress, intranasal infusion of either Y1R agonists [D-His26]NPY, [Leu31Pro34]NPY, Y2R agonist NPY (3–36) or NPY were administered to male Sprague–Dawley rats immediately following the last stressor of the single prolonged stress (SPS) protocol, a widely used PTSD animal model. After 7 or 14 days, effects of the treatments were measured on the elevated plus maze (EPM) for anxiety, in forced swim test (FST) for development of depressive-like or re-experiencing behavior, in social interaction (SI) test for impaired social behavior, and acoustic startle response (ASR) for hyperarousal. [D-His26]NPY, but not [Leu31Pro34]NPY nor NPY (3–36) Y2R, was effective in preventing the SPS-elicited development of anxiety. Y1R, but not Y2R agonists prevented development of depressive- feature on FST, with [D-His26]NPY superior to NPY. The results demonstrate that [D-His26]NPY was sufficient to prevent development of anxiety, social impairment and depressive symptoms, and has promise as an early intervention therapy following traumatic stress.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
       
  • Leucine-enkephalin-immunoreactive neurons in the brain of the cichlid fish
           Oreochromis mossambicus
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 December 2019Source: NeuropeptidesAuthor(s): Vijayalaxmi, Amul J. Sakharkar, C.B. GaneshAbstractEnkephalins are the pentapeptides involved in pain relief and neuroendocrine responses with high affinity for delta opioid receptors in vertebrates. In the present investigation, we studied the distribution of leucine-enkephalin-immunoreactive (L-ENK-ir) neurons in the brain of the cichlid fish Oreochromis mossambicus. Application of the antisera against L-ENK revealed the presence of numerous L-ENK-ir perikarya and fibres in subdivisions of the dorsal and the ventral telencephalon, the medial olfactory tract and the nucleus entopeduncularis, whereas intensely labelled L-ENK-ir fibres were noticed in the olfactory bulb. Furthermore, the presence of L-ENK-ir cells and dense accumulations of fibres in the preoptic area and its subdivisions, the nucleus preopticus pars magnocellularis and the nucleus preopticus pars parvocellularis suggested a role for this peptide in regulation of reproduction. While intensely labelled cells and fibres were found in the nucleus lateralis tuberis pars lateralis as well as the nucleus lateralis tuberis pars medialis, some L-ENK-ir fibres were seen at the hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract indicating the possible hypophysiotrophic role for this peptide. Numerous L-ENK-ir cells and dense network of fibres were observed in the subdivisions of the nucleus recess lateralis and the pretectal area, whereas intensely labelled thick network of L-ENK- fibres were found in the ventromedial thalamic nucleus, the sub-layers of the optic tectum and the rostral spinal cord. The widespread distribution of L-ENK-immunoreactivity in the olfactory bulb, the telencephalon, the diencephalon and the mesencephalon regions of the brain as well as the spinal cord suggests the possible involvement of this peptide in the regulation of diverse functions such as neuroendocrine, antinociceptive, visual and olfactory responses in O. mossambicus.
       
  • A preliminary study on DRGs and spinal cord of a galanin receptor 2-EGFP
           transgenic mouse
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 December 2019Source: NeuropeptidesAuthor(s): Chuang Lyu, Sheng Xia, Gong-Wei Lyu, Xin-Peng Dun, Kang Zheng, Jie Su, Swapnali Barde, Zhi-Qing David Xu, Tomas Hökfelt, Tie-Jun Sten ShiAbstractThe neuropeptide galanin functions via three G-protein coupled receptors, Gal1–3-R. Both Gal1-R and 2-R are involved in pain signaling at the spinal level. Here a Gal2-R-EGFP transgenic (TG) mouse was generated and studied in pain tests and by characterizing Gal2-R expression in both sensory ganglia and spinal cord. After peripheral spared nerve injury, mechanical allodynia developed and was ipsilaterally similar between wild type (WT) and TG mice. A Gal2-R-EGFP-positive signal was primarily observed in small and medium-sized dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and in spinal interneurons and processes. No significant difference in size distribution of DRG neuronal profiles was found between TG and WT mice. Both percentage and fluorescence intensity of Gal2-R-EGFP-positive neuronal profiles were overall significantly upregulated in ipsilateral DRGs as compared to contralateral DRGs. There was an ipsilateral reduction in substance P-positive and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-positive neuronal profiles, and this reduction was more pronounced in TG as compared to WT mice. Moreover, Gal2-R-EGFP partly co-localized with three pain-related neuropeptides, CGRP, neuropeptide Y and galanin, both in intact and injured DRGs, and with galanin also in local neurons in the superficial dorsal horn. Taken together, the present results provide novel information on the localization and phenotype of DRG and spinal neurons expressing the second galanin receptor, Gal2-R, and on phenotypic changes following peripheral nerve injury. Gal2-R may also be involved in autoreceptor signaling.
       
