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Intl. J. of Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
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International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health
Number of Followers: 5  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2394-6032 - ISSN (Online) 2394-6040
Published by Medip Academy Homepage  [12 journals]
  • Diabetic foot self-care: awareness and practice among type 2 diabetic
           patients in primary healthcare centers, Dubai Health Authority

    • Authors: Maira K. Mehmood, Almas Z. Parkar, Nayab T. Mustafa, Sarah S. Mustafa, Momina A. Makin, Fatheya Alawadi, Samia Farghaly
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Background: Diabetic foot disease is the most common complication of diabetes mellitus. With appropriate management, approximately 49-85% of diabetic foot complications can be prevented. This study was carried out due to lack of population-based studies on foot self-care in the U.A.E. The aim of this study is to assess the awareness and practice of foot self-care in patients with type 2 diabetes and study the factors affecting foot self-care.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted amongst patients of type-2 diabetes attending the diabetic clinics in primary healthcare centers under Dubai Health Authority. 488 participants were interviewed on a pre-tested structured questionnaire. The cumulative score of awareness and practice was classified into poor (<50 percentile), average (50-75 percentile) and good (>75 percentile).Results: 47% participants had an overall poor awareness and 46% had an overall poor practice of foot self-care. Compliance of medications to avoid complications had the highest awareness (83%) and practice (91%). Avoiding moisturizing between toes had the least awareness (40%) and practice (38%). Awareness was better in 59% of UAE nationals and 74% of postgraduates. Practice was better in 60% of males and 73% of participants with uncontrolled HbA1c. Participants who received prior information had better awareness (55%). Participants receiving information from Dubai Diabetes Centre (DDC) had better awareness (66%) and practice of foot self-care (66%).Conclusions: Almost half of the diabetic patients attending primary healthcare centers in Dubai have limited awareness and practice regarding diabetic foot self-care.
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • Posterior segment eye diseases in Ijebu, Southwestern Nigeria

    • Authors: Tayo Julius Bogunjoko, Adekunle O. Hassan, Adunola Ogunro, Toyin Akanbi, Bidemi Abudu
      Pages: 8 - 12
      Abstract: Background: To review cases of posterior segment eye diseases (PSEDs) seen at the Eye Foundation Centre Ijebu, Nigeria in a 5 year period for planning purposes.Methods: Data was collected from patients’ case notes from January 2006 to December 2011. A systematic sampling of 468 patients from 1173 case notes of patient with (PSEDs) was done. Information retrieved was: age, sex, state of residence and diagnosis. All patients were examined by the glaucoma and the vitroretinal specialist as the case may be. They had visual acuity, refraction, slit lamp examination (including intraocular pressure (IOP) with Goldman applanation tonometer), and dilated fundoscopy with (bilateral indirect ophthalmoscopy) BIO, slit lamp using 20 D, 78 D and 90 D respectively. The glaucoma patients in addition had central visual field (CVF), Central cornea thickness (CCT), fundus photograph and in some cases optical coherence tomography (OCT) done in addition to the above.Results: The mean age was 59.98 years (SD 17.67) and the age range is 5-95 years. Males outnumbered females by 63% to 37%. The diseases were more common in age group 61 to 80. Patients’ attendances were mostly from Ijebu division of Ogun state (57%). Glaucoma is the commonest cause of attendance 262 (56%) followed by diabetic retinopathy 29 (6.2%) and age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) 28 (6.0%).Conclusions: Glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy and ARMD were noted as the commonest PSEDs in Ijebu division in Southwestern Nigeria.
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • The educational issues of male nursing workforce from the perspective of
           male nursing students: a qualitative study from Turkey

    • Authors: Raziye Ozdemir, Celalettin Cevik
      Pages: 13 - 19
      Abstract: Background: The aim of the study was to determine the effects of gender on vocational training of male students who were enrolled in two university undergraduate nursing programs in Turkey.Methods: This qualitative study was carried out in 2014-2015. This qualitative study was carried out in University located in the northwest of Turkey and in University located in the west of Turkey in 2014-2015. The students were third and fourth year-students. In-depth interviews were conducted with students by using an interview guide composed of open-ended questions. The data were evaluated by using content analysis. The ethical approval was provided to conduct the study.Results: Five main themes raised from the in-depth interviews: 1) the reason for preferring nursing; 2) opinions about nursing; 3) educational environment and education content; 4) the issues in the clinical practise and 5) the working areas of the male nurses.Conclusions: The study pointed out the effect of the issues created by the gender discrimination on the education of the male nursing students along with the serious problems sprung from the insufficient infrastructure of the universities on nursing education.
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • Assessment of breastfeeding knowledge and practices among working mothers
           in the federal capital territory Nigeria

    • Authors: Vivian O. Omuemu, Scott A. Adamu
      Pages: 20 - 29
      Abstract: Background: Inadequate infant feeding practices is a major contributor to the high burden of childhood morbidity and mortality in many countries. Female participation in the labour sector has increased and many of them return to work soon after giving birth posing a significant barrier to breastfeeding. This study assessed the knowledge and practice of breastfeeding among working mothers in the Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria.Methods: This cross-sectional study was done among 360 working mothers selected by multistage sampling technique. Quantitative and qualitative data were collective using interviewer-administered questionnaire and key informant interview guide, respectively. Data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Scientific Solutions (SPSS) version 21.0 and significant level was set at p<0.05.Results: Two hundred and seventy-six (76.7%) of the respondents had good knowledge of breast feeding. More than three-quarters (77.2%) initiated breastfeeding within one hour of birth, 201 (55.8%) practiced exclusive breastfeeding correctly and 201 (55.8%) introduced complementary foods on time. Median duration of breastfeeding was 14.6 months. Less than half of them (41.7%) had good overall practice of breastfeeding. Level of education, sector of work, knowledge of breastfeeding and availability of on-site crèche were significantly associated with practice of breastfeeding. Common barriers to breastfeeding included poor spousal support, no paid maternity leave and non-availability of nearby crèches. Most of the organizations observed had a breast feeding policy.Conclusions: This study revealed a gap between the knowledge and practice of adequate breastfeeding among the respondents and identified some perceived barriers to optimal breastfeeding. 
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • Knowledge and attitude towards consanguineous marriage among educated
           adults in Riyadh

    • Authors: Samira M. Mahboub, Alanoud A. Alsaqabi, Noura A. Allwimi, Dana N. Aleissa, Basmah A. Al-Mubarak
      Pages: 30 - 37
      Abstract: Background: In Saudi Arabia there is still a high prevalence of consanguineous marriage in spite of increased educational level. This may be attributed to the fact that this practice is more influenced by attitude towards this type of marriage rather than educational level. The Aim of this study was to determine knowledge and attitude towards consanguineous marriages among educated Saudi adults.Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted using an online questionnaire. A total of 680 educated Saudi adults living in Riyadh were asked about their socio-demographic characteristics, their knowledge and attitude towards consanguineous marriage.Results: Most of participants had poor knowledge and negative attitude (53.31% and 57.21% respectively). One third of participants had no idea about the possibility that consanguineous couples may have diseased offspring more than non-consanguineous couples. Those who had significantly higher attitude score towards consanguineous marriage were older age group, males, those who are married to their relatives, people who have frequent family history of consanguineous marriage and participants with parental consanguinity. Attitude towards consanguineous marriage can be predicted by age and knowledge.Conclusions: Changing the attitude can be done by changing level of knowledge. So, educational programs are recommended and should be directed to groups with higher attitude score.
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • Evaluating the predictive quality of the Chapman bone algorithm using
           aggregated data sets

    • Authors: Noah D. Barrett, Cameron W. James, Joshua P. Tam, Elise S. Levesque, Anton S. Ketterer, Wajiha R. Memon, Cyril S. Rakovski, Frank Frisch
      Pages: 38 - 43
      Abstract: Background: Due to an aging population, osteoporosis has become an increasingly prevalent metabolic bone disorder that is largely undiagnosed worldwide because of inaccessible and expensive DXA machines. The Chapman bone algorithm (CBA), a mathematical treatment that enables osteoporosis determination by using simply-assayed bone metabolites from blood serum, has been previously presented as a cheaper and feasible alternative for analyzing bone health. The CBA has a sensitivity of 1.0 and a specificity of 0.83, with an area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve of 0.93. Our goal was to utilize existing data from primary literature sources to determine if the CBA could be applied with similar or equal fidelity.Methods: We obtained mean values from analyses of serum Osteocalcin (s-OC) and serum Pyridinoline (s-PYD) markers in conjunction with patient age from various large-sample data sets available in primary literature.Results: Following analyses of aggregated mean values from the literature, we found that 60% of studies predicted the presence or absence of osteoporosis with the same degree of accuracy between FRAX and CBA methods. Osteoporosis was defined as having a t-score of <-2.5 (FRAX) or surpassing the threshold p-value of >0.035 (CBA).Conclusions: We expected higher agreement between the FRAX scores and our CBA, but this may be due to the aggregated nature of the data. Our findings indicated the need to advance the CBA in analyzing larger-scale primary data sets, underscoring the importance of raw data analysis, to determine the full efficacy of this diagnostic tool.
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • Characteristics and motivation with nurse performance in applying patient
           safety in hospital

    • Authors: Honesty Diana Morika, Suharizal ., Yasmi .
      Pages: 44 - 50
      Abstract: Background: Nurse performance in patient safety implementation context is closely related to efforts to prevent the impact of unexpected events on patients such as death and permanent disability. The individual performance can be seen from the characteristics and motivation that determine the results of work. Early survey found that there were nurse who did not implemented patient safety. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between characteristics and motivation with the performance of nurses in implementing patient safety in the Inpatient Unit of Regional Public Hospital dr. Rasidin Padang.Methods: The type of research was a cross sectional study. 45 nurses in surgical, child and internal room as sample were taken using simple random sampling technique. Data was analysis with chi square test.Results: The results of this research are known as age with p value (0.291), gender with p value (1,000), education with p value (0.862), marital status with p value (0.196) and working period with p value 0.247 and motivation with pvalue (0.000).Conclusions: There was a relationship between motivation and nurses' performance in implementing patient safety.
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • Breastfeeding and infant/young child feeding in Nepal

    • Authors: Sunil Shah, Jose Augusto R. Simoes
      Pages: 51 - 56
      Abstract: Background: Under nutrition being a major problem in Nepal, it is necessary to meet the minimum dietary standard which is essential for growth and development of young children, so promotion of infant and young child feeding practices among children is important intervention.Methods: A descriptive, cross sectional study was conducted among mothers of children of Bardia and Kailali districts of under 2 years and data was collected using the pre-tested questionnaire.Results: The study shows 30.3 percent of the mothers initiated breastfeeding within an hour of birth, 47.9 percent gave colostrums, 25.5 percent were practicing exclusive breastfeeding at 6 or more months,60 percent mothers fed anything else as prelacteal feed before breast feeding, 60 percent of mothers started complementary feeding between 3-6 months, 47.9 percent of mothers used anything from a bottle with a nipple yesterday or last night, 74.8 percent of mothers were currently breast feeding their children, 58 percent used iodized salt and 70.05 percent revealed that their child received Vit A within last six months.Conclusions: The present study showed that late initiation of breast feeding and practice of prelacteal feeds among home delivered mothers being high. The frequency of complementary feeding ranged was less and early/late weaning are still widely prevalent, use of bottle feeding is high, use of iodized salt is still low. There is a need to educate the mothers regarding proper infant/child feeding practices. 
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • Strengthening district healthcare in rural Africa: a cross-sectional

    • Authors: Herbert G. Masigati, Grant W. Potter, Masahiro J. Morikawa, Rashid S. Mfaume
      Pages: 57 - 60
      Abstract: Background: Rural hospitals in sub-Saharan Africa suffer from numerous disparities in resources and practices, and subsequently patient care is affected.Methods: In order to assess current practices and opportunities for improvement in pulse oximetry use and patient-care handoffs, a cross-sectional survey was administered to clinicians at a referral level hospital serving a large rural area in Shinyanga, Tanzania.Results: Respondents (n=46) included nurses (50%), medical doctors (48%), and clinical officers (2%). A response rate of 92% was achieved, and 81% of clinicians acknowledged routine difficulties in the use of current devices when obtaining pulse oximetry. Although 83% of respondents reported using a written handoff at shift change, information reporting was inconsistent and rarely included specific management guidance.Conclusions: Further research is needed to elucidate handoff practices in developing settings, but there is a large opportunity for novel point-of-care devices and tools to improve both pulse oximetry use and patient care handoffs in rural Africa.
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • Sexual behaviour among rural women in Ondo state, Nigeria: do cultural and
           gender norms matter'

    • Authors: Chukwuechefulam K. Imo, Oyewole O. Olusanya, Ifeoluwa E. Oluwatuase
      Pages: 61 - 68
      Abstract: Background: The issues of sexual behaviour that increase risk of a negative outcome among women have been debated. This paper explored the influence of cultural and gender norms on sexual behaviour among rural childbearing married women in Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria.Methods: The study utilized exploratory study design and purposively recruited 394 and 30 childbearing married women for quantitative and qualitative studies, respectively through which data were generated. The analyses were carried out with Stata software (version 13.0) for quantitative data using descriptive and chi-square statistics, while thematic content analysis was used for qualitative data.Results: About two-third of the respondents did not use contraceptive methods, which was a significant predictor of unplanned pregnancies among the women at p<0.05. Alluding to cultural preference of children and male roles in sexual behaviours, the qualitative data revealed that desire for large family sizes by partners, cultural norms, men’s superiority on sexual matters and partners’ disapproval of contraceptive usage predict women’s inability to negotiate sex with partners.Conclusions: Therefore, risk reduction strategies aimed at enlightening childbearing married women on their imperative positions in sexual relationships within marriages should be initiated to facilitate the achievement of sustainable development goals should be intensified.
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • A field survey on provision of health care service in a community clinic
           of Bangladesh: a case study of Raicho community clinic

