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International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology
Number of Followers: 3  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2319-2003 - ISSN (Online) 2279-0780
Published by Medip Academy Homepage  [12 journals]
  • Targeted nano-sized drug design in cancer treatments: development of new
           nano-sized formulations for the use of anti-cancerogenic lisinopril in the
           treatment of colorectal cancer

    • Authors: Emre Avci, Aslı Kara, Gamze Catagay, Gulcin Alp Avci
      Pages: 1629 - 1635
      Abstract: Background: Colorectal cancer emerges as a serious health problem all over the world and results in approximately 700,000 deaths every year. Therefore, studies are carried out to develop alternative treatment methods to reduce the side effects of anticancer drugs in cancer treatment. Targeted nanoparticle therapies are tried to be developed especially with controlled drug release. Lisinopril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, is a widely used drug in the treatment of hypertension and has been shown to have anticancer activity on various types of cancer.Methods: This study, blank and 3 different amounts of lisinopril loaded nanoparticles were prepared by triblock poly (lactic acid)–poly (ethylene glycol)–poly (lactic acid) (PLA-PEG-PLA) block copolymer which is a biocompatible and biodegradable polymer by using water/oil/water emulsion method and then characterized. The viability of the blank formulations in murine fibroblast (L929) cells, which is the healthy cell line, was determined within the scope of biocompatibility studies.Results: The anticarcinogenic activity of lisinopril drug, blank and lisinopril loaded nanoparticles was determined in caco-2 cells which are human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line.Conclusions: Lisinopril loaded nanoparticles were successfully prepared in this study. It is thought that increasing the amount of drug-loaded can be a promising approach to an alternative treatment method for the use of antihypertensive drugs in the treatment of colorectal cancer.
      PubDate: 2020-10-21
      DOI: 10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20204488
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2020)
  • The effect of heparin after primary percutaneous coronary intervention on
           short-term clinical outcomes in patients with ST-segment elevation
           myocardial infarction

    • Authors: Mohammed Rouzbahani, Mohsen Rezaie, Nahid Salehi, Parisa Janjani, Reza Heidari Moghadam, Alireza Rai, Nafiseh Montazeri, Arsalan Naderipour, Etrat Javadi Rad, Nader Asgari, Sousan Mahmoudi, Sayeh Motevaseli, Javad Azimivaghar
      Pages: 1636 - 1640
      Abstract: Background: Doing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the first hours of myocardial infraction (MI) is effective in re-establishment of blood flow. Anticoagulation treatment should be prescribed in patients undergoing PCI to decrease the side effects of ischemia. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of heparin prescription after PCI on short-term clinical outcomes in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Materials: This randomized clinical trial study was conducted at Imam Ali cardiovascular center at Kermanshah university of medical science (KUMS), Iran. Between April 2019 to October 2019, 400 patients with STEMI which candidate to PCI were enrolled. Patients randomly divided in two groups: intervention group (received 5,000 units of heparin after PCI until first 24 hours, every 6 hours) and control group (did not receive heparin). Data were collected using a checklist developed based on the study's aims. Differences between groups were assessed using independent t-tests and chi-square (or Fisher exact tests).Result: Observed that, mean prothrombin time (PT) (13.30±1.60 vs. 12.21±1.15, p<0.001) and partial thromboplastin time (PTT) (35.30±3.08 vs. 34.41±3.01, p=0.003) were significantly higher in intervention group compared to control group. Thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) flow grade 0/1 after primary PCI was significantly more frequently in control group (5.5% vs. 1.0%, p=0.034). The mean of ejection fraction (EF) after PCI (47.58±7.12 vs. 45.15±6.98, p<0.001) was significantly higher in intervention group. Intervention group had a statistically significant shorter length of hospital stay (4.71±1.03 vs. 6.12±1.10, p<0.001). There was higher incidence of re-vascularization (0% vs. 3.0%; p=0.013) and re-MI (0% vs. 2.5%; p=0.024) in the control group.Conclusion: Performing primary PCI with receiving heparin led to improve TIMI flow and consequently better EF. Receiving heparin is associated with lower risk of re-MI and re-vascularization.
      PubDate: 2020-10-21
      DOI: 10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20204489
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2020)
  • Histomorphological effects of sodium arsenite on uterus of rats

