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Publisher: Medip Academy   (Total: 12 journals)   [Sort by number of followers]

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Intl. J. of Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Clinical Trials     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Community Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Contemporary Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Reproduction, Contraception, Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Intl. J. of Research in Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Research in Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Research in Orthopaedics     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Scientific Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. Surgery J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
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International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology
Number of Followers: 3  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2319-2003 - ISSN (Online) 2279-0780
Published by Medip Academy Homepage  [12 journals]
  • Effect of sulfonylureas on attenuation of electrocardiographic ST- segment
           elevation during an acute myocardial infarction in diabetics

    • Authors: Bapugouda Sahebagouda Patil, Naser Ashraf Tadvi
      Pages: 579 - 584
      Abstract: Background: Sulfonylureas are primarily used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus act by inhibiting ATP sensitive potassium ATP (K-ATP) channels. Similar channels are also present are also present in heart venticular muscle. Previous studies reveal that these drugs are able to reduce the electrocardiographic ST- segment elevation changes during an acute myocardial infarction. Hence, the present study was designed to evaluate the attenuating effect of sulfonylureas on ST- segment elevation in diabetic patients presenting with acute myocardial infarction.Methods: This cross sectional study included 73 diabetic patients presenting with the signs and symptoms of acute myocardial infarction of less than 24 hours duration along with CPK levels of more than 25 IU/L. Of them 5 were excluded from the study. The remaining 68 patients were included in the study, out of which 36 patients were in the study group (sulfonylurea group), and 32 patients were in the control group (non-sulfonylurea group).Results: No statistically significant difference was seen in the demographic parameters like age, sex, duration of diabetes mellitus and CPK levels (p>0.05). Among 68 patients 38 patients were diagnosed as STEMI. The mean magnitude of ST-elevation in the study group (n=16) was 2.3±0.12 and in control group (n=22) patients it was 3.7±0.33. The percentage of NSTEMI was significantly higher in study group compared to control. Statistically significant difference (p<0.05) was seen only between CPK level of range 25 and 100IU/L and mean magnitude of ST-segment elevation in STEMI patients. Significant difference in the mean magnitude of ST-segment elevation was observed in case of females among the study and control groups (p<0.05).Conclusions: Sulfonylureas drugs play a significant role in attenuation of ST-segment in diabetic patients presenting with acute myocardial infarction. Further, large multicentric studies are required to confirm the exact correlation between sulfonylureas and ST-segment.
      PubDate: 2018-03-23
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
  • Antibiotic sensitivity pattern of bacterial isolates from urine samples of
           admitted patients with urinary tract infection in a tertiary care teaching
           hospital of Tripura, India: a hospital record based study

    • Authors: Uttam K. Das, Prithul Bhattacharjee, Shubhaleena Debnath, Maitrayee Chakraborty, Ranjib Ghosh, Lakshman Das, Dipankar Chakraborty
      Pages: 585 - 589
      Abstract: Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI) being one of the most common and a serious health problem both in the community and hospital settings each year worldwide, the emergence of antibiotic resistance in the management of UTI is a serious public health issue. The present study will analyse the antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of pathogens isolated from the urine samples of admitted patients suffering from UTI in Tripura Medical College and Dr. B.R. Ambedkar Memorial Teaching Hospital (TMC).Methods: This was a hospital record-based study. The urine samples of clinically diagnosed UTI patients admitted in various departments of the hospital during the study period were included. The reports of culture and sensitivity testing of the samples were collected. The results were interpreted according to the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI).Results: During the 12-month study period, a total of 752 urine samples were analysed. Enterococcus (43.75%) was the most frequently isolated bacteria, followed by E. coli (28.45%) and Klebsiella (14.89%). Enterococcus was highly sensitive (p<0.001) to vancomycin (95.33%), E. coli was mostly sensitive to nitrofurantoin (83.65%) and Klebsiella mainly sensitive to imipenem (75.49%).Conclusions: The study showed that positive urine culture with the antibiotic sensitivity of the isolates is very important for antimicrobial therapy, as antibiotic resistance is a worldwide problem which causes ineffectiveness of treatment.
      PubDate: 2018-03-23
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
  • Effect of Vitamin E on oxidative stress and outcome of treatment in
           patients of anxiety disorder

    • Authors: Sangita Devrao Jogdand, Raju Kamlakarrao Shinde
      Pages: 590 - 593
      Abstract: Background: The purpose of present study was to assess effect of Vitamin E administration on oxidative stress and outcome of treatment of anxiety disorder.Methods: 80 newly diagnosed patients of anxiety disorder of age 20 to 60 years were included in the study. They were divided in to two groups containing 40 patients in each group. Group-I patients were given treatment with Tablet Clonazepam 0.5mg orally daily at night for six months. Group-II patients were treated with Tablet Clonazepam 0.5mgand Capsule Vitamin E 400 mg twice a day for 6 months. Levels of Mean MDA, SOD and anxiety score were assessed monthly for six months.Results: Group-I (N=38) patients treated with Tablet Clonazepam 0.5mg orally at night show significant increase in Oxidative stress. Mean MDA- 18.80±0.37 increased to 27.97±0.81, SOD- 0.143±0.004 decreased to 0.111±0.004 and decrease in mean anxiety score from first month 12.44±1.24 to last month of treatment 2.55±0.72. In group-II patients(N=37) treated with Clonazepam and Vitamin E there was decrease in mean MDA levels from 18.78±0.45 to 12.56±0.54 and increase in mean SOD levels from 0.141±0.007 to 0.180±0.000. There was reduced anxiety score in group-I from 12.44±1.24 to 2.55±0.72 and in group II from 12.54±1.26 to 1.86±0.58 which was statistically significant. p value <0.05.Conclusions: Treatment of patients treated with Clonazepam showed a significant increase in oxidative stress. In patients treated with Clonazepam and Vitamin E there was more reduction in overall oxidative stress and anxiety.
      PubDate: 2018-03-23
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
  • Cost variation among antiretroviral drugs: pharamcoeconomical prospective

    • Authors: Dinesh Jiwane, Arun Kumar Srivastav, Neelesh Arya, Mithlesh Mehar
      Pages: 594 - 597
      Abstract: Background: Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a disorder caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Main characteristic feature of AIDS includes severe immunosuppression which leads to opportunistic infections which is a main cause of death and requires a lifelong therapy. There exists wide range of cost variation in antiretroviral drugs that are marketed in India. The current study aims to view the existing situation of antiretroviral drugs, by collecting data about the cost of common antiretroviral drugs available either singly or in combination and to evaluate the difference in cost of different brands of same active drug by calculating percentage cost variation.Methods: Data for calculating cost ratio and percentage price variation of various antiretroviral drugs was obtained from “Current Index of Medical Specialties” October 2017-January2018.Results: Zidovudine 100mg shows maximum cost ratio and price variation followed by Lamivudin 100mg in the single drug therapy. Lamivudine 150mg + Zidovudine 300mg shows maximum price variation in combination drug therapy.Conclusions: Indian market shows wide price variation of different brands of the same generic antiretroviral drug. To decrease the wide cost variation among different brands of antiretroviral drugs; it is time to create awareness among healthcare professionals about impact of cost effectiveness of drug regimen and decrease the financial burden on the patients.
      PubDate: 2018-03-23
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
  • Study of prescription pattern in a tertiary care hospital in Chhattisgarh,
           India: an observational study

    • Authors: Purnima Raj, Subhankar Choudhury, Sumati Kundu, Satyam Patel, Bhagwati Sidar
      Pages: 598 - 602
      Abstract: Background: Prescription audit is one of the methods to assess the drug utilization pattern and rational use of drugs. In our country the value of drugs prescribed is in crores but a significant proportion of drugs is prescribed irrationally. This is probably due to defect in prescription pattern, lack of knowledge in health care personnel, pressure from drug manufacturing companies and many more. To promote rational use of drugs, standard policies must be set and this can be achieved only after auditing current prescription practices.Methods: A prospective study was carried out in Medical college hospital, Raigarh in the month of January 2018. Around 1000 prescriptions were collected randomly from pharmacy and the prescriptions were analysed on various parameters like patient’s demography, parts of a prescription, information related to doctor and drugs.Results: In this study, we found that percentage of generic drugs were 58.02% and 70.43% drugs were from essential drug list. Only 13.19% FDCs were used. 34 prescriptions were illegible and capital letters were used only in 26 prescriptions. We also found deficiency in parts of a prescription like inscription part (13.3%), subscription part (26.9%) and in doctor’s identity (33.2%). The majority of drugs were antimicrobials (23.81%) followed by anti-inflammatory and analgesics (21.1%).Conclusions: This study shows that the use of generic drugs and essential drugs is on the lower side as compared to standard guidelines. The prescription pattern was defective in many prescriptions. This study shows incompleteness of prescriptions and proper steps are needed to guide the physicians to promote rational use of drugs.
      PubDate: 2018-03-23
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
  • Analgesic activity of allopurinol and febuxostat in experimental animals