  • Signaling molecules targeting cannabinoid receptors: Hemopressin and
           related peptides
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 November 2019Source: NeuropeptidesAuthor(s): Fengmei Wei, Long Zhao, Yuhong JingAbstractCannabinoid receptors (CBRs) are part of the endocannabinoid system, which is involved in various physiological processes such as nociception, inflammation, appetite, stress, and emotion regulation. Many studies have linked the endocannabinoid system to neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease, Huntington's chorea, Alzheimer's disease, and multiple sclerosis. Hemopressin [Hp; a fragment of the hemoglobin α1 chain (95–103 amino acids)] and related peptides [VD-Hpα and RVD-Hpα] are peptides that bind to CBRs. Hp acts as an inverse agonist to CB1 receptor (CB1R), VD-Hpα acts as an agonist to CB1R, and RVD-Hpα acts as a negative allosteric modulator of CB1R and a positive allosteric modulator of CB2R. Because of the critical roles of CBRs in numerous physiological processes, it is appealing to use Hp and related peptides for therapeutic purposes. This review discusses their discovery, structure, metabolism, brain exposure, self-assembly characteristics, pharmacological characterization, and pharmacological activities.
       
  • Olfactory Ensheathing Cells express both Ghrelin and Ghrelin Receptor in
           vitro: a new hypothesis in favor of a neurotrophic effect
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 November 2019Source: NeuropeptidesAuthor(s): Cristina Russo, Martina Patanè, Nunzio Vicario, Virginia Di Bella, Ilaria Cosentini, Vincenza Barresi, Rosario Gulino, Rosalia Pellitteri, Antonella Russo, Stefania StanzaniAbstractOlfactory Ensheathing Cells (OECs) are glial cells able to secrete different neurotrophic growth factors and thus promote axonal growth, also acting as a mechanical support. In the olfactory system, during development, they drive the non-myelinated axons of the Olfactory Receptor Neurons (ORNs) towards the Olfactory Bulb (OB). Ghrelin (Ghre), a gut-brain peptide hormone, and its receptor (GHS-R 1a) are expressed in different parts of the central nervous system. In the last few years, this peptide has stimulated particular interest as results show it to be a neuroprotective factor with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties.Our previous studies showed that OB mitral cells express Ghre, thus being able to play an important role in regulating food behavior in response to odors. In this study, we investigated the presence of Ghre and GHS-R 1a in primary mouse OECs. The expression of both Ghre and its receptor was assessed by an immunocytochemical technique, Western Blot and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) analysis. Our results demonstrated that OECs are able to express both Ghre and GHS-R1a and that these proteins are detectable after extensive passages in vitro; in addition, PCR analysis further confirmed these data. Therefore, we can hypothesize that Ghre and GHS-R 1a interact with a reinforcement function, in the peripheral olfactory circuit, providing a neurotrophic support to the synaptic interaction between ORNs and mitral cells.
       
  • Protective effect of PACAP against ultraviolet B radiation-induced human
           corneal endothelial cell injury
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 November 2019Source: NeuropeptidesAuthor(s): Grazia Maugeri, Agata Grazia D'Amico, Alessia Amenta, Salvatore Saccone, Concetta Federico, Michele Reibaldi, Andrea Russo, Vincenza Bonfiglio, Teresio Avitabile, Antonio Longo, Velia D'AgataAbstractThe human cornea, a sophisticated example of natural engineering, is composed in the innermost layer by endothelial cells maintaining stromal hydration and clarity. Different types of insults, including ultraviolet (UV) radiations, can lead to corneal opacity due to their degenerative and limited proliferative capability.In our previous studies, we have shown the protective effects of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) in human corneal endothelial cells (HCECs), after growth factors deprivation.The aim of the present work has been to investigate the effect of this peptide on UV-B-induced HCECs injury. The results have shown that UV-B irradiations induced apoptotic cells death and consequently alteration in human corneal endothelial barrier.We found that PACAP treatment significantly increased viability, trans-endothelial electrical resistance and tight junctions expression of HCECs exposed to UV-B insult.In conclusion, data have suggested that this peptide could have protective effect to preserve the physiological state of human corneal endothelium exposed to UV-B damage.
       
