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Intl. J. of Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Clinical Trials     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Community Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Contemporary Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Reproduction, Contraception, Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Intl. J. of Research in Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Research in Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Research in Orthopaedics     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Scientific Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. Surgery J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
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International Journal of Clinical Trials
Number of Followers: 2  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2349-3240 - ISSN (Online) 2349-3259
Published by Medip Academy Homepage  [12 journals]
  • Errors in answering migraine patient-reported outcome measure questions:
           patients consider training necessary in clinical trials

    • Authors: Jenny J. Ly, Rinah T. Yamamoto, Susan M. Dallabrida
      Pages: 69 - 74
      Abstract: Background: In migraine clinical trials, patients’ understanding of the terminology used in patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures is important as variability in completing PRO measures can reduce the power to detect treatment efficacy. This study examines patients’ understanding of how to complete PRO measures in the absence of training, if minimal training can improve the accuracy of answering PRO items, and patients’ opinion on the necessity of training and their preference for the method of training.Methods: Participants reporting a diagnosis of migraine completed online surveys. Participants were given scenarios of how to report headache days and pain severity. Respondents were asked about their opinions on the necessity of training, and their preference for the method of training. In a second study, participants were given a hypothetical scenario on how to report pain severity before and after a short training.Results: The majority of participants had different criteria to interpret PRO questions and provided incorrect answers to our scenarios. In the second study, with minimal training, errors were reduced by 7.5%. Over 90% of participants viewed educational materials and training as necessary and preferred electronic modes of training with the ability to review training materials as needed for the duration of the trial.Conclusions: Patient training may improve data quality and inter-rater reliability in clinical trials. Electronic interactive training could be used as an approach to reduce inconsistencies in PRO measures and improve data quality.
      PubDate: 2019-07-24
      DOI: 10.18203/2349-3259.ijct20193093
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2019)
  • Randomized two dimensional between patient response surface pathway design
           with two interventional and one response variable in estimating minimum
           efficacy dose

    • Authors: Stig Larsen, Trond Holand, Kjell Bjørnæs, Espen Glomsrød, Joachim Kaufmann, Tor Harald Garberg, Geir Elvbakken, Bård Dalhøi, Ola Reiertsen, Sagita Dewi
      Pages: 75 - 83
      Abstract: Background: The aim of this paper is to introduce and evaluate the RSP design with two interventional and one response variable exemplified by estimating minimum efficacy dose (MED) of osteopathic manual therapy (OMT) in treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).Methods: 15 GERD patients, divided in three design-level with three, five and seven patients. The study was performed as a randomized two-dimensional, between-patient RSP designed multicenter study with two interventional– and one response variable. The interventional variables “Number of OMT’s” and “Treatment Interval” with common response variable, formed two independent one-dimensional randomized between-patient RSP studies. The response variable was percent reduction in sum of the five GERD score from baseline. Three GERD patients were allocated on the first design level and given six OMT with five days’ interval. Based on results obtained in the first and second design level, five patients were included to the second design level and seven to the third.Results: The two-dimensional randomized between-patient RSP-design with the combined outcome procedure worked as expected. The percent reduction in GERD score increased with increasing number of OMT’s and time intervals. This increase leveled out after three to five OMT’s and three to four days between treatments. A clinical interaction between the two interventional variables was obtained. The estimated MED of OMT in treatment of GERD was three treatments with two days between treatments.Conclusions: The suggested two-dimensional, randomized between-patient RSP-design worked as expected and estimated MED of OMT in GERD patient sufficiently.
      PubDate: 2019-07-24
      DOI: 10.18203/2349-3259.ijct20193210
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2019)
  • Comparative evaluation of subarachnoid block with low dose bupivacaine and
           fentanyl versus low dose bupivacaine and sufentanil in patients undergoing
           inguinal surgeries