    • Authors: Sowrav Barman, Muhammad Abu Nayeem
      Pages: 69 - 74
      Abstract: Background: Community clinics have been restarted in 2009 by government of Bangladesh through a project called “Revitalization of Community Health Care Initiatives in Bangladesh” (RCHCIB) to enhance provision of healthcare services at community level. We have conducted a survey on provision of health care service to recognize the availability and extent of health services provided in a community clinic of Bangladesh.Methods: 25 respondents who usually receive primary health care service from Raicho community clinic situated in Comilla district of Bangladesh were included in the survey.Results: The highest number of respondents was male (52%) and the majority of them were literate (96%).36% of study population were included in no income group, whereas 20% belong to rich population group. 32% people presented with fever (32%) followed by weakness (24%) in the community clinic. 32% respondents went to community clinic for him/her and that was the highest. The highest number of people were referred to private clinic (32%). 70% respondents think that women are receiving maternal service in the clinic. 88% respondents have participated in EPI vaccination program. 80% respondents use contraceptive method and majority used contraceptive pill. 68% people received sufficient medicine, whereas 32% respondents did not receive medication from the clinic. 75% respondents think that during working hours CHCP and HA are available in the clinic. 48% population mentioned corruption is the most possible responsible factor for heath service inequalities at grass-root level.Conclusions: Although standards are lacking in providing services, community clinics have opened a new era in health service of Bangladesh. 
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • Perceived level of return to functional abilities of mothers six weeks
           after childbirth in the teaching hospital Enugu

    • Authors: Ada C. Nwaneri, Eunice O. Osuala, Catherine C. Eze, Clementina O. Ezenwuba
      Pages: 75 - 81
      Abstract: Background: Functional status of mothers after delivery has implications for maternal and child health (MCH). The study is aimed at determining the perceived level of return to functional status of mothers attending post partum clinic, after six weeks of childbirth at the teaching hospitals in Enugu. Information gathered would help in designing programmes for improved MCH.Methods: Descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. Data was collected using (IFSAC)-36 self rated items that was validated by experts in the field. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis was done and findings presented in graphs and tables.Results: Return of mothers to their functional abilities after six weeks of childbirth was good though in some aspects of functional ability it was low. 260 (73.9%) had a high level of return to infant care while 238 (67.68%), 218 (61.9%) and 159 (45.2%) had a low level of resumption to occupational, personal life, social and community activities respectively. There was a significant difference in the level of attainment of functional status of mothers attending past partum clinic with an F-value of 340.75<p value-0.05 There was no significant relationship observed between parity and return to functional status after 6 weeks of childbirth with 0.02 and 0.03 respectively (p>0.05).Conclusions: Majority of mothers attending post partum clinic returned to functional status after six weeks of childbirth. Awareness on the importance of post partum clinic attendance need to be intensified for improved MCH as maternal and infant morbidity and mortality rate is high in Nigeria.
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • The role sanitation to stunting children age 6-35 months, Purwojati
           subdistrict, Banyumas district, Central Java, Indonesia

    • Authors: Sugeng Wiyono, Annas Burhani, Titus Priyo Harjatmo, Trina Astuti, Nils Aria Zulfianto, Tugiman ., Muthia Sulistiantu Putri
      Pages: 82 - 88
      Abstract: Background: Stunting toddlers describe the existence of chronic nutritional problems, influenced by prospective maternal, fetal period, and toddler age, including illnesses during infancy. Children who stunted impact not only on intelligence, productivity and future performance after adulthood.Methods: The study in 10 villages in Purwojati Subdistric, Banyumas district, Central Java, Indonesia in 2017. The cross-sectional study design with population is households that have children aged 6-35 months. A sample of 348 children aged 6-35 months was taken by the cluster whit design effect of 2.Results: Respondents consisted of 52.3% boys, 45.4% aged 12-23 months. Most of the energy, protein, fat and carbohydrate intake is more than 80% of the recommended dietary allowance and a small proportion of children suffer from measles, Acute Respiratory Infection and diarrhoea. For sanitation 68.4% of the houses are in the poor, poor waste management is 92%, non-plumbing sources 68.9%, dirty latrine 19.3% and the latrine was not cleaned is 92.2%. There was no average difference in z-score H/A based on nutrient intake, house status, waste management and water sources, but there were significant differences (p=0.032) on average z-score H/A based on cleaning the latrine. There was no average difference in z-score H/A based on nutrient intake, house status, waste management, and water sources, but there were significant (p=0.032) on average z-score H/A based on cleaning the latrine.Conclusions: Sanitation is related to height, there were significant differences on average z-score H/A based on cleaning latrine.
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • The correlation between contact history and knowledge with incidence of
           leprosy in Jeneponto district, South Sulawesi, Indonesia

    • Authors: S. Sapriadi, Risman Wanci, Syahridha .
      Pages: 89 - 92
      Abstract: Background: Leprosy is one of neglected tropical diseases, which is caused by Mycobacterium leprae. This disease attacks especially on the skin, peripheral nerves, mucosa of the upper respiratory tract, and eyes. This study aims to analyze the influence of contact history and knowledge on the incidence of leprosy in Jeneponto district.Methods: This study used observational descriptive research with a case control approach. This research was conducted in the work area of the Health Office in Jeneponto district from January to June 2018. A total of 31 leprosy patients and 31 non lepers were sampled in this study. Statistical analysis of Chi square test was used to determine the relationship between contact history and knowledge with the incidence of leprosy.Results: The results showed that there was a significant relationship between contact history with the incidence of leprosy (p=0.001<0.05). But knowledge did not have a significant relationship with the incidence of leprosy, (p=0.203> 0.05).Conclusions: Contact history is a predictive factor for leprosy in Jeneponto. It is expected that the population who has contact with leprosy patients to pay attention to other things that can increase the risk of leprosy.
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • Middle East respiratory syndrome in Morocco: four years of surveillance
           and evaluation of the management of suspected cases

    • Authors: Tahar Bajjou, Khalid Ennibi, Idriss Lahlou Amine, Farida Hilali, Abdelilah Laraqui, Safae Elkochri, Yassine Sekhsokh
      Pages: 93 - 99
      Abstract: Background: In early 2014, Morocco took steps to prevent the Middle East respiratory syndrome disease from entering into the country. Several facilities have been equipped to accommodate suspected cases. We aimed to report the plan prepared by Morocco to prevent the importation of this infection and to evaluate our experience in the monitoring of suspected cases.Methods: We analyze the data on the forms of surveillance witch collect demographic informations, symptoms, hospitalization, travel history, risk contacts and MERS-CoV test results.Results: Since 2014, 152 patients were addressed to the Mohammed 5 Military Teaching Hospital for suspicion of MERS-CoV. The compliance with the suspect case definition was positive in 78 cases. Of these patients, 93.6% were Moroccans. All of them came from the Middle East and 77% returned from a Hajj trip. The most reported symptoms were fever (92.3%) and cough (84.6%). The most reported underlying conditions were asthma (17.9%) and diabetes (12.8%). All of these patients were negative for RT-PCR detection of MERS-CoV.Conclusions: Moroccan pilgrims go to Hajj despite the warnings of the WHO. To date, Morocco has not reported any cases of MERS-CoV. Overall, the management plan to prevent importation and transmission of MERS-Cov is satisfactory.
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • Feedback of postgraduate students about research methodology workshop

    • Authors: Vijay Kishanrao Domple, Prabhakar A. Hiwarkar, Manish B. Shrigiriwar
      Pages: 100 - 104
      Abstract: Background: The feedback from PG students will address the issues in organization of the workshop if any, which may be helpful for the continual improvement. The objectives of the study were to analyze the feedback of postgraduate students about every session of workshop; to analyze the feedback of postgraduate students about overall program of workshop; to assess the change in the knowledge of the participants with the help of pretest and posttest scores.Methods: The present cross sectional study was carried out in the month of August 2018. The three days research methodology workshop was conducted at Shri Vasantrao Naik Government Medical College, Yavatmal during 7th to 9th August 2018 for the 44 postgraduate students. The pretest questionnaire, posttest questionnaire, daily feedback form and program evaluation form were given to each participant. The analysis of pretest and posttest was done by paired t test with statistical software Epi Info Version 7.Results: Total 44 postgraduate students gave feedback on each day. The maximum score (1108) was given by participants to experimental study design and lowest score (942) was given to third group activity based on literature search. For the question about the scope for betterment in the workshop, we had developed three themes based on the responses of participants by using content analysis. Paired ‘t’ test showed significant difference between pre and post-test (p<0.001).Conclusions: The students gave constructive feedback on improvement of the sessions on literature search and Mendeley.
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • Assessment of awareness about cardiovascular diseases risk factors amongst
           first year medical students

    • Authors: Udaykiran Bhalge, Bhaskar Gaikwad, Pramod Kulkarni, Anant A. Takalkar, Mukund D. Bhise
      Pages: 105 - 108
      Abstract: Background: There are several risk factors contributing to cardiovascular diseases, such as age, gender and ethnicity. Positive family history being overweight and obese is also additional risk factors. Other, life style factor that contribute to hyper tension are smoking, stress cell phone use and physical inactivity, consumption of alcohol, increase salt intake reduce potassium intake. The objective of the study was to assess the awareness about cardiovascular diseases risk factors amongst first-year medical students.Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out amongst 136 first-year medical students of MIMSR Medical College, Latur, Maharashtra during the period of December 2017 to May 2018. A self-administered, pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to obtain information about awareness of cardiovascular diseases risk factors including diet, physical activity, smoking, and alcohol habits from the study subjects.Results: The study subjects were 136 first-year medical students belonging to 18–23 years age group. There was good awareness about high fat food, high sugar intake, smoking and alcohol consumption as cardiovascular diseases risk factors.Conclusions: There is good awareness about cardiovascular diseases risk factors among first-year medical students. 
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • A study of quality of life and economic dependency in physically disabled
           population in a rural area

    • Authors: P. R. Thirumalai Kumar
      Pages: 109 - 112
      Abstract: Background: Human life is enriched by mechanical, recreational and innovative activities performed by an individual. Disability is a complex phenomenon, reflecting the interaction between features of a person’s body and the society in which he or she lives. Quality of life is defined by a subjective evaluation of the life circumstances of an individual with respect to his/her values. The objective of the study was to study the prevalence of physical disability and their economic dependence and quality of life in Orathur rural population.Methods: Data was collected by house to house survey of rural population, Orathur, Cuddalore district, Tamil Nadu through pre structured questionnaire and clinical examination .The tools used include interview schedule and sickness impact profile (SIP) scale with modification. Data was analyzed statistically.Results: A total of 4508 population were surveyed in this study to find out the prevalence of disability and burden of disability. Totally 308 physically disabled persons were identified (6.8% prevalence rate). It was found that visual disability was most common disability. Economic dependency and impact on quality of life was found to be more in visual disability than other types of disability. Information on extent of impact of disabilities is required to formulate future policies aiming at improving quality of life of disabled people and making them economically independent.Conclusions: Visual disability was the most prevalent disability in the present study and Cataract being the leading cause. Vocational rehabilitation measures specifically for rural disabled people should be initiated by government and non governmental agencies to improve the economic status.
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • Prevalence and risk factors of under nutrition among under three children
           in an urban community in Ludhiana city

    • Authors: Pushapindra Kaushal, Anurag Chaudhary, Sangeeta Girdhar, Priya Bansal, Sarit Sharma, Mahesh Satija
      Pages: 113 - 118
      Abstract: Background: Under nutrition is important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality. In India burden of underweight children in under 5 years of age is still 35.7% (NFHS-4) and is 22% in Punjab which is still considered to be a major public health problem. Thus this study was planned to find prevalence and risk factors of under nutrition in under 3 children in urban Ludhiana.Methods: It is community based cross-sectional study conducted in under 3 year children in field practice area of Urban Health Centre under Department of Community Medicine, Dayanand Medical College, Ludhiana. Minimum sample size of 368 was calculated. Data was collected from routine surveillance by ANMs in their visits to area. Under nutrition was taken as weight for age as per standard growth chart used in India (WHO based). Statistical analysis: Microsoft Excel, Chi square test, SPSS.Results: Out of 387 children, 82 (21.2%) were underweight [17 (4.4%) severely and 65 (16.8%) moderately underweight]. Increasing age, partial immunization, low birth weight and high birth order were significantly associated, while gender, type of family, SES, mother’s BMI & literacy and exclusive breast feeding were not significantly associated with prevalence of underweight.Conclusions: Increasing age, partial immunization, low birth weight and high birth order were all significantly associated with underweight. Maternal and child health services need to be strengthened.
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • A cross sectional study to assess the operationalization of national
           tobacco control program in a tertiary level hospital of central India