  • Can oxytocin inhibit stress-induced hyperalgesia'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 November 2019Source: NeuropeptidesAuthor(s): Yue-Xin Li, Hong An, Zhuo Wen, Zhuo-Ying Tao, Dong-Yuan CaoAbstractStress-induced hyperalgesia is a problematic condition that lacks an effective therapeutic measure, and hence impairs health-related quality of life. The regulation of stress by oxytocin (OT) has overlapping effects on pain. OT can alleviate pain directly mainly at the spinal level and the peripheral tissues. Additionally, OT plays an analgesic role by dealing with stress and fear learning. When OT relieves stress by targeting the prefrontal brain regions and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, the body's sensitivity to pain is attenuated. Meanwhile, OT facilitates fear learning and may, in turn, enhance the anticipatory actions to painful stimulation. The unique therapeutic value of OT in patients suffering from stress and stress-related hyperalgesia conditions is worth considering. We reviewed recent advances in animal and human studies involving the effects of OT on stress and pain, and discussed the possible targets of OT within the descending and ascending pathways in the central nervous system. This review provides an overview of the evidence on the role of OT in alleviating stress-induced hyperalgesia.
       
  • Neuropeptides are associated with pain threshold and bone microstructure
           in ovariectomized rats
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 November 2019Source: NeuropeptidesAuthor(s): Weixin Xie, Fan Li, Yi Han, Zhanchun Li, Jie XiaoAbstractObjectivesPostmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO) is a metabolic skeletal disorder with impaired bone density and bone quality in postmenopausal women. The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between neuropeptides, bone microstructure and pain threshold in ovariectomized (OVX) rats.MethodsFemale rats were randomly divided into the ovariectomized (OVX) group and the sham surgery (SHAM) group. Bone microstructure and immunocytochemistry for substance P (SP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) in tibial and DRG were performed. Pain threshold was assessed at post-operative 11 weeks. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated between neuropeptides, bone microstructure and pain threshold.ResultsSignificant decreases in bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and trabecular number (Tb. N) but significant increases in trabecular spacing (Tb.Sp) were showed in OVX group. Mechanical pain threshold (MPT) in OVX group was significantly decreased. The MOD values for SP, CGRP and VIP of tibial in OVX group were significantly lower, whereas NPY, NPY1R and NPY2R were significantly higher. And SP, CGRP, VIP, NPY and NPY2R of DRG were significantly increased in OVX group, while NPY1R was significantly decreased. Correlation analysis showed that NPY, Y1R and Y2R in bone were negatively correlated with BV/TV. MPT was negatively correlated with NPY and Y2R in DRG, and positively correlated with Y1R in DRG.ConclusionsOur results suggested that SP, CGRP, VIP and NPY were involved in the osteoporotic bone microstructure and mechanical hypersensitivity in OVX rats, indicating the potential to utilize neuropeptides as novel therapeutic targets for PMO.
       
  • Lack of NPY in neurotensin neurons leads to a lean phenotype
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 November 2019Source: NeuropeptidesAuthor(s): Nicola J. Lee, Yue Qi, Ronaldo F. Enriquez, Chi Kin Ip, Herbert HerzogAbstractNeuropeptide Y (NPY) producing neurons in the arcuate nucleus (Arc) of the hypothalamus are essential to the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Whilst they have classically been thought to co-express agouti-related peptide (AgRP), it is now clear that there is a sub-population of NPY neurons in the Arc that do not. Here, we show that a subset of AgRP-negative, NPY-positive neurons in the Arc also express neurotensin (NTS) and we use an NTS-Cre line to investigate the function of this sub-population of NPY neurons. The lack of NPY in NTS-positive neurons led to a marked reduction in fat mass and bodyweight as well as a significant reduction in food intake in male NPYlox/lox; NTScre/+ mice compared to controls. Despite the reduction in food intake, overall energy expenditure was similar between genotypes due to concomitant reduction in activity in NPYlox/lox; NTScre/+ mice. Furthermore, cortical bone mass was significantly reduced in NPYlox/lox;NTScre/+ mice with no evident alterations in the cancellous bone compartment, likely due to reduced leptin levels as a result of their reduced adiposity. Taken together, these data suggest that the sub-population of Arc NPY neurons expressing NTS are critical for regulating food intake, activity and fat mass but are not directly involved in the control of bone mass.
       