    • Authors: Yajnesh P. Sahu, Sachchidanand Pandey, Sabita Mohapatra
      Pages: 603 - 607
      Abstract: Background: Currently, two classes of analgesics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and opioid analgesics are used to manage pain in different clinical situations. Chronic uses of these drugs have various adverse effects like gastric ulceration/bleeding, analgesic nephropathy and respiratory depression, physical dependence, addiction, respectively. Xanthine oxidase inhibitors, used for chronic gout, might have a role in alleviation of pain, as per literature survey. Hence, the present study was carried out to evaluate the potential analgesic activity of allopurinol and febuxostat in different experimental models.Methods: The analgesic activity of allopurinol and febuxostat was assessed by employing two different experimental pain models-tail flick latency model in rats for central analgesia and acetic acid induced writhing model in mice for peripheral analgesia and was compared with tramadol and aspirin.Results: Allopurinol and febuxostat produced significant central and peripheral analgesic effects as is evident from increase in reaction time in tail flick test and inhibition in number of writhes in acetic acid induced writhing test.Conclusions: The results of the present study demonstrate marked analgesic effect of allopurinol and febuxostat.
      PubDate: 2018-03-23
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
  • Spectrophotometric assessment of effect of aqueous extract of Aloe vera on
           rabbit erythrocytes in varying concentrations of saline

    • Authors: Vikalp Tiwari, Ashutosh Tiwari, Pooja Solanki Mishra, Vatsala Maheshwari
      Pages: 608 - 611
      Abstract: Background: Hemolytic disorders are one of the prime reasons for frequent blood transfusions which involves lots of costs and sufferings to the patient. This study was undertaken to determine the effect of water soluble extract of Aloe vera on rabbit erythrocytes in varying concentrations of NaCl from 0.9% (isotonic) to 0.15% (hypotonic).Methods: Aqueous extract of Aloe vera (AVE) 200mg/kg was orally administered to rabbits in the test group while control group was given 1ml of distilled water (DW). Blood was withdrawn from rabbits, centrifuged and suspension in 1ml of normal saline was made. 20 microliter of red blood cells suspension from both control and test groups was added to normal saline of varying concentrations from 0.9% to 0.15% NaCl which were quantitatively analysed for hemolysis by UV spectrophotometer. Data was analysed by unpaired t test and P <0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results: The difference in percentage of hemolysis in both test and control groups was not statistically significant. Therefore, acute administration of water soluble extract of Aloe vera (200mg/kg) did not have protective effect on rabbit erythrocytes against hypotonic solution of normal saline.Conclusions: Aloe vera might be useful for the treatment of oxidative stress-related human disorders by virtue of its antioxidant activity and may have a role in prevention of hemolysis which needs to be explored by further studies.
      PubDate: 2018-03-23
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
  • A comparative assessment of the impact of computer assisted learning of
           knowledge and skill based competencies among undergraduate students in a
           medical college in South India

    • Authors: Jeyalalitha Rathinam, Divakar R., Subahan S. P., Preethi A., Vanitha G., Punitha R.
      Pages: 612 - 616
      Abstract: Background: Pharmacology has always been one subject ultimatum and a cornerstone in building up competency, based on applied therapeutics among medical graduates in prescribing and practicing skills. A focus on an integrated strategical approach towards teaching pharmacology for better proficiency in achieving clinical skills is mandatory. Thus, this study has been done to assess the impact and retainment of overall knowledge gained on various domains, based on a revised method of teaching in pharmacology.Methods: An observational, questionnaire based comparative study was done in a medical college, in Chennai. The study included two group of students, one who have completed their pharmacology course based on the revised pattern of teaching with a comparative group of students who have not been exposed to the revised pattern of teaching. A feedback survey was also done.Results: The study results indicated that the average scoring based on the questionnaire was 84% with the students who have been exposed to revised pattern of teaching in comparison to the average scoring of 70% with the students who have not been exposed to the new pattern of teaching. The average scoring of the students who were found to agree to several questions on the new method of teaching was 74% and 22% of the students were found to disagree. 4% of students were non responders.Conclusions: The ultimate improvement in the outcome of health care education can be achieved through appropriate skill building through a simple strategical modification of the regular teaching pattern with an integrated approach involving pharmacologists and clinicians. A refresher course in pharmacology in the final year curriculum and CRRI involving pharmacologists is mandatory.
      PubDate: 2018-03-23
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
  • A comparative study on efficacy of nepafenac and flurbiprofen in
           maintenance of intraoperative mydriasis during cataract surgery: an open
           label randomized controlled trial

    • Authors: Sanjana Prakash, Basavaraj Bhandare, Satyanarayana V., Kaushal Kumar
      Pages: 617 - 621
      Abstract: Background: Surgery on the ocular tissue brings about activation of phospholipase A3 thereby releasing prostaglandins and leukotrienes. Prostaglandins bring about meiosis during surgery, changes in IOP, conjunctival hyperaemia. Newer topical NSAID’s Nepafenac and Flurbiprofen are potent inhibitors of the cyclooxygenase enzyme thereby inhibiting the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of preoperative use of topical Nepafenac (0.1%) and Flurbiprofen (0.03%) in maintenance of intraoperative mydriasis during cataract surgery.Methods: A randomised, comparative study was performed on 104 patients, 52 were allocated in each group and were given either of the topical NSAID’s Nepafenac or Flurbiprofen prior to cataract surgery. Pupillary diameter was measured at the beginning and at the end of the surgery and the values were compared between the groups. Mean and standard deviation was calculated and between two groups comparison was done using students t-test.Results: The mean pupillary diameter of the two groups were comparable at the beginning of surgery (p=0.34). The mean change in the pupillary diameter was 1.86±0.71mm in the Nepafenac group and 1.77±0.72mm in the Flurbiprofen group. There was no statistically significant difference among both the groups in maintenance of intraoperative mydriasis (p=0.47).Conclusions: Pre-operative use of Nepafenac and Flurbiprofen were equally effective in preventing meiosis during cataract surgery.
      PubDate: 2018-03-23
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
  • A comparative analysis of generic prescribing patterns among teaching and
           non-teaching clinicians in Nellore, India

    • Authors: Naveen Choudary Gorantla, Sree Nagamani Penupothu
      Pages: 622 - 625
      Abstract: Background: The aim was to study the prescribing patterns of clinicians working in two different settings i.e. Teaching clinicians (clinicians working in teaching hospital) and Non-teaching clinicians (clinicians involved only in private practice).Methods: A comparative cross sectional study was carried out for a period of 6 months in two settings. The study is confined to teaching clinicians comprising of qualified medical practitioners in ACSR Government Medical College (ACSR GMC) and Non-teaching clinicians of qualified medical practitioners in private health sector (PMPs). 450 prescriptions were collected from clinicians belonging to various departments of ACSR GMC and 450 prescriptions from private practitioners of Nellore city. Data was coded and entered in MS Excel. Data was analyzed on EPI INFO version 3.5.4.Results: In this study it was found that teaching clinicians prescribed 146 (12.85%) drugs by generic name, whereas non-teaching clinicians prescribed 112 (8.75%) drugs by generic name.Conclusions: The findings of the present study indicate that the drugs prescribed by the generic names were remarkably less in both teaching and non teaching clinicians. This indicates a need for improving the generic prescribing patterns in both the settings.
      PubDate: 2018-03-23
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
  • Assessment of knowledge, attitudes and practice among the post graduate
           students of dentistry and physiotherapy towards adverse drug reactions
           reporting and pharmacovigilance at a tertiary care centre at Indore, India

    • Authors: Gopal Gudsurkar, Vikalp Tiwari, Pooja Solanki Mishra
      Pages: 626 - 630
      Abstract: Background: Pharmacovigilance knowledge and training in post graduate student doctors is key factor for proper implementation of PvPI. Often the dentists and physiotherapists who are also one of the main stakeholders for ADR reporting are neglected for training and knowledge regarding pharmacovigilance. This study was planned to evaluate the knowledge and awareness of pharmacovigilance in post graduate students in tertiary care centre in Indore.Methods: It was a single point cross sectional questionnaire-based study conducted in a tertiary care Institute MGM Medical College and M.Y. Hospital in the state of Madhya Pradesh at Indore. It was conducted among post graduate student doctors from dentistry and physiotherapy. Total of 55 questionnaires were distributed, 50 of them were returned back and were analysed.Results: Overall knowledge level was average. 90% knew about ADR while 80% were aware about PVPI. 10% knew about local AMC at Indore while only 04% knew global centre for Pharmacovigilance is at Sweden Uppsala. 88% thought Med watch as global database for ADR against only 12% knew its Vigibase. 90% thought ADR reporting is necessary. 96% thought it should be included in UG curriculum. 98% had not reported any ADR till date while 84% had not seen an ADR form.Conclusions: Post graduate doctors are the prime candidates to impart the importance of pharmacovigilance. The study strongly suggested that there was a great need to create awareness and impart training among the post graduate doctors to improve the reporting of ADRs.
      PubDate: 2018-03-23
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
  • A study of habits of tobacco use among medical students and influence of
           various factors including medical education