    • Authors: Rupali Saroshe, Satish Saroshe, Sanjay Dixit
      Pages: 119 - 122
      Abstract: Background: To implement the Anti- Tobacco laws and to sensitize all stakeholders, The National Tobacco Control Programme (NTCP) was launched by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW), Government of India in 2007- 08, during the 11th five year plan. This study aims to identify the level of the awareness of ill health effects of tobacco, the basic tenets of NTCP and COTPA among the hospital staff of the tertiary level medical college hospital (M.Y Hospital Indore) involved in the process.Methods: An analytical study. Was carried out in tertiary level medical college hospital among service providers involved in anti-tobacco cell using inter-personal interview of the service providers (Medical Officers, Staff Nurses, Health Care Personnel) using pre-designed pretested semi structured questionnaire based on the salient features of NTCP and provisions of COTPA- cigarettes and other tobacco products act, 2003.Results: Regarding the ill health effects of tobacco doctors had slightly better knowledge awareness than nurses. However, it was ironical that nurses had a slightly better awareness when it comes to NTCP. Doctors were better aware of new COTPA guidelines as compared to nurses. Thus, nurses had less knowledge about ill effects of tobacco consumption and new COTPA guidelines as compared to doctors.Conclusions: Although most of the health care personnel involved in operationalization of NTCP are aware of the basic tenets of NTCP, COTPA and ill health effects of tobacco there is a dire need of the refresher training of both the doctors and the nurses. Also this type of the present study should be contemplated on multi-centric basis on a larger scale for better data results. 
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • Are other feasible options available for screening of risk assessment of
           osteoporosis in postmenopausal women at community level in Southern
           Coastal India

    • Authors: Gowry Reddy, Priya Rathi, Unnikrishnan B., Surendra Kamath, Kalpita Shringapure
      Pages: 123 - 128
      Abstract: Background: Osteoporosis is a chronic debilitating condition which exhibits iceberg phenomenon. Identification at an early stage of disease will enable preventive measures to reduce the incidence of disease and complications. Owing to the cost of diagnostic test, this study, various screening tools such as WHO fracture risk assessment tool, osteoporosis self-assessment tool for Asians, simple calculated osteoporosis risk estimation and osteoporosis risk assessment instrument   have been used for assessment, in order to screen postmenopausal women in the preliminary stages.Methods: A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 107 postmenopausal women carried over a period of five months.Results: Prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia was 24.3% and 69.2%. The area under the curve for osteoporosis self-assessment tool for Asians (OSTA), simple calculated osteoporotic risk estimation (SCORE) and osteoporotic risk assessment instrument (ORAI) was 0.731, 0.407 and 0.172 respectively. OSTA proved to be effective in differentiating normal BMD from low BMD score (i.e., osteopenia and osteoporosis) with a cut off of 1.1, SCORE to be more effective in screening osteoporosis than the other tools because it had a higher positive probability with a cut off 22.  FRAX tool predicted probability of five and three percent probability of major fracture and hip fracture risk in ten yearsConclusions: Various tools assessed in the studies can be utilized at community level for identifying high risk women in post-menopausal stage but with different cut offs. This will reduce the cost of screening and also facilitate non pharmacological measures to reduce the progression of disease.
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • Screening of pre cancer and cancer cervix by Pap smear among women in
           reproductive age group: a community based study

    • Authors: Suma R. K., Keerthi S. Yalaburgi
      Pages: 129 - 134
      Abstract: Background: Cervical cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer and the fourth leading cause of cancer death in females worldwide. The disproportionately high burden of cervical cancer in developing countries is largely due to a lack of screening that allows detection of precancerous and early stage cervical cancer. The objective of this study was to identify pre cancer, cancer of cervix by Pap smear test and the factors associated with cervical cancer.Methods: A cross sectional study was done among married women in the reproductive age group of 15-49 years in the urban field practice area of A.J. Institute of Medical Sciences, from Jan 2013 to March 2013. The study comprised of 357 women. A pretested semi structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Screening was done by Pap smear test. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software.Results: 49.6% women were in the age group of 40-49 years. 62 (17.4%) were illiterates. 67.5 % belonged to low socioeconomic status. Pap smear test detected premalignant lesions among 2.1% women; no cancer cervix cases were detected. Association between premalignant lesion and educational status, early age at marriage, multi parity, erosion cervix was found to be statistically significant.Conclusions: Regular cytological screening by Pap smear will help in early detection of precancerous lesions and thereby prevent cancer cervix.
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • A KAP study of oral health status among adults in a rural area of Jammu

    • Authors: Kiran Bala, Reecha Gupta, Anjum Ara, Bhavna Sahni
      Pages: 135 - 141
      Abstract: Background: Oral health is an integral part of general health and well being. It is important to know about the factors which having a bearing on oral health so that preventive measures can be taken. A research activity was planned to assess the oral health status and oral health practices of people in a rural community of Jammu region as very little is known about the knowledge and oral health practices of adults residing in this area.Methods: A cross sectional study for a period of four months was conducted in a village Tanda of R.S.Pura block of Jammu district. 324 adults above the age of 20 years (145 males and 179 females) were interviewed face to face with the help of a questionnaire consisting of questions from WHO technique of self assessment of oral health along with some more questions exploring the knowledge, attitude and local oral health practices.Results: The overall results showed adequate knowledge but poor attitude regarding oral health.   Out of 324 subjects studied, 41.7% paid dental visits on having pain in teeth, gums or mouth and only 3.0% visited dentist routinely. 85.6 % of participants reported using brush and toothpaste but only 24.0% of all respondents brushed twice a day and only 16.7% of the respondents changed their tooth brush within three months.Conclusions: Oral health awareness, by promoting community based programs should be undertaken at periodic intervals for better oral health and hygiene.
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • Factors related to under nutrition among children in a rural area in Patan
           district of Gujarat, India

    • Authors: Punit Patel, Shreyashkumar J. Gandhi, Pushti Vachhani, Nishant Bhimani
      Pages: 142 - 145
      Abstract: Background: Malnutrition is defined as ‘undernutrition’ resulting from inadequate consumption, poor absorption or excessive loss of nutrients and also includes ‘overnutrition’, resulting from excessive intake of specific nutrients. Infant-feeding practices play a major role in child caring practices apart from socio-cultural, demographic and economic factors. The present study was conducted to assess socio-demographic and other factors associated with undernutrition in rural areas of Patan.Methods: This present study was conducted at 6 Anganwadi centers of Kungher rural area of Patan during 2017-2018. Total 293 of 1 to 5 year children were included in the study. Secondary data was collected through study of records and reports from AWW. Mothers of selected children were interviewed for collecting desired information. The children were examined for anthropometric parameters (weight and height) and nutritional status.Results: Out of 293 children 159 (54.2%) subjects were males. Total 190 (64.8%) children were ICDS beneficiaries. More than half of children (55.6%) were undernourished. Severe malnutrition was more distributed among unregistered (54.5%). Two third of illiterate mothers had undernourished children (69.8%). More than half of children (59.9%) belonging to lower socio economic class were undernourished. More than 2/3rd of low birth weight (LBW) children were found to be undernourished.Conclusions: Child’s nutritional status had significantly affected by maternal education and occupational status. Many other key factors such as family income, gender discrimination and LBW are playing an important role in nutritional status children. 
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • Seasonal variation of allergy profile of patients visiting a tertiary care
           hospital in hilly areas of Himachal Pradesh

    • Authors: Manpreet S. Nanda, Rama Devi
      Pages: 146 - 150
      Abstract: Background: Allergic diseases are very common and are caused by allergen whose role varies according to climate changes. Not many studies are available regarding the same in our region. Skin prick test is a diagnostic procedure for allergy testing. The aim of the present study was to find out the seasonal variation of different allergies in our region.Methods: A total of 686 patients with allergic complaints were assessed for age and sex distribution, seasonal variation of number of allergy patients and seasonal variation of patient symptoms. 608 patients who gave consent and were found fit for skin prick tests underwent the tests and were analysed for allergy profile of the patients in different seasons.Results: The majority of patients were females and of younger age group. The majority of the patients had nasal symptoms and these symptoms were more in summer and rainy season during which pine mix and grass pollen were common allergens. Pulmonary symptoms were maximum in winters with dust mite and moulds being the common allergens. Dust mite was overall the most common allergen involved. Sensitization to allergens was less in winter months.Conclusions: This study focussed on seasonal variation of allergies and found pine mix and grass pollens to be major cause of nasal allergy and dust mite and mould mix to mainly cause pulmonary symptoms.
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • Diabetes related distress in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a
           community-based study

    • Authors: Allbright K. Symon, Saritha Susan Vargese, Elsheba Mathew, Akshay K. R., Jacob Abraham
      Pages: 151 - 155
      Abstract: Background: Living with diabetes can be difficult, since it can affect the patient physically as well as psychologically. Patients with diabetes face psychological issues which may be part of the spectrum of disease experience, distinct from depression, which hinder glycaemic control. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of diabetes related distress, and its association with socio-demographic characteristics, in adults with type 2 diabetes.Methods: A community based cross sectional study was conducted among 250 individuals of 30-60 years, with type 2 diabetes.Results: The prevalence of diabetes related distress in the study population was 13.3%; among the sub scales highest reported was regimen related distress 21.6%, followed by physician related 17.2%, emotional burden 16.4%, and inter personal distress 14.8%. Diabetes related distress was found to have significant statistical association with occupational class. In occupational class, distress was higher among unemployed while least in unskilled workers. It was higher among older (above 50 years) participants, males, members of joint family, unmarried and those with more years of education though there was no significant difference.Conclusions: The prevalence of diabetes related distress (13.2%) especially regimen and physician related, underscores need for better clinician involvement paying appropriate attention to systematic diabetes self-care and management education, and timely diagnosis of distress for positive clinical outcome.
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • A cross sectional study on psychological status among patients with
           diabetes mellitus in Kancheepuram district

    • Authors: B. Surya, S. Loganathan, G. Ravivarman
      Pages: 156 - 158
      Abstract: Background: Diabetes is a chronic disease that occurs either when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin or when the body cannot effectively use the insulin it produces. Psychiatric problems are common in diabetes mellitus and nearly 33% suffer from mental disorders. According to the NHS people with diabetes are twice as likely to suffer with depression. The aim and objective of the study was to assess the psychological status in patients with diabetes mellitus.Methods: The sample of 100 participants was involved in the study. The patients with diabetes mellitus are included in the study but with known psychiatric disturbances were excluded from the study Standardized questionnaire was used for assessment. The collected data entered in MS-Excel and the analysis done using the SPSS.Results: Depression is the most common emotional disturbance among the female participants with diabetes while anxiety is common among the male subjects, prior with 58.2% and later with 54.5%. The emotional status of diabetic patient and their religion have a significant association with p-value 0.02.Conclusions: Emotional disturbances are common among the diabetic patients and the study revealed depression is common among the female participants where as anxiety is the common psychiatric problem among males.
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • A study on prevalence of overweight and obesity amongst school children of

    • Authors: Sunil Kumar D. R., Rohith M., Greeva Philip
      Pages: 159 - 163
      Abstract: Background: As such, obesity and overweight have both been described as anomalous accumulation of excessive body fat which may be harmful to health. Obesity is one of the most prominent problems imminent among all societies, particularly in developing countries. Often these conditions lead to complications such as hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and if not treated timely, death. The objective of the study was to assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity amongst school children of Bangalore and to study the association of age and gender with overweight and obesity amongst school children of Bangalore.Methods: School based cross sectional study was conducted at B.G.S International school, from August to December 2017. Students aged 6 to 16, who were present during the survey, were included in the study.Results: Overall, the prevalence of overweight and obesity among the students were 7.09% and 4.08%. The prevalence of overweight and obesity amongst boys were 3.19% and 2.04%. The prevalence of overweight and obesity amongst girls were 3.90% and 2.04%.Conclusions: Integrating physical activity and nutrition education in school curriculum at all levels will play a great part in decreasing the prevalence of obesity and overweight.
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • A cross sectional study on assessment of epidemiological factors
           associated with open field defecation in a tribal community

    • Authors: Priyanka Chakkarwar, Amol Kinge
      Pages: 164 - 167
      Abstract: Background: Almost 2.5 billion people don’t have the access to clean toilet globally. In 2011 sanitation coverage globally was 64%. While open defecation is declining across the globe, 15% (one billion) of the global population still defecate outdoors. OFD practices are associated with transmission of variety of infectious diseases. This study was conducted to understand the nature of defecation practices with respect to hygiene in a tribal community.Methods: It was a cross sectional study conducted among patients attending out-patient department of a rural health training center from a nearby tribal area, Thane district, Maharashtra which is a field practice area of rural health training centre of Seth GSMC and KEM Hospital, Mumbai.Results: Majority of the subjects practiced open field defecation (67%), followed by 18% subjects used household latrines and 15% used community based latrines. Majority of the study participants practiced open field defecation in agriculture fields (81%), while 44% preferred nearby water source as a site for defecation.Conclusions: The sanitary condition in the study area was poor. Rural areas with better literacy seems to have lower open field defecation prevalence and higher percentages of sanitary latrine usage. 
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • A study on KAP regarding environment and global warming in senior
           secondary school students in Kochi, Kerala

    • Authors: Amritesh Kumar, Arun Jacob, Nimitha Paul, Rakesh P. S.
      Pages: 168 - 172
      Abstract: Background: Global warming is a phenomenon of an increase in the earth’s temperature. It leads to an environmental, as well as social loss, which has shown an upward trend since the industrial revolution. Greenhouse gases have been showing catastrophic consequences as well. This study aims to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice among students on the environment so as to discover the gaps and take steps to curb them.Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among 10th grade high school students. Purposive sampling was done. A pre-tested, semi-structured and self- administered questionnaire was used to collect data. The data was analyzed using SPSS V2.0.Results: In this study, 48% of the students were boys and the remaining 52% were girls. A majority of the students were Hindu and belonged to the age group 15-16 years. A hundred percent of the students showed concern regarding the degrading environment. 85% agreed to fact that it can be restored by cumulative efforts. Everyone regarded the sun as the ultimate source of energy. The attitude on protecting the environment was high among the majority of the students. 50% of the students save electricity when not needed. 69% of the students had good knowledge, 65% had a good attitude and 53% had a poor level of practice concerning the environment.Conclusions: In light of the scarcity of adequate literature this study was able to identify gaps among students. Appropriate measures are needed to strengthen their knowledge and attitude and improve their practice.
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • Prevalence of overweight and obesity among rural adolescent school
           students in Kanchipuram district, Tamil Nadu