    • Authors: Amaidah Mir, Hammad Ahmed Butt, Maria Yasmeen, Anber Saleem, Ruqqia Shafi Minhas, Sumaira Abbasi
      Pages: 1641 - 1645
      Abstract: Background: Arsenic is highly toxic agent and a risk factor for disease and disability. Arsenic is present in drinking water of many developing and developed countries including Pakistan and due to rapid industrialization its quantity in soil and water is increasing day by day.Methods: In an 18 month study in which we took two principal groups, labelled as control group A and experimental group B. The animals of experimental group B were administered 4 µg of sodium arsenite dissolved in 10 ml of distilled water by oral gavage daily for 14 days. The uterus was removed and processed for paraffin embedding and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H and E). The histological parameters; uterine luminal diameter, height of uterine luminal epithelium, area occupied by epithelial component of uterine glands and the thickness of myometrium were measured and evaluated by civil AutoCAD 2013 software. The data was analyzed statistically with the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS).Results: Histological results showed the degenerative effects. The luminal diameter of uterine horns was reduced in experimental animals. The height of uterine epithelium was reduced. Area occupied by epithelial component of uterine glands was reduced along the reduction in the thickness of myometrium.Conclusions: The histological abnormalities observed in uterus showed that the degenerative effects may be due to oxidative stress produced by the exposure to sodium arsenite. As sodium arsenite produces the oxidative stress by the formation of free radicals and by the denaturation of proteins.
      PubDate: 2020-10-21
      DOI: 10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20204454
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2020)
  • Antifungal activity of ethanolic extract of Sphaeranthus indicus Linn.
           against Dermatophytes and Candida species

    • Authors: Preeja K. Sundaresan, Kala P. Kesavan
      Pages: 1646 - 1649
      Abstract: Background: Sphaeranthus indicus as an entire plant or the specific parts like roots, leaves, flowers are used for treating helminthiasis, jaundice, diabetes, dyspepsia, fever, cough, hernia, gastritis, hemorrhoids, migraine, leprosy and skin diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of ethanolic extract of the whole plant Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. Methods: The antifungal activity of ethanolic extract of the whole plant Sphaeranthus indicus Linn was evaluated by incorporating the extract in Sabourauds dextrose agar. This property was studied in vitro using the ethanolic extract on Candida albicans, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Epidermophyton floccosum by using Clotrimazole as standard drug.Results: This study revealed that the ethanolic extract of Sphaeranthus indicus is having good antifungal activity against Dermatophytes and Candida species. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the promising antifungal action of ethanolic extract of whole plant of Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. This feature can be exploited in the development of a newer antifungal agent from plant. 
      PubDate: 2020-10-21
      DOI: 10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20204416
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2020)
  • Prescription audit of patients in a teritiary care hospital

    • Authors: Janardhan Marupaka, Laxmipathi Kodam, Naveen Kumar Tamma, Srinivasu Karedla
      Pages: 1650 - 1655
      Abstract: Background: This study was prescribed errors to promote irrational use of drug and decrease patience compliance. Prescription audit can improve prescribing practices and patients to receive high quality drugs.Methods: The study was observational carried out in 150 patients attending outpatient department for period of 6 months from April 2019 to October 2019. Data was analysed using WHO core indicatorsResults: 16% of prescriptions demographic details like age, sex, age were incomplete. In few (15%) prescriptions omission of diagnosis and irrational combination was reported. Dosing errors like doses and duration of treatment were not mentioned in some of prescriptions. Percentage of antibiotics per prescription was found to be 23.64%, which is much higher than the ideal value recommended by WHO.Conclusions: The average number of drugs was higher in prescriptions and trend of polypharmacy was noted with antibiotics usage. Dosing error and few prescriptions were irrational FDCs. Generic drugs were written in majority of prescriptions from essential drug list. Our study need to highlight to write rational prescription by adhering to WHO guidelines with feed back to prescribers and training session regarding safe use of drugs.
      PubDate: 2020-10-21
      DOI: 10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20204435
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2020)
  • A study on abuse of topical corticosteroids in patients who attended
           dermatology venerology leprosy outpatient department

    • Authors: R. Sarathi, A. Christypriya, P. K. Kaviarasan, Guru Prasad Mohanta
      Pages: 1656 - 1660
      Abstract: Background: Topical corticosteroids (TCs) are widely used in the patients affected with dermatoses. Abuse of these agents may cause severe adverse effects. Aim of the study was to study the abuse of TCs in patient who attend Dermatology, Venereology, and Leprosy (DVL) outpatient department. Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted in department of DVL at Rajah Muthiah Medical college, Tamil Nadu during the period of six months from November 2018 to April 2019. The patients were enrolled for the study based on inclusion and exclusion criteria.Results: Totally 50 patients with adverse drug reactions (ADRs) by the abuse of TCs were enrolled for the study. It was found that TCs were abused in all ages and equally in both genders. Nearly 72% of the people used TCs for Tinea infection and 20% of the people used TCs for acne vulgaris. Very high potent TCs such as betamethasone and beclomethasone were abused by 55% of the patient. Tinea incognito (TI) was found as common ADRs by the abuse of TCs (74%). Nearly 88% of the people bought TCs from pharmacies without prescription. Sixteen brands were found as easily accessible and affordable for the patients. Medication adherence were increased by 60% after the patient counselling.Conclusion: This study concludes, TI was found as a common ADR in patients who abused TCs such as betamethasone, beclomethasone and clobetasol. High potent TCs should not be allowed to dispense without prescription. Withdrawal of TCs will reduce the risk of ADRs.
      PubDate: 2020-10-21
      DOI: 10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20204401
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2020)
  • Pattern of drug utilization in pediatric out patient department of a
           tertiary care teaching hospital

