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Journal Cover Universal Journal of Public Health
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   ISSN (Print) 2331-8880 - ISSN (Online) 2331-8945
   Published by Horizon Research Publishing Homepage  [54 journals]
  • Evaluation of Nutritional Status in Relation to the Cognitive Performance
           of Medical Students at Oman Medical College

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2018
      Source:Universal Journal of Public Health  Volume  6  Number  1  Firdous Jahan   P.J.Joseph Francis   Rizwan Qasim   Zaid Mukhlif   and Zoya Shaikh   Objective: Dietary assessment to describe eating practices and asses the nutritional status of students in relation to the cognitive performance of students by Mini-Mental State Examination. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a food frequency questionnaire, Mini mental state examination, anthropometric measurements, and blood analysis for measuring hemoglobin(Hb) and glucose levels. Third year medical students of Oman medical college Sohar campus (Sample size, N=80) were involved in this study. Statistical Analysis was done using the food frequency, MMSE and blood analysis data to study the dietary patterns, nutrition status and cognitive performance of the students. Results: The data revealed low intake of legumes, eggs and red meat (mutton/beef), hence low protein intake by majority of students. 47.5% of the students consumed only two meals in a day. 20.9% of the students were underweight, 13.4% were overweight and 9% were obese. Physical inactivity was present in 51.2% of the students. Low hemoglobin (Hb
      PubDate: Jan 2018
  • Validation of the Declared Withdrawal Periods of Antibiotics

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2018
      Source:Universal Journal of Public Health  Volume  6  Number  1  Razia Khatun   Abdul Jabbar Howlader   Shamim Ahmed   Nazrul Islam   Khorshed Alam   Shariar Haider   Mohammad Showkat Mahmud   and Md. Amirul Hasan   Drug residues in poultry and poultry products are becoming an alarming or burning concern for public health because of improper use of drugs/feed additive, or failure to observe drug withdrawal period, non-existence of restrictive legislation and lack of consumer awareness in the poultry industry. The declared withdrawal periods and safe level/tolerance level of any antibiotics will be stay in same points. The aim of the study was to validate the declared withdrawal periods and to see whether there is any alteration of these declared withdrawal periods that farmers are practicing in in-situ and ex- situ condition in Bangladesh context. For this, a total of 2100 broilers and 2100 eggs were collected from different markets of poultry rich area in seven divisions of Bangladesh. Seven different drugs such as Enrofloxacin, Oxytetracycline, Ciprofloxacin, Sulfonamide, Chloramphenicol, Gentamycin, Furazolidone were used as Maximum Residue Limit (MRL). In case of Enrofloxacin, Ciprofloxacin and Sulfonamides residues persist in broiler meat after the declared withdrawal periods, on the other hand Oxytetracycline, Cloramphenical and Gentamycin maintains the withdrawal period as per stated but the Furazolidone disappears for broiler meat before the declared withdrawal periods. It was found that 55% poultry samples remain above MRL during 1-3 interval period's in the validation of withdrawal period indicates not safe for human health. It can be concluded that lack of observation of withdrawal period might be a common practice given the high level of antibiotics in the poultry farm of Bangladesh.
      PubDate: Jan 2018
  • Prevalence of Worm Infection in Relation to Body Mass Index in Children of
           5-10 Yrs of Age in Tehsil Narowal, Pakistan

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2018
      Source:Universal Journal of Public Health  Volume  6  Number  1  Muhammad Abdul Shakoor   Imtiaz Ahmad Khan   Hajira Ahmed   Mahpara Safdar   Zaheer Ahmed   and Asma Afreen   Aim: To assess the magnitude of worm infections, their type and to correlate the impact of worm infections in children with their body mass index. Method: The study was carried out on school going children for 5-10 years of age in Tehsil Narowal, District Narowal, and Pakistan. They were of different age groups with lower socio economic status. 406 children randomly selected from various government and private schools from the various union councils for both genders (male and female). Early morning fresh stool samples were collected in sealed labeled plastic containers with lid and analyzed microscopy for the presence of eggs/ova/larvae or worm infections in laboratory. Anthropometric measurements were taken at the spot by using measuring scale for weight and height along with their mid arm circumferences. Body Mass Index was calculated and compared with standard percentile charts for age and gender. Results: 145 (35.71%) children found with various types of worm infection. 56 (35.67%) and 89 (35.74%) children were positive with helminthes male and female respectively in the studied population. Sixth and seventh year of age in both male and female were more susceptible for the infestation. Taenia saginata was the more common found organism in gastrointestinal tract of male population and Giardia lamblia in female among the children of studied area. 137 (94.48%) children were infected with the single intestinal worm while only 8 (5.52%) children with more than one intestinal worm. 57.24% had lower, 41.4% had normal and only 1.4% had above normal BMI among infected children. Majority (65.9%) had normal, 27.2% had lower than normal, and 6.9% had above normal BMI found among non-infected children. Conclusion: From the results of present study it can be concluded that intestinal worms play significant role in reducing anthropometric measurement of school going children. The factors including personal hygiene, dietary habits, type of drinking water, animals and pets keeping, overcrowded and congested living environment, large family members, toilet facility, toilet trainings, personal hygiene awareness, PICA habits and lack of de-worming contributes largely towards the worm burden in the children. A single cause is not only the attributing factor to reduce the anthropometric measurements.
      PubDate: Jan 2018
  • Impact of Health Education on Awareness of Sedentary Lifestyle as
           Predisposing Factor to Cardiovascular Diseases among Secondary School
           Principals in Zone 4 Nigeria