    • Authors: Shailesh P. Parmar, Tushar R. Gosai, Krunal C. Solanki
      Pages: 631 - 635
      Abstract: Background: Tobacco use is a major preventable cause of morbidity and mortality. Tobacco usage among medical professionals should be reduced. It is important that they are aware regarding effects/ill effects of tobacco use, anti tobacco strategies, tobacco cessation technique to reduce tobacco usage among population.
      Authors undertook this study to understand tobacco use among medical students.Methods:
      Authors conducted cross sectional, descriptive study by collecting anonymous data of 414 undergraduate medical students of medical college, Jamnagar in predesigned forms. Data were analysed using MS-excel and graphpad prism.
      Authors used Fagerstrom test for nicotine dependence to assess nicotine dependence.Results: Tobacco users were 19.57%, among them 83.95% were smokers. Prevalence was higher in male (34.35% in male and 1.09% in female subgroup) and students with positive family history (36.81% in positive and 6.03% in negative family history subgroup). Current users were 7.73%. They were 8.20% in hosteller and 2.78% day scholar subgroups.
      Authors didn’t find statistical significant association of medical education with habit. Leading causes of starting tobacco use were curiosity/recreational purpose (35.8%), peer group pressure (32.10%) and stress (25.93%). Most of current user had low nicotine dependence (73.33%).Conclusions: Tobacco use among medical students is a significant problem. Important factors affecting it are gender, family history, current living status, stress, peer group pressure, media influences.
      Authors recommend that special awareness programme and specific training regarding tobacco cessation should be given to medical students.
      PubDate: 2018-03-23
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
  • Prescription audit of outpatients in tertiary care government hospital

    • Authors: Nuthan Kumar U. S., Nalini G. K., Deepak P., Prema M., Geeta Rathod, Mohith N.
      Pages: 636 - 639
      Abstract: Background: Prescription audit is a tool as well as a technique by its application,all professionals will improve the quality of prescribing drugs. Standards of medical treatment can be assessed by prescription audit. It is based on documented evidences to support diagnosis, treatment and justified utilization of hospital facilities. Prescription audit is a quality improvement process that seeks to improve patient care. In this background the present study was conducted. The objectives of the study were to know the frequently prescribed drugs in OPD, number of the drugs used per prescription and to find out the rationality.Methods: Study was conducted at Sri Chamarajendra Hospital, HIMS, Hassan in OPD of General Medicine.1000 prescriptions were collected and noted down the frequently used medication, number of drugs prescribed and their type of formulations for the particular diagnosis.Results: From the study it is noted that 1910 drugs out of 1000 prescriptions were prescribed which is approximately 1.91 drugs per prescription about 55% of the prescriptions contained single drug. Very few received 4-5 drugs (7%). Almost all the drugs in prescriptions were in Generic names. Around 95% of prescriptions doses were mentioned in mg, ml etc. The most commonly prescribed drugs in order are Antibiotics, antidiabetics antihypertensives, bronchodilators, steroids antiemetics and ORS were prescribed.Conclusions: Polypharmacy was not found in our prescriptions which indicates our prescriptions improved the patient conditions. This type of study will ensure to know the ‘P’ drug development and select the essential medicine list for various levels of health care.
      PubDate: 2018-03-23
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
  • Diclofenac-induced biochemical changes in nephrotoxicity among male Albino

    • Authors: Sivaraj R., Umarani S.
      Pages: 640 - 643
      Abstract: Background: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are associated with adverse renal effects caused by the reduction in synthesis of renal prostaglandins in sensitive persons or animal species, and potentially during long-term use in non-sensitive persons if resistance to side effects decreases with age. The effects of diclofenac sodium on the kidneys were studied during 4 1/2 hours in eight patients with normal renal function. Urinary output decreased within 10 min after the injection, and maximally by 80%. The renal plasma flow and the glomerular filtration rate initially diminished significantly, by 35%, but began to increase after only 2 hours. The dominant and persistent effect was a reduction of free water clearance, with maximum fall from 5.9 to 0.08ml/min after 2 1/2 hours. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of diclofenac-induced acute nephrotoxicity using biochemical parameters in rats.Methods: 12 male Wistar rats allotted in 4 equal groups were intraperitoneally injected with 0, 10, 50 and 100mg/kg diclofenac, respectively and 12 hours after injection, blood serum samples were collected for assessment of basic renal function test parameters such as urea, creatinine, and uric acid, sodium, Potassium.Results: Rats treated up to 50mg/kg diclofenac were considered to be within normal range in rats. By increase in dose more than 50mg/kg showed significant increases in uremia were evidenced in intoxicated animals. Observed specifically in group IV Rats.Conclusions: In this study, uremia, as an indicator of kidney damage, was significantly increased depending on dose. Diclofenac may cause kidney damage depending on dose and this effect may also be observed. NSAIDs-induced nephrotoxicity may be due to the inhibitory effect of these drugs on prostaglandin synthesis, thus causing kidney ischemia.
      PubDate: 2018-03-23
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
  • Evaluation of efficacy and safety of doxofylline 800mg sustained release
           tablet in treatment of patients with COPD: an open label, prospective and

    • Authors: Prakash Narayan Khandelwal, Syed H. Maaz, Dhammraj M. Borade
      Pages: 644 - 649
      Abstract: Background: COPD is a major cause of health care burden worldwide and leading cause of death that is increasing in prevalence. Methylxanthines are used in the treatment of patients with asthma and COPD. Doxofylline (methylxanthine) shows improved disease control, reduced total daily dose of inhaled b2 agonists and improved patient compliance.Methods: This was a prospective, open labelled, randomized, two-arm, parallel group, controlled, clinical trial. 115 patients were randomized to two groups. Patients in group A received tablet doxofylline 400mg BD whereas patients in group B received tablet doxofylline 800mg SR for 4 weeks. Primary outcome measure of trial was change in FEV1 and secondary outcome measure were change in FVC/FEV1, change in symptoms score, effect on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and safety of study medication.Results: At 4 week the FEV1increase by 13.028% and 17.647% in group A and B respectively. In group A FEV1/FVC increase by 5.79% and in group B it increases by 9.57% at 4 weeks. The symptom score of cough decrease by 77.35% and 97.43% in group A and group B respectively at 4 weeks. In group A shortness of breath decrease by 77.60% and in group B it decreases by 95.90% at 4 weeks. Tightness in chest decrease by 86.29% and 98.40% in group A and group B respectively at 4 weeks.Conclusions:Doxofylline 800mg sustained release tablet provided significantly greater improvement in FEV1, symptomatic control and health related quality of life compared to doxofylline 400mg. 
      PubDate: 2018-03-23
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
  • Anti-nociceptive effect of seed extract of Acacia tortilis in rodents

    • Authors: Neeraj K. Agrawal, Uma Gupta, Nitin Kothari, Shruti Chandra, Rashmi Singh, Shubham Pandey
      Pages: 650 - 654
      Abstract: Background: Management of pain is a primary clinical concern for any pathology in medical field. Addiction liability of opioids and troublesome gastrointestinal side effects of NSAIDs   leads to intensive research for compound with lesser side effects.The aim of the study to evaluate the anti-nociceptive activity of Acacia Tortilis Seed Extract (ATE) in experimental animals.Methods: First of all, animals were randomly allocated into four groups of six animals each. In acetic acid induced writhing test model, Group I (NC) served as vehicle control received saline/Tween 80 0.1%, 10ml/kg BW orally, group II (ATE-100) and III (ATE-200) received ATE in dose of 100 and 200mg/kg BW orally respectively and group IV received the standard drug diclofenac sodium in dose of 50 mg/kg BW orally. Group I to IV were same in rest of three experimental models. One additional group of standard drugs (group V) morphine sulfate in dose of 5 mg/kg BW subcutaneously (SC) was allocated for screening method hot plate and tail flick tests.  In Formalin induced paw licking test, three additional groups (group V) morphine sulfate in dose of 5mg/kg BW SC, group VI- morphine+naloxone (5mg/kg SC +2mg/kg intra-peritoneally (IP) and group VII - ATE+ naloxone (200mg/kg BW orally +2mg/kg BW IP) were also made.Results: The ATE when administered orally in dose of 100 and 200mg/ kg body weight (BW), produced significant analgesic activity (P <0.01) in acetic acid induced writhing syndrome and late phase of formalin test. In the hot plate test in mice and tail flick test in rats, ATE in same doses also showed significant analgesic activity (P <0.05) which is almost equally efficacious to standard drug diclofenac sodium (50mg/kg BW orally) but far less efficacious than morphine sulfate (5mg/kg BW subcutaneous).ATE (200mg/Kg BW orally) activity did not blocked by naloxone (2mg/kg intra-peritoneal).Conclusions: ATE possesss significant anti-nociceptive activity as evidenced in all the animal models of nociception. It might exert its effect through the peripheral mechanism of analgesic action possibly by interference in biosynthesis, release and/or action of prostaglandins and leukotrienes.
      PubDate: 2018-03-23
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
  • A prospective observational study to evaluate potential drug-drug
           interactions in patients admitted in intensive care unit, at BRIMS
           tertiary care hospital in Bidar, India