    • Authors: Rekha M. B., Hemamalini M. B., Basavaraj Bhandare
      Pages: 1661 - 1664
      Abstract: Background: Drug utilization studies have special significance among paediatric age groups as infant and children represent about 42% of the population in developing countries. This is the vital period of rapid growth and development. Therefore, drugs should be used very cautiously and rationally among these sub groups. The present study is conducted to analyse the prescribing pattern of drugs in paediatric age group for various illnesses. Methods: It was a prospective observational study, conducted in paediatric outpatient department of Raja Rajeswari medical college and research hospital for a period of 6 months after obtaining approval from institutional ethical committee. Descriptive statistical was used to determine the frequency, percentages, mean and standard deviation.Results: In the present study, fever (30.8%) followed by respiratory diseases were most common diseases seen. The commonly used drugs include antipyretics (66%), antimicrobials (53.6%), cough syrups (34.4%), antihistaminic (31.2%) and nasal decongestants (23.2%). Prescribing indicator shows existence of polypharmacy. Prescribing drugs by generic name was seen only in 8.1% and 47.82% of the drugs were prescribed from EDL. The frequency of use of injectables in our study was 5.8%. Conclusions: Irrational use of antibiotics and polypharmacy needs to be curbed. Prescribing drugs in their generic name and prescribing drugs from EDL need to be promoted. The present prescribing pattern can be improved by advocating rational drug prescribing, patient education and improving hospitals.
      PubDate: 2020-10-21
      DOI: 10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20204490
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2020)
  • A clinical study of patients with central venous catheter associated
           bloodstream infections in a tertiary care hospital

    • Authors: R. Abisha Rezia, R. Vijendra, Anjana Gopi
      Pages: 1665 - 1670
      Abstract: Background: Central venous access puts the patients at risk of iatrogenic complications and is associated with bloodstream infections. Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are responsible for at least two-thirds of the infections followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus spp and Acinetobacter spp. Due to the scarcity of Central Venous Catheter associated Blood Stream Infections (CVC-BSI) data, this study was taken up in our tertiary care hospital. Aims: This study is aimed to study the profile of organisms causing CVC-BSI, assess their antimicrobial susceptibility, the clinical course and outcome.Methods: All subjects whose central venous catheter samples (n=84) were sent for culture and sensitivity during the study period were included in this prospective observational study. The study was done in the Department of Microbiology from July 2019 to December 2019. The catheter tips were streaked onto blood agar plate using Roll plate technique. After biochemical identification of the organisms, antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by modified Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method as per the Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Results: Growth of pathogens was seen in 64.3% (n=54). The common organisms were Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus aureus (CONS) in 27.78% (n=15), Enterococcus spp, Klebsiella pneumoniae in 14.8% each (n=8) and Acinetobacter spp in 11.1% (n=6). Resistance was seen with amoxicillin + clavulanic acid, cefepime, ciprofloxacin and cefoperazone. The organisms were sensitive to levofloxacin, tetracycline and vancomycin.Conclusion: Aseptic precautions taken by the healthcare personnel will bring down the infections and curb the spread of multi-drug resistant hospital acquired infections.
      PubDate: 2020-10-21
      DOI: 10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20204491
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2020)
  • Seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B and hepatitis
           C among blood donors at a tertiary care hospital in North India

    • Authors: Kanwaljit Kaur, Ramneek Locham, Smriti Kaur Aulakh, Rajni Bassi, Jiteshwar Singh Pannu
      Pages: 1671 - 1674
      Abstract: Background: The prevalence of transfusion transmitted infections (TTIs), in blood transfusion services are a major problem across blood banks and hospitals in the world. In, India, the effort to provide safe transfusion to patients is a heightened problem for various reasons. In this study, seroprevalence of Transfusion transmitted infections such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) was investigated in a pool of blood donors.Methods: The data collection was carried out for a period of two years from, January 2017 to December 2018, and total sample size of donors was 38,142. We studied the frequency, gender wise distribution, donor (first time vs repeat) wise distribution and yearly trend of seroprevalence of TTIs in blood units donated at our hospital.Results: A total of 37,457 (98.2%) males and 685 (1.79%) females donated blood during the study period. The results suggest that among the blood donors, the prevalence of HCV was highest (0.77%) followed by HBV (0.46%) and HIV (0.13%). Seropositivity was found to be more in first-time donors (0.83%) as compared to repeat-donors (0.52%). Seropositivity was found to be more among males (1.35%) than females (0.01%). The discussion suggests underlying reasons for the results along-with future direction of research.Conclusions: The need of the hour is to encourage repeat voluntary blood donors in order to maintain safe supply of blood and its components to donors. Efforts should be made to include females in the blood donor pool by increasing awareness and through dedicated efforts to improve female health and nutrition.
      PubDate: 2020-10-21
      DOI: 10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20204492
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2020)
  • Trend analysis of antibiotics consumption using WHO AWaRe classification
           in tertiary care hospital