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2018
      Source:Universal Journal of Public Health  Volume  6  Number  1  Adetoun Tayewo Akinwusi   and Olusola Jacob Odelola   Skeletal muscles contract to produce body movement. Essentially, skeletal muscle activities affect the health of other organs such as heart, adipose tissue, brain. Engaging in physical exercise enhances proper functioning of body organs, thus promoting healthy living. Nigerian secondary school principals are not known to engage in physical exercise, probably due to poor awareness of its importance to their health. Meanwhile, a life of inactivity otherwise called sedentary lifestyle is a risk factor to cardiovascular disease. In recent times, cardiovascular disease has led to a significant increase in deaths among administrators in Nigeria. Therefore, this study examined impact of Health Education on awareness of sedentary life style as predisposing factor to cardiovascular diseases among secondary school principals in zone 4, Oyo State, Nigeria. The study adopted a single group pre-test-post-test quasi experimental research design. Participants were given Health education on sedentary lifestyle and related diseases as its resultant effect. A split plot analysis of variance (SPANOVA) was employed to find the difference in pre-test-post-test scores of the participants. The result showed that, health education given was effective. The participants' awareness level increased, thus willing to refrain from sedentary lifestyle and adopt a sporting lifestyle. It was recommended that, the Ministry of Education should mandate school managements to create time during the school hours for principals and members of staff to engage in physical exercises. Also, health education in which disease prevention will feature prominently should form part of the agenda during meetings of school principals.
      PubDate: Jan 2018
  • Comparison of Different Saturation Pulse Types in a Series of Saturation
           Transfer Difference NMR Experiment Based on Cox-1 Enzyme and Ibuprofen

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Public Health  Volume  5  Number  6  Nil E. Binbay   and Berrin Ziyadanoğulları   Here we report, comparison of two different saturation pulse types with different shapes, Gaussian pulse and Reburp pulse. Pulses are comparatively used in a series of STD-NMR experiments for determine which one is more effective for saturation and also saturation transfer for ibuprofen and COX1 mixture. Both pulses have been comparatively studied, and they are applied to identical samples in identical experimental conditions to see the difference. Also they are examined over different pulse parameters, like lengths and powers. Finally it is shown that, re-burp pulse gives more intensive STD-NMR signals than Gaussian pulse shape under same conditions and same samples. That means Reburp pulse shape causes more effective saturation than Gaussian pulse shape for COX enzyme and ibuprofen. Results are in accordance with literature.
      PubDate: Oct 2017
  • A Case Report on Life Threatening Hemorrhage in Preterm Pregnancy with
           Placenta Praevia and Management Challenges in a Low Neonatal Resourced
           Regional Hospital 187 km away from a Tertiary Center

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Public Health  Volume  5  Number  6  Ayesha Akhter   Bruno Giorgio   Adebayo Adeyemi   and Md Rafiqul Islam   Placenta praevia is one of the obstetric emergencies, which can cause life threatening hemorrhage. Time interval to access support for these patients from emergency retrieval team are often challenging. Also, dilemmas may appear on taking decision for in-utero versus ex-utero transfer of neonates to tertiary hospital. In this case study, the patient presented with a life threatening antepartum hemorrhage (APH) in a low neonatal resourced regional hospital at 29 weeks of gestation. She was extremely needle phobic that delayed the resuscitation process. The overall situation and the patient's clinical condition were inappropriate for road transfer. Moreover, considering the weather condition on the day, air ambulance was grounded. Eventually, in-utero transfer of the neonate to tertiary hospital was impossible. As a result, she was delivered by an uncomplicated caesarean section and an initial resuscitation of the newborn was provided by the pediatric team of the hospital. Emergency neonatal retrieval team was able to arrive 3 hours after the birth for transferring the premature neonate to a tertiary center.
      PubDate: Oct 2017
  • Enhancing Adaptive Capabilities of Hospitalized Child

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Public Health  Volume  5  Number  6  Kazimierz Kopczyński   Marta Gajek   and Aneta Michałowska   Hospitalization is always a difficult situation for a child as well as for its parents. It is also a new situation, accompanied by fear and negative emotions. Child's adaptation to hospital conditions and reduction of fear are not always taken into consideration properly, as the whole process of hospitalization is concerned. The most significant issues are diagnosis and treatment, most often pharmacological or surgical. Usually, there is also not enough qualified personnel (clinical psychologist, special educator), who could provide necessary support to a child and his or her parents. Not much however, has been written so far regarding the subject of our research, that is why, in our opinion, there is an urgent need of conducting further studies based on theory and developing appropriate model of prevention and psycho-correction, which would take into consideration an individual approach towards the child, depending on its age, family situation, type of disease, the length of hospitalization, as well as child's interests and talents. In our research on children from the age of pre-kindergarten to older schoolchildren, we chose the monographic method to conduct a conversation and an interview (most often with the parents), observation, analysis of the child's works and the gap-test (version for children). The aim of our research was to familiarise with the child's history and its psychic activity, with emphasis on cognitive factors which make the child aware of the whole situation concerning disease, help to estimate losses and benefits, the role of the parents and the child itself. While doing our research, in relation to the examined children, we made psycho-corrective proceedings of enhancing their adaptive capabilities to hospital conditions. One of integrative plays we used, was called Guess the emotions. We also used an exercise called Paint the feelings moreover, forming the attitudes of positive thinking and self-acceptance as well as development of interests were also introduced. Individual approach to ill children considering mentioned above effects, presented in the article have become a part of so called integrated therapy which may turn out to be the most promising and effective form of therapy developed in future.
      PubDate: Oct 2017
  • Macroeconomic Determinants of Health Crises in Sub-Saharan Africa