    • Authors: Raja Danasekaran, Karnaboopathy Ranganathan
      Pages: 173 - 176
      Abstract: Background: Obesity in children and adolescents acts as an independent risk factor in the occurrence of cardiovascular and other non-communicable diseases in their adulthood.Methods: A cross sectional school based study was done among 934 students aged 14-17 years studying Class 9 to Class 12 in selected four schools of Kanchipuram district in Tamil Nadu, India.Results: Mean BMI of the study population was 17.78 (SD-3.14). 39 (8.51%) were identified as overweight and 21 as obese (4.58%) among boys. Mean BMI among girls was 18.58 and 44 (9.24%) were identified as overweight and 20 (4.20%) as obese. Among the study population 83 (8.89%) were overweight, 41 (4.4%) were obese and overall the prevalence of overweight and obesity was found to be 13.28%.Conclusions: Obesity among adolescents is increasing and requires urgent attention. Standardized BMI charts for adolescents to be prepared as per Indian standards. 
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • Global age-specific denominator estimation for monitoring of health and
           nutrition SDGs and indicators based on population projections of the UN
           World population prospects, 2017 revision, for the year 2018

    • Authors: Manoj Kumar Raut
      Pages: 177 - 189
      Abstract: Background: The success of any program is measured by continuous monitoring through service statistics for a periodic oversight and through evaluation surveys to measure the relevance, effectiveness, efficiency and impact of activities in the light of specified objectives. Service statistics need a lot of indicators to be tracked on a regular basis. The service statistics provide us with numerators. To understand the numerators more meaningfully, we need to standardize them by using specific denominators. So, denominators have to be estimated, which can enable computation of indicators for monitoring purposes. Census and Large scale sample surveys provide proportions to calculate denominators for program monitoring purposes.Methods: This paper uses demographic techniques to estimate denominators for all the countries for which data from the world population prospects is available.Results: The denominators have been estimated for number of infants, children and women of reproductive age and elderly in the age group of 60+ years.Conclusions: The estimations of denominators at the sub-national levels becomes quite challenging due to the scarce availability of data to be used as proportions for different population groups. But, once, the methodology is improved with appropriate data, it could serve as a boon for annual program monitoring process at multiple data time points between two national surveys.
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • Danger signs of acute respiratory tract infections in under-five children:
           awareness among mothers in the urban slums of Hyderabad, its relation to
           treatment seeking behaviour

    • Authors: Sairam Challa, Varsha Krosuri
      Pages: 190 - 196
      Abstract: Background: Sustainable development goals (SDGs) proposes to all countries an aim to reduce under-five mortality to 25 per 1000 live births by 2030. Acute respiratory tract infections including pneumonia are the leading cause of death among the children less than five years in India. Identification of severe respiratory infections from non-severe forms necessitates that care-givers, especially mothers are aware of danger signs. An attempt is made to study the awareness of danger signs among the Mothers and see its relation to treatment seeking behaviour.Methods: Community based cross-sectional survey was conducted involving 344 mothers of under-five children living in the urban slums of Hyderabad.Results: The awareness of mothers about the danger signs of ARI is poor. Very few knew that fast breathing (11 percent), wheezing (4.7 percent), convulsions (1 percent), lethargy (1 percent) are major danger signs of ARI requiring urgent medical attention. A majority of mothers took the child with ARI to private hospital (42 percent) while few approached Govt. Hospital or dispensary (4.7 percent). Many mothers (77 percent) were aware that vaccination against diseases might protect the children against ARIs. The prevalence of acute respiratory infections among the children in the current study (59.3 percent) is much higher that previous studies elsewhere.Conclusions: A very high proportion (44 percent) of the mothers were ignorant of any danger sign of ARI. The significant association between awareness and positive health care seeking behaviours, like consulting allopathic doctor or govt. hospital or private hospital establishes the evidence that awareness levels are the prerequisite for the positive health care behaviour.
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • Impact of educational intervention on awareness of breast cancer among
           female students of Government College of Nursing, Nagpur

    • Authors: Seema P. Yadav, Niwrutti N. Jiwane, Abhay Dhanorkar
      Pages: 197 - 202
      Abstract: Background: The nurses have a major influence on the behavior  of  our  women,  they  need  to  be knowledgeable themselves about breast cancer risk  factors  and  the  importance  of  early detection through screening,  thereby improving a chance of longer life for the patient. The need of the hour is to create awareness about breast cancer for early management of this disease.Methods: The present pre-post test study was carried out among female students in a Government College of Nursing in Nagpur to assess the impact of educational intervention on awareness of breast cancer using a predesigned self-administered questionnaire.Results: The overall knowledge about risk factors, signs and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment modalities of breast cancer of significantly increased from pre test to post test.Conclusions: The impact of intervention shows significant increase in knowledge of breast cancer.
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • Foot care practices, its barriers and risk for peripheral neuropathy among
           diabetic patients attending medical college in rural Puducherry

    • Authors: Shaheen Begum, Murugan Venkatesan, Kalaiselvan Ganapathy
      Pages: 203 - 207
      Abstract: Background: Diabetes has becoming an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Along with the rising prevalence of diabetes increase in the complications are expected which will further burden our health care services. Poor knowledge of foot care and poor foot care practices were identified as important risk factors for foot problems in diabetes.Methods: The present study was a mixed methods study conducted among diabetic patients attending medicine OPD. Quantitative data for foot care practices and peripheral neuropathy was collected from 190 diabetic patients and free listing among 20 diabetic patients was done to identify perceived barriers for foot care practices. Collected data were entered in Epi Info (3.5.3) and analysed using SPSS version 24 software.Results: The prevalence of peripheral neuropathy among the study participants was 52.9%. Significant association was found between peripheral neuropathy and male sex (p=0.006), occupation (p=0.003), smoking status (p=0.013) and longer duration of disease (p=0.04). The various reasons for poor foot care practices perceived by patients were poor knowledge about foot care, lack of knowledge about complications and health care provider did not teach them.Conclusions: The prevalence of peripheral neuropathy is common among diabetic patients and most of them are having poor foot care practices so there is a need in the community to lay emphasis on health education programs to improve foot care practices.
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • Awareness about harmful effects of cigarette smoking among adolescents in
           Shamirpet mandal, Hyderabad

    • Authors: M. Pavani Varma, K. S. V. Prasad
      Pages: 208 - 212
      Abstract: Background: Tobacco smoking is habit which usually begins in the adolescent age. It is a risk factor for many non-communicable diseases and mortality can be prevented if smoking is quit.Methods: It is a cross sectional study.2 schools were randomly selected from urban and rural areas in field practice area of Mediciti Institute of Medical Sciences. A GYTS questionnaire is modified to local setting and administered to the students.Results: A total of 367 students were enrolled. The level of awareness regarding harmful effects of tobacco consumption was good. It was 98.85% in urban areas and 94.84% in rural areas.Conclusions: As adolescent is the age of habit forming identification of the problem and correcting it at early stage itself will be beneficial for individuals, family and society. 
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • Knowledge, attitude and practice of informed consent process in biomedical
           research among postgraduate medical students

    • Authors: Amir Hussain, Abhay Subhashrao Nirgude, Himani Kotian
      Pages: 213 - 216
      Abstract: Background: Research is integral part of post graduate studies. Informed consent is a vital ethical and regulatory requirement for the conduct of biomedical research.Methods: Mixed methods study was carried out from July to August 2017. Cross sectional part constitute quantitative component and forced field analysis (FFA) forms qualitative part. Approval from the institutional ethical committee was obtained. Pre-designed, validated, structured questionnaire was used to gather information from 114 participants about knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) regarding informed consent process. FFA was employed to understand driving and restrictive forces in obtaining informed consent from the research participants.Results: Out of the 114 study participants majority participants were males i.e. 69.3% and pursuing post-graduation in clinical subjects. There is significant association between knowledge (p=0.008), attitude (p=0.032) among postgraduates from clinical and nonclinical departments. Among clinical 51.7% and 48.3% among non-clinical have good knowledge and 67.7% among clinical and 32.3% among non-clinical have good practice. Main driving forces for informed consent process identified during FFP were ICMR guideline for biomedical research, feeling morally right to inform the participants about what the research. Main restrictive force was fear of losing the participant due to signing on informed consent.Conclusions: There is good knowledge among postgraduates about informed consent process however there is scope of improvement in attitude and practice. Ethics training should address how to build trust with research participants and how to overcome the fear of losing the study subject.
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • Knowledge and awareness of breastfeeding, weaning practices and newborn
           care in pregnant women in urban areas

    • Authors: Sumedha M. Joshi, Mayakalyani Srivathsan, Deepa H. Velankar
      Pages: 217 - 222
      Abstract: Background: Breastfeeding, proper weaning practices, and newborn care play a crucial role in the health of a child. The objective of the study is to determine the availability of information regarding breastfeeding, newborn care and immunization and to find out about the attitude of women towards newborn care practices.Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in a tertiary health care centre in an urban area in Navi Mumbai, on primigravidae in their third trimester of pregnancy. The data was collected by a questionnaire, results were analysed by EpiInfo7.Results: 93% women knew the benefits of breastfeeding, 92% knew of exclusive breastfeeding. 90% would initiate breastfeeding immediately after delivery, 83% would not give prelacteal feeds. 75% would practise skin-to-skin contact and 95% would practise rooming-in technique. 44% would delay bathing the newborn. 95% women received TT immunisation. All agreed to vaccinate their child. 19% believed traditional practices like applying kajal to eyes, prelacteal feeds etc. to be hazardous.Conclusions: The knowledge pregnant women have about breastfeeding and newborn care is inadequate. There is a need for intervention measures such as behavior-change-communication and better health services, to equip mothers so they may provide optimal care to their babies. 
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • A household survey to assess prevalence of malaria and risk factors under
           urban field practice area, Dakshin Kannada

    • Authors: Leena Salunkhe, Animesh Gupta, Shahul Hameed
      Pages: 223 - 228
      Abstract: Background: Socio-demographic and environmental factors are associated with the malaria prevalence. Hence assessment of these factors would potentially help in identification of the possible risk factors among households with their health seeking behavior and would help to adopt the most suitable and appropriate malaria control strategies.Methods: A baseline household survey was carried out in the study site Lingappayakadu, Mulki, Manglore involving all study population (n=4954) from July to September 2017. Total 1043 households were interviewed with predesigned semi- structured questionnaire with informed written consent. Blood samples were collected from fever cases and results were confirmed for malaria within 24 hours. Anti-malarial drugs including the Primiaquine were given to all the positive cases. Data regarding socio-demographic characteristics and health seeking behavior were also collected from study population.Results: The prevalence of malaria in the study was 1.41% and slide positivity was 51.09%. The presence of malaria cases was statistically significant with number of members present in the family (p=0.00001, X2=199.37), age group (p=0.0168, X2=8.17) type of working status (p=0.0293, X2=7.06). Environmental factors like type of housing (p=0.3366, OR=1.3854), peri-domestic sanitation (p=0.1646, OR=0.554), Mosquito breeding (p=0.4504, OR=0.6757), indoor mosquitoes (p=1.000, OR=0.6173) and mosquito bite prevention methods were (p=0.1910, OR=1.7316) not showing any significant difference. Out of 137 fever cases, 70 cases were diagnosed with malaria amongst which 94.3% cases completed anti-malaria drug treatment.Conclusions: A survey provides data regarding socio-demographic, environmental and health seeking behavior of population. The study did not show any statistically significant association of malaria with many environmental parameters. Health seeking behavior could be analyzed and improved with frequent surveillance methods.
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • Burnout among health professionals in a tertiary medical college of
           northern Kerala, India

    • Authors: Kanniyan Binub
      Pages: 229 - 233
      Abstract: Background: Health care has emerged as an industry with potential source of stress in the workplace environment. Burnout is characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment. The objectives of the study were to study proportion and associated factors of burnourt among health professionals in medical college.Methods: Data was collected using a questionnaire by using Copenhagen burnout inventory. From a sample frame from of 856, proportionate sampling was to get 187. Data was expressed in proportions and Chi square test was used as test of significance.Results: There are 187 subjects participating in the study which comprised of 52 (27.8%) males and 135 (72.2%) females. Most of the participants who are stressed, falls in the age group less than thirty five years age, i.e. 59.9%. Client related stress was seen in subjects who were staying alone without family. Those who worked more than six hours per day had more personal burn out 17% and the result were significant. 60.4% had job related stress due to night shifts. Those subjects whose income was less than forty thousand rupees had high job related burn out 51.3%. Work related burn out was increased in subjects who had no exercise 47% at all and the result was very highly significant.Conclusions: Professional development programmes should be incorporated to improve the fit between the organisation and the professionals.
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • Risk factor profile for non-communicable diseases: findings of a STEPS
           survey from urban settlement of Bangalore