    • Authors: Ankit Bhardwaj, Kaveri Kapoor, Vivek Singh
      Pages: 1675 - 1680
      Abstract: Background: Aim of the study was to assess trend in antibiotics consumption pattern from 2016 to 2019 using AWaRe classification, ATC and Defined daily dose methodology (DDD) in a tertiary care hospital. Antibiotics are crucial for treating infectious diseases and have significantly improved the prognosis of patients with infectious diseases, reducing morbidity and mortality. The aim of the study is to classify the antibiotic based on WHO AWaRe classification and compare their four-year consumption trends. The study was conducted at a tertiary care center, Pilakhuwa, Hapur. Antibiotic procurement data for a period of 4 years (2016-2019) was collected from the Central medical store.Methods: This is a retrospective time series analysis of systemic antibiotics with no intervention at patient level. Antibiotic procurement was taken as proxy for consumption assuming that same has been used.  ATC for systemic use (ATC code J01) antibacterial was used and defined daily dose (DDD) per 100 bed days was calculated. Antibiotics were further classified as Access, Watch, and Reserve (WHO AWaRe classification).  Antibiotics consumption was ranked based on their volume of DDD i.e., drug utilization (DU90%) was calculated. Non-parametric Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used for the comparison of consumption.Results: Mean antibiotic procurement increased 1.25 folds from 140.3 DDD in 2016 to 201 DDD in 2018. A significant fall was seen in total DDDs in year 2019 (p value <0.05). A total of 41 antibiotics agents (Access 12, Watch 21, Reserve 6 and Not recommended 2) were procured. Reserve category antibiotics were procured from 2017 onwards. Out of 41 antibiotics procured 11 antibiotics (Access 3 and watch 8) accounted for DU 90%.Conclusions: Antibiotics consumption of watch group was high and increasing antibiotic consumption trend was observed. Hospital antimicrobial stewardship program should be implemented to shift to use of Access group antibiotics and restrict use of Watch antibiotics.
      PubDate: 2020-10-21
      DOI: 10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20204493
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2020)
  • Prevalence and predictors of medication non-adherence in some common
           non-communicable chronic diseases and cancers: a comparative study

    • Authors: Shakeel A. Mir, Danish Shakeel
      Pages: 1681 - 1687
      Abstract: Background: Adherence is a key factor in the success of all pharmacological therapies. Medication non-adherence is an extremely common barrier to achieve positive health outcomes. The present study aims to compare medication non-adherence in some common chronic diseases and cancers and also to assess various factors influencing it.Methods: Pre-validated questionnaires based on general medication adherence scale (GMAS) were equally distributed among 300 patients suffering from chronic illnesses and cancers. 270 patients returned completely filled questionnaires.Results: The study population consists of 53.33% men and 46.66% women.55.55% patients were literate. 70.37% of patients were from rural areas. 61.48% were taking 2-4 drugs. As compared to 14.81% males 18.51% of females had poor or low adherence. Only 0.74% of young patients (<30 years) had poor/low adherence as compared to 16.29% each in other age groups. Rural patients had poor adherence as compared to patients from urban areas. As compared to 31.85% illiterate patients, only 16.29% of literate patients had poor or low adherence. Adherence was better in patients taking more than one drug. Statistically, a significant correlation was found between gender, age, level of education, and area of residence. Duration of treatment, the number of drugs, and the frequency of dosage were not found significantly correlated with adherence. Patients suffering from malignancies had higher medication adherence as compared to chronic illnesses.Conclusions: Medication non-adherence is common in patients with chronic diseases and cancers that are treated with unsupervised oral antineoplastic drugs. The complex problem of non-adherence calls for interventions at various levels.
      PubDate: 2020-10-21
      DOI: 10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20204494
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2020)
  • Self-care practices among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in rural India

    • Authors: Richitha Shivananda, Madhav K. Savkar, Ravi Shankar Manchukonda, Raghavendra Srirangapura Krishnegowda
      Pages: 1688 - 1694
      Abstract: Background: The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) has been increasing all over the world in past 30 years, particularly in the Indian subcontinent with an estimated 87% diabetic population within the age group 20-70 years. The increase in severity of diabetes every year has been linked to patient’s lack of knowledge and practice of self-care. Hence educating the population as well as assessing their self-care practices has become important.Methods: A cross-sectional study with 253 participants was done using the diabetic self-management questionnaire (DSMQ). Socio demographic details were also collected along with the questionnaire. The questionnaire was scored reversing the negatively worded questions (with a minimum score of 10 to maximum score of 34) and the p values and Pearson’s correlation was used to determine the significance of factors like age and gender with self-care practices.Results: Among 253 subjects, 117 (46.2%) participants felt that their self-care practices were poor to a ‘considerable extent’, hence the self-care practices of type 2 DM in rural population was poor and factors like age and gender didn’t show any significance in overall self-care of type 2 DM.Conclusions: The self-care practices of type 2 DM patients in rural area is poor. Age and gender had no significance in the self-care practices of type 2 DM patients. Hence awareness programs should be done in order to educate the rural population about the importance of self-care in dealing with the complications of diabetes.
      PubDate: 2020-10-21
      DOI: 10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20204495
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2020)
  • An exploratory study on prevalence of self-medication among the students
           of selected university, Rajpura, Punjab