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Public Health  Volume  5  Number  6  Boyé Gnandé Roméo   The purpose of this article is to identify the macroeconomic determining factors of health crises. In order to reach our purpose, we use a logit model on a panel of 25 countries in sub-Saharan Africa from 1995 to 2012. The main results of this study indicate that international migration flows, the ratio of short-term debt by currency reserves, and the organization of the health care system explain health crises. These results imply that the poor management of information related to unforeseen events, the ability of reimbursement of the short-term debt, and the privatization of health services make most sub-Saharan African countries vulnerable to unforeseen events. This study suggests a better management of information related to unforeseen events, the increase of exportations and the improvement of the access to health services to all people during any unforeseen events outbreak.
      PubDate: Oct 2017
  • Knowledge, Behavior and Attitudes Concerning STI Prevention among
           Out-of-School Youth in the Philippines

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Public Health  Volume  5  Number  3  Yuko Tanaka   Cecilia L. Llave   Maria Teresa Reyes Tuliao   Tadashi Yamashita   and Hiroya Matsuo   The purpose of this study is to determine the current knowledge, behavior and attitude toward STI prevention among out-of-school youth in the Philippines. Anonymous self-administered questionnaires were distributed separately to 28 out-of-school youth (15 male, 12 female, one unspecified). The mean age of the subjects was 18.0 ± 3.0 years, with an overall age range of 15 to 24 years. The female respondents were younger than the male respondents on average. The out-of-school youth obtained information on STIs mainly from the media, and had fewer information sources than in-school students. Although the out-of-school youth had insufficient knowledge of STIs compared to the students, they were fairly knowledgeable about cervical cancer. They were also more sexually active than the students. The out-of-school youth consulted their parents on STI prevention, but received insufficient knowledge on STI prevention from just this source. It was concluded that out-of-school youth could constitute a high risk demographic for STIs, and health education may be essential to help them protect themselves from STIs.
      PubDate: May 2017
  • "Medtep DBT": A Dialectical Behavior Therapy Native App and Web Platform
           for Borderline Personality Disorder Patients and Their Therapists

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Public Health  Volume  5  Number  3  Jacob Suñol   Josefa María Panisello   Eudald Castell   Pedro Juan Tárraga López   Carme Sánchez   and Víctor Pérez   Objective: The present article is aimed at describing the development process of Medtep DBT, a native app and web platform, based on Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) for Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) patients and their therapists. Materials and Methods: The development of Medtep DBT involved five steps: Analysis of the current mobile apps related to DBT and BPD. Development of a beta version of Medtep DBT in collaboration with psychiatrists, psychologists and BPD patients in knowledge of DBT. Testing the beta version by other BPD patients and introducing changes based on provided feedback. Content validation of the final version by mental health professionals. Results: Content validity has been granted by psychologist and psychiatrist whose experience with the use of the platform has been satisfactory. Feedback from BPD patients has also been positive. Discussion: Medtep DBT can be very useful for both, BPD patients and psychologists and psychiatrists; besides being built on evidence-based DBT standards, it is reinforced by BPD patients' and mental health professionals' feedback and collaboration. Even though its content validity has been granted, a pilot study is being carried out to assess its effectiveness. Conclusion: Medtep DBT facilitates BPD patients the accessibility to digital therapeutic tools to register all the information related to the therapy in a more patient-friendly manner versus paper. Moreover, therapists can provide personalized care in a timely manner. So far, Medtep DBT provides a patient-therapist approach like no other app available in the market.
      PubDate: May 2017
  • The Effectiveness of the Smoking Cessation Programme for Smoker Prisoners
           Living with HIV/AIDS

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Public Health  Volume  5  Number  3  Farzad Jalali   Seyedeh Fatemeh Hashemi   Ali Babaei   Hassan Abbaspour   Alireza Hasani   and Heshmat Shakeri   This study aims to determine the effectiveness of the SCP (MI+NRT) for smoker prisoners living with HIV. The study design was semi-experimental with pre-test, post-test, follow-up, and a control group. As many as 34 smoker prisoners living with HIV were selected by convenience sampling and randomly assigned to an experimental group and a control group. The experimental group received the SCP, while the control group received no treatment. The research measurement instruments comprised FTND and BMS. MANCOVA models were employed to test the hypothesis. The results showed that the indicators of 'quit smoking' reduced among prisoners in the experimental group.
      PubDate: May 2017
  • Assessment of Knowledge of Medical Students on an Important Health Issue
           Neagleria Flowri Infection at a Medical College of Karachi, Pakistan