    • Authors: Shailander Singh, Swetha K.
      Pages: 655 - 659
      Abstract: Background: Drug interaction occurs when presence of one drug affects the activity of another when, both are co-administered. 6-30% of adverse events (AEs) with significant hospitalizations or death are by drug-drug interactions(DDI). There is increased possibility to prevent the potential drug-drug interactions (pDDIs), if their prevalence and pattern are determined accurately before their occurrence. Hence this study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of pDDIs in ICU patients at BRIMS tertiary care hospital, Bidar.Methods: This prospective observational study included 30 patients admitted in ICU of BRIMS hospital for >24hrs of either gender, aged >18yrs. The study was conducted for a period of 3 months. Data was collected from the case records of patients on the predesigned proforma. Potential drug-drug interactions were classified based on their severity and the risk of Potential drug-drug interactions was estimated by Lexicomp, inc.version; 3.0.1.drug interact android mobile application.Results: Out of 35 patients admitted in the ICU, 30 cases were included in the study. The mean age of study population was 56.3years. The study population was exposed to a total of 330 medicines during the hospital stay with an average of 11.7 drugs per patient. The prevalence of pDDI was 93.3% (28) with an average of 9.75 pDDI per patient. According to Lexicomp drug interact android mobile application majority (63%) of pDDI were found to be moderate in their severity, 67% belonged to type C risk.Conclusions: The study showed higher prevalence of pDDI among ICU patients due to the complexity of the pharmacotherapies administered.
      PubDate: 2018-03-23
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
  • Traffic accidents and medicine use in United Arab Emirates

    • Authors: Suleiman I. Sharif, Manal Al Sharawy, Dalia Makrem, Esraa Qasim, Dania Shemi
      Pages: 660 - 664
      Abstract: Background: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practice of drivers of the cautious driving while taken prescription and OTC drugs.Methods: A cross sectional questionnaire was developed, pre-validated and distributed to 150 drivers who showed willingness to participate in the study. The survey included questions on driving habits, number of accidents, and number of accidents due to sleep or medication use.Results: All drivers approached answered the questionnaire producing a 100% response rate with male: female ration being 1.2: 1. Slightly more than half (78, 52 and 80, 53.3%) the responders were within 17-28 years of age and with a university degree respectively. More than 50% of respondents follow driving regulations and more than two thirds (112, 74.4%) use seat built again the majority (133, 88.7%) never had traffic accidents. Use of medications as a cause of accidents was reported by only 4 (2.7%) drivers.Conclusions: Regardless of the low incidence of medication use related accidents, authorities are advised to develop new regulations with respect to driving under the influence of medications or when suffering diseases that affect driving ability.
      PubDate: 2018-03-23
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
  • Medical student’s perception on teaching-learning methods of
           pharmacology in a medical college

    • Authors: Lakshmi Sravanthi Mukku, Jagadeesh Alla, Ramya Rachamanti
      Pages: 665 - 668
      Abstract: Background: To know the Medical student’s perception on teaching and learning methods of pharmacology in a medical college attached to tertiary care hospital.Methods: This is a questionnaire based study conducted in a medical college. A pre-validated, pre-designed questionnaire containing 22 points was given to 5th semester students to know their perception on teaching and learning methods.Results: Analysis was done on 150 medical students of a tertiary care hospital. Among them, 80 % wanted the faculty members to make more utilization of Audio-Visual aids for effective learning. 78.67 % students wanted to include case based learning in the curriculum and 86.67% wanted more of the clinical pharmacology to be introduced. A 28% wanted MCQs (Multiple Choice Questions) to be included in the assessment of academic performance. A 13.33% felt that the ideal teaching method for learning pharmacology was didactic lectures. A 65% thought ideal teaching/learning media for pharmacology was the combination of LCD (Liquid Crystal display) projector and blackboard.Conclusions: The study revealed the ideal teaching and learning methods in pharmacology for the betterment of students.
      PubDate: 2018-03-23
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
  • Evaluation of levetiracetam and valproic acid as monotherapy on quality of
           life in patients of generalized tonic clonic epilepsy

    • Authors: Sanjay K. Verma, Suman Bala, Yashpal Singh, Saurabh Kohli, Juhi Kalra, Dilip C. Dhasmana, Taruna Sharma
      Pages: 669 - 675
      Abstract: Background: Quality of life plays an important role in patients of epilepsy and is the most neglected part during management. The antiepileptic drugs treatment results in seizure control but adversely affect the quality of life in patients.Methods: An observational analytical study was conducted in the Department of pharmacology with Department of Neurology of Himalayan Institute of Medical Sciences, Dehradun over 12 months. 85 patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria with diagnosis of generalized tonic clonic seizures (GTCS) were enrolled and divided into two groups based on physicians discretion and followed up for 12 weeks. Patients were evaluated for quality of life by QOLIE-10 self administered questionnaire at 0 and 12 weeks, assessed for seizure control and drug related adverse effects.Results: 85 patients were enrolled and divided into two treatment arms as per physician discretion, levetiracetam (41) and valproic acid group (44). Study drugs showed significant improvement in quality of life, levetiracetam showed mean change that was significantly greater than valproic acid (p=0.003) at 12 weeks. Patients who failed to achieve seizure control at 6 weeks were 17% patients in levetiracetam and 20% in valproic acid group, reason being non-adherence which was 17% and 20% respectively. Adverse events recorded with Levetiracetam (10), most common being increased sleep and with valproic acid (18), with most common being increased sleep and weight gain.Conclusions: Levetiracetam treatment resulted in better quality of life, with similar seizure control but decreased number of adverse effect then Valproic acid.
      PubDate: 2018-03-23
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
  • A prospective observational study on drug safety monitoring and
           Pharmacoeconomics in patients with locally advanced unresectable NSCLC in
           a tertiary care hospital

    • Authors: Jayakumar Sreenivasan, Seema P. Mohamedali
      Pages: 676 - 683
      Abstract: Background: Lung cancer is the deadliest type of cancer for both men and women. The study was aimed at learning and comparing the toxicities of various chemotherapeutic regimens for the treatment of carcinoma lung, which will help in the implementation of counter measures to avoid development of toxicities, with a constant vigil on the patients during chemotherapeutic cycles. This study also aimed at searching into the added economic burden to the unfortunate patient, who is already suffering from a deadly disease. Study also targeted at evaluating the performance status of the patients receiving the chemotherapy.Methods: The Adverse Drug Reactions (ADR) data was collected from 40 patients receiving chemotherapy for locally advanced unresectable carcinoma lung from the cancer wards of a tertiary care hospital over a period of 2 months. ADRs were graded according to WHO guidelines and their performance statuses were assessed using the Zubrod’s performance scale. Cost analysis of chemotherapeutic regimens was also carried out.Results: On comparison, alopecia and peripheral neuropathy were significantly more common with carboplatin-paclitaxel combination compared to other regimens (p value<0.005). Cost analysis reveals that the most commonly employed carboplatin-paclitaxel combination is more affordable when compared to the newer highly expensive agents but is costlier than cisplatin based chemotherapy. Also, carboplatin-paclitaxel combination offers a reasonably good performance status.Conclusions: Thus, carboplatin-paclitaxel combination is the preferred regimen for palliation in advanced NSCLC, especially in the older patients.
      PubDate: 2018-03-23
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
  • Effect of Lutein in the expression of PPARα and LDLR in
           hypercholesterolemic male Wistar Rats

    • Authors: Soundarya Priyadharsini K., Nirmala P., Ashok Kumar P., Krishna Prasad T.
      Pages: 684 - 690
      Abstract: Background: Hyperlipidemia is a well known risk factor for cardiovascular disease, especially atherosclerotic coronary artery disease. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα), a member of this nuclear receptor family, has emerged as an important player in this scenario, with evidence supporting a central co-ordinated role in the regulation of fatty acid oxidation, lipid and lipoprotein metabolism and inflammatory and vascular responses, all of which would be predicted to reduce atherosclerotic risk. The low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDLR) is the primary pathway for removal of cholesterol from the circulation, and its activity is meticulously governed by intracellular cholesterol levels. Hence in this study we investigated the effect of Lutein on PPARα and LDLR expression in liver of wistar rats.Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups of 6 each. Group I served as control. Group II III, IV, V and VI rats were received high cholesterol diet. Group III was treated with Atorvastatin 5mg/kg. Group IV, V and VI rats were treated with 25mg/kg, 50mg/kg and 100mg/kg of Lutein. After 16 weeks, liver tissue samples were collected from all the groups of animals to evaluate the expression of PPARα and LDLR.Results: The expression of Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDLR) was significantly increased in Lutein treated hypercholesterolemic male wistar rats.Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that Lutein activates LDL receptor and PPARα in hypercholesterolemic male wistar rats.
      PubDate: 2018-03-23
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
  • Evaluation and comparison of nephroprotective effect of Hemidesmus indicus
           Linn. and Withania somnifera Linn. on gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity in
           Albino rats