    • Authors: Kashish Malhotra, Komal Rani, Parminder Kaur, Navdeep Kaur
      Pages: 1695 - 1700
      Abstract: Background: Self-medication is defined as the use of non-prescription drugs by an individual for the treatment of self-diagnosed ailments. The aim of the study is to assess the prevalence of self-medication and to explore the factors leading to self-medication among the students of selected university. The aim of this research was to assess the prevalence of self-medication among students, to explore the factors leading to self-medication among students, and to find out the association between the prevalence of self-medication and selected socio-demographic variables.Methods: It was an exploratory design. 500 students were selected by using a convenient sampling method. Students of selected university were included in the study to assist the prevalence of self-medication and to explore the factors leading to self-medication. A self- structured questionnaire was used for collecting data.Result: Self-medication was reported by 88.4% of students. The most common ailment for which self-medication is being taken was pain (84.40%) followed by respiratory (83.80%). Most students take self-medication occasionally (77.30%). Only 5.40% of students take self-medication daily. The most common factor which leads to self-medication in students was confidence in self-medication (83.4%) followed by family and friend’s advice (82.0%). There was no association between socio-demographic variables and the prevalence of self-medication except association seen with gender.Conclusion: The study concluded that the prevalence of self-medication in students of selected university was 88.4% and self-confidence is the most common factor which leads to self-medication. Self-medication is an important issue among students.
      PubDate: 2020-10-21
      DOI: 10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20204497
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2020)
  • A comparative study to assess the effect of escitalopram and amitriptyline
           on psychomotor functions in patients of depression

    • Authors: Amit V. Mohite, Baliram V. Ghodke, Patil Arun W.
      Pages: 1701 - 1706
      Abstract: Background: Depression is a most common and widespread of all psychiatric disorders. Treatment of depression includes the use of antidepressants commonly used clinically such as tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, and monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Certain antidepressants apart from improvement in the symptoms found to have detrimental effect on cognitive and psychomotor function. Objective of this study was to assess and to compare the effect of escitalopram and amitriptyline on cognitive and psychomotor functionsMethods: Effect of escitalopram and amitriptyline on psychomotor function was assessed by using Critical flicker fusion frequency (CFF) and Reaction time (RT) in patients of mild to moderate depression at the end of 2nd and 4th week of monotherapy.Results: Patients in both the group have their RT remained significantly higher (p<0.001) in comparison with control and CFF remained significantly lower at the end of both the week. There was a significant rise in CFF in escitalopram group as compared to amitriptyline (p<0.001). Escitalopram showed a significant improvement in Visual reaction time (VRT), Auditory reaction time (ART) and Choice reaction time (CRT) (p<0.001) compared to amitriptyline at both the follow ups.Conclusions: Findings of this study support the use of Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) i.e. escitalopram which had shown less impairment of psychomotor function in patients of Depression as compared to amitriptyline (Tricyclic antidepressant), in special subgroups of population who operate machinery, drive vehicle or require alertness for the work.
      PubDate: 2020-10-21
      DOI: 10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20204498
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2020)
  • A comparative study on self-medication practice of analgesics among MBBS
           students of Dr. B. R. Ambedkar Medical College, Bengaluru

    • Authors: Poorvi M., Veena D. R., Shwetha H., Shanmukananda P.
      Pages: 1707 - 1712
      Abstract: Background: Self-medication with analgesics is prevalent worldwide among medical students due to easy availability of drugs and may lead to irrational usage of drugs. To assess knowledge, attitude, practice and perception of self-medication of analgesics.Methods: A comparative study on self-medication of analgesics was conducted on 3rd and 5th term Bachelor of medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) students of Dr. B. R. Ambedkar Medical College, Bengaluru in November 2019. A pre-designed questionnaire was used to collect information on self-medication with analgesics.Results: 74.5% of 3rd term and 65.5% of 5th term MBBS students practiced self-medication with analgesics. Majority of students in both groups had some knowledge on self-medication with analgesics. Common condition for using analgesic self-medication was headache (75.8%, 59.7%, p=0.0172) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (80.6%, 90%, p=0.0780) were commonly used analgesics. Analgesics were used for quick relief (67.7%, 73.3%, p=0.4512) and students in group II referred medical textbooks as a source of information for practicing self-medication with analgesics (22.5%, 61.6%, p<0.001). Students agreed that self-medication is acceptable for medical students (45.8%, 43%, p=0.045) and medical license is required for better administration of drugs (51.3%, 63.2%, p=0.225).Conclusions: This study has found that self-medication with analgesics was common among MBBS students for minor illness. It is necessary to create awareness and educate students regarding the hazards of self-medication.
      PubDate: 2020-10-21
      DOI: 10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20204499
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2020)
  • Antibiotics usage, how well we know it' KAP survey among the dentist
           population in Mumbai