    • Authors: Chelikani Sandeep, D. Malleswara Rao C. H., Teja Kundurthi, A. S. Kameswara Rao
      Pages: 84 - 88
      Abstract: Background: Fentanyl is a phenylpiperidine derivative synthetic opioid agonist. As an analgesic fentanyl is 75-125 times more potent than morphine. Sufentanil is a semisynthetic thienyl analogue fentanyl with analgesic potency 5 to 10 times more than that of fentanyl. Recently there has been an interest in using analgesics and local anaesthetics in an attempt to decrease the local anaesthetic dose enabling faster recovery.Methods: A double blinded randomised study was carried out with 50 patients of ASA grade I and II aged between 20 and 60 years undergoing elective inguinal and below inguinal region surgeries under low dose spinal anaesthesia. Patients received 10 mg of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine with 50 μg of fentanyl added to a total volume of 3 ml  (group F), and with sufentanil 5 μg [diluted with 5% dextrose] and volume made to 3 ml (group S). Postoperative VAS score for pain, duration of motor block and complications postoperatively is noted.Results: Prolonged postoperative analgesia was observed in group F (216.7 min) and group S (264.8) which was statistically significant among the groups (p<0.001) is higher in group S and also duration of motor block in group F (130.6) and group S (90.5) which was statistically significant among the groups (p<0.001) which is higher in group F than group S.Conclusions: When compared to intrathecal bupivacaine-fentanyl combination; intrathecal bupivacaine-sufentanil combination provided prolonged postoperative analgesia with a lesser duration of motor blockade thus allowing early post operative ambulation.
      PubDate: 2019-07-24
      DOI: 10.18203/2349-3259.ijct20193214
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2019)
  • Even preoperative carbohydrate loading is too hard' Why RCT’s should
           not be considered the gold standard for nutrition research in acute hip
           fracture: results of a feasibility study

    • Authors: Sally E. Barrimore, Ivan L. Rapchuk, Ranjeev Chrysanth Pulle, Ross Crawford, Rebecca Ferrier, Scott Crawford, Jack J. Bell
      Pages: 89 - 95
      Abstract: Background: Malnutrition is a high-risk co-morbidity in acute hip fracture patients. Pre-operative carbohydrate loading may improve nutritional status and therefore patient outcomes. The feasibility of nutrition focused randomised control trial designs in hip fracture is at best questionable. This study was designed to undertake efficacy testing of pre-operative carbohydrate loading and explore the broader feasibility of conducting randomised controlled trials in acute hip fracture.Methods: This two arm randomised controlled feasibility study recruited patients previously living in the community who had fractured their hip undergoing surgery at our institution. Patients in the intervention arm received a 400 mL (50g) carbohydrate load 2 hours prior to surgery.  Information was collected regarding the fidelity of pre-operative carbohydrate provision and consumption as well as patient demographic and admission details.Results: Thirty-two patients consented to participate, 60% of the eligible patient cohort. Results demonstrated evenly matched intervention and control groups in terms of demographic details and pre-surgical morbidity and mortality risk. However, of the 17 patients allocated to the intervention arm less than half (41%) completed the carbohydrate loading intervention and even fewer 23.5% (n=4) completed all follow up due to a number of patient and system related factors.Conclusions: Evaluating the clinical effectiveness of providing pre-operative carbohydrate loading in hip fracture and the associated outcomes is not feasible using a randomised control trial methodology. It is recommended that researchers consider a ‘silver standard’ of research and practice such as pragmatic, registry-based cluster randomised trials to ensure feasibility, relevancy and applicability when evaluating nutritional interventions in this cohort. 
      PubDate: 2019-07-24
      DOI: 10.18203/2349-3259.ijct20193212
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2019)
  • White blood cell count on admission as prognostic marker for assessment of
           severity of acute myocardial infarction