    • Authors: Mugdha Rajeeva Padhye, Sangita Devrao Jogdand, Jagruti Bhattacharjee
      Pages: 691 - 695
      Abstract: Background: Nephrotoxicity is a known deleterious effect of Aminoglycoside antibiotics. This class of antibiotics is used very frequently. It is well known that Gentamicin causes renal tubular necrosis in the proximal tubular cells. Phytochemicals are being studied extensively and have proved to be of benefit in various diseases. The use of phytochemicals would minimize the adverse effects encountered with these antibiotics. Comparison between various phytochemicals would help in optimizing dosage and duration of treatment. In the present study we studied and compared the nephroprotective effect of Hemidesmus Indicus Linn. and Withania Somnifera Linn. on Gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity in Albino rats.Methods: Wistar albino rats weighing 180-250Gms were utilized for the present study. The root extract of these Hemidesmus Indicus Linn. and Withania Somnifera Linn. was administered orally to rats for 10 days concurrently with Gentamicin. Nephrotoxicty was assessed following a single dose injection of Gentamicin. Nephroprotective effect was assessed after 10 days of administering Hemidesmus Indicus Linn. and Withania Somnifera Linn. Renal function was assessed using Blood Urea, Serum Creatinie, SOD (Superoxide Dismutase) and MDA (Malondialdehyde) as parameters.Results: Statistically significant improvement in renal function (p <0.05) was seen after administration of Hemidesmus Indicus and Withania Somnifera in Gentamicin treated rats. There was significant reduction in blood urea, serum creatinine and MDA levels with an increase in SOD levels.Conclusions: Withania Somnifera and Hemidesmus Indicus had nephroprotective effect. However, Withania Somnifera was found to be more nphroprotective than Hemidesmus Indicus.
      PubDate: 2018-03-23
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
  • Drug usage pattern of anti-hypertensive drugs in elderly diabetic,
           hypertensive in-patients with or without impaired renal function in a
           tertiary care hospital

    • Authors: Apeksha Bhandary, Prasan R. Bhandari
      Pages: 696 - 706
      Abstract: Background: Hypertension (HTN) and Diabetes mellitus (DM) are the leading contributors to the cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Drug utilisation studies (DUS) are potential tools in the evaluation in health care systems. Objectives was to analyse the drug usage pattern of anti-hypertensives in elderly hypertensive diabetic in-patients in a tertiary hospital. To analyse drug usage pattern of anti-hypertensives in elderly hypertensive, diabetic in-patients with renal impairment in a tertiary hospital.Methods: The study population consisted of 165 hypertensive diabetic in-patients at Shri Dharmasthala Manjunatheshwara (SDM) Hospital. Questionnaire based study was conducted and prescriptions of patient with HTN and DM at and above the age of 60 years irrespective of gender were included.Results: Our study revealed that angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) were the most commonly prescribed (42.4%) class of anti-hypertensive drugs. In patients with impaired renal function also ARBs were the most common class prescribed (22.0%). Out of 35 anti-hypertensive fixed drug combinations (FDCs) prescribed the most frequent combination was combination with an ARBs (85.7%). There was a significant increase in the number of anti-hypertensive drugs prescribed in patients with impaired renal function when compared to patients without impaired renal function (p <0.05). The cost index was high, and the percentage cost variation was more than 100% in most of the anti-hypertensive drugs prescribed.Conclusions: This study shows that the most commonly prescribed anti-hypertensive drug class was ARBs in patients with and in patients without impaired renal function.
      PubDate: 2018-03-23
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
  • Comparative efficacy and safety of DPP-4 inhibitors and α-glucosidase
           inhibitors as add on therapy in type 2 diabetes

    • Authors: Rajit Sahai, Taruna Sharma, Dilip C. Dhasmana, Nidhi Kaeley
      Pages: 707 - 713
      Abstract: Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a spectrum of metabolic disorders as a consequence of different pathogenic mechanisms resulting in hyperglycemia. A genetic predisposition to develop β-cell dysfunction synergizes with insulin resistance to lead to type 2 DM. Adequate management of type 2 DM requires institution of non pharmacological treatment followed by pharmacological treatment. Monotherapy is started initially followed by combination therapy (dual/triple). Sitagliptin, a DPP-4 inhibitor and voglibose, an α-glucosidase inhibitor has been implicated as an add on therapy to metformin and glimepiride. So, we aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of the sitagliptin and voglibose as add on therapy to metformin and glimepitide in type 2 DM.Methods: This open label randomized control trial was conducted in the department of Pharmacology among patients attending medicine OPD of a tertiary care hospital. 80 patients were randomly divided into two groups of 40 patients each. group A:sitagliptin + metformin + glimepiride and group B:voglibose + metformin + glimepiride. Patients were followed every week for a period of 12 weeks. Data was analysed using paired t test, unpaired t test and chi square test.Results: There was a significant decrease in HbA1c, FPG and PPG in both the groups. Intergroup comparison at 4, 8 and 12 weeks showed a better improvement in glycemic control in group A as compared to group B.Conclusions: Sitagliptin showed a better glycemic control than that with voglibose in patients with uncontrolled type 2 DM on metformin and glimepiride.
      PubDate: 2018-03-23
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
  • Effect of calcium channel blocker as anticonvulsant and its potentiating
           effect when used along with sodium valproate in pentylenetetrazole induced
           seizures in Albino rats

    • Authors: Roopa B., Janardhan M., Karunasree P.
      Pages: 714 - 717
      Abstract: Background: Many antiepileptic drugs were introduced for the treatment of epilepsy. Ideal antiepileptic drug should not only prevent but also correct the underlying pathophysiology without altering the normal neurotransmission. Calcium channel blockers may form such group because initiation of seizure is associated intrinsic burst firing which is triggered by large inward calcium current, so this study was done to evaluate the anticonvulsant effect of amlodipine in albino rats.Methods: A total of 42 adult albino rats were included in the study and divided into 7 groups, each containing 6 rats. Group 1 received distilled water, group 2,3 received sodium valproate 50mg/kg and 100mg/kg, group 4-6 received amlodipine 1, 2, 4mg/kg and group 7 received combination of Amlodipine 1 mg/kg and sodium valproate 50mg/kg. Pentylenetetrazole induced seizures model was done and onset of myoclonic jerks, onset of clonic convulsions and duration of clonic convulsions was studied.Results: There was a significant anticonvulsant effect in Amlodipine doses 2, 4mg/kg (p <0.001). The combination of Amlodipine (1mg/kg) and Sodium valproate (50mg/kg) also had significant anticonvulsant effect.Conclusions: Amlodipine, a calcium channel blocker has anticonvulsant effect and also potentiated the anticonvulsant effect of low dose sodium valproate.
      PubDate: 2018-03-23
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
  • A comparative analysis of anxiolytic activity of Arnica montana and
           alprazolam in rats using open field test

    • Authors: Puja Jha, Seema Bhalerao, Mrunal Dhole
      Pages: 718 - 722
      Abstract: Background: Anxiety affects around 7.3% of the total population worldwide. Benzodiazepines are preferred anxiolytic agents and are still frequently used in spite of the side effect profile including muscle relaxation, memory disturbances, sedation, physical dependence. Arnica montana, a traditional herb is known to possess significant anxiolytic effect at the dose of 100mg/kg. In this study, Arnica montana has been compared for the first time with alprazolam, a most commonly used anxiolytic drug.Methods: Forced swim test was used to induce anxiety. Anxiolytic action of study drugs which were given orally, was evaluated using Open field test (OFT) in healthy wistar rats of either sex. Behavior of rats, locomotion and number of squares crossed was recorded. Rats were divided into four groups with eight rats in each group. Study groups were Group I Control; Group II Alprazolam 0.08mg/kg; Group III Arnica montana extract (AME) 100mg/kg; Group IV AME + Alprazolam group 100mg/kg+0.08mg/kg. Statistical analysis was done using ANOVA followed by Tukey’s test (p<0.05).Results: Increase in frequency of rearing was significant (p<0.05) in AME group and highly significant (p<0.001) in Alprazolam and combination group in comparison to control. Decrease in frequency of grooming was highly significant (p<0.001) in Alprazolam and combination group. AME also showed significant (p<0.05) decrease in grooming activity.Conclusions: Arnica montana extract showed anxiolytic activity and can be used as an add on drug after further studies and validation in the treatment of anxiety disorders.
      PubDate: 2018-03-23
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
  • Effectiveness of a module to promote competency in adverse drug reaction
           reporting in undergraduate medical students

    • Authors: Nazuk Sharma, Taruna Sharma, Suman Bala
      Pages: 723 - 728
      Abstract: Background: Adverse drug reaction (ADR) under-reporting is a hindrance to the implementation of Pharmacovigilance Program of India. This is essentially due to lack of ADR reporting culture among healthcare professionals. Thus, study was conducted to assess and enhance awareness about ADRs and strengthen reporting among medical undergraduates.Methods: This is an interventional crossover study. A total of 140 students of 2nd professional, MBBS were included and divided into two groups of 70 each. In phase 1, group A was given a didactic lecture (DL) on ADR and pharmacovigilance. Group B was also given DL with an addition of a case narrative exercise and they were asked to fill an ADR form. Both groups were assessed based on an MCQ questionnaire for knowledge and skill. After 15 days of washout period, groups were crossed and reassessed. Feedback from students was taken on a 5 point Likert’s scale.Results: The mean scores of batch A without case was 17.5±3 out of a total score of 25 marks, which showed improvement with case narrative and mean increased to 19.6± 2.4 (p 0.05). Similarly, Batch B showed improvement as well and the mean 17.7±3.1 score without case narrative increased to 19.2±2.7 (p <0.05). Student’s perception of the effectiveness of module-based teaching was positive.Conclusions: Case narrative in addition to didactic lecture enhanced awareness and may strengthen ADR reporting culture among the medical students.
      PubDate: 2018-03-23
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
  • Monitoring, evaluation and comparison of adverse effect profile of
           ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin in acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic
           bronchitis patients attending pulmonology department of tertiary care
           teaching hospital: a prospective observational study