    • Authors: Amisha N. Parekh, Karthik Balasubramanian, Purvi Bhate, Dheeraj D. Kalra
      Pages: 1713 - 1720
      Abstract: Background: There is a rising concern for antibiotic resistance worldwide, the primary cause of which is overuse and misuse. This study primarily aimed at assessing the knowledge of dental practitioners regarding the current guidelines on use of antibiotics and to identify the shortcomings if any.Methods: Present study was a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study conducted amongst 450 dental practitioners across Mumbai with the help of a self-designed questionnaire. The data was entered into excel sheets and appropriate statistical analysis was done with chi-square test using SPSS version 20.Results: The present study had a response rate of 95%. For the total percentage of patients examined each day that required systemic antibiotics, 36.9% (153) dentists answered 0-5%, followed by 25.3% (105) answered 10-15%. 76.1% (316) dentists came across patients who had self-prescribed antibiotics. 66% (274) dentists had never advised an antibiotic sensitivity/ culture test for their patients. 51.3% (213) dentists came across patients who did not respond to antibiotics. 87.2% (363) dentists were not aware about the ‘AWaRe’ classification of antibiotics given by WHO. 93.3% (383) dentists did not know about antimicrobial stewardship concept.Conclusions: The present study reflected antibiotic overuse and misuse to a certain extent by dental practitioners across Mumbai. Most dentists were unaware about ‘AWaRe’ classification and antimicrobial stewardship. Patient education on ill effects of self-prescription of antibiotics, identification of traits of antibiotic resistance and antibiotic culture tests needs to be prioritized by dentists.
      PubDate: 2020-10-21
      DOI: 10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20204500
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2020)
  • Drug utilization study in ophthalmology out patients in a tertiary care
           teaching hospital

    • Authors: Janaki Devi C. H., Seethalakshmi S., Devaraj S.
      Pages: 1721 - 1724
      Abstract: Background: The objective of the study was to evaluate the utilization of the drugs in the ophthalmology outpatient department.Methods: Present study was conducted at ESIC medical college & PGIMSR Ophthalmology Department. Total 700 prescriptions were collected from 700 patients and prescriptions were analysed for total and average number drugs per prescription, duration of treatment, dosage form, drug encounter with antibiotics and other group of drugs also percentage of drugs prescribed by generic names.Results: After analysing the prescriptions, average number of drugs per prescription was 2.14 and the range of drugs prescribed were varied from 1-5. Total drugs prescribed were 1502 with 7 different dosage forms. Most commonly prescribed were antibiotics (28.14%) followed by antihistamines (14.28%) and vitamins and minerals (14.28%). Thirdly ocular lubricants were frequently prescribed (12.12%). Fluroquinolones (moxifloxacin) were very commonly prescribed in antibiotics. The common prescription writing errors were very minimal.Conclusions: The present study revealed trend of prescribing practices of the Opthalmologists of the Institute. This study shows less polypharmacy, use of injection was limited and majority of the drugs prescribed in generic and hospital formulary drug list. Antibiotics were prescribed most frequently.
      PubDate: 2020-10-21
      DOI: 10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20204501
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2020)
  • Drug utilization pattern in outdoor patients of pediatric tertiary care
           hospital: a cross sectional study

    • Authors: Sonal M. Parekar, Girish K. Maindarkar, Vishal V. Maindarkar
      Pages: 1725 - 1729
      Abstract: Background: Drug utilization study is essential, as safe and effective therapeutic regimen in paediatric population is challenging. Pattern of use of drugs in pediatrics vary as compared to adults, also there is limited data available. The objective of this study was to study drug utilization pattern in pediatric patients attending pediatric outpatient department of Maindarkar pediatric hospital, Latur.Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out for a period of six months from September 2019 to February 2020, by analysing a total 1000 prescriptions of patients who had visited the OPD of Maindarkar pediatric hospital. Prescriptions were selected by simple random sampling method.Results: In our study, out of the total of 1000 prescriptions, 244 (24.4%) were of neonates, 556 (55.6%) were of infants (1 month to 1 year) and 200 (20%) were of children above 1 year. 547 (54.7%) prescriptions were of male patients and 453 (45.3%) were of female patients. The most frequent classes of drugs prescribed were nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs 704 (70.4%), followed by drugs used for respiratory disorders 655 (65.5%) and supplements (60%). Antimicrobials were prescribed in 498 (49.8%) prescriptions. The average number of drugs per prescription was 2.45. About two third of all the prescribed drugs (74.41%) were from national essential medicine list. Most of the prescriptions had oral drug formulation 825 (82.5%) followed by inhalational 208 (20.8%) followed by injectables 150 (15%). All the drugs were prescribed by brand names.Conclusions: Our study helps health-care system to understand, interpret and improve prescribing, administration, to minimize adverse events and promote rational use of medicines.
      PubDate: 2020-10-21
      DOI: 10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20204502
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2020)
  • In vitro evaluation of antibacterial activity in ethanolic extract of
           whole plant Sphaeranthus indicus Linn.