    • Authors: Abdussattar ., Malik Itrat
      Pages: 234 - 242
      Abstract: Background: Increasing burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) across the globe is largely due to the rise in prevalence of various risk factors. These risk factors are measurable and largely modifiable. Quantifying the present levels of risk factors exposure in a community is helpful in predicting the future risk and driving the public health policy for prevention and control of NCDs. Keeping this in mind, present study was planned to estimate the prevalence of NCDs risk factors in an urban settlement of Bangalore.Methods: A community based cross-sectional survey was done with 600 individuals aged 15-64 years in Hegganahalli locality of Bangalore city from April to October 2017. Systematic random sampling technique was applied to obtain the desired sample size. Information on NCD risk factors was collected by using STEPS questionnaire.Results: Tobacco and alcohol consumption was observed in 27.2% and 11.8% of respondents respectively. Low level of physical activity was recorded among 14.8% and inadequate consumption of fruit and vegetable was observed among all the respondents. Prevalence of general and central obesity in the study population was found to be 30.7% and 12.8% respectively. Hypertension was prevalent among 35.5% respondents.Conclusions: High prevalence of NCD risk factors was observed among the study population that needs to be addressed through a comprehensive approach with due emphasis on preventive care in order to make ‘healthy living’ a social norm.
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • Study of knowledge attitude and practice amongst interns, residents and
           para-medical staff regarding transmission and prevention of hepatitis-B of
           C. U. Shah Medical College and Hospital, Surendranagar

    • Authors: Chaudhari Gopi Dineshbhai, Joshi Karshit Jitendrabhai, P. Kartha Girija, P. Chaudhari Nirmal
      Pages: 243 - 247
      Abstract: Background: Hepatitis B is global infectious diseases with estimated two billions of the world population have contracted the infection, of them there are 350 million with chronic infection. Hepatitis B disease may lead to state of chronic carrier, liver cirrhosis and failure or hepatocellular carcinoma.Methods: This was a cross-sectional study which involved 100 intern, 100 resident doctors, and 100 paramedical staff; data collection was performed by a suitable self-administered, close-ended questionnaire.Results: Medical staff members had better knowledge about hepatitis B than the paramedical staff in the study. More than 50% of the paramedical staff didn’t know the correct mode of hepatitis b transmission. Attitude towards vaccination was seen significantly high in interns and resident doctors, as more than 88% had taken hepatitis b vaccine as compared to only 57% from paramedical staff had taken vaccine. Only 55% of paramedical staff had strictly followed universal precautions which was statistically significant in medical and paramedical staff.Conclusions: This study highlights the dissimilarities in knowledge, attitude as well as practices amongst different categories of healthcare personnel regarding hepatitis B infection. The most distressing situation was of paramedical staff that was at the lowest strata in terms of both knowledge and practices and therefore was at highest risk of hepatitis B infection.
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • A comparative study on vaccination default rates among children aged 9-24
           months attending a static immunization clinic in urban and rural area of

    • Authors: Jayanthi Srikanth, Pankaj Kumar, Kavya G. Upadhya, Pushpa Rajanna
      Pages: 248 - 252
      Abstract: Background: Immunization contributes significantly to the achievement of millennium development goal number 4 and is one of the eight elements of primary health care. Effective utilization of immunization services is associated with reduced infections in young children with immature immune system and improved child health outcome. The objectives of the study were to compare the default rates for vaccine doses in immunization schedule; to study the factors responsible for default; to describe the socio-demographic profile of study subjects.Methods: An observational study was conducted in the urban and rural Primary health centre on immunization days for 3 months. The study subjects were children aged (9-24) months attending immunization clinics. Their care givers were interviewed regarding socio-demographic profile and causes for default. Sample size calculated was 184 (92) each from urban and rural clinic).Results: Among 184 care givers interviewed, mean age of study subjects was 14.9±4.6 months in urban & 14.6±4.9 months in rural clinic. Default rates for vaccination were 5.4% (birth dose), 7.6% (6th wk.) both in urban & rural clinic. However, for further doses i.e., 10th week, 14th week, 9 months and 18 months the default rates were slightly higher in rural compared to urban clinic. Commonest reason for default was mother not aware that child had missed dose (urban 52.2% and rural 42.3%) followed by child being sick (urban 26.6% and rural 30.4%).Conclusions: The overall default rate was found to be very high which is a serious concern and need to be addressed in order to prevent eventual dropouts.
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • A study to assess the knowledge and practices regarding WASH among school

    • Authors: S. Gomathi, P. C. Samitha, B. Kanaka Nishanth, N. Praveen Kumar, K. Sireesha
      Pages: 253 - 257
      Abstract: Background: ‘WASH’ is an acronym that stands for water, sanitation and hygiene and several interrelated public health issues that are of particular interest to international development and is the focus of SDP goal-6. WASH in schools aims to improve the health and learning performance of School-aged children and by extension that of their families, by reducing the incidence of water and sanitation related diseases. The present study was undertaken to assess the knowledge and practices regarding WASH among school children.Methods: A descriptive design was adopted for the study. The study was conducted at Zilla parishath Higher Secondary school with 150 participants selected using purposive sampling technique. Knowledge and practices of WASH were assessed using a structured questionnaire and checklist respectively.Results: The results showed that majority of them 125 (83.33%) had inadequate knowledge and 25 (16.6%) had a moderately adequate knowledge, while 21 (14%) were found to have adequate practices, 81 (54%) had a moderately adequate practices and 48 (32%) were found to have inadequate practices. It was found that there was no significant association between the knowledge and the selected demographic variables and a negative correlation was found between knowledge and practices.Conclusions: The findings revealed that, most of the school children had inadequate knowledge and a moderately adequate practice which indicates a need to impart knowledge and motivate the children regarding WASH to maximize the health and educational outcomes.
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • Effects of video game on socio- behavioral environment

    • Authors: P. Shirley, Balaji Arumugam, E. Suganya, M. Gowthamraj
      Pages: 258 - 262
      Abstract: Background: Nowadays the teens playing outdoor games are difficult to be seen and of course, they play all these games not in reality but in a screen using video games. The biggest revolution in electronic world has put our teens more addicted towards video games which not only affect their academic performance but also have impact on their behaviour and health. The objectives of the study were to assess the pattern of video game usage among the study population; to determine the influence of video game in behaviour of the study population.Methods: The study was conducted as a cross sectional study during January and February 2018, among medical students of tertiary care hospital, Chennai. The data was collected using preformed pretested questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS 21.Results: Out of 211 study participants, majority 168 (80%) were males. Around, 97 (45.9%) participants, liked to play during night hours and most 114 (54.1%) of them preferred adventure and racing games. The change in behavioral patterns like, skipping sleep 20 (25.3%), using bad words 22 (27.8%), betting 40 (50.6%), risky stunts 38 (48.1%) were observed. Around half of the participants 97 (46%) were giving complaints of various health problems like finger pain, 72 (34.1%) wrist pain, 63 (29.8%) neck pain, and 54 (26%) eye pain due to usage of video games.Conclusions: The behavioral patterns explored in this study are alarming which suggest that this age group has to be sensitized on the self control to use the video games. 
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • Assessment of out-of–pocket health expenditure and prevalence of
           protective mechanisms against it among the households in an urban area,
           Bangalore: a longitudinal study

    • Authors: N. B. Swetha, Shobha ., S. Sriram
      Pages: 263 - 267
      Abstract: Background: Achieving Universal Health Coverage according to The World Health Assembly’s way to reinforce the principle of human right to health in 2005 has been a huge task for India. India has one of the highest proportions of household out-of-pocket expenditures on health in the world, estimated at 71.1% in 2008–09. The unpredictable payments are impoverishing an estimated 3.3% of India's population every year. In this regard various strategies have been adopted such as—reforming tax based health financing or introducing health insurance. This highlights the need for alternative finances which includes the provision of medical insurance. The study was conducted to assess the out-of-pocket health expenditure and estimate the prevalence of protective mechanisms against it in an urban area- Bangalore.Methods: A longitudinal study was conducted in the urban area of Bangalore. Sample size was calculated to be 350 households. Data regarding socio-demographic profile, protective mechanisms and other details were obtained by interview method using a pre-tested and semi-structured questionnaire.Results: Majority were in the productive age group i.e. 991 (62.68%) individuals. Female population was slightly higher in our study. Most of the households belonged to upper lower class (54.29%). A major burden of health care cost was experienced both in acute as well as chronic illness by the households. Only 8.9% (31 households) had one or the other type of health insurance.Conclusions: Population has profound chances of experiencing catastrophic health expenditure in times of severe illness.
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • Women’s knowledge and practice regarding primary health care services in
           Garhwal region of Uttarakhand

    • Authors: Ruchita Dixit, Aaradhana Bandhani
      Pages: 268 - 272
      Abstract: Background: Primary health care (PHC) relies heavily on the contributions of women, particularly in the area of health education, it raises their self-esteem and empowers them to serve their communities in a number of ways: by improving women's health and the health of their families and by training women both as care givers and as health educators. Primary health care is the first level of contact of the individuals, the family and the community with the national health system bringing health care as close as possible to where the people live and work: It should be based on practical, scientifically sound and socially acceptable methods and technology. It should be made universally accessible to the individuals and the family in the community through their full participation. This study projected to evaluate the knowledge and practice of women regarding health care services and their source of information.Methods: Stratified multistage random sampling of the target population was done. In the first stage villages were selected by simple random sampling technique. In the second stage population for the study purpose was selected from the selected village again by simple random sampling technique.Results: In this present study knowledge regarding health care services were higher and found satisfactory, health functionaries were found to be more informative as compared to media and others sources of information.Conclusions: From the results found in this study it can be said that women’s knowledge regarding health care services was found satisfactory.
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • Study regarding the feeding practice among mothers attending the
           immunisation clinic of a tertiary care centre

    • Authors: Sanjay Kumar, Shivani Sinha, Setu Sinha, Varsha Singh, Sanjay Kumar Choudhary, Tajwar Yasmeen
      Pages: 273 - 276
      Abstract: Background: The world health organization (WHO) recommends exclusive breast feeding (EBF) for the first six months of life while it is advised to provide adequate and safe complementary foods with breast feeding for up to two years and beyond.Methods: A hospital based cross sectional study was carried out in the immunisation clinic of IGIMS for a period of 6 months from January 2017 to June 2017.A total of 400 mothers were enrolled in the study. Children of Age group 0-12 months were included in the study. Sample size was collected by using convenient sampling from January to June 2017. All mothers who attended our immunization clinic for vaccination of their child and had children less than 12 months of age and who gave verbal consent were included in the study. Mothers were asked to stay after vaccination of their infants to look for any untoward effects of vaccination. Mothers were interviewed by using a semi structured questionnaire after getting a verbal consent from them, All data entry and analyses were carried out using Microsoft Excel and statistical software by descriptive statistics and presented as frequency and percentages.Results: The prevalence of exclusive breast feeding for up to 6 months of age was still low. Male child is having a higher percentage of immunization coverage of about 60%, where as the female child is having about 40%. 36% of the babies were started breastfeeding within one hour and colostrum was given to 40% of them, only 35% of them were on exclusive breast feeding.Conclusions: Use of expressed breast milk was low. The prevalence of EBF for up to 6 months of age was still low as per WHO recommendations. The mother's perception of “insufficient breast milk” was also the main reason for introducing other foods. We should make a strategy by making a guideline for promoting and educating about exclusive breastfeeding within the existing health care system such as the antenatal, after delivery and vaccination clinics.
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • Awareness of ultrasonography among antenatal mothers attending the
           tertiary care hospital in Bundelkhand region of UP

    • Authors: Varsha Singh, Amit Mohan Varshney, Samarjeet Kaur
      Pages: 277 - 280
      Abstract: Background: Ultrasound examination during pregnancy has become an integral part of antenatal care throughout the world. This technology is an important tool for the obstetricians, to reassure their patients regarding the well-being of their fetus in utero. The objective of this study was to assess the awareness of USG among pregnant women.Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out among pregnant women attending the ANC clinic of Obstetric department of MLB Medical College Hospital, Jhansi, UP from March to May 2018. The study included 300 pregnant women and data was collected by using pre tested questionnaire.Results: The study reveals that 51.3% of participants were in the age group of 20-25 yr and 50% of them belong to upper lower class, most of them unskilled (83.4%), 63.3% of participants depicted that USG is done only to confirm the pregnancy and 81% of women considered that it is beneficial during pregnancy and 65% was known that USG can be used to determine sex of the foetus.Conclusions: Awareness regarding the uses of ultrasonography during pregnancy was found to be average. There is need to create more awareness in community about the USG uses and PCPNDT act and its provisions. There is need of creating more awareness about the safety, utility and frequency of USG during antenatal period to avoid misuse.
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • Longitudinal study to assess socio-demographic profile and treatment
           outcome of new sputum smear positive cases at designated microscopy centre
           of tertiary care hospital

    • Authors: G. R. Vishwanath, Sandeep Dattatray Babar, J. D. Naik, Girish Kamble
      Pages: 281 - 285
      Abstract: Background: Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the world’s deadliest communicable diseases. In 2013, an estimated 9.0 million people developed TB and 1.5 million died from the disease, 360 000 of whom were HIV-positive. Of the estimated 9 million people who developed TB in 2013, more than half (56%) were in the South-East Asia and Western Pacific Regions and India and China alone accounted for 24% and 11% of total cases, respectively. India’s TB Control Program is on track as far as reduction in disease burden is concerned there was 50% reduction in TB mortality rate by 2013 as compared to 1990 level. Tuberculosis prevalence per lakh population reduced from 465 in year 1990 to 211 in 2013. But still, in India there is high burden of Tuberculosis cases and high mortality in the current situation.Methods: Descriptive Longitudinal study was conducted from 1st January 2015 to 31st December 2016 at designated microscopy centre (DMC) in tertiary care hospital of Government Medical Miraj.Results: Maximum of TB cases 47 (30.71%) were from >30-45 age group and 72 (47.05%) cases belongs nuclear family. 126 (82.35%) cases had completed their treatment schedule for 6/7 months were labelled ‘cured’ at the end of study, while among 27 (17.65%) cases 17 (11.11%) ‘Died’ during treatment schedule, 9 (5.88%) cases became ‘defaulters’ and 1 (0.65%) case was ‘failure’.Conclusions: In the present study, Maximum cases were from >30-45 yrs age group and proportions of males were more as compare to females. Hindus was predominantly more in number among all religions and number of cases coming from rural area was more. The association between gender and treatment outcome of study cases was found statistically significant.
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • A study of socio-demographic profile and pattern of drug use among
           substance abusers attending mind care de-addiction center in Ahmedabad