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Public Health  Volume  5  Number  3  Syed Ijlal Ahmed   Syeda Beenish Bareeqa   Munazza Suherwardy Obaid   Saad Qureshi   Samra Khan   and Sara Memon   Background: Since 2005 Neagleria Flowri infection appeared as a major health issue in Karachi, Pakistan. Most infections were acquired due to swimming in fresh water, ablution with fresh stagnant water. Our objective was to assess the knowledge of medical students regarding this important health issue and to highlight any deficiencies in medical education system. Material and methods: It was a prospective cross sectional study conducted at a medical college of Karachi, Pakistan. The sample size was calculated and sampling technique was randomized stratified sampling. Knowledge of the students was assessed through designed questionnaire. The data was recorded and analyzed on SPSS vs 21. Results: Our study included 250 medical students from five years of medical school. The highest response was recorded from final year regarding type of organism and habitat. Regarding treatment of Naegleria most correct response was from 4th year MBBS. Most final years answered correctly regarding the ablution as risk factor. The knowledge of medical students regarding incubation period of Neagleria was generally low. Conclusion: The knowledge of medical students regarding this significant medical issue appears low. The response of medical students was generally poor regarding treatment of infection, incubation period of infection and earliest presenting symptom of infection. Important measures should be taken to improve the knowledge of medical students regarding this significant health issue.
      PubDate: May 2017
  • The Level of Compliance of Food Handlers with National Regulations on Food
           Hygiene and Safety Practices: A Case of Selected Fast Food Outlets in
           Thohoyandou, South Africa

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Public Health  Volume  5  Number  3  T.S Murwira   A.M Amosu   and L.H Nemathaga   Food safety is becoming a key public health priority because a large number of people consume their meals outside their homes. As a result, they are exposed to food borne illnesses that originate from food stalls, restaurants and other food outlets. Hence the study focused on level of compliance of food handlers with national regulations on food hygiene and safety practices. The method used to collect data was participant observational checklist where the researcher had to go round with the workers during their daily chores. Simple random sampling was used to select 122 food handlers as participants in the study. Fast food outlets were also evaluated according to codified regulations and sixty food premises were observed for compliance using a checklist and compared with standards and the requirements prescribed by in Foodstuffs, Cosmetics and Disinfectants Act of 1972, regulation Data analysis involved descriptive statistics (frequencies and percentages) and analysis was made based on the standards and the requirements prescribed by Regulation R962 of November 2012. The findings showed that food handlers observed personal hygiene by wearing clean uniforms, covering their heads with hair nets, and washed their hands, indicating that food handlers maintained accepted standards in terms of personal hygiene regulations.
      PubDate: May 2017
  • Examining the Effectiveness of Physical Activity on Mental Health among
           Bosnian Refugees: A Pilot Study

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Public Health  Volume  5  Number  2  Huaibo Xin   Ajlina Karamehic-Muratovic   and Nicole Aydt Klein   This pilot study aimed to reduce Bosnian refugees' vulnerability to and severity of mental disorders and sustain their mental health through adopting culturally appropriate and tailored physical activity. The study used the Community-Based Participatory Research approach and the quasi-experimental study design. A total of 35 participants in the intervention group received 12-week regular physical activity while 35 participants in the control group received 12-week educational materials concerning mental health. The effectiveness of the intervention was measured by the validated and culturally and linguistically competent instrument, Mental Health Inventory (MHI)-38. At the end of the study, both intervention and control groups demonstrated statistically significant improvement on the scales of MHI-38 either within or between groups. The study served as a non-clinical example to sustain, replicate, and expand the current intervention activities among the rest of the Bosnian community and other refugee/immigrant populations in the U.S. regarding their mental health well-being.
      PubDate: Mar 2017
  • Exploring Differences between Faculty and Student Perceptions of
           Pre-clinical Preparation Activities

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Public Health  Volume  5  Number  2  Laureen Turner   Courtney Keeler   Daniel Long   and Vernon Newton   Introduction: A review of the literature demonstrates a paucity of research relating to faculty and student experiences regarding prelab. Given the increasing number of students entering nursing programs and the finite number of clinical sites, educators must weigh the relative benefits of each component of the clinical experience, including pre-laboratory (or "prelab") activities. Methods: The research team designed and administered a descriptive study exploring prelab practices and attitudes in one pre-licensure baccalaureate program among students and instructors. Mean comparison tests were used to assess differences in perceptions across the two groups. Results: The results emphasized a disconnection between student and faculty views on several critical indictors, including the impact of prelab on stress, anxiety, and sleep. Conclusion: While stress and anxiety are natural components to any learning process, students may gain more from prelab if stress or anxiety were reduced.
      PubDate: Mar 2017
  • Evaluating Lean Thinking and Facility Design in Two University Hospitals