  • Substance+P:+A+neuropeptide+involved+in+the+psychopathology+of+anxiety+disorders&rft.title=Neuropeptides&rft.issn=0143-4179&rft.date=&rft.volume=">Substance P: A neuropeptide involved in the psychopathology of anxiety
           disorders
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 November 2019Source: NeuropeptidesAuthor(s): Kanwal Iftikhar, Afshan Siddiq, Sadia Ghousia Baig, Sumbul ZehraAbstractSubstance P (SP) is the most widely distributed neuropeptide in central nervous system (CNS) where it participates in numerous physiological and pathophysiological processes including stress and anxiety related behaviors. In line with this notion, brain areas that are thought to be involved in anxiety regulation contains SP and its specific NK1 receptors. SP concentration in different brain regions alters with the exposure of stressful stimulus and affected NK1 receptor binding is observed. SP is released in response to a stressor, which produces anxiogenic effects via activation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, resulting in the liberation of cortisol. Moreover, SP is also involved in the activation of the sympathetic nervous system via stimulation of locus coeruleus (LC). This sympathetic surge initiates cortisol discharge by activation of HPA axis, representing the indirect anxiogenic effect of SP. Besides the aforementioned regions, SP also has an impact on other brain regions known to be involved in stress and anxiety mechanisms, including amygdala, lateral septum (LS), periaqueductal gray (PAG), ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH), and bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST). Thus, SP acts as an important neuromodulator in various brain regions in stress and anxiety response. Consistent with the above statement, SP makes a robust link in the psychopathology of anxiety disorders. As SP concentration is found elevated in stressed conditions, several studies have reported that the pharmacological antagonism or genetic depletion of NK-1 receptors results in the anxiolytic response making them a suitable therapeutic target for the treatment of stress and anxiety related disorders.
       
  • Overexpression of neuropeptide Y decreases responsiveness to neuropeptide
           Y
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 November 2019Source: NeuropeptidesAuthor(s): Katelynn M. Corder, Qin Li, Mariana A. Cortes, Aundrea F. Bartley, Taylor R. Davis, Lynn E. DobrunzAbstractNeuropeptide Y (NPY) is an endogenous neuropeptide that is abundantly expressed in the central nervous system. NPY is involved in various neurological processes and neuropsychiatric disorders, including fear learning and anxiety disorders. Reduced levels of NPY are reported in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) patients, and NPY has been proposed as a potential therapeutic target for PTSD. It is therefore important to understand the effects of chronic enhancement of NPY on anxiety and fear learning. Previous studies have shown that acute elevation of NPY reduces anxiety, fear learning and locomotor activity. Models of chronic NPY overexpression have produced mixed results, possibly caused by ectopic NPY expression. NPY is expressed primarily by a subset of GABAergic interneurons, providing specific spatiotemporal release patterns. Administration of exogenous NPY throughout the brain, or overexpression in cells that do not normally release NPY, can have detrimental side effects, including memory impairment. In order to determine the effects of boosting NPY only in the cells that normally release it, we utilized a transgenic mouse line that overexpresses NPY only in NPY+ cells. We tested for effects on anxiety related behaviors in adolescent mice, an age with high incidence of anxiety disorders in humans. Surprisingly, we did not observe the expected reduction in anxiety-like behavior in NPY overexpression mice. There was no change in fear learning behavior, although there was a deficit in nest building. The effect of exogenous NPY on synaptic transmission in acute hippocampal slices was also diminished, indicating that the function of NPY receptors is impaired. Reduced NPY receptor function could contribute to the unexpected behavioral outcomes. We conclude that overexpression of NPY, even in cells that normally express it, can lead to reduced responsiveness of NPY receptors, potentially affecting the ability of NPY to function as a long-term therapeutic.
       
  • Age related changes of neuropeptide Y-ergic system in the rat duodenum
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 November 2019Source: NeuropeptidesAuthor(s): Antonina F. Budnik, Daria Aryaeva, Polina Vyshnyakova, Petr M. MasliukovAbstractNeuropeptide Y (NPY) is widely distributed in the autonomic nervous system and acts as a neurotransmitter and a trophic factor. However, there is no report concerning the expression of NPY and its receptors in the intestine during postnatal ontogenesis. In the current study, immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis was used to label NPY, Y1R, Y2R and Y5R receptors in the duodenum from rats of different ages (1-, 10-, 20-, 30-, 60-day-old and 2-year-old).The obtained data suggest age-dependent changes of NPY-mediated gut innervation. NPY-immunoreactive (IR) neurons were observed in the myenteric (MP) and submucous (SP) plexus from the moment of birth. In the MP, the percentage of NPY-IR neurons was low and varied from 4.1 ± 0.32 in 1-day-old to 2.9 ± 0.62 in 2-year-old rats. The proportion of NPY-IR myenteric neurons did not change significantly through the senescence (p > .05). In the SP, the proportion of NPY-IR neurons significantly increased in the first month of life from 56.3 ± 2.4% in 1-day-old to 78.1 ± 5.18% in 20-day-old and significantly decreased from 75.6 ± 4.62% in 30-day-old rats to 59.8 ± 4.24% in 2-year-old rats.The expression of NPY in the duodenum did not change significantly during the development by western blot analysis. The expression of Y1R and Y2R was low in newborns and upregulated in the first ten days of life. The expression of Y5R was maximal in newborn pups and significantly decreased in in the first 20 days.Thus, there are some fluctuation of the percentage of NPY-IR neurons accompanies changes in relation of different subtypes of NPY receptors in the small intestine during postnatal ontogenesis.
       