    • Authors: Preeja K. Sundaresan, Kala P. Kesavan
      Pages: 1730 - 1734
      Abstract: Background: Sphaeranthus indicus Linn is a widely used medicinal plant in Indian traditional system of medicine against human pathogens. Alarming bacterial resistance is urging scientist to search for newer anti-microbial substances from the medicinal plants. The objective of the study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract of the whole plant Sphaeranthus indicus Linn (Asteraceae).Methods: The antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract of whole plant of Sphaeranthus indicus Linn was done against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis and Staphylococcus aureus in Mueller Hinton Agar (MHA) and compared with ciprofloxacin as standard by disc diffusion method.Results: The study revealed that there was no zone of inhibition in doses of 100 mcg, 200 mcg and 300 mcg of ethanolic whole plant extract of Sphaeranthus indicus in MHA plates compared with ciprofloxacin 30 mcg.Conclusions: Ethanolic extract of Sphaeranthus indicus does not have antibacterial activity. Further studies are needed in different extracts and parts of the plant. Simultaneous studies can be done in different places to evaluate environmental factors and regional variations.
      PubDate: 2020-10-21
      DOI: 10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20204409
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2020)
  • Domperidone induced galactorrhea: rare presentation of a common drug

    • Authors: Suman Ruhela, Indira Sahu, Manish Ruhela, Rakesh Kumar Ola
      Pages: 1735 - 1736
      Abstract: Domperidone is one of the cheapest and also effective anti-emetic drugs which is very commonly used as an over-the-counter drug. Galactorrhoea is a rare side effect of domperidone. We report a case of a female patient who was prescribed domperidone for migraine headache with vomiting. While taking the drug, she developed galactorrhoea, and after discontinuing domperidone therapy, her galactorrhoea subsided.
      PubDate: 2020-10-21
      DOI: 10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20204503
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2020)
  • Nontraumatic bilateral atypical femoral fractures associated with
           long-term alendronate therapy

    • Authors: Olayinka A. Ogundipe
      Pages: 1737 - 1743
      Abstract: Alendronate is a bisphosphonate commonly used in the treatment of post-menopausal and steroid-associated osteoporosis. Bisphosphonates have an evidence base for reducing the occurrence of typical osteoporotic fractures. However, there has been growing recognition of a correlation with the use of long-term therapy with bisphosphonates, and rare occurrence of atypical femoral fractures (AFFs). This report describes a 72-year-old caucasian woman presenting with evolving groin and thigh pains of two weeks duration. Plain X-rays noted features compatible with bilateral impending femoral subtrochanteric fractures. She had been taking oral alendronate 70mg weekly for ten consecutive years as treatment for osteoporosis. Based on the medication history, the absence of preceding trauma or a fall, and the presence of supportive radiological findings, the diagnosis was made of impending bilateral proximal femur fractures secondary to long-term bisphosphonate therapy. The alendronate was discontinued, and the patient managed with two planned successive surgeries involving the insertion of intertrochanteric antegrade nails (inter-TAN) to both femurs. Following a period of rehabilitation, she was successfully discharged home. Some pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic considerations of bisphosphonates are discussed. The write-up presents a brief literature review of AFFs. The index report is further reviewed in relation to the American society for bone and mineral research (ASBMR) task force’s recommended case definition of what constitutes AFFs. The discussion concludes with the application of two previously validated causality assessment systems (CAS). In this instance, both CAS indicated a ‘probable’ classification for the adverse drug reaction (ADR) to prolonged usage of oral alendronate.
      PubDate: 2020-10-21
      DOI: 10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20204504
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2020)
  • Rosuvastatin induced gynecomastia: a rare presentation of newer statin

    • Authors: Suman Ruhela, Manish Ruhela, Rakesh Kumar Ola, Mahesh Rao
      Pages: 1744 - 1745
      Abstract: Gynecomastia is a common benign disease characterized by the progressive enlargement of the glandular tissue of the male breast. The etiology may vary and may be physiological, pharmacological, pathological, or even idiopathic. Among men, drug induced gynecomastia may account for 10-20% of cases. Several case reports have associated this condition to the use of statins. However, there are few case reports of rosuvastatin induced gynecomastia have been reported in literature. We describe a 45-year-old male who developed bilateral gynecomastia after one month of rosuvastatin therapy, after switching to a different or less potent statin (atorvastatin), his symptoms resolved with-in one month. Use of the Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale indicated a possible relationship between the patient’s development of gynecomastia and rosuvastatin therapy.
      PubDate: 2020-10-21
      DOI: 10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20204505
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2020)
  • Acute ST-elevation myocardial infraction after use of oral sumatriptan: a
           rare presentation