    • Authors: Sankar K., S. G. S. Rajesh Reddy V.
      Pages: 729 - 732
      Abstract: Background: In 2016, FDA recommended that “serious side effects associated with flouroquinolones generally outweigh the benefits for the patients with acute sinusitis, acute bronchitis and uncomplicated UTI”. Throughout India the most commonly used flouroquinolones for above conditions are Ciprofloxacin, Ofloxacin, and Levofloxacin. In this scenario, the present study was undertaken to monitor, evaluate and compare the adverse effect profile of Ciprofloxacin and Ofloxacin in acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis patients.Methods: Prospective, observational study done in 200 patients of tertiary care teaching hospital. The patients diagnosed with, acute bronchitis treated with Ciprofloxacin 500mg BD or Ofloxacin 400mg BD for 7 days were included in the study. The study duration was 6 months. ADR causality assessment was done with Naranjo algorithm. Statistical test applied was chi- square test.Results: 63 ADR were reported in Ofloxacin group and 19 ADR in Ciprofloxacin group. Insomnia was most frequent ADR (40%) in patients treated with Ofloxacin. There is high incidence of ADRs in ofloxacin group. chi square test showed this difference is statistically significant (p<0.05). Insomnia was significantly higher in ofloxacin group (p<0.05).Conclusions: In India frequently used and misused antimicrobials are fluoroquinolones. The present study concluded that no serious ADRs but ofloxacin group of patients have shown increased incidence of ADRs associated with CNS especially Insomnia. However, further large scale, multi-centric studies are needed to confirm these results. 
      PubDate: 2018-03-23
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
  • Evaluation of vitamins/tonics prescribing pattern in tertiary care
           teaching hospital and private sector

    • Authors: V. K. Bhardwaj, Navin Budania, Naveen Kumar, Arka Mondal, Suman Lata, Monika Sharma, Ritesh Kumar
      Pages: 733 - 737
      Abstract: Background: Rational use of drugs had been great concern by the government as well as public during the past several years. Monitoring of prescriptions studies could identify the associated problems and provide feedback to the prescribers, so as to create awareness about the irrational use of drugs. This study was conducted to evaluate the prescribing pattern of Vitamins/Tonics in government sector and private sector.Methods: This prospective study was designed to obtain statistical data on the prescribing pattern of Vitamins/tonics in patients of S.V.B.P. Hospital Meerut and other associated hospital/ clinics. The total study sample size was of 614 prescriptions. Out of these 439 prescriptions were from government sector, 175 prescriptions from private sectors.Results: Percentages of prescription with Vitamins/ Tonics were 35.76 and 48.57 in government and private sectors respectively and these differences are statistically significant. Percentage of drug prescribed as Vitamins/ Tonics of the total drugs was 8.68 and 10.19, in government and private sector respectively and these differences are statistically not significant. Vitamins/ Tonics were the most frequently prescribed drugs 16.52% and 17.14% in obs./ Gynae in both the sectors respectively, and least number of Vitamins/ Tonics 1.06% and 3.2% were prescribed in cardiology in both the sectors.Conclusions: The study indicates a big scope for enhancing the prescribing pattern of Vitamins/Tonics and minimizing the use of irrational Vitamins/Tonics, due to the fact most of the times it’s not needed, and it only put financial burden on Patients.
      PubDate: 2018-03-23
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
  • A comparative study for evaluation of cognitive function in type-II
           diabetes mellitus patients and non-diabetics

    • Authors: Dulcie Celia A., Ezhil Ramya J., Sriviruthi B.
      Pages: 738 - 743
      Abstract: Background: To evaluate the impact of type-II diabetes mellitus on cognitive function and to assess the factors associated with impaired function.Methods: This prospective study compared 100 type-II diabetic people attending the diabetic clinic of Tirunelveli Medical College Hospital with another 100 membered control group. The study group was selected randomly between the age group of 45-65 years. A neuro-cognitive assessment was done using Standardized Mini Mental State Examination (SMMSE), which is a simple and reliable screening test. This scale has 12 questions with time limits to assess orientation, memory, calculation, language, attention and construction. Magnitude and severity of cognitive decrement were analysed along with the possible factors affecting it.Results: Mean age of the study population was 54.6±7.24 years. Cognitive impairment was noted among 62 of cases and 48 of the control group, which means a 14% higher prevalence of cognitive impairment among the type 2 diabetics. The association of development of cognitive impairment and duration of diabetes mellitus was significant statistically (p value = 0.025443; p<0.05). Other demographic variables like gender, education and domicile were also seen to affect the results.Conclusions: Mild to moderate cognitive impairment was found significantly higher among the type-II diabetics than the non-diabetics. The cognitive impairment was found to be associated with the duration of diabetes. Hence the routine screening of cognition by SMMSE should be done in all type-II diabetic patients.
      PubDate: 2018-03-23
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
  • Impact of metformin on the severity and outcomes of ischemic stroke

    • Authors: Vahid Abbasi, Firouz Amani, Ameneh Faraji-Almoti
      Pages: 744 - 747
      Abstract: Background: Stroke is the third most common cause of death in the United States and the most commonly diagnosed neurological disorder. About 750,000 strokes occur annually in the United States and about 150,000 people die as a result of stroke. The aim of this study was evaluation of the effect of Metformin on complication of ischemic strokes.Methods: In this randomized, double-blind clinical trial study, 100 patients with ischemic stroke will be assigned randomly into two groups A and B. The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) will be used to evaluate the clinical manifestations of ischemic stroke. The two groups will be followed up for 3 months. Metformin 500mg twice in a day will be administered for seven days for group (A) and placebo will be administered for seven days for group (B). Blood glucose will be checked every 6 hours and will be recorded on the blood glucose (BS) chart. Before the intervention, the NIHSS questionnaire will be recorded in one day, three days, seven days and one month, two months, and three months after the intervention will be followed up respectively.Results: In the present study, according to the neuro-protective effects of metformin, there is a significant difference in metformin taking in the reduction of NIHSS Score in non-diabetic stroke patients. There was a significant association in metformin taking and decrease in NIHSS scores in patients with cortical ischemic stroke.Conclusions: According to the results, in patients with cortical stroke, there weren’t a significant difference in NIHSS between the two groups in the first, third and seventh days but in the first, second and third months after intervention the difference was significant. Also, the results showed that metformin reduced the severity and stroke symptoms and accelerated recovery and functional output in patients with cortical stroke after the first, second and third months.
      PubDate: 2018-03-23
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
  • The effect of heparin prescription before primary PCI on long-term and
           short-term clinical and para clinical results and the mortality of
           patients with acute coronary syndrome

    • Authors: Bijan Zamani, Asghar Abdollahi, Afrooz Mardi
      Pages: 748 - 752
      Abstract: Background: Primary PCI (PPCI) is the main reperfusion treatment for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Anticoagulation therapy should be administered in patients undergoing PCI in order to limit the ischemic complications. In this study, we evaluated the effect of bolus unfractionated heparin (UFH) before PPCI on clinical outcome of patients with STEMI.Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 196 patients (72.4% male with mean age of 63.02±13.37 years) with STEMI undergoing PPCI were randomly assigned to receive bolus UFH 60-90 U/kg in emergency room (case group) or during PCI (control group). Clinical outcomes, 30 day mortality, hematoma, left ventricle function improvement during follow-up were compared between groups.Results: In both groups there was good flow in the involved coronary artery after PCI. Case group compared to control group had significantly more cases with improved LVEF (28.1% vs. 9.7%, p=0.005). Also, case group compared to control group had more hematoma (3.1% vs. 0%, p=0.24) and higher mortality rate (6% vs. 4.2%, p=0.56) which had no significant difference between groups.Conclusions: PPCI in patients with STEMI accompanies with acceptable coronary flow irrespective of receiving bolus heparin. Receiving bolus heparin in these patients may have improved left ventricle function by increasing the rate of reflow. However, using bolus heparin did not accompany with increased rate of bleeding and had no effect on 30 day mortality rate.
      PubDate: 2018-03-23
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
  • Phytochemical evaluation and pharmacological screening of ethanolic and
           aqueous leaf extracts of Pupalia lappacea for antihyperlipidemic and
           antihyperglycemic activities in alloxan induced diabetic Albino wistar