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Public Health  Volume  5  Number  4  Virpi Ruohomäki   Emmi Reijula   and Jori Reijula   Hospitals will be expected to work more efficiently in the upcoming years due to several factors, one of which is aging population groups. Meanwhile, healthcare resources are dwindling, as is the amount of available personnel. This paper examines interviews and questionnaires that were conducted to assess the experiences and effects of Lean implementation in two university hospitals. Several factors, such as emphasis on the participatory, user-centric design approach and integrating Lean as an integral part of the operational facility design process in both target hospitals have proven to be beneficial. This study delivers promising evidence from the two university hospitals, which supports the implementation of Lean in the healthcare sector for improving facility design and work processes.
      PubDate: Jul 2017
  • Correlates of Coping Styles in Young Women with Type 1 Diabetes

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Public Health  Volume  5  Number  4  Paulina Wróbel   Introduction: Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease strongly affected physical and psychical aspects of patient life. It requires self-discipline and regular active participation in the management of the condition. Diabetes is obliged to face a lot of stress and restrictions caused by daily living with disease. Objective: to examine correlates of coping styles in young women with type 1 diabetes mellitus. The aim of the study was particularly concerned with characteristics, which are known to be connected with coping: self-esteem, illness representation, affect, social support and metabolic control. Material and methods: 32 young women (aged 19-30) with type 1 diabetes mellitus were included into the study. The participants completed MSEI, IBS, PANAS, CISS and BSSS. The metabolic status was assessed by HbA1C. Results: There were connections between coping styles and self-esteem, illness representation, metabolic control and social support. Relationships between coping styles and affect were not confirmed. Conclusions: The results indicate that the individual characteristics and preferences of young diabetic women such as: their styles of behavior in difficult situations, self-confidence, sense of disease-control, belief in efficacy of medical recommendations and constant necessity of health control should be taken under consideration in the treatment of diabetes.
      PubDate: Jul 2017
  • The Economic Burden of Water Related Infections in the Bamenda Health
           District: The Case of Diarrhoea

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Public Health  Volume  5  Number  4  Chenjoh Joseph Nde   Ndong Ignatius Cheng   Johannes Tabi Atemnkeng   and Wilfred Mbacham   Diarrhoea remains a major public health concern of our times with bad drinking water and frequent poor disposal of human waste matter. Caused by a variety of conditions, it spans from diarrhoea which are of viral bacterial to sometimes metal intoxication. In Cameroon, it is one of the 10 major causes of illness. To assess the burden and lost income due to diarrhoea, the study quantified how much households in the Bamenda Health District (BHD), North West Region (NWR) of Cameroon are losing because of the incidence of diarrhoea related infections. A cluster sampling technique was used to select 8 Public Integrated Health Centres in 8 Health Areas, with an estimated population of about 189,730 people. Data for all reported diarrhoea cases for 2011 and 2012 was collected from the Health Centres. The Cost of Illness (CoI) methodology was used to quantify the direct and indirect cost of diarrhoea infections. It was estimated that about USD22, 361 and USD37, 198 was lost by households in general in 2011 and 2012 respectively. The economic burden over the two years was estimated at USD53, 602.3. If this amount were projected over 10 years it will imply that about USD260, 000 will be lost to the treatment of diarrhoea infections.
      PubDate: Jul 2017
  • Perinatal Dissociation and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder among Mothers of
           Preterm Infants: A Comparative Study

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Public Health  Volume  5  Number  4  Sahar Ellouze   Jihène Aloulou   Najla Halouani   Afef Ben Thabet   Amira Bouraoui   Abdellatif Gargouri   and Othmen Amami   Preterm delivery is a particularly challenging experience that can be experienced by mothers as a traumatic event, causing dissociative reactions and authentic post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In this work, we proposed to study the prevalence of perinatal dissociation and PTSD in mothers of preterm babies compared to a control group of mothers of term babies and to identify factors that may contribute to the occurrence of perinatal dissociation and PTSD following premature childbirth. We conducted a cross-sectional and comparative study, including 97 mothers of premature babies and 80 controls. We used the Perinatal Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Questionnaire to screen for PTSD, the peri-traumatic dissociation questionnaire to measure the level of perinatal dissociation, and the Perinatal Risk Inventory to assess perinatal risk. Compared to mothers of term infants, mothers of preterm infants had significantly higher rates of peri-traumatic dissociation and PTSD. Our results are consistent with previous studies, and add additional credit to the traumatic nature of preterm delivery. Setting up specific support modalities seems essential in the case of premature births in order to ensure a better quality of mother-child interactions and optimal development of the child.
      PubDate: Jul 2017
  • Investigation of Drivers and Determinants of Inpatient and Outpatient
           Satisfaction in Public Ambulatory and Hospital Departments

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Public Health  Volume  5  Number  4  Vesna Velikj Stefanovska   Miodraga Stefanovska-Petkovska   Marjan Bojadziev   and SonjaBojadzieva   The last two decades have been marked by increased attention towards patient satisfaction as a valuable tool for quality improvement in health care organizations and delivering patient-centred care. However, few articles have investigated the factors of patient's satisfaction among outpatients and inpatients, especially in developing economies. This cross-sectional, quantitative research contributes by analysing patient satisfaction in the context of a developing country and its public health care system among 1318 patients from the Clinic for Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery in Skopje. The study had two main objectives. The first was to analyse factors that influenced patient's satisfaction. The second objective was to analyse the differences in the reported patient satisfaction between outpatients and inpatients within the Clinic for Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery in Skopje. The results indicated higher satisfaction among outpatients scores compared to inpatients. The findings confirm the importance of socio-demographic variables and health status on patient's satisfaction. Improved awareness of these factors may improve the patient experience and increase therapeutic benefits. Furthermore, this research provides an initial insight and understanding into the drivers of patient's satisfaction in the context of developing countries.
      PubDate: Jul 2017
  • Characteristic of Households with Women Using Unskilled Birth Attendants
           in Urban Slum of Kisumu East District Nyalenda Community Unit