  • Possible role of peptide YY (PYY) in the pathophysiology of irritable
           bowel syndrome (IBS)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 October 2019Source: NeuropeptidesAuthor(s): Magdy El-Salhy, Jan Gunnar Hatlebakk, Trygve HauskenAbstractIrritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal disorder of unknown aetiology for which there is no effective treatment. Although IBS does not increase mortality, it reduces the quality of life and is an economic burden to both the patients themselves and society as a whole. Peptide YY (PYY) is localized in endocrine cells located in the ileum, colon and rectum. The concentration of PYY and the density of PYY cells are decreased in both the colon and rectum but unchanged in the ileum of patients with IBS. The low density of PYY cells in the large intestine may be caused by a decreased number of stem cells and their progeny toward endocrine cells. PYY regulates the intestinal motility, secretion and absorption as well as visceral sensitivity via modulating serotonin release. An abnormality in PYY may therefore contribute to the intestinal dysmotility and visceral hypersensitivity seen in IBS patients. Diet management involving consuming a low-FODMAP diet restores the density of PYY cells in the large intestine and improves abdominal symptoms in patients with IBS. This study shows that diet management appears to be a valuable tool for correcting the PYY abnormalities in the large intestine of IBS patients in the clinic.
       
  • Recombinant peptide derived from the venom the Phoneutria nigriventer
           spider relieves nociception by nerve deafferentation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 October 2019Source: NeuropeptidesAuthor(s): Flavia Tasmin Techera Antunes, Stephanie Gonçalves Angelo, Eliane Dallegrave, Jaqueline Nascimento Picada, Norma Possa Marroni, Elizangela Schemitt, Alice Gomes Ferraz, Marcus Vinicius Gomez, Alessandra Hubner de SouzaThe avulsion of nerve roots of the brachial plexus that is commonly seen in motorcycle accidents is a type of neuropathy due to deafferentation. This type of pain is clinically challenging since therapeutical protocols fail or have severe side effects. Thus, it is proposed to evaluate the antinociceptive activity of the recombinant CTK 01512-2 peptide that is derived from the venom of the Phoneutria nigriventer spider, as a future new therapeutical option. The neuropathic pain was surgically induced by avulsion of the upper brachial plexus trunk in groups of male Wistar rats and after 17 days, they were treated intrathecally with morphine, ziconotide, and CTK 01512–2. Behavioral tests were performed to evaluate mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia, cold allodynia, the functional activity of the front paw, and exploratory locomotion after the treatments. The peripheral blood samples were collected 6 h after the treatments and a comet assay was performed. The spinal cord was removed for the lipoperoxidation dosing of the membranes. The cerebrospinal fluid was analyzed for the dosage of glutamate. The recombinant peptide showed an antinociceptive effect when compared to the other drugs, without affecting the locomotor activity of the animals. Mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia, as well as cold allodynia, were reduced in the first hours of treatment. The levels of glutamate and the damage by membrane lipoperoxidation were shown to be improved, and genotoxicity was not demonstrated. In a scenario of therapeutical failures in the treatment of this type of pain, CTK 01512–2 was shown as a new effective alternative protocol. However, further testing is required to determine pharmacokinetics.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
       
  • Cellular localization of melatonin receptor Mel1b in pigeon retina
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 October 2019Source: NeuropeptidesAuthor(s): Wenlong Sheng, Meng Jin, Ge Pan, Shijun Weng, Attila Sik, Liwen Han, Kechun LiuAbstractMelatonin, an important neuromodulator involved in circadian rhythms, modulates a series of physiological processes via activating its specific receptors, namely Mel1a (MT1), Mel1b (MT2) and Mel1c receptors. In this work, the localization of Mel1b receptor was studied in pigeon retina using double immunohistochemistry staining and confocal scanning microscopy. Our results showed that Mel1b receptor widely existed in the outer segment of photoreceptors and in the somata of dopaminergic amacrine cells, cholinergic amacrine cells, glycinergic AII amacrine cells, conventional ganglion cells and intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells, while horizontal cells, bipolar cells and Müller glial cells seemed to lack immunoreactivity of Mel1b receptor. That multiple types of retinal cells expressing Mel1b receptor suggests melatonin may directly modulate the activities of retina via activating Mel1b receptor.
       