    • Authors: Mehnoor Farheen, Chakrapani Ramesh
      Pages: 753 - 760
      Abstract: Background: Diabetes is associated with damage to the liver, pancreas and kidney. The damage may vary among patients. This study assessed the hypoglycaemic and antihyperlipidemic activities of leaves ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Pupalia lappaceae in alloxan induced diabetic albino wistar rats.Methods: There were Fifty four rats divided into nine groups containing six rats each. Group 1 consists of normal rats that were given only normal saline and served as a control group. Group 2 consists of normal rats that were given alloxan monohydrate (150mg/kg b.w). Group 3 consists alloxan induced diabetic rats that were given daily sterile solution. glibenclamide+simvastatin (5mg/kg) Group 4 consists of alloxan induced diabetic rats that were given daily sterile solution, AEPL extract (100mg/kg). Group 5 consists of alloxan induced diabetic rats that were given daily sterile solution, drug extract AEPL (200mg/kg). Group 6 consists of alloxan induced diabetic rats that were given daily sterile solution, drug extract AEPL (400mg/kg) Group 7 consists of alloxan induced diabetic rats that were given daily sterile solution, drug extract EEPL (100mg/kg), Group 8 consists of alloxan induced diabetic rats that were given daily sterile solution, drug extract EEPL (200mg/kg) Group 9 consists of alloxan induced diabetic rats that were given daily sterile solution, drug extract EEPL (400mg/kg respectively for 21days by an intragastric tube with free access of food and water.Results: Chemical composition of the plant was estimated by GCMS technique several biochemical parameters were assessed. Oral administration of the extract resulted in significant reduction in mean values of blood glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, cholesterol ratio, LDL, VLDL, accompanied by increase in the mean value of the HDL in diabetic rats and histopathology of liver, pancreas, and kidney showed significant changes.Conclusions: The effects produced were closely similar to standard antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic drug. It can thus be concluded that the ethanolic and aqueous extract of Pupalia lappaceae exhibit antihyperlipidemic and antihyperglycemic activities in alloxan induced diabetes in rats.
      PubDate: 2018-03-23
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
  • Prescribing pattern of anti diabetic drugs in patients suffering from type
           2 diabetes mellitus with co-existing hypertension in a tertiary care
           teaching hospital

    • Authors: Jay Kumar Sharma, Shailesh P. Parmar
      Pages: 761 - 766
      Abstract: Background: Diabetes mellitus and hypertension frequently co-exist in a patient. In such patients, the risk of complications, morbidity and mortality increases. One should be careful in management and choosing drugs.
      Authors undertook this study to understand the prescribing pattern of the physicians in diabetic hypertensive patients.Methods: This cross sectional, observational study was conducted in type 2 diabetic outdoor patients with co-existing hypertension, for duration of one year. We used descriptive statistics to analyze data of 615 patients to determine prescribing pattern of drugs.Results: 93.17% of patients were more than 40 years of age. Ratio of female to male patients was 1.30. Mean duration of diabetes was 5.81 years. Multi drug anti diabetic regimes (54.47%) were common than monotherapy (43.90%). Commonly prescribed anti diabetic drug groups were biguanides (89.27%), Sulfonylureas (43.90%) and insulin (15.28%). Metformin (89.27%), glibenclamide (29.11%) and insulin (15.28%) were commonly prescribed anti diabetic drugs. Metformin was the most common monotherapy drug and biguanide + sulfonylurea was the most common two drug combination. Commonly prescribed drugs for co-morbid conditions were enalapril (83.41%), aspirin (30.41%), amlodipine (29.76%) atorvastatin (27.32%) and famotidine (26.34%). Average number of drugs prescribed in a prescription was 4.65. Prescriptions with injections were 15.93% and with brand names were 13.15%.Conclusions: Prescribing pattern of drugs was as per current practices and recommendations of guidelines. Still, there is room for improvement in choice of drug, prescribing drug with generic name and choosing drug from essential medicine list.
      PubDate: 2018-03-23
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
  • Antidepressant activity of aqueous extract of Momordica charantia leaves

    • Authors: Abdul Haseeb M., Farida Ahmad, Anil Kumar
      Pages: 767 - 773
      Abstract: Background: Depression is a common debilitating illness contributing to increase in morbidity and mortality worldwide. 20% of all depressed patients are refractory to treatment with available antidepressants at adequate doses. Momordica charantia commonly known as Karela is widely used in Indian cuisine. This study was carried out to evaluate its lesser known Antidepressant activity. The objective of this study is to evaluate the Antidepressant activity of Aqueous extract of Momordica charantia leaves.Methods: This study was done in Department of Pharmacology, JNMC, AMU. Tail Suspension test and 5-Hydroxytrytophan induced Head Potentiation was evaluated in Swiss Albino mice. Forced swim test, Learned Helplessness test and Spontaneous motor activity was noted in Albino Wistar rats respectively at doses of AEMC (Aqueous extract of Momordica charantia leaves) 100mg/kg, 200mg/kg and 300mg/kg.Results: AEMC at all three doses 100mg/kg, 200mg/kg and 300mg/kg exhibited antidepressant activity by significantly decreasing the immobility time in Tail Suspension test and except 100mg/kg. In forced swim test psychostimulant activity of AEMC was ruled out in Spontaneous motor activity. Number of Escape failures was decreased in Learned Helplessness test at doses of AEMC 200mg/kg and 300 mg/kg. Increase in Head twitches was seen only with AEMC 300mg/kg in 5-Hydroxytrytophan induced Head Potentiation in mice.Conclusions: Aqueous Extract of Momordica Charantia leaves exhibits Antidepressant activity in animal models of Depression.
      PubDate: 2018-03-23
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
  • Drug utilization study and prescribing patterns in psychiatry patients at
           a tertiary care hospital

    • Authors: Venkatesh Perumal M., Surendra Kumar Bouddh, Nirmal S. R., Ashok Deshpande, Jai Singh, Natesh Prabhu M.
      Pages: 774 - 777
      Abstract: Background: The Drug utilization research (DUR) compares drug use between different countries and regions and is used to assess the rationality of prescribing pattern of the drug therapy. With this background we decided to evaluate antipsychotic drugs prescribing pattern in the psychiatric patients in a tertiary care hospital.Methods: The study was carried out at Department of Psychiatry, DSMCH. It was open label, cross - sectional, prescribed Documents based study. Duration of the study was one month (May-2017). Out-Patient number, age, sex, diagnosis, prescribed generic name, brand name, dose, route of administration, duration of therapy obtained from the Prescription register of Out - Patient Department of the Psychiatry.Results: The clinical experiences of the Psychiatrist I, II and III were 17 years, 35 years and 10 years respectively. The Psychiatrist I, II and III prescribed treatment for 36 (31.9%), 61 (54%) and 16 (14.2%) patients respectively. Among overall (n=113) patients (average age 38.9 years), male n=56 (49.6%) and female=57 (50.4%) were treated by all the three psychiatrists. The percentage of prescription of various drugs used were: Escitalopram (15.7%), Clonazepam (14.6%), Sertraline (8.7%), Risperidone (7.5%), Propranolol (6.7%), Olanzapine (6.3%), Quetiapine (5.9%), Trihexyphenidyl (5.5%), Amitriptyline (5.1%) and Other prescribed drugs, were between (0.4 to 2.8%).Conclusions: From this study, it can conclude that rational usage of drugs were followed in this study. All three prescribers (Psychiatrist I, II, and III) prescriptions were found to be rationale.
      PubDate: 2018-03-23
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
  • Monitoring of adverse drug reactions in medicine, paediatric and surgical
           departments of a tertiary care hospital: a prospective observational study

    • Authors: Sujatha Sowmyanarayan, Swati Banerjee
      Pages: 778 - 782
      Abstract: Background: the aim of the study was to monitor all adverse drug reactions in the departments of Medicine, Paediatrics and Surgery in a Tertiary Care Hospital.Methods: It was a prospective study undertaken in a 300 bedded tertiary care hospital. Patients presenting with adverse drug reactions in Medicine, Paediatrics and Surgery Departments were studied. Causality and severity of the adverse drug reactions were analysed Other parameters such as age wise and gender wise distribution of the ADRs, types of ADRs and drugs causing ADRs were studied.Results: There were 33 cases of ADRs were enrolled for the study in the duration of Sept. 2016 to Aug. 2017. Female preponderance was seen. The largest number of ADRs were seen in the age group of 21-30 years (30.3%). The most common ADR was skin rash (30.3%) followed by periorbital edema (12%). There were two SAEs namely Anaphylaxis and Steven Johnson syndrome. The most offending class of drug was antibiotics (30.3%) followed by intravenous fluids (12.1%).Conclusions: The maximum number of cases were reported from the Medicine Department which was 11 (33.33%). The highest number of ADRs fell in the probable category (63.6%). The number of cases of mild and moderate severity were equal (42.4%). The knowledge of these adverse drug reactions is necessary while prescribing drugs to patients as patient safety is absolutely essential. Also the healthcare provided by the institution will improve. This data has been collected with a view to establish an ADR monitoring centre at our hospital.
      PubDate: 2018-03-23
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
  • Safety and efficacy of tirapazamine as anti-cancer drug: a meta-analysis
           of randomized controlled trials