    • Authors: Bhavesh B. Prajapati, Mihir R. Dedun, Harshdev S. Jalfava, Aparajita A. Shukla
      Pages: 286 - 289
      Abstract: Background: Substance abuse has emerged as a global phenomenon and prevalent throughout the world in all the cultures. Abuse of alcoholic beverages and tobacco are endemic in many societies, whilst the abuse of other psychoactive substances is growing concern in India. It has major impact on physical, psychological, social and environmental aspect of life.Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out amongst 100 persons attended at Mind Care de-addiction centre, Ahmedabad during the period of 1st January to 28th February 2018 with the help of pretested semi structured questionnaire.Results: Majority of the substance abusers were males (98%) and within the age group of 31 to 45 years (46%). Out of total abusers 28% were graduate and 47% doing skilled work. Majority of study participants were married (47%), belong to joint families (92%) and belongs to socio economic class I and II (50%). Most commonly used drug was alcohol (64%), followed by tobacco (20%), cannabis (12%) and opium (4%). Majority of users started to use it for social reasons (33%) and stress (26%). They got it for the first time from friends in 62% cases and 36% got by themselves. Health related changes were experienced in more than 50% of cases. Out of them, 84% feel improvement after visiting the centre.Conclusions: Drug use pattern is ever changing and has emerged as a global burden as it causes serious public health problems. There is a felt need for the assessment of the evolving trends of substance abuse. And suitable interventions for primary prevention should be considered. 
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • Study of urinary incontinence affecting the quality of life and health
           seeking behavior in women of an urban slum in Mumbai

    • Authors: Jyoti S. Mandge, Armaity Dehmubed
      Pages: 290 - 292
      Abstract: Background: Urinary incontinence (UI) defined by the International Continence Society as the complaint of any involuntary leakage of urine, is a social or hygiene problem. The purpose of this study was to determine how UI affected quality of life (QOL) of women in urban slum in Mumbai and also their health care seeking behavior for the same.Methods: A pre-formed, pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire was designed for a centre based study, to collect information from 1200 eligible and willing women over a period of 6 months. Of these 361 had complaints of UI how had the UI affected their quality of life and whether they sought health care for treatment of same was studied. Data was entered in Microsoft Excel and analysis was done accordingly.Results: Of the 361 women who had UI, the QOL was affected as in avoiding social interactions 45.15%, avoiding religious functions 49.03%, feeling of emotional upset/distress 59.8% and hampering of domestic work 57.8%. The extra financial burden felt due to UI was only in 7.7% women and only 1.9% complained of sexual life getting affected. Health care services for treatment of UI were sought by only 24.1% of the affected women.Conclusions: That UI affected the QOL of women affected with it in terms of reduced social interactions and attendance at religious programs and the feeling of emotional upset and hampering of domestic works. Subjects felt their financial burden had increased due to UI.
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • Sleep disturbance and its effect on academic performance among students of
           a medical college of Tripura

    • Authors: Anjan Datta, Kaushik Nag, Nabarun Karmakar, Tamal Chakrabarty, Kaushik Tripura, Partha Bhattacharjee
      Pages: 293 - 298
      Abstract: Background: Sleep deprivation may have grave health consequences; resulting in increasing disease morbidity and mortality. Sleep disturbance have also been affected academic performance of medical students. The objective of the study was to find out the prevalence of sleep disturbance and association between sleep disturbance and academic performance of medical students, if any.Methods: An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted in the month of March 2018 among 203 medical students of Tripura Medical College and Dr. B.R.A.M. Teaching Hospital. Probability Proportionate to Sample Size (PPS) was used to determine the number of students required from each semester. Students selected by simple random sampling from each semester were interviewed by a pre-designed, pre-tested interview schedule designed based on Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Data was represented in percentages in tables, charts and Chi square test was applied. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results: Mean age of the medical student was 21.36±1.96 years. Present study showed, 57% students were complaining of disturbed sleep. Students who felt sleepy during daytime (72.4%) were struggling more during exam compared to students not feeling sleepy (51.7%), which was statistically significant. Study revealed, students who got average mark in last semester exam were most affected with disturbed sleep (66.3%) followed by students who got good marks (53.5%) and poor marks (50%).Conclusions: Prevalence of sleep disturbance was very high among medical students. Male students were much more affected compared to female students. Sleep disturbance has also affected academic performance of students.
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • Usage of electronic devices and awareness regarding e-waste management
           amongst engineering college students: a cross-sectional study

    • Authors: Maya N. Nannaware, Shraddha S. Kulkarni
      Pages: 299 - 302
      Abstract: Background: The total waste generated by obsolete or broken down electronic and electrical equipment was estimated to be 1,46,000 tonnes for the year 2005, which is expected to exceed 8,00,000 tonnes by 2012. However, according to the Green peace report in 2007, India generated 380,000 tonnes of e-waste. Only 3% of this made it to the authorized recyclers’ facilities.Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out amongst 133 Engineering Students of Sinhgad Institute of Technology College, Lonavala, Pune which is located in a rural field practice area of Smt. Kashibai Navale Medical College, Pune during the period of June 2016 to December 2016. Data was collected by using a self-administered questionnaire and analyzed by using Epi. Info 7 and appropriate statistical tests were applied.Results: Almost 125 (94%) students replaced mobile phones in last five years. Common reason for replacement was desire for newer technology by 33 (26.4%) students and need for greater functionality by 29 (23.2%). The old mobile phones were kept at home by 34 (27.2%) students, followed by dumped by 31 (24.8%), it was also noted that many students sold the mobile phones and only 8 (6.5%) were aware of the e–waste management policy.Conclusions: Most of the students replacing the mobile phones frequently but the level of awareness about the e-waste management were low, so need to increase the awareness among the users for implementation of the e waste management policy.
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • Awareness about HIV and post exposure prophylaxis among students of a
           nursing college from central Karnataka: a cross sectional study

    • Authors: Aswin Kumar, G. K. Ratnaprabha
      Pages: 303 - 307
      Abstract: Background: Nursing students are the integral part of health care delivery system in future prospects. The accidental transmission of HIV infection to health care workers is a real threat in present situation. Adequate knowledge about the disease and post exposure prophylaxis will help to provide care to patients and prevent infection at health care settings. The objectives of the study was to assess the knowledge of nursing students about HIV / AIDS and post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) and association of knowledge level with the different courses of nursing.Methods: Cross sectional study was carried out among final year GNM and BSc nursing students of a nursing college in central Karnataka during December 2017, Data regarding knowledge about HIV infection and PEP was collected using self administered semi structured questionnaire.Results: Total of 108 nursing students took part in the study. BSc nursing students contributed 66.7% of the study subjects. Mean HIV/AIDS knowledge score was 7.86±2.25. Subjects studying BSc nursing had better knowledge when compared to GNM subjects. Seventy two (66.67%) students had heard about post exposure prophylaxis. Majority were unaware about time of initiation (94.6%) and duration of PEP (86.1%).Conclusions: Knowledge about HIV/AIDS and PEP are inadequate among nursing students. It is recommended to incorporate practical issues effectively in their teaching curriculum. 
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • A cross sectional study to assess the prevalence and associated factors of
           computer vision syndrome among engineering students of Hyderabad,

    • Authors: Anupama Pulla, Asma ., Nanduri Samyuktha, Soumya Kasubagula, Aishwarya Kataih, Devender Banoth, Harshitha Addagatla
      Pages: 308 - 313
      Abstract: Background: Computer vision syndrome is a complex of eye and vision problems related to near work which are experienced due to prolonged computer use. Computers demand near work, for longer duration which increases discomfort of eye and prolonged exposure to the discomfort leads to a cascade of symptoms that can be referred as computer vision syndrome. The aims and objectives of the study were to determine the prevalence of computer vision syndrome among engineering students of Hyderabad, Telangana and to determine the factors related to computer vision syndrome among study population.Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out from March to June 2017 among students of an engineering college in Hyderabad, Telangana. A convenient sample of 300 students was taken and a predesigned, pre tested questionnaire was used to obtain information.Results: Majority of study population were males (56.3%). Around 75.1% of study population were using all the electronic gadgets like computers, laptops and smartphones. The prevalence of computer vision syndrome was found to be 60.3%. Around 46.7% of study population viewed the screen from a distance of 22-40 centimeters.Conclusions: As students pursuing engineering stream are the future IT and Computer software engineers, preventive strategies adopted by them will significantly decrease the burden of computer vision syndrome and improve productivity. In this study a significant proportion of the engineering students were found to be having vision problems, which emphasizes the need to adopt preventive measures to avoid computer vision syndrome. 
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • Prevalence and determinants of cessation of exclusive breastfeeding among
           primi-para rural Indian mothers

    • Authors: Rajsinh V. Mohite, Vinayak Y. Kshirsagar, Vaishali R. Mohite
      Pages: 314 - 319
      Abstract: Background: Breast milk is first, natural and nutritious food for newborn that promote sensory and cognitive development as well as protect against infectious and chronic diseases. The aim and objective of the study was to estimate the prevalence and to point out determinants of cessation of exclusive breastfeeding among rural primi-para mothers.Methods: This is a hospital based cross sectional study conducted at rural tertiary health centre located Western Maharashtra, India in the month of November-December 2017. A total of 140 breastfeeding primi-para mothers were enrolled and interviewed by utilizing pretested questionnaire include socio-demographic data, obstetric and breastfeeding history after written consent. Data were analyzed for inferential statistics using SPSS Version 21.Results: Among 140 eligible mothers, max. 84.2% were in age group 18-24 years with high proportions, 72.8% housewives, 90% literate and 75.7% with joint family structure. Max. 92.1% mothers were institutionally delivered. The overall prevalence of cessation of exclusive breastfeeding was 22.85% with gradual and sudden cessation was 20% and 2.85% respectively. Maternal determinants like insufficient breast milk secretion (37.5%), maternal sickness (12.5%) were highly contributed for cessation of breastfeeding whereas, infant illness, 12.5% respectively. The nuclear family structure, caesarean delivery and low birth weight baby were significantly associated with cessation of exclusive breastfeeding. The risk of cessation of exclusive breastfeeding is of 4.5 and 2.5 times higher with maternal nuclear family structure and infant with low birth weight.Conclusions: Prevalence of cessation of exclusive breastfeeding was low among primi-para mothers residing in rural area of western Maharashtra, India. The nuclear family structure, low birth weight baby have had significant effect on cessation of exclusive breastfeeding.
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • Prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes among rural South Indian population

    • Authors: Akash Gajanan Prabhune, Biwesh Ojha, Aparna Manoharan
      Pages: 320 - 324
      Abstract: Background: Objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of self-reported and undiagnosed diabetes and prediabetes cases in rural south Indian population.Methods: The study was carried as secondary analysis of the data collected in our Health management information system (HMIS) as a part of our health systems initiative in Alakkudi gram panchayat, Thanjavur district, Tamil Nadu, India. We analysed the fasting glucose and post prandial glucose values of 1307 individuals form our database to assess the prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes and prediabetes as per the cut off recommended by Indian Council of Medical Research 2018 diabetes diagnostic criteria. We also presented the descriptive analysis of demographic features, risk behaviour, anthropometric data along with personal and family history of all the individuals analysed in this study. The secondary data retrieved from the HMIS system was free of any personal identifiers.Results: The self-reported prevalence of diabetes among adults in the village was 6.88% (90 out of 1307). The prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes among adults of Alakkudi village was 12.85% (168 out of 1307) and the prevalence of undiagnosed prediabetes among adults of Alakkudi village was 8.03% (105 out of 1307). Proportion of undiagnosed cases of diabetes in the village was 53%.Conclusions: The proportion of undiagnosed cases of diabetes is quite high in rural India and the proportion of prediabetes is also higher. It is the need of the hour to create awareness regarding diabetes and prediabetes amongst the rural India population and increasing health systems efforts for regular community-based screening among the rural Indians.
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • Occupational stress among female police officers in an urban setting in
           South Kerala

    • Authors: Vivek S., Rosin George Varghese, Neethumol K. S., Sameena S. S., Reju R. S., Priya James, Rashik Rasheed, Shereena V. H., Vijaysankar S.
      Pages: 325 - 329
      Abstract: Background: Occupational stress is regarded as one of the major health hazards of modern workplace, with policing (law enforcement) being no exception. Women police officers are gradually increasing in numbers in the country and they are believed to experience more stress than their male counterpart. Hence this study was conducted with the objectives of estimating prevalence of occupational stress among female police personals in terms of operational and organizational stress and to identify the causes for these stress as perceived by them.Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among 50 female police officers working in various police stations of Thiruvananthapuram city, selected by simple random sampling, during the period May 2018 to July 2018,using a pre tested semi structured questionnaire based on operational police stress questionnaire (PSQ-OP) and organizational police stress questionnaire (PSQ-ORG). The data was properly coded and entered in Microsoft excel and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0.Results: Mean age of the study population was 38.07 years (SD=5.714 years) and majority (64%) belonged to middle socioeconomic class. Perceived organizational and operational stress prevalence among the study population was as high as 80% (40 % experienced moderate stress and 40% experienced high stress) and 90% (high stress reported by 70 % and moderate stress by 20%) respectively. The most common stressor reported for organizational stress was staff shortage (74%) and that for operational stress was finding time to stay in good physical condition (76%).Conclusions: High prevalence of occupational stress calls for immediate attention from the officials.
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • Community based study of reproductive tract infections among women of the
           reproductive age group in a rural community of Eastern India