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Public Health  Volume  5  Number  4  Celestine A. Okang   and Oyugi Henry   Maternal and child mortalities can be reduced if all women deliveries are attended by trained and skilled birth attendants that can provide Emergency obstetric care. Community health strategy has been put in place as an intervention to reduce maternal mortalities. In the urban slum of Kisumu a third (34.7%) mothers still use unskilled attendant. This study set out to investigate characteristic of households with women using unskilled birth attendants in urban slum of Nyalenda, kisumu, Kenya. The study was comparative in design in which all the households with women who used unskilled attendants during their last delivery included in the study as cases, next nearest, neighboring households with women who used skilled attendants in the last delivery, included as controls, at a ratio of 1:1. Therefore, a total of 1033 cases and 1033 controls were analyzed with a total sample of 2066 as valid cases. The study showed age group 35 and above was higher among the mothers using unskilled delivery (14%) as compared to those using skilled attendants (10.3%), while mothers who had secondary and above level of education were less likely to have unskilled birth attendant odds ratio (OR) = 0.420 (95% CI=0.257- 0.685) as compared to mothers with primary level of education OR= 0.552 (95% CI=0.470- 0.649). Based on the study results, the odds ratio showed minimal difference on the household characteristic with only individual characteristic showing some significant results on, age, education level and ante natal clinic (ANC). The study found that older mothers do not go for skilled attendance, despite the fact that most young mothers go for skilled attendance, it is a concern that the older mothers who should attend skilled delivery tend not to go yet they are a risk factor in terms of delivery and childbirth, and hence they need to use maternity health care services from skilled health personnel.
      PubDate: Jul 2017
  • The Effect of an Education Program on Japanese Nurses' Attitudes toward
           Foreign Patients

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Public Health  Volume  5  Number  1  Airi Takashima   and Hiroya Matsuo   To improve Japanese nurses' ability to take care of foreign patients, we developed an active learning education program and examined whether it had any effect on their nursing skills and attitudes toward foreign patients. Our education program consisted of three sessions, conducted at two general hospitals in Osaka Prefecture. Thirty-nine nurses joined the education program (comprising the education group), while 138 nurses completed the questionnaire (comprising the control group). The questionnaire consisted of questions on demographics, attitudes toward foreign patients, and self-efficacy. For the education group, questionnaires were evaluated at three time points, and for the control group, at two time points. The study demonstrated that both nurses' understanding of and communication with foreign patients were significantly improved after taking the education program. Nurses' anxiety levels regarding foreign patients likewise showed a decrease, and nursing care to foreign patients significantly improved, after taking the education program. On the GSES scale, the "Very high" responses increased in the education group. We concluded that the active learning education program had positive effects on nurses' understanding of and communication with foreign patients as well as the alleviation of nurses' anxiety, thereby enabling nurses to acquire nursing care skills necessary for foreign patient care.
      PubDate: Jan 2017
  • Awareness and Knowledge of Diarrhoeal Home Management among Mothers of
           Under-five in Ibadan, Nigeria

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Public Health  Volume  5  Number  1  Olubunmi Omowumi Olopha   and Bolaji Egbewale   Improving maternal and child health care is one of the most utmost priorities of every responsible society. Civilization is adjudged by the level of assistance and help a society renders to its most vulnerable groups. Under-five children constitute an important population group in terms of vulnerability to health conditions that could adversely affect their health and well-being. Diarrhoea disease has been reported to be one of the most common causes of infant deaths especially in the developing countries of the world. Oral rehydration therapy (ORT) with oral rehydration solution (ORS) is the appropriate management of diarrhoeal dehydration and is the single most effective strategy in preventing diarrhoeal deaths in children. The extent to which mothers of under-five children can adopt this therapy is tied to their level of knowledge on its efficacy and preparation. This study was designed to examine awareness and knowledge of ORS in diarrhea home management among mothers of under-five in Ibadan. The cross-sectional descriptive survey was employed in the study and data was generated from households using a self-developed and validated questionnaire. Generated data were analysed using descriptive statistics of frequency counts and percentages. Findings showed that while awareness of ORS in diarrhea prevention was high, knowledge relating to its preparation and use was found to be low. Population-specific intervention to improve knowledge of under-five mothers on diarrhea home management was recommended.
      PubDate: Jan 2017
  • Anaemia Health Literacy of Community Members and Health Practitioners
           Knowledge of Best Practice Guidelines in a Remote Australian Aboriginal