    • Authors: Vibhuti Jain, Aklesh Kumar Jain
      Pages: 96 - 100
      Abstract: Background: High white blood cell/leucocyte counts were predicted as important biomarkers for future cardiovascular events in both healthy individuals and are having history myocardial infarction. The aim of the study was to assess the role of leucocytes as predictors of morbidity and mortality during the hospitalization of patients with acute myocardial infarction.Methods: This was a prospective study conducted on 79 patients with evolving STEMI attending the emergency department of Maharaja Yeshwant Rao Hospital, Indore during the period from November 2004 to July 2005. Blood total leucocyte count (TLC) was done in all the patients. All-cause mortality rate during the follow up period was defined as the primary end point of the study. Composite of death, reinfarction and heart failure till follow up day were defined as the secondary outcomes.Results: The mean age of the patients was 55.9±10.4 years. Male dominance was (86%) seen in the study. The mean TLC in the study population was 12345±4922/cumm. A total of 16 (20.2%) patients were died during 3 months of follow up. Statistically significant difference (p<0.001) was seen for characteristics such as age, risk index score, mean blood pressure heart rate and the Kilip class between survivors and non-survivors. The mean difference of TLC and mean CKMB was greater in non-survivors compared to survivors but the difference was not significant (p=0.177). Age, risk index, Kilip class, serum creatinine and baseline TLC, was found to affect the occurrence of the events significantly with a p value of less than 0.05.Conclusions: The findings conclude that the high blood leucocyte count was proved to be an important prognostic factor for assessing the severity of acute myocardial infarction in study population.
      PubDate: 2019-07-24
      DOI: 10.18203/2349-3259.ijct20192567
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2019)
  • Histopathological spectrum of chronic skin ulcers in a tertiary care

    • Authors: Imza Feroz, Abdul Haseeb Wani, Mir Wajahat Un Nazir, Mohammad Iqbal Lone, Arshed Hussain Parry
      Pages: 101 - 105
      Abstract: Background: The skin is the largest organ of the body, comprising of epidermis, dermis and hypodermis. Thus, a wide range of diseases can develop from the skin ranging from infectious diseases to malignancy, some of which may present as non-healing ulcers. Skin biopsy forms the fundamental basis for differentiation of similar looking lesions, thus helping the pathologists to make a definitive diagnosis and more so to the clinician for better management of patients. The objective was to study the histopathological spectrum of chronic non healing ulcers of skin for proper management and treatment.Methods: This was a hospital-based study which was conducted in SKIMS, Soura, a tertiary care hospital of Kashmir valley for a period of 1 year extending from January 2018 to December 2018. All the patients who presented with the complaint of non-healing ulcer for more than 4 to 6 weeks were subjected to skin biopsy and histopathological examination.Results: A total of 260 biopsies were examined. Out of 260 patients 146 were males and 114 were females. Ninety out of 260 cases (34.61%) and 170 (65.39%) were diagnosed as malignant and benign ulcers respectively.Diabetic ulcer was the second most common cause of non-healing ulcers followed by bacterial infections and tuberculosis. Squamous cell carcinoma was the most common neoplastic pathology.Conclusions: It was concluded from the study that non-healing skin ulcers can be encountered at any age in daily medical practice.
      PubDate: 2019-07-24
      DOI: 10.18203/2349-3259.ijct20192872
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2019)
  • N-acetylcysteine treatment in viral-induced acute liver failure

    • Authors: Tauseef Nabi, Nadeema Rafiq
      Pages: 106 - 111
      Abstract: Background: Acute liver failure (ALF) is characterized by acute derangement of liver function and carries high mortality. Viral hepatitis is still one of the main causes of ALF in the India as well in world. A prospective case control study was carried with the aim to determine the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on survival of viral-ALF patients.Methods: 37 patients with a diagnosis of viral-ALF were included in the study. 18 patients received NAC infusion for 72 hrs whereas 19 patients in control group received placebo. The variables evaluated were demographic, biochemical, outcome and length of hospital stay.Results: Out of 37 viral-ALF patients, acute HEV-induced ALF (48.6%) was most common followed by HBV (24.3%) and HAV (21.6%). The two groups were comparable for the various baseline characteristics (age, INR, bilirubin, ALT, creatinine, albumin, grade of encephalopathy, mean grade of coma etc.). Use of NAC was associated with a shorter length of hospital stay of survived patients (p=0.024). A total of 20 of 37 (54.1%) patients died with ALF complications; 7 (38.9%) patients belonged to NAC group and 13 (68.4%) patients to control group (p=0.079). HEV induced ALF showed significant improved in survival than Non HEV induced ALF with NAC administration (p=0.022).Conclusions: HEV was the most frequently cause of viral-ALF. Overall survival was not improved by NAC. HEV induced ALF showed significant improved in survival than Non HEV induced ALF with NAC administration. NAC reduced duration of hospital stay.
      PubDate: 2019-07-24
      DOI: 10.18203/2349-3259.ijct20193213
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2019)
  • Honesty in reporting suicidal ideations and behaviors in Alzheimer’s
           disease, mild cognitive impairment, and dementias