    • Authors: Sulagna Das, Aparajita Dasgupta
      Pages: 330 - 336
      Abstract: Background: RTI/STIs have a profound impact on sexual and reproductive health worldwide, the symptoms of which often goes unnoticed and women suffers from devastating consequences. The present study was conducted to analyse the prevalence of RTIs based on a syndromic approach among women of 15 to 49 years age, supported by both laboratory and clinical diagnosis to measure the actual magnitude of morbidity associated with RTIs among the study population. The objective of the study were to study the prevalence of reproductive tract infection among the women of reproductive age group (15-49 years), to find out the etiological diagnosis and to assess the socio-demographic profile of the study population.Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 312 women aged 15-44 years in a rural area in West Bengal, using the WHO-Syndromic Approach for diagnosis and management of RTIs/STIs.Results: The prevalence of RTIs among the reproductive age group women was 43.6% based on their symptoms of RTI, with majority having abnormal vaginal discharge. According to laboratory investigations the most common cause of RTI was bacterial vaginosis which was 67.4% (using Amsel’s criteria) and 31.7% (as per Nugent’s score), followed by Vulvovaginal candidiasis which was found in 12.4%.Conclusions: RTI among women of reproductive age is quite a common morbidity.It is the need of the hour to educate women about reproductive health issues and encourage them to seek treatment for their problems and wherever possible both clinical and laboratory findings should corroborate self reported morbidity to know the exact prevalence of any disease in the community.
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • Knowledge about epidemiological determinants of rabies and its prevention
           amongst medical interns of Marathwada region of Maharashtra, India

    • Authors: Purushottam A. Giri, Avinash R. Magare
      Pages: 337 - 341
      Abstract: Background: Rabies is one of the most important zoonotic diseases in India. About 99% of all human deaths from rabies occur in the developing nations. Dogs are the main reservoir of rabies in India. It is invariably fatal if proper treatment is not instituted promptly. One of the important factors associated with successful treatment is the knowledge of the caregiver in the proper management of animal bites and rabies vaccination. Hence the present study was conducted to assess the knowledge about epidemiological determinants of rabies & its prevention amongst medical interns.Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out amongst 76 interns of a Private Medical College in Marathwada region of Maharashtra during the period of September to October 2018. Pre-designed, pre-structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Data was entered in MS Excel sheet and analyzed accordingly.Results: Out of 76 interns, there were 36 (47.3%) males and 40 (52.7%) females. Majority 61(80.3%) were Muslims followed by 14(18.4%) were Hindus. About 68.4% interns correctly knew that the route of administration of vaccination could be either intra-muscular or intra-dermal (p=0.0220). About 1/4th i.e. 25% interns didn’t know about incubation period of rabies in human (p=0.0079). However, 29(38.2%) interns didn’t know about exact site of administration of rabies immunoglobulin is at wound site.Conclusions: The present study concluded that there were significant gaps in the knowledge about prevention of rabies which needs to be overcome immediately with proper training.
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • Density of in-vitro fertilization centers and its correlation with
           socioeconomic factors in Maharashtra state, India

    • Authors: Prakash Prabhakarrao Doke, Daya Krishan Mangal, Anuja Gulati
      Pages: 342 - 350
      Abstract: Background: The infertility due to various reasons is increasing and correspondingly the number in vitro fertilization (IVF) centers is also increasing. Some procedures in these centers can deliver desired sex of the unborn child. The gender discrimination in India has already resulted unfavorable child sex ratio for girls. Maharashtra is one of the badly affected states. It is feared that the child sex ratio may further decline due to IVF centers. The study was carried out to measure correlation between number of IVF centers with various indicators of sex ratio infertility, and some socio-economic factors.Methods: The study was conducted in 2014 using secondary data. District wise internet search by using words ‘In-Vitro Fertilization center’ and ‘infertility treatment center’ was carried out. Whenever IVF center/procedure was noticed on the internet, the center with its address was included in that district list.Results: There was positive correlation between IVF centers and urbanization, per capita income, female literacy and negative correlation with population sex ratio and no correlation with sex ratio at birth or child sex ratio. The best correlation was observed with urbanization, which explains the observed correlation with other variables.Conclusions: The number of IVF centers is not related with magnitude of infertility and not affecting sex ratio whereas IVF density seems to be an outcome of extent of urbanization.
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • A study on health profile of manjha makers in district Bareilly

    • Authors: Huma Khan, Atul Kumar Singh
      Pages: 351 - 354
      Abstract: Background: Bareilly is famous for its manjha all over the world. More than 20,000 workers are engaged in the making the Manjha in Bareilly which is an important unorganized sector in western Uttar Pradesh. Objective was to study health profile of manjha makers in district Bareilly.Methods: The workers engaged in making manjha were randomly approached in the selected areas and interviewed using a semi open ended questionnaire. Responses were marked based on duration and severity of symptoms.Results: The mean age of study participants was 31±9.9 years. The mean age of starting manjha making was 15.3±6.7 years. 51 (47.2%) study participants were having wounds and cuts in hands and fingers.Conclusions: Manjha makers are in direct contact with inhalable glass dust (silica dust) and chemical colors which can reach the circulation through cuts and wounds. The higher prevalence of musculoskeletal and respiratory symptoms as well as other symptoms like cut wounds in hands and possible absorption of dyes through cuts underlines the need of a larger study to know the factors causing these symptoms and ways to prevent the suffering of manjha makers.
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • Prevalence of impostor phenomenon and its association with self-esteem
           among medical interns in Goa, India

    • Authors: Von R. Mascarenhas, Delia D’Souza, Abhishek Bicholkar
      Pages: 355 - 359
      Abstract: Background: Imposter phenomenon (IP) is an internal experience of intellectual phoniness that those who feel fraudulence and worthlessness have in spite of outstanding academic or professional accomplishment. It is desirable for Medical students and interns to have high self-esteem and low impostor characteristics in order to become successful medical practitioners. This study was carried out among the medical interns of a tertiary care medical college, to determine the prevalence of Impostor Phenomenon and its association with self-esteem.Methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted among 150 medical interns. Clance’s impostor phenomenon scale and Rosenberg self-esteem scale were used to assess Impostor characteristics and self-esteem respectively. Data was collected using online survey method.Results: The majority (44.7%) of study participants had moderate IP characteristics, followed by 41.3% with high IP characteristics. Hours of sleep was found to be significantly associated with IP characteristics (p value<0.001). Self-esteem was found to be significantly and inversely correlated with age (r=-0.222), and positively correlated with hours of sleep (r=0.225). Impostor phenomenon and self-esteem were found to be moderately and inversely correlated (r=-0.519).Conclusions: A large number of medical interns were found to have high impostor phenomenon characteristics and low self-esteem. Impostor characteristics were found to be significantly associated with sleep, suggesting a relationship between feelings of fraudulence and skewed sleep patterns. A significant negative correlation between self-esteem and impostor phenomenon suggests that individuals with stronger IP characteristics had lower self-esteem, and vice versa. Low impostor phenomenon characteristics and high self-esteem are favourable for efficient medical practice. Measures to increase level of confidence and self-esteem among medical students and interns should be implemented. 
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • A prevalence study on hypertension among practising advocates in Madurai

    • Authors: P. Praveena, Shanthi Edward
      Pages: 360 - 366
      Abstract: Background: In recent years, the practice of law is demanding and exceedingly stressful occupation. Main factors concerned are, being overloaded with work, unsupported, lack of appreciation, long hours, unattainable targets. Even the most balanced and well-adjusted advocates at some point eventually succumbs to the pressures of working in the legal field. It causes hypertension and a great impact on ones’well being. Hence the main objective of the study is to find out the prevalence of hypertension among practising advocates, thereby effective measures can be taken to prevent and control hypertension and its complications.Methods: : A cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 300 practising advocates at Madurai district court for a period of 1 year by simple random sampling method.Results: The overall prevalence of hypertension among the practising advocates was found to be 41% (123). Among the 123 hypertensives, 56 (18.7%) were known hypertensives and 67 (22.3%) were newly detected hypertensives.Conclusions: The cause for hypertension among the advocates may be due to hectic work pressure. Advocates being professionals are well educated and informative. Regular adoption of basic life style modification practices, short vacations, arrangement of health camps in court premises with guidance of bar council association, recruitment of health counsellor in Bar Council Association for health educating and counselling the advocates, regular monitoring of health status by self-care management can control and prevent hypentension.
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • Community medicine learning - medical student’s perspective

    • Authors: Angeline Grace G., Gopalakrishnan S., Umadevi R.
      Pages: 367 - 373
      Abstract: Background: The goal of teaching Community Medicine in undergraduate medical curriculum is to ensure that medical graduates acquire competencies needed to solve common health problems of the community. This study aims to determine the perceptions of medical students in learning Community Medicine as part of their MBBS curriculum and to assess their preference of the subject for post-graduate studies.Methods: This study was conducted among third year MBBS students of a private Medical College. Universal sampling method was adopted and data was collected using a pre-tested, self-administered questionnaire. A three-point Likert scale was used to assess the perceptions of the medical students in learning Community Medicine. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 16.0.Results: Out of 183 students, 166 students participated in the study of which 42.8% were males and 57.2% were females. Nearly 89% of students agreed that learning community medicine during MBBS is very essential. About 83.7% felt more field visits or practical assignments need to be added to the curriculum to enhance students’ interest in the subject. Community medicine was preferred for post-graduation by only 12% of students. Interest in clinical specialties, limited career growth and less social recognition was the main reasons quoted by the students for not choosing the specialty for post-graduation.Conclusions: Learning Community Medicine is essential to produce community oriented primary health care physicians. Community Medicine as a future career option was found to be limited among the medical students. More exposure is needed on the wide career opportunities available after post-graduation. Community Medicine learning should be made more interesting, highlighting its importance in public health, primary health care & family medicine services.
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • Awareness and acceptance of contraceptives among the mothers of infants
           attending an immunization session at a field practices area of a tertiary
           care hospital

    • Authors: S. B. Gupta, Meenakshi Singh, Atul Kr. Singh, Huma Khan, Alpana Saxena
      Pages: 374 - 378
      Abstract: Background: India was the first country in the world to have launched a National Programme for Family Planning.Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in the in Vaccination unit of rural field practice area of Shri Ram Murti Smarak institute of Medical Sciences (SRMSIMS) Bareilly (U.P). Objective of the study was to assess knowledge and practice of postpartum contraception and factors affecting the usage of contraceptives in Rural area. All females who delivered within last one year were included in the study. A pre-structured questionnaire was used. A total of 98 females were included. The appropriate statistical analysis was done to present the results.Results: 28.57% females had adopted one or the other postpartum contraceptive measure. Condom was the most common method used. Usage of postpartum contraception was significantly associated with women’s and husband’s education, type of delivery and availing of antenatal and postnatal visits.Conclusions: Overall usage of postpartum contraception was low there is need to focus at every step to contact of these women with health facility or health workers.
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • Nutritional status and personal hygiene of children living in the
           orphanages of Bhubaneswar: capital city of Odisha

    • Authors: Surendra Babu Reddy, Naresh Jyothula, Indhraja Kandula, Ganapathy Swamy Chintada
      Pages: 379 - 385
      Abstract: Background: Orphan’s children are vulnerable and neglected group in the society and are more prone to malnutrition. Aim is to assess the nutritional status, personal hygiene and demographic details of the children living in different orphanages in Bhubaneswar city.Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among the children of age group 6 to 14 years in the selected orphanages in Bhubaneswar from October 2015 to March 2016 using two stage stratified cluster random sample to select the orphanages and simple random sample to select study subjects. A pretested predesigned schedule was used to collect information regarding personal hygiene practices, anthropometric measurements of the children were taken and WHO reference growth charts were used to assess nutritional status. Pearson Chi-Square test was used to determine the association between personal hygiene and nutritional status.Results: Out of 210 children, majority 57.7% were malnourished, 53.3% were stunted and malnutrition was higher among the boys than girls whereas the personal hygiene practices scores were better in girls than boys. Our study revealed a significant association between nutritional status and poor personal hygiene (p<0.05).Conclusions: Malnutrition is highly prevalent in children living in orphanages and needs to be addressed. Nutritional status should be monitored regularly, which helps in early identification and timely intervention and this will improve nutritional status of children living in orphanages.
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • Evaluation of genital tuberculosis as a cause of female infertility in a
           tertiary care hospital in North India

    • Authors: Neelima Agarwal, Manisha Gupta, Alpana Agrawal
      Pages: 386 - 389
      Abstract: Background: Female genital tuberculosis (FGTB) poses a great diagnostic challenge in women of reproductive age. It causes significant morbidity or short and long term sequelae, especially infertility. The disease often remains silent or may present with non-specific symptomatology. As a result, the prevalence of genital tuberculosis is largely underestimated. A high degree of suspicion aided by intensive investigations is important in the diagnosis of the disease, especially in its early stage, so that treatment may improve the prospects of cure before the tubes are damaged beyond recovery. Objectives were to find out the prevalence of genital tuberculosis in females presenting with infertility in a tertiary care hospital over a given period of time, and diagnostic comparison of endometrial tuberculosis by histopathological examination (HPE) and GeneXpert.Methods: The prospective observational study was conducted over one year duration. A total of 96 endometrial samples were collected from the women, satisfying the inclusion and exclusion criteria.Results: On HPE, out of 96 patients, proliferative endometrium (anovulatory) was found in 38 cases (39.6%), non-specific endometritis in 2 cases (2.08%) and 2 cases (2.08%) were found positive for tubercular endometritis. GeneXpert scored negative in our study.Conclusions: Endometrial biopsy shows not only the tuberculous endometritis, but also gives additional information about local factors of endometrium concerning non-specific and specific infections and anovulatory cycles. GeneXpert if positive on endometrial biopsy is a reliable test for FGTB and treatment can be started on its basis.
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • A study to assess and develop injection administration skill in medical
           undergraduates of GMC, Bhopal