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Public Health  Volume  5  Number  1  Thérèse Kearns   Felicity Ward   Stefanie Puszka   Roslyn Gundjirryirr   Bonnie Moss   and Ross Bailie   Anaemia is a critical public health problem in Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people for which the health literacy of community members and health practitioners is unknown. Worldwide, pregnant women and children have the highest anaemia rates and are the major groups targeted for screening and intervention programs. In the Northern Territory, Australia, 15% of Aboriginal mothers are anaemic during pregnancy and up to 25 % of children aged 0-5 years are anaemic, with the highest prevalence of 31% identified in those aged 6-11 months. Anaemia can have adverse effects on physical and cognitive development in the early years and has long-term implications for the development of chronic diseases later in life. The aim of this study was to assess anaemia health literacy of community members and health practitioner's knowledge of anaemia best practice guidelines in a remote Aboriginal community where English is not the first language. Focus groups and individual interviews were conducted with 39 community members and 12 health practitioners. Among community members there were mixed levels of anaemia health literacy with the majority assessed as having 'good' literacy. Health practitioners had a 'very good' level of anaemia knowledge that was excellent for one group.
      PubDate: Jan 2017
  • The Effectiveness of Positive Communication Skills in Reducing Pain during
           Physiotherapy Session: A Quantitative Result from Questionnaire Surveys of
           Palestinian Orthopaedic Patients

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Public Health  Volume  5  Number  1  M. Amoudi   R. Anabtawi   A. Bzoor   S. Keelani   and W. Abu Hassan   Background: Physiotherapist has to communicate on a daily basis with clients and their families, friends, and other health care professionals. Physiotherapists assist patients with their pain in primary care settings aiming at relieving their pain, and improving their quality of life. Studies showed that poor communication often results in many negative consequences. However, few studies provide sufficient evidence to support the use of positive communication skills in reducing pain among orthopedic patient. Objectives: Examine the effectiveness of positive communication skills in reducing pain among orthopedic patient during physiotherapy sessions in 20 Palestinian rehabilitation centers dispensers on several areas and through an investigative program for the views of the orthopaedic patients among interview questionnaire for the inclusion of positive communication skills in the treatment session and its impact on relieving their pain. Methods: The current study employed non-experimental design by conducting a self-report questionnaires has approved by 3 of academic in the physiotherapy section at AAUJ, the study group covered a total number of (96) orthopaedic patients used a normal distribution to calculate an optimum sample size randomly selected from 20 centers in different Palestinian regions; 48 were male and 48 were female. Results: There was statistically significant change in intensity of pain in correlation with integration positive communication skill among orthopedic patients regardless of nature of disease during physiotherapy sessions indicate that (sig. =0.00, p< 0.05). Non-significant correlations were evident between patient's demographic factors, pain and disease related factors, and change in the intensity of pain. Validity and reliability of the instrument were tested and the total instrument reliability test (Cronbach's Alpha) was 0.732. Conclusion: Physiotherapist communication skills play an essential role during treatment sessions to relive patient's pain. Our data showed high impact of positive communication skills in reducing pain among orthopedic patient during physiotherapy session. The results show positive impact on patient's psychology and physiologies which are inseparable. However, results showed there are no statistical variances between study samples according to the independent variables.
      PubDate: Jan 2017
  • Women's Empowerment and Nutritional Status of their Children: A
           Community-based Study from Villages of Bhaktapur District, Nepal

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Public Health  Volume  5  Number  1  Shiwakoti R   Devkota MD   and Paudel R   Under-nutrition is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among children. Since women are often the primary caregivers, their empowerment can influence nutritional status of their children. The objective of the study was to assess relationship between women's empowerment and nutritional status of their children. A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in randomly selected five villages of Bhaktapur district. A total of 402 children aged six to 59 months were selected using systematic random sampling and their mothers were interviewed. Women's empowerment was assessed using composite index. Anthropometric measurements were obtained using height board and digital scale. Multivariate logistic analysis was carried out. The results show that among 402 mothers, 18 percent were low empowered whereas 27 percent were highly empowered. The prevalence of underweight, stunting and wasting of children was 13, 19 and 7 percent respectively. Low empowerment of women was found to be positively associated with underweight (AOR=5.070; 95 percent CI: 1.885-13.638), stunting (AOR=3.031; 95 percent CI: 1.281-7.141) and wasting (AOR=10.056; 95 percent CI: 1.127-89.693) of their children. Women with low empowerment had children that were more underweight, stunted and wasted. These results suggest that improving women empowerment could have a positive impact on nutritional status of their children.
      PubDate: Jan 2017
  • The Effect of Using Nutritional and Herbal Supplements on Uterine Fibroids
           as an Alternative Community Based Management in Kisumu

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Public Health  Volume  5  Number  1  Susan Aruwa   Andrew Opondo Otieno   and Francis Owino Rew   For a long time, community based alternative methods of treating illnesses/conditions has not been given much weight that it deserves, as it is also contributing considerably towards health care and many people in the communities are using the alternative ways. In Kenya nearly 80% of the populations including the Maasai are still dependent on herbal medicine; it remains an important source of treatment, particularly for rural communities. The World Health Organization's global strategy includes popularizing and incorporating herbal medicine in the national health systems of member countries. However, knowledge on community based alternative management of fibroids is still not well understood by many in the population. The purpose of the study was to determine the various methods of alternative fibroid management using nutritional and herbal supplements at community level and their effectiveness at eliminating uterine fibroids. The main objective of the study was to find out the types of community based nutritional and herbal supplements that women use to manage fibroids. There was therefore the need to find out the activities of the alternative medicine practitioners with specific interest on nutritional and indigenous herbal supplements treatment and determine whether the supplements and herbal medicines being administered were effectively eliminating uterine fibroids. There was an existing gap in the naming of the local herbs being used, quantities of drug being administered, the ratios of different drugs mixed in a given concoction, effectiveness and documentation of the local herbs used for alternative management of fibroids in this country.
      PubDate: Jan 2017
  • The New Incinerator in Parma and the News from Newspapers - The Importance
           of Communication in Terms of "Environment and Health"