  • The influence of post-infarct heart failure and high fat diet on the
           expression of apelin APJ and vasopressin V1a and V1b receptors
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 October 2019Source: NeuropeptidesAuthor(s): Katarzyna Czarzasta, Olena Wojno, Tymoteusz Zera, Liana Puchalska, Jakub Dobruch, Agnieszka Cudnoch-JedrzejewskaVasopressin and apelin are reciprocally regulated hormones which are implicated in the pathophysiology of heart failure and the regulation of metabolism; however, little is known about their interactions under pathological conditions. In this study, we determined how post-infarct heart failure (HF) and a high fat diet (HFD) affect expression of the apelin APJ receptor (APJR) and the V1a (V1aR) and V1b (V1bR) vasopressin receptors in the hypothalamus, the heart, and the retroperitoneal adipose tissue. We performed experiments in male 4-week-old Sprague Dawley rats. The animals received either a normal fat diet (NFD) or a HFD for 8 weeks, then they underwent left coronary artery ligation to induce HF or sham surgery (SO), followed by 4 weeks of NFD or HFD. The HF rats showed higher plasma concentration of NT-proBNP and copeptin. The HF reduced the APJR mRNA expression in the hypothalamus. The APJR and V1aR protein levels in the hypothalamus were regulated both by HF and HFD, while the V1bR protein level in the hypothalamus was mainly influenced by HF. APJR mRNA expression in the heart was significantly higher in rats on HFD, and HFD affected the reduction of the APJR protein level in the right ventricle. The regulation of APJR, V1aR and V1bR expression in the heart and the retroperitoneal adipose tissue were affected by both HF and HFD. Our study demonstrates that HF and HFD cause significant changes in the expression of APJR, V1aR and V1bR, which may have an important influence on the cardiovascular system and metabolism.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
       
  • Absence of a diurnal rhythm of oxytocin and arginine-vasopressin in human
           cerebrospinal fluid, blood and saliva
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 October 2019Source: NeuropeptidesAuthor(s): Simone Maria Kagerbauer, Jennifer Muriel Debus, Jan Martin, Jens Gempt, Bettina Jungwirth, Alexander Hapfelmeier, Armin Horst PodtschaskeAbstractPurposeThe aims of our study were to determine first circadian influences on central concentrations of the neuropeptides oxytocin and arginine-vasopressin and second to investigate if these central concentrations are associated with those in the peripheral compartments blood and saliva in neurocritical care patients.We therefore included patients with external ventricular drain who attended a neurosurgical intensive care unit and were not exposed to painful or stressful stimuli during the sampling period. For this purpose, blood, cerebrospinal fluid and saliva were collected in a 24-hour-interval at the timepoints 06:00, 12:00, 18:00 and 24:00.ResultsIn none of the three body fluids examined, significant time-dependent fluctuations of oxytocin and arginine-vasopressin concentrations could be detected during the 24-hour sampling period. The only exception was the subgroup of postmenopausal women whose oxytocin concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid at 12:00 were significantly higher than at 18:00. Correlations of blood and cerebrospinal fluid and blood and saliva neuropeptide levels were very weak to weak at each timepoint. Cerebrospinal fluid and saliva oxytocin levels showed a moderate correlation at 06:00 but did correlate very weak at the other timepoints.ConclusionsCentral as well as peripheral oxytocin and arginine-vasopressin concentrations in neurocritical care patients did not show significant diurnal fluctuations. No strong correlations between central and peripheral neuropeptide concentrations could be detected under basal conditions. If investigators even though decide to use saliva concentrations as surrogate parameter for central neuropeptide activity, they have to consider that correlations of cerebrospinal fluid and saliva oxytocin seem to be highest in the early morning.
       
  • Neuropeptide Y in itch regulation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 October 2019Source: NeuropeptidesAuthor(s): Jon E.T. Jakobsson, Haisha Ma, Malin C. LagerströmAbstractItch is a somatosensory sensation that informs the organism about the presence of potentially harmful substances or parasites, and initiates scratching to remove the threat. Itch-inducing (pruritogenic) substances activate primary afferent neurons in the skin through interactions with specific receptors that converts the stimulus into an electrical signal. These signals are conveyed to the dorsal horn of the spinal cord through the release of neurotransmitters such as natriuretic polypeptide b and somatostatin, leading to an integrated response within a complex spinal interneuronal network. A large sub-population of somatostatin-expressing spinal interneurons also carry the Neuropeptide Y (NPY) Y1 receptor, indicating that NPY and somatostatin partly regulate the same neuronal pathway. This review focuses on recent findings regarding the role of the NPY/Y1 and somatostatin/SST2A receptor in itch, and also presents data integrating the two neurotransmitter systems.
       