    • Authors: Padma Bhatia, Harshima Sawlani, Rajesh Tarachandani
      Pages: 390 - 394
      Abstract: Background: Injections are one of the vital route of drug administration in emergency medical practice. WHO has estimated that out of 12 billion injections administered worldwide annually 50% are unsafe and 75% are unnecessary. Despite of humungous efforts medical students still lack the confidence in injecting drugs due to stress for post graduation selection. The objectives of the study were to assess the knowledge of students regarding administration of I.M. and I.V. injections; to make students confident and skilful about administration of I.M. and I.V. injections and to assess the proportion of students who can skilfully administer I.V. and I.M. before and after this intervention.Methods: This was a Quasi experimental study carried out on 150 students of junior final medical students of GMC Bhopal for a period of three months.Results: Out of effective 136 students, 93.4% had ever seen I.M./ I.V. administration. 29.4% have administered I.M. and 16.9% I.V. injection ever. A significant increase in knowledge regarding I.M. and I.V. administration technique is observed following interventional training of the participants. Significant gain in self confidence among the students was perceived.Conclusions: There was a convincing increase in skillful knowledge and self-confidence for parenteral injection technique among medical undergraduates.
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • Enablers of vitamin A coverage among children under five years of age from
           multi-country analyses of global demographic and health surveys in
           selected LMIC and LIC countries in Africa and Asia: a random forest

    • Authors: Manoj Kumar Raut, J. C. Reddy, Debabrata Bera, Kirti Warvadekar
      Pages: 395 - 411
      Abstract: Background: Vitamin A deficiency is a common form of micronutrient malnutrition. The estimated relative risks associated with vitamin A deficiency in children were 1.86 (95% CI 1.32–2.59) for measles mortality, 2.15 (95% CI 1.83–2.58) for diarrhoea mortality, 1.78 (95% CI 1.43–2.19) for malaria mortality, 1.13 (95% CI 1.01–1.32) for other infectious disease mortality. Vitamin A supplementation reduces night blindness, child morbidity and mortality.Methods: This paper tries to explore the socio-demographic causes of receipt of vitamin A in selected lower-middle-income and low income countries by analysing the data of the demographic and health surveys from 2012 and 2016 using PASW 18.0 software. Multivariate binary logistic regressions were conducted to explore the role of socio-demographic covariates in the receipt of vitamin A supplementation. In addition, random forest (RF) analyses were conducted using Python 3.6.Results: After adjusting for related socio-economic and demographic factors, mother’s work status and education and among mass media channels, exposure to television seems to play an important role in predicting receipt of vitamin A in the selected countries in Asia, while education of the mother was significantly associated with the receipt of vitamin A in the selected countries of Africa. In all the selected countries, the RF analyses revealed mother’s education followed by wealth index and mass media (TV), as the variable of most importance.Conclusions: It can be concluded that mother’s education and mass media seems to be working well in making the mothers aware about the vitamin A campaign, especially, the exposure to television. It also figures in the variable importance matrix in addition to wealth index.
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • Syndromic approach to identify cases of vaginal discharge: a
           cross-sectional study among females of Shaheed Nagar, Bhopal, Madhya

    • Authors: Nisha Singh, Seema Patel, Anshuli Trivedi, Yogendra Chouhan
      Pages: 412 - 417
      Abstract: Background: Management of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) is important in controlling STIs and to break the chain of infection and transmission.Syndromic case management is a standardized evidence-based approach which utilizes clinical management algorithms and flowcharts that are handy and can be consistently used across health care providers. The objectives of the study were to identify cases of vaginal discharge in Shaheed Nagar, Bhopal and to provide them treatment following syndromic approach.Methods: Prospective cross-sectional study carried out over a period of three months among reproductive age group females (15-45 years) in Shaheed Nagar, Bhopal. Purposive sampling by conducting door- to- door survey until 150 women fulfilling study criteria was interviewed. A pre-designed questionnaire used for data collection. Educational intervention given to all participants. 37 participants identified with vaginal discharge syndrome and were assisted by study team to gynecological OPD for obtaining treatment based on syndromic approach. Data entered in MS Excel 2007 and statistical analysis carried out using epi-info 7.2. Proportions and percentages were calculated. Chi-square was used to find out association between prevalence of vaginal discharge and qualitative variables. P value <0.05 considered statistically significant.Results: Prevalence of vaginal discharge was 24.67%. The most common presenting complaint was general weakness (52%). The most common diagnosis was cervicitis (8.67%) followed by vaginitis (4.67%). Statistically significant correlation was found between presence of disease (STI) and use of intra- uterine device (IUD), non-use of sanitary pads, marital status, occupation and socio- economic class.Conclusions: Abnormal vaginal discharge can both be the cause as well as the effect of pelvic inflammatory disease. 
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • Effectiveness of an ‘abridged course in medical education technology’
           based on students’ evaluation of the teachers’ performance

    • Authors: Alexander John, Teena Mary Joy, Nimitha Paul, Sumithra Unni, Suja Gopalakrishnan, G. Anusha
      Pages: 418 - 422
      Abstract: Background: To sustain the standards of quality medical education, the faculty needs to be well trained in the medical education technologies, both traditional and innovative. Students are the real beneficiaries of all training programmes conducted for faculty development and they appreciate good teaching. Their involvement in all possible aspects of teaching and learning will go a long way in achieving the best outcomes. The objective of the study was to assess the effectiveness of an ‘Abridged course in Medical Education Technology’ for entry level teachers based on the students’ evaluation of the (teaching) performance of the teachers.Methods: An interventional study was carried out amongst 447 students, in which an educational intervention was done and the effectiveness of the ‘Abridged course’ was assessed. Teaching by the teacher trained through the ‘Abridged course’ formed the ‘intervention’ in the study. ‘Evaluation of the teaching performance’ by the students was the outcome studied.Results: The performance of teacher as assessed by the students had a higher mean score (61.28, SD 9.8) for residents who underwent training in medical education technology, as compared to other residents (56.81, SD 9.2) with a p-value of <0.001.Conclusions: This study highlights that an abridged course in teaching methodology for entry level medical teachers improves the quality of their teaching.
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • A study on prevalence of dry eyes among menopausal women attending a
           tertiary care centre in Hyderabad, Telangana

    • Authors: Gokul Vinod Kumar, Asma ., Gokul Praneetha, Apoorva Pandharpurkar, Bhavan Prasad, G. Pavani, T. Vasavi, Abhishek Naik
      Pages: 423 - 427
      Abstract: Background: Dry eye syndrome arises due to chronic lack of sufficient lubrication and moisture on the surface of the eye. Symptoms of dry eye syndrome includes burning sensation, itchy eyes, blurred vision, and fatigued eyes, redness of eyes, gritty and dry eye sensation / foreign body sensation. Studies reveal that post-menopausal women are at greater risk of developing dry eyes than men of same age. Aims and objectives were to determine the prevalence of dry eye syndrome among post-menopausal women at tertiary care center, Hyderabad and to assess the socio-demographic factors related to dry eye syndrome among study population.Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out from March to June 2017 among post-menopausal women attending Gandhi Hospital, in Hyderabad, Telangana. A convenient sample of 200 post-menopausal women was taken. Schirmer’s test was used to determine presence of dry eyes.Results: The mean age of study population was found to be 51.66±5.8 years. The mean age of onset of menopause in study subjects was 45.63±1.8 years. The prevalence of dry eye syndrome was found to be 39.5%. Mild dryness of eyes was most common among study subjects (20.5%). Prevalence of dry eyes increased with age and had significant association.Conclusions:Dry eye syndrome is not a life threatening disease, but causes ocular discomfort and compromises quality of life. If neglected, can even lead to blindness and debility due to complications arising due to dry eye. 
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • Health seeking behaviour among post menopausal women in rural and urban
           field practice areas of Gandhi Medical College, Hyderabad: a
           cross-sectional study

    • Authors: M. Sheeba Apoorva, Vimala Thomas
      Pages: 428 - 431
      Abstract: Background: The phase of menopause is a physiological event which occurs as a result of progression of reproductive ageing. Women from developing countries view variations due to menopause as natural process and there is no need for medical care. The objective of the study was to assess the health seeking behaviour among the post menopausal women.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the rural and urban field practice areas of department of Community Medicine of Gandhi Medical College, Hyderabad. About 300 urban and 300 rural women were interviewed using a semi-structured and pretested questionnaire from August 2015 to September 2017.Results: Among the rural women, 100 (25.4%) women did not seek health care and among those who sought health care, majority (34.3%) preferred government healthcare services followed by 23% who consulted private facility. Of the urban women, 14.7% did not seek health care, 42% of the women approached private practitioner followed by 23% who sought health care in government hospital. Majority of the women (42.2%) did not seek health care as they thought they will be normal with time.Conclusions: More than one third of the women are not aware of menopause and related problems. Among those who did not seek health care, higher proportion felt they will be Ok with time followed by financial constraints, fear/shy, family problems and lack of transport. 
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • Menstrual hygiene and practices among adolescent girls in rural
           Visakhapatnam: a cross-sectional study

    • Authors: K. V. Phani Madhavi, Kranthi Paruvu
      Pages: 432 - 436
      Abstract: Background: Adolescent girls constitute 1/5th of total female population in the world. Poor personal hygiene and defective menstrual management practices among adolescents give rise to repeated reproductive tract infections (RTIs) which are otherwise preventable. So the present study was undertaken to study the knowledge, status of hygiene and practices regarding menstruation among adolescent girls. The objectives of the study were to study the knowledge and practices of menstrual hygiene among study population and to identify beliefs, perception regarding menstruation and menstrual practices among the study population.Methods: A cross-sectional study was done in the month of November 2017 in the rural field practice area of the Department of Community Medicine, Andhra Medical College, Visakhapatnam. The study was done in a high school selected by simple random sampling among 400 adolescent girls who had attained menarche and were present in the schools during the days of survey after obtaining Institutional Ethics Committee approval, permission from the school authority and informed consent was taken from study participants. The sample size was calculated Using 4PQ/L2   with 5% absolute precision (p=36% from previous studies).Results: Mean age of study participants was 14.2yrs ±1.05. About 206(48.4%) knew about menstrual cycle before their menarche. Majority of study participants (78.3%) used sanitary pad as protective material. Regarding hygienic practices during menstruation 78.8% had daily bath.Conclusions: Awareness about menarche before its onset was still poor in rural areas.
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • Simulated transport time to nearest level 1 trauma center in eastern
           Gyeongnam province, Korea

    • Authors: Yong Han Kim
      Pages: 437 - 439
      Abstract: Severe traumatic patients should be transported to level 1 trauma center within one hour. We investigated simulated transport time and distance from eastern Gyeongnam province to nearest level 1 trauma center in South Korea. This scenario was simulated on web mapping service. Transport time and distance was measured by motor vehicle. We decided that one hour is optimal for appropriate trauma care. Estimated transport time were 40 min, 48 min, 55 min and 1 hour 8 min, respectively (Gimhae, Yangsan, Changwon and Miryang). Nearest level 1 trauma center was Pusan National University Hospital outside Gyeongnam province. Transport of traumatic patient was based on real transfer time above administrative district.
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • Approaches for implementation and updation of community health needs
           assessment: an updated review

    • Authors: Kalidas D. Chavan, Purushottam A. Giri, Savita Rajurkar, Satish D. Pawar
      Pages: 440 - 445
      Abstract: Implementation of assessment is utmost significant to enhance the prospects and strengths of Community Health Needs. Addressing community health needs has been a challenge for the Governments of various nations in the world due to various reasons like rising number of recipients, insufficient resources, increase in demands of resources and discrimination in their supply. The role of community health assessment is central in enabling practitioners, managers and policy makers to identify, categorize and prioritize demands, update the policies and then, to ensure that these health care resources are supplied to optimize health care and maximize its outreach to community members. It has a great potential to be a vital tool which can empower the management and planning of health care across the countries at the level of nationwide, state-wide and district wide communities, populations and families. The objective of this review article is to present the systematic and updated approaches to implement community health needs assessment at multiple levels i.e. district, state and national, keeping those aligned with the approaches indicated within global policies. It’s measurable outcomes are to identify and list the priority health needs, target resources to address inequalities, involve local people, educate and train the stakeholders and provide evidence based updated data for amending existing policies. The process of undertaking community health needs assessment and the importance of contribution of health care personnel in this process is also included here. 
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • Outcome of yoga nidra practice on various mental health problems and
           general wellbeing: a review study

    • Authors: Kalamani Dhamodhini, Muthappan Sendhilkumar
      Pages: 446 - 449
      Abstract: Mental disorders comprise a wide range of mental health problems with different symptoms. The most of the mental health disorders can be successfully treated with proper treatment and care by health facilities. The yoga founders were great saints and sages from India. The great Yogis presented rational interpretation of their experiences of yoga and brought about a practical and scientifically sound method within every one’s reach. Yoga nidra effectively provides impact on stress, anxiety levels, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms like rage and anxiety and increased feelings of relaxation and peace after yoga nidra as a therapy.
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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