    • Authors: Indira Sahu, Manish Ruhela, Rakesh Kumar Ola
      Pages: 1746 - 1748
      Abstract: Sumatriptan is an agonist of 5-hydroxytryptamine type-1 (5HT1) receptors that is widely used as a migraine abortant; however, there have been studies showing angina, coronary vasospasm, and even myocardial infraction in patients with predisposing cardiac risk factors. We present the case of a female patient with no cardiovascular risk factor who developed ST-elevation myocardial infraction 30 minutes after ingesting oral sumatriptan for her migraine.
      PubDate: 2020-10-21
      DOI: 10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20204506
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2020)
  • Insight into ongoing and emerging therapeutic options for COVID-19: a

    • Authors: Shweta Singla, Amanjot Kaur, Mandeep Kaur
      Pages: 1749 - 1756
      Abstract: ABSTRACTThe outbreak of novel coronavirus (COVID-19) has evolved into a global pandemic and has posed significant threats to health and the economy worldwide. It can manifest from mild disease to severe respiratory failure requiring intensive care management. Currently, there is no sufficient evidence that any existing drugs can effectively treat SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia though supportive care remains the mainstay of treatment. However, there are many ongoing clinical trials of potential anti-COVID-19 therapies including the vaccines. In the current review, we Summarized the information available about COVID-19 medications, and treatment options.
      PubDate: 2020-10-21
      DOI: 10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20204496
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2020)
  • A review of potential pharmacological treatments of COVID-19: an
           evidence-based perspective

    • Authors: Vikas Kumar, Gyan Vardhan, Kalpana Tiwari, Puneet Dhamija
      Pages: 1757 - 1765
      Abstract: Coronaviruses (CoVs) typically manifest as mild to severe respiratory tract infections. No drug is approved by US food and drug administration (FDA) for the treatment of patients with coronaviruses infection. With growing COVID-19 pandemic globally, need of hour is to work on potential prophylactic and therapeutic drugs to prevent local and community transmission. A literature search for eligible studies published till March 2020 was conducted in the PubMed, Medline, EMBASE, OVID, and Google Scholar databases by two reviewers. Therapeutic efficacy and safety of different drug regimens targeting treatment pathway acting against corona virus-2019 (COVID-19) were reviewed. Possible mechanism of actions of these potential repurposed drugs against COVID-19 were reviewed to develop effective prevention and treatment strategies. Many potential pharmacological therapies are being studied in various clinical trials. No FDA-approved repurposed drugs have shown safety and efficacy in randomized controlled trials for patients with COVID-19. Vaccines are under development and only few vaccines are under clinical evaluation. This review highlights potential drug actions against COVID-19 and their safety issues. It could help researchers and physicians to use these potential agents judiciously in clinical trials as well as in treatment protocols.
      PubDate: 2020-10-21
      DOI: 10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20204507
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2020)
  • Hypoxia inducible factor stabilizers: a promising treatment for chronic
           kidney disease

    • Authors: Koushiki Mani, Johnny Karini, Kuntolika Mani, Ananya Amrit
      Pages: 1766 - 1769
      Abstract: Anemia in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a very common complication. The two main factors contributing to the development of anemia in CKD is decreased erythropoietin production and iron deficiency. Other factors that might play a role in the pathogenesis of renal anemia are: chronic inflammation leading to increased hepcidin, uremic toxins, and shorter red blood cell life span. The mainstay of treatment is iron supplementation, blood transfusion and erythropoietin stimulating agents (ESA). The discovery of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) pathway has opened a new chapter in the treatment of anemia in CKD. The oxygen-sensitive HIF pathway plays a prominent role in the control of erythropoiesis and iron metabolism. HIF stabilizers are a new set of drugs that inhibits prolyl hydroxylase domain (PHD) proteins which are key regulators of HIF activity. Several such compounds are being developed to revolutionize the treatment of renal anemia.
      PubDate: 2020-10-21
      DOI: 10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20204508
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2020)
  • An overview of treatment options for COVID-19

    • Authors: Madhusmita Mohanty Mohapatra, Manju Rajaram, Dharm Prakash Dwivedi, Vishnukant Govindraj, Pratap Upadhya
      Pages: 1770 - 1777
      Abstract: Severe acute respiratory syndrome- coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) which emerged in Wuhan initially as pneumonia of unknown origin in December 2019, later spread to whole world and became pandemic on 11th March, 2020. Many drugs have been proposed but are backed without clinical evidence. Scientific bodies are in the row to discover a reliable vaccine and effective drugs against the novel coronavirus. Many antiviral and anti-parasitic drugs which were thought to have some effect on Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been tried during the crisis but none have shown concrete evidence of action. Randomized clinical trials on the repurposed drugs are now registered under clinical trial registry to look at the safety profile and efficacy of the drugs to be used against SARS-CoV-2. Many meta-analyses are being conducted worldwide to frame evidence for the fight against this novel coronavirus. We are providing below a review of various drugs that have been tried for treatment of COVID-19 as well as different clinical trials which are underway.
      PubDate: 2020-10-21
      DOI: 10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20204509
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 11 (2020)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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