    • Authors: Rinah T. Yamamoto, Susan M. Dallabrida
      Pages: 112 - 116
      Abstract: Background: Detection of patients’ suicidal ideations and behaviors (SIB) is critical to patient safety. It is important to consider the needs, abilities and propensity for honesty in reporting SIB in populations with compromised cognitive abilities. We surveyed patients with compromised cognitive abilities to determine if they feel they would report SIB and the conditions under which they would be honest in reporting SIB'Methods: Patients reporting diagnoses such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or other dementias completed online surveys. Participants were asked their likelihood for honesty, preferences and comfort when answering questions on SIB in-person and using electronic self-report.Results: 73 patients with AD, MCI or other dementias, 95% reported they were likely to report SIB honestly electronically and 92% would be honest with a health care provider (HCP). However, 96% would be honest in-person with an HCP they knew but less than 88% said they would be honest if they didn’t know the HCP.Conclusions: These data suggest that patients with cognitive conditions may be more likely to report SIB truthfully using electronic self-report than a clinical face to face interview but that either form of reporting is an effective methodology for obtaining honest responses about SIB. Taking the FDA guidance on suicidality and the potential for cognitive decrements in this population, multiple tools for assessing depression and SIB should be implemented when treating or working this population.
      PubDate: 2019-07-24
      DOI: 10.18203/2349-3259.ijct20193211
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2019)
  • Perturbation of interactome through micro-RNA and methylome analysis in
           diabetes endophenotypes: the PIRAMIDE pathogenic clinical study design

    • Authors: Giuditta Benincasa, Raffaele Marfella, Concetta Schiano, Claudio Napoli
      Pages: 117 - 121
      Abstract: Background: The main challenge in type 2 diabetes (T2D) is to detect the regulators of pathogenic events during early stages of disease, as well as prevention and progression follow-up of cardiovascular (CV) complications. DNA methylation and micro-RNAs (miRNAs) are major components of the epigenome, which are involved in the diabetic interactome. This study protocol may contribute to advance our knowledge on molecular basis underlying T2D and its CV complications, as well as provide putative useful prognostic biomarkers.Methods: The perturbation of interactome through micro-RNA and methylome analysis in diabetes endophenotypes: the PIRAMIDE pathogenic clinical study protocol is a cross-sectional research program planned to combine big data and network-based analysis aimed to investigate whether DNA methylation and miRNAs may act as simultaneous regulators of the interactome in T2D patients. Clinical datasets will be aggregate to large-scale DNA methylation, mRNA-Seq, and miRNA-Seq analysis performed both on purified CD4+ and CD8+ T cells isolated from 35 T2D patients and 35 sex and age-matched controls. DNA methylome data will be used as input for the weighted human DNA methylation PPI network (WMPN) algorithm. RNA sequencing data will be used as input data for the TargetScan algorithm. The primary endpoint will be to integrate both DNA methylation and miRNA networks to potentially capture which genes are simultaneously modulate by interactions between epigenetic changes. Then, statistical analysis will be performed to correlate these molecular modifications with development of T2D-related CV complications.Conclusions: PIRAMIDE pathogenic clinical study protocol will test the hypothesis that simultaneous interactions between DNA methylation and miRNAs may hit T2D-associated candidate genes and predict the development of T2D-related CV complications.Trial Registration: The ongoing PIRAMIDE pathogenic clinical study protocol has been registered on NIH website (NCT03792607).
      PubDate: 2019-07-24
      DOI: 10.18203/2349-3259.ijct20192094
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2019)
  • An evaluation of the effectiveness of a community-based parenting
           empowerment program to improve nurturing care of young children in Kenya
           and Zambia