  • Ghrelin fiber projections from the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus into the
           dorsal vagal complex and the regulation of glycolipid metabolism
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 September 2019Source: NeuropeptidesAuthor(s): Manqing Su, Meixing Yan, Yanling GongAbstractObjectivesThis study aimed to explore the involvement of the ghrelin pathway from the arcuate nucleus (ARC) to the dorsal vagal complex (DVC) and to determine its role in the regulation of glycolipid metabolism.MethodsThe protein and mRNA expression of ghrelin and growth hormone (GH) secretagogue receptor type 1a (GHSR-1a) were measured using immunohistochemistry and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, respectively. Ghrelin fiber projections arising from the ARC and projecting into the DVC were investigated using retrograde tracing, combined with fluorescence immunohistochemical staining. The effects of electrical stimulation (ES) of the ARC on ghrelin-responsive, glucose-sensitive DVC neurons, glycolipid metabolism, and liver lipid enzymes were determined using electrical physiological method, biochemical analysis, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blot analysis.ResultsGHSR-1a was expressed in the DVC neurons. Ghrelin fibers originating from the ARC projected into the DVC. ES of the ARC-activated the ghrelin-responsive glucose-excited (GE) and glucose-inhibited (GI) neurons in the DVC. ES of the ARC significantly elevated the serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and glucose levels; it reduced the serum high-density lipoprotein (HDLC) and insulin levels. Moreover, ES of the ARC increased liver acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1 (ACC-1) and decreased carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1) expression, resulting in lipid accumulation in the liver. All the aforementioned effects were partially blocked by pretreatment with the ghrelin receptor antagonist [D-Lys-3]-GHRP-6 in the DVC and were reduced by vagotomy. ES of the ARC increased agouti-related protein (AgRP)/neuropeptide Y (NPY) expression in the ARC and ghrelin expression in the DVC.ConclusionGhrelin fiber projections arising from the ARC and projecting into the DVC play a role in the regulation of afferent glucose metabolism and glycolipid metabolism via the ghrelin receptor GHSR-1a in the DVC.
       
  • Aβ, Tau, and α-Synuclein aggregation and integrated role of PARK2 in the
           regulation and clearance of toxic peptides
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 September 2019Source: NeuropeptidesAuthor(s): Dhiraj Kumar, Pravir KumarAbstractAlzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases are one of the world's leading causes of death.>50 million people throughout the world are suffering with these diseases. They are two distinct progressive neurodegenerative disorders affecting different regions of the brain with diverse symptoms, including memory and motor loss respectively, but with the advancement of diseases, both affect the whole brain and exhibit some common biological symptoms. For instance,>50% PD patients develop dementia in their later stages, though it is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. In fact, latest research has suggested the involvement of some common pathophysiological and genetic links between these diseases, including the deposition of pathological Aβ, Tau, and α-synuclein in both the cases. Therefore, it is pertinent to diagnose the shared biomarkers, their aggregation mechanism, their intricate relationships in the pathophysiology of disease and therapeutic markers to target them. This would enable us to identify novel markers for the early detection of disease and targets for the future therapies. Herein, we investigated molecular aspects of Aβ, Tau, and α-Synuclein aggregation, and characterized their functional partners involved in the pathology of AD and PD. Moreover, we identified the molecular-crosstalk between AD and PD associated with their pathogenic proteins- Aβ, Tau, and α-Synuclein. Furthermore, we characterized their ubiquitinational enzymes and associated interaction network regulating the proteasomal clearance of these pathological proteins.
       
  • Neuropeptide Y increases differentiation of human olfactory receptor
           neurons through the Y1 receptor
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 September 2019Source: NeuropeptidesAuthor(s): Tsung-Wei Huang, Sheng-Tien Li, Duan-Yu Chen, Tai-Horng YoungAbstractOlfactory dysfunction significantly impedes the life quality of patients. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is not only a neurotrophic factor in the rodent olfactory system but also an orexigenic peptide that regulates feeding behavior. NPY increases the olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) responsivity during starvation; however, whether NPY can promote differentiation of human ORNs remains unexplored. This study investigates the effect of NPY on the differentiation of human olfactory neuroepithelial cells in vitro. Human olfactory neuroepithelium explants were cultured on tissue culture polystyrene dishes for 21 days. Then, cells were cultured with or without NPY at the concentration of 0.5 ng/mℓ for 7 days. The effects of treatment were assessed by phase contrast microscopy, immunocytochemistry and western blot analysis. The further mechanism was evaluated with NPY Y1 receptor-selected antagonist BIBP3226. NPY-treated olfactory neuroepithelial cells exhibited thin bipolar shape, low circularity, low spread area, and long processes. The expression levels of Ascl1, βIII tubulin, GAP43 and OMP were significantly higher in NPY-treated cells than in controls (p 
       