    • Authors: Sharanabasayyaswamy B. Hiremath, Srinivas Lokikere Devendrappa
      Pages: 783 - 791
      Abstract: Background: The benefits of achieving better response by adding tirapazamine, a specific hypoxic cancer cell killer to chemo and or radiotherapy is contradictory. This study aims at analyzing the efficacy and safety of tirapazamine, apart from understanding the reasons for its doubtful and inconsistent benefits.Methods: Electronic database search in PUBMED, EMBASE, Cochrane library was conducted using search term “tirapazamine”. Randomized or cross-over studies comparing effects of tirapazamine vs other active treatment or placebo in patients >18yrs with any type of cancers were included under analysis. Overall Survival rate was the primary outcome measure while the incidences of grade-3 and 4 adverse drug reactions were the secondary outcome measure. Inverse variance method and both random and fixed effect models were used in the analysis by RevMan 5.3 software.Results: Total six studies were eligible with 1034 patients included in the analysis. Tirapazamine failed to show significant effect on overall survival rate at the end of one year (HR: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.88, 1.05), two year (HR: 1.04, 95% CI: 0.98, 1.12), three year (HR: 1.01, 95% CI: 0.89, 1.15) and five year (HR: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.77, 1.23) compared to placebo group. There was a significantly higher incidence of muscle cramps (Risk Difference, RD: 0.06, 95% CI: 0.02, 0.11) and dermal adverse events (RD: 0.03, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.06) in tirapazamine group.Conclusions: With the available evidences from clinical trials and preclinical studies, use of tirapazamine may not be justifiable and so is to side line this drug as another failed drug.
      PubDate: 2018-03-23
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
  • Prescription pattern among patients having mild to moderate bronchial
           asthma using metered dose inhaler and dry powder inhaler in tertiary
           hospital in western india

    • Authors: Neha Akhoon, D. B. S. Brashier
      Pages: 792 - 795
      Abstract: Background: Bronchial asthma is a syndrome characterized by airflow obstruction that manifests as shortness of breath, wheezing and cough. The treatment is tailored according to the severity of the disease. The drugs used for treatment of bronchial asthma include inhaled corticosteroids, beta-2 agonists, methylxanthines, leukotriene antagonists and mast cell stabilizers. Despite the availability of all these drugs, which are recommended for the treatment, not every patient achieves complete control of the disease. The reason behind this could be irrational prescribing of drugs for the treatment and errors in the technique of using inhaler devices. Though rational prescribing of drugs and correct technique for the use of inhaler can be improved by proper training of target population, but there is paucity of such data in our country.Methods: This study was planned to monitor prescription pattern and errors in use of inhalation devices, in patients diagnosed as cases of mild to moderate bronchial asthma, attending Out Patient Department (OPD) of respiratory medicine of a tertiary hospital. A total of 207 patients were recruited and their prescription pattern and inhalation technique were assessed.Results: The study showed that inhaled short acting β2-agonists and inhaled corticosteroids were the most commonly used drug groups, which were prescribed to all the patients in the study, followed by long acting β2-agonists, leukotriene antagonists and methylxanthines in decreasing order.Conclusions: As a conclusion, the treating physicians were prescribing according to the laid down guidelines. It is concluded that such studies should be periodically done to ensure the adherence to the treatment guidelines.
      PubDate: 2018-03-23
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
  • A study of drug utilization pattern and pharmacoeconomic of antidiabetic
           drugs in patients attending a teaching hospital

    • Authors: Shanthi M.
      Pages: 796 - 801
      Abstract: Background: Drug utilization research establishes the current trend in the use of antidiabetic drugs including the new drug and to identify irrational prescription.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted for a period of one year (between August 2013 to August 2014) at outpatient department of Medicine, Sree Mookambika Institute of Medical Sciences, Kulasekharam, Kanyakumari District, Tamil Nadu.Results: A total of 169 prescriptions were evaluated during the study period. Diabetes mellitus was predominant among the female population in this region. Demographic details of the patient included in the study were mean weight 67.56kg, mean height 155cm and average body mass index 27.82kg/m2. All the patients were diagnosed and were known case of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Systemic hypertension was the frequently encountered co-morbid conditions associated with this endocrine disorder. Metformin was the drug chosen for managing diabetes as monotherapy and 73% of the patients were on combination of antidiabetic drugs. Glimepiride with metformin was the combination therapy frequently prescribed during the study period. Pharmacoeconomic analysis identified that drugs prescribed by brand name were costlier compared to generic equivalent.Conclusions: Utilization of antidiabetic drug therapy in this region has shown a changing trend compared to the previous studies. There is a gradual increase in the prescription of metformin and dramatic increase in the use of newer drugs like pioglitazone, voglibose and sitagliptin. Pharmaeconomic analysis revealed that glibenclamide was least expensive while sitagliptin was most expensive in this study.
      PubDate: 2018-03-23
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
  • A questionnaire-based study on knowledge and attitude towards counterfeit
           medication among the doctors in tertiary care hospital

    • Authors: Vijay Yadav, Navin Budania, Arka Mondal, Naveen Kumar, Ritesh Kumar, Vinod Kumar Bhardwaj, Vijay Kumar Chhockra, Nadish Garg, Aditi Punia, Priyamvada Sharma
      Pages: 802 - 806
      Abstract: Background: Counterfeit drugs are a global problem and suffered almost all developing and developed countries worldwide. In India, it is a major problem which results life threatening issues as well as financial loss on health system. So, we conducted a cross sectional questionnaire-based study on knowledge and exposure to counterfeit drugs of doctors at SHKM Govt. Medical College, Nuh, Haryana, India.Methods: A structured questionnaire was distributed to 100 registered doctors. The questionnaire was based on knowledge, attitude and its consequence on the heath system by the practices of counterfeit medication.Results: There were Twenty questionnaires excluded from the study due to incomplete information. Only 57.77% (46/80) subjects having the knowledge of questionnaire correct meaning of counterfeit drug. However, almost 90% (72/80) subjects were aware about its dangerous effects. More than 50% of the subjects have suggested that modern technology is capable to control counterfeiting of the medicine.Conclusions: Counterfeit drugs create a people health hazard and waste to consumer income. The proper knowledge, awareness and modern technological approaches are the devices may helpful in diminution of counterfeit medication practices. 
      PubDate: 2018-03-23
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
  • Cross sectional study on prevalence and medication adherence of
           hypertension and diabetes in a tertiary care hospital in Karimnagar, India

    • Authors: S. Sre Akshaya Kalyani, Srihitha Pendota, Abhinay Sharma Katnapally, Dharanija Porandla, Sandeep Bheemreddy
      Pages: 807 - 812
      Abstract: Background: The study aimed to assess the prevalence of Hypertension (HTN), Diabetes mellitus(DM) and other diseases along with comorbid conditions, disease complications and also to assess medication adherence in a tertiary hospital in Karimnagar, Telangana, India.Methods: A Cross sectional study is performed by analysing a total of 500 patient’s individual case safety reports (ICSR). Prevalence of Hypertension and Diabetes along with most prescribed drugs are analysed. Medication adherence is analysed by using Morisky Medication adherence questionnaire scale (MMAS-4).Results: Patients with past history of DM, HTN and other diseases which was found to be 245 (49%) patients. Patients with highest disease prevalence were found to be with HTN (56.73%), DM (31.83%) followed by other diseases like asthma (8.57%), Cerebrovascular accident (4.89%) etc., Total of 66 Patients were ruled out with comorbid diseases. Patients with HTN+DM (47) were found to be highest followed by DM+HTN+CVA (4). MMAS-4 revealed 208 patients were using medication out of 245 patients with previous history. According to MMAS-4 most of the patients were with medium adherence (76). Prevalent drug used for HTN include Amlodipine and for DM Telmisartan+Hydrochlorthiazide.Conclusions: The study revealed that almost half of the admitted patients were with HTN and DM. The patients were counselled properly to adhere strictly to the prescription. Medication adherence to HTN and DM was found to be good in this study. Since the disease complications were also ruled out, the health care professionals are recommended to spread awareness on DM and HTN and disease management in order to control disease and improve health outcomes.
      PubDate: 2018-03-23
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
  • Atrial fibrillation: a rare but probable adverse effect of sildenafil

    • Authors: Manish Ruhela, Rajeev Bagarhatta
      Pages: 813 - 815
      Abstract: Knowledge of the cardiovascular effects of sildenafil is important for a number of reasons. The main risk factors for the erectile dysfunction (hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, diabetes, smoking) are the same as those for coronary artery disease. The reported cardiovascular side effects of sildenafil in normal healthy population are minor and mainly associated with vasodialation (i.e. headache, flushing and small decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressure).
      Authors report the occurrence of atrial fibrillation after the use of sildenafil in a normal healthy individual. To the best of our knowledge, there are only few case reports in the literature showing occurrence of atrial fibrillation with use of sildenafil.
      PubDate: 2018-03-23
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
  • Aceclofenac induced morbilliform eruptions: a case report

    • Authors: Priyanki ., Praveen Kumar Sinha, Shruti Suman, Pranay Kumar Mishra
      Pages: 816 - 818
      Abstract: Maculopapular or morbilliform eruptions may be the most common of all cutaneous drug reactions. Antimicrobials, NSAIDS, barbiturates, anticonvulsants, oral hypoglycemics etc. have been commonly implicated in these adverse reactions (ADR). Here, authors are presenting a case of a 38-year-old female with morbilliform eruptions due to aceclofenac for the treatment of joint pain. The patient was treated with antihistaminics, steroids, antimicrobials and local application of GV paint. She was discharged after eleven days with good recovery.
      PubDate: 2018-03-23
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2018)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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