    • Authors: Patricia K. Wekulo, Elizabeth K. Murage, Hermann P. Donfouet, Silas O. Onyango, Kenneth O. Okelo, Milka N. Wanjohi, Dawn Murdock, George Nyamor, Kelvin Munsongo
      Pages: 122 - 128
      Abstract: Background: Investing in parents and children during the critical period between birth and five years of a child’s life can have long-lasting benefits in the life of the child. Recently, the 2016 Lancet Series estimated that 250 million children aged less than five years in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are at risk of not reaching their developmental potential. Over 66 % of these, who live in sub-Saharan Africa and are at risk due to poor nutrition, exposure to poverty, high HIV prevalence as well as under stimulation in the home environment.Methods: The study will employ a cluster-randomized control trial design and will use a mixed-methods approach combining quantitative and qualitative methodologies (Concurrent Triangulation Design). This will be a two-arm study, where the first arm will participate in the parenting empowerment program implemented by the faith-based organizations, while the second (control) will not receive the parenting interventions. A total of 510 mother/primary caregiver-child dyads will be recruited into this study. We will estimate the causal effect of the intervention using mixed linear models and the Difference-in-Differences (DID) estimator.Conclusions:  This implementation research will provide greater scientific rigor and a deeper process and outcome evaluation including measurement of child development outcomes. The findings will be useful for early childhood practitioners, multilateral stakeholders and funders as they provide information on the factors to consider in the implementation of high quality ECD interventions.Trial Registration: Ethical approval: ESRC P467/2018 and IRB No.00005948).
      PubDate: 2019-07-24
      DOI: 10.18203/2349-3259.ijct20193215
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2019)
  • School-based physical activity intervention in 11-13-year-olds: study
           protocol for cluster randomized controlled trial

    • Authors: Prasangi M. Dabare, Indu Waidyatilaka, Ranil Jayawardena, Rajitha Wickremasinghe, Andrew P. Hills, Pujitha Wickramasinghe, Pulani Lanerolle
      Pages: 129 - 137
      Abstract: Background: Targeted strategies to enhance regular physical activity appear to be promising to promote health and well-being of adolescents. This article reports the design of a cluster randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based physical activity programme on the rate and duration of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, sitting time including screen time, and health-related physical fitness parameters among 11-13 year-old adolescents.Methods: This is a cluster randomized controlled trial conducted in 360 adolescents from government schools in the Colombo Municipal Council area, Sri Lanka. An individual school was considered as a unit of randomization and the 12 selected schools were randomly assigned to one of two groups: control (six schools) and intervention groups (six schools). The intervention group follows a physical activity programme for 30 minutes on three school days per week, for three consecutive months in addition to the standard practice. The primary outcomes are moderate-to-vigorous physical activity rate and duration and sitting time including screen time. Secondary outcomes are the health-related physical fitness parameters: cardiovascular fitness, muscle fitness and flexibility, and body composition. All the outcomes are measured at baseline and three-months following the intervention.Discussion: The outcomes of this study will be an evidence-based intervention programme with the potential to be incorporated into the national education system thus promoting health and well-being of adolescents in Sri Lanka.Trial Registration: Registered at the Sri Lanka Clinical Trials Registry (SLCTR/2018/028).
      PubDate: 2019-07-24
      DOI: 10.18203/2349-3259.ijct20193216
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2019)
  • Impact and risk factors for clinically relevant surgery-related muscle
           loss in patients after major abdominal cancer surgery: study protocol for
           a prospective observational cohort study (MUSCLE POWER)