  • Neuregulin1β improves both spatial and associative learning and memory in
           Alzheimer model of rats possibly through signaling pathways other than
           Erk1/2
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 September 2019Source: NeuropeptidesAuthor(s): Marzieh Jalilzad, Adele Jafari, Parvin BabaeiAbstractBackgroundNeuregulin-1β (NRG1 β) is associated with various neurological disorders such as schizophrenia, depression and Parkinson's disease. However, its role in Alzheimer's (AD) has not been understood yet. Here, we have studied the effect of NRG1 β and extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling on special and associative memories and emotional stress in AD model of rats.MethodsFifty six male Wistar rats were divided into eight groups of: Saline + Saline, Aβ + Saline, Aβ + NRG1β (5 μg/5 ul), Aβ + PBS, Aβ + NRG1β + PD98059 (PD, 5 μg/2 μl), Aβ + NRG1β + Saline and Saline + PD. AD model was induced by intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of beta-amyloid protein (Aβ1-42, 4 μg/2 μl). The cognitive performances of rats were evaluated using Morris Water Maze (MWM) and Step through passive avoidance. Also locomotors activity and emotionality of animals were considered in an Open field test. Data were analyzed by one way Anova one way, repeated measure and T-test.ResultsSignificant improvement was found in spatial learning and memory assessed by total time spent in target quadrant [F (4, 32) = 12.4, p = 0.001], escape latency [F (4, 32) = 15.767, p = 0.001] and distance moved [F (4, 32) = 5.55, p = 0.002], in Aβ + NRG1β compared with Aβ + Saline in MWM. Also Aβ + NRG1β showed long latencies to enter into the dark compartment [F (4, 32) = 6.43, p = 0.001], but short time spent [F (4, 32) =6.93, p = 0.001] compared with control. Administration of an ERK inhibitor (PD98059, 5 μg, 15 min before NRG1β) didn't completely block learning memory restored by NRG1β in AD model (p = 0.7). No significant between groups differences was found in emotional stress characteristics in open field, except the grooming numbers which were higher in Saline + PD compared with Saline + Saline (p = 0.02).ConclusionOur findings indicate that NRG1β restores cognitive dysfunctions induced by amyloid β through signaling pathways possibly other than Erk1/2, with no significant change in anxiety, locomotion and vegetative activities.
       
  • Acute and regular exercise distinctly modulate serum, plasma and skeletal
           muscle BDNF in the elderly
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 August 2019Source: NeuropeptidesAuthor(s): Denisa Máderová, Patrik Krumpolec, Lucia Slobodová, Martin Schön, Veronika Tirpáková, Zuzana Kovaničová, Radka Klepochová, Matej Vajda, Stanislav Šutovský, Ján Cvečka, Ladislav Valkovič, Peter Turčáni, Martin Krššák, Milan Sedliak, Chia-Liang Tsai, Barbara Ukropcová, Jozef UkropecAbstractBrain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) participates in orchestrating the adaptive response to exercise. However, the importance of transient changes in circulating BDNF for eliciting whole-body and skeletal muscle exercise benefits in humans remains relatively unexplored. Here, we investigated effects of acute aerobic exercise and 3-month aerobic-strength training on serum, plasma and skeletal muscle BDNF in twenty-two sedentary older individuals (69.0 ± 8.0 yrs., 9 M/13F). BDNF response to acute exercise was additionally evaluated in young trained individuals (25.1 ± 2.1 yrs., 3 M/5F). Acute aerobic exercise transiently increased serum BDNF in sedentary (16%, p = .007) but not in trained elderly or young individuals. Resting serum or plasma BDNF was not regulated by exercise training in the elderly. However, subtle training-related changes of serum BDNF positively correlated with improvements in walking speed (R = 0.59, p = .005), muscle mass (R = 0.43, p = .04) and cognitive performance (R = 0.41, p = .05) and negatively with changes in body fat (R = -0.43, p = .04) and triglyceridemia (R = -0.53, p = .01). Individuals who increased muscle BDNF protein in response to 3-month training (responders) displayed stronger acute exercise-induced increase in serum BDNF than non-responders (p = .006). In addition, muscle BDNF protein content positively correlated with type II-to-type I muscle fiber ratio (R = 0.587, p = .008) and with the rate of post-exercise muscle ATP re-synthesis (R = 0.703, p = .005). Contrary to serum, acute aerobic exercise resulted in a decline of plasma BDNF 1 h post-exercise in both elderly-trained (−34%, p = .002) and young-trained individuals (−48%, p = .034). Acute circulating BDNF regulation by exercise was dependent on the level of physical fitness and correlated with training-induced improvements in metabolic and cognitive functions. Our observations provide an indirect evidence that distinct exercise-induced changes in serum and plasma BDNF as well as training-related increase in muscle BDNF protein, paralleled by improvements in muscle and whole-body clinical phenotypes, are involved in the coordinated adaptive response to exercise in humans.
       
 
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