    • Authors: Judith E. K. R. Hentzen, Laura van Wijk, Carlijn I. Buis, Alain R. Viddeleer, Geertruida H. de Bock, Cees P. van der Schans, Gooitzen M. van Dam, Schelto Kruijff, Joost M. Klaase
      Pages: 138 - 146
      Abstract: Background: Surgery-related muscle loss (SRML) occurs in at least one out of three cancer patients within one week after major surgery. Though, this important phenomenon has hardly been investigated.Methods: The MUSCLE POWER is a prospective, observational cohort study that investigates the presence, impact, and predictors for clinically relevant SRML in 178 cancer patients after major abdominal surgery using ultrasound measurements, squeeze and force measurements, and QoL questionnaires. Primary endpoint is the proportion of patients with clinically relevant SRML defined as ≥5% muscle loss within one week after surgery, measured by the cross-sectional area (CSA) of three different muscles: m. biceps brachii, m. rectus femoris, and m. vastus intermedius. Possible correlation with QoL and fatigue up to six months after surgery will be investigated. Daily physical activity during hospital stay will be monitored by a motility tracker, and protein intake will be monitored by a dietician. Possible predictors for clinically relevant SRML—consisting of age ≥65 years, preoperative diabetes, preoperative sarcopenia, major postoperative complications (Clavien-Dindo ≥III), insufficient physical activity, and insufficient postoperative protein intake—will be investigated with a multivariable logistic regression analyses with a backward stepwise approach. Variables with a p<0.05 will be retrained in the final multivariable model.Discussion: The MUSCLE POWER investigates the presence and impact of clinically relevant SRML in cancer patients after major abdominal surgery. Crucial information regarding possible predictors for clinically relevant SRML can be used in future intervention studies to prevent postoperative muscle loss and subsequently improve postoperative outcome and QoL.Trial Registration: Medical Ethics Committee of the University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands (METc2018/361, version 3.0, January 21, 2019), and Netherlands Trial Register ([NTR], NTR NL7505, version 1.0, February 7, 2019).
      PubDate: 2019-07-24
      DOI: 10.18203/2349-3259.ijct20193217
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2019)
  • Maintaining electronic regulatory binder at clinical trials site improves

    • Authors: Hemlata Sukhija, Deepika Khanna
      Pages: 147 - 150
      Abstract: Regulatory binder is one of the essential documents that is required to be maintained by all clinical sites throughout the conduct of clinical trials and post completion of clinical trials. Managing regulatory binders for multiple studies has been challenging due to large volume of documents that needs to be maintained in a paper form especially when the site has 150-200 open studies. To utilize electronic regulatory binders to replace paper based regulatory binders for improve efficiency while maintaining regulatory compliance. Use of document management system effectively allows sites to store regulatory binders electronically. Electronic regulatory binders provide a new way of managing tons of documents in a simplified fashion that helps in redefining the process, tracking documents, reducing physical storage requirements, retention, preparation for monitoring visits, and in prompt audits.
      PubDate: 2019-07-24
      DOI: 10.18203/2349-3259.ijct20193218
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2019)
  • Premature termination of interventional ophthalmology clinical trials from
           international registries

    • Authors: Taygan Yilmaz, Nitasha Khanna, Dean Loporchio, Michéal Gallagher, Miguel Cordero-Coma, Michael Migliori
      Pages: 151 - 153
      Abstract: Globally, a multitude of interventional clinical trials are terminated prior to completion. We sought to identify and analyze trends related to the reporting of these trial results. We conducted a retrospective, cross-sectional study of interventional clinical trials in the 16 primary registries of the World Health Organization Network as well as dating back to 2003. A total of 250 studies were identified, of which 135 (54%) were sponsored by academic institutions. A staggering 244 trials (98%) did not lead to publication of results. In sum, a total of 22,420 patients participated in clinical research from which the results were not widely disseminated. 75% of trials were discontinued for unspecified or unclear reasons; 10% were terminated due to inadequate patient accrual. New policies and initiatives have helped usher in an era of improved methods for trial reporting and, in turn, provided the opportunity to perform more interventional trials. However, further action is needed to ensure that findings of all trials are shared with the ophthalmic community in order to build a more comprehensive body of knowledge and decrease potential redundancy.
      PubDate: 2019-07-24
      DOI: 10.18203/2349-3259.ijct20193219
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2019)
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