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Public Health  Volume  5  Number  7  Alessandra Rampini   Elisa Mariani   Rosanna Giordano   Licia Veronesi   Matteo Goldoni   Giuliano Ezio Sansebastiano   and Maurizio Impallomeni   Objective is the evaluating of news concerning the incinerator in Parma and assessing any potential information gap, which could be addressed by institutional communication. Articles from both online and printed newspapers were selected, then underwent to double-blind review and were further evaluated also by a non-partisan expert. 2,390 articles were found through 'Google News' (incinerator, waste-to-energy plant, Parma); 96 of these were selected according to the relevance of the theme, then they were categorized as 'informative', 'scientific', 'political', 'socio-political' and 'economic' by all three evaluators. Such classification was finally contextualized depending on the type of newspaper. The agreement was considered using Cohen's kappa statistic. Within the 96 articles, 3 were economic, 34 political, 29 socio-political, 28 informational and only 2 scientific. The articles were further categorized by type of newspaper: 1% economic, 1% political, 5.2% environmentalist, 15.6% self-defined independent, 35.4% national and 41.7% local newspapers. This review shows that both local and national press are interested in the topic at issue, nevertheless it reveals a lack of scientific information. This analysis has not found articles in which the institutions directly involved have been consulted. Thus it would be desirable to have a greater mutual cooperation between the press and such institutions.
      PubDate: Dec 2017
  • CD4 Recovery and Survival among Adults Co-infected with HIV and Hepatitis
           B or C Virus, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Public Health  Volume  5  Number  7  Hao Duong   Son Nguyen   Ray Shiraishi   Hung Trinh   Hanh Vo   Thu-Van Tieu   Hung Van   Thinh Tran   Marta Ackers   and Siobhán O'Connor   This study assessed associations between hepatitis B and C virus (HBV, HCV) and increases in CD4 count and survival among 4316 HIV-infected patients on non-tenofovir (TDF)-based antiretroviral treatment (ART) in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam during 2006-2010, using mixed-effects model and survival analysis. More than half of patients (52.4%) participating in the study were HBsAg-negative/anti-HCV-negative, 9.0% HBsAg positive/anti-HCV-negative, and 38.6% anti-HCV-positive. Anti-HCV-positive males had smaller increases in CD4 count during the first two years of ART, but larger increases between two and three years after ART initiation than anti-HCV-negative females (regardless of HBsAg status) and HBsAg-negative/anti-HCV-negative males. Magnitude of the differences was small. Overall mortality rate was 15 per 1000 person-years; HBsAg and anti-HCV status were not significantly associated with mortality. Co-infection with HBV (HBsAg-positive) and/or exposure to HCV (anti-HCV-positive) does not seem to have substantial effects on outcomes of patients on non-TDF-containing ART during a median follow-up of 1.72 years. It may take a longer time for assessing effects of co-infection with HBV and/or HCV on ART outcomes. Such assessments should focus on those with positive HCV RNA, instead of positive anti-HCV.
      PubDate: Dec 2017
  • Prognostication of Cardiovascular Risk in Patients with Stable Coronary
           Heart Disease Depending on SYNTAX Score II on the Background of
           Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Public Health  Volume  5  Number  7  Iryna Vakalyuk   Aim of the study was to evaluate the contribution of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in predicting risk of major cardiovascular events by cumulative proportion surviving depending on the SYNTAX score II in patients with stable coronary heart disease. Materials and methods: Patients with stable coronary heart disease with and without nonalcoholic fatty liver disease underwent clinical examinations, electrocardiography, echocardiography, liver elastography, liver ultrasound, evaluation of the liver functional state. Then SYNTAX score I and II were calculated to all patients. Results: The two-year death-free survival (100.00% vs. 60.00%; P = 0.0165), and a repeated nonfatal myocardial infarction-free survival (85.36% vs. 33.33%; P = 0.0045), and a stroke-free survival (88.95% vs. 37.85%; P = 0.0021), and a repeated revascularization-free survival (85.83% vs. 31.81%; P = 0.0006) in patients with SS II ≥29 and without nonalcoholic fatty liver disease were significant higher than in those with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Conclusions: the long-term prognosis of the patients with stable coronary heart disease is a most prognostically unfavorable on the background of SYNTAX score II ≥29 and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis combination.
      PubDate: Dec 2017
  • Spatial Analysis of Distribution Patterns of Healthcare Facilities in Osun
           State, Nigeria

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Public Health  Volume  5  Number  7  Fadahunsi, J. T.   Kufoniyi, O.   and Babatimehin, O. I.   The study examined the distribution patterns and developed a model for determining the optimum location of healthcare facilities in Osun State, Nigeria. These were with a view to improving the spatial distribution of and equitable access to healthcare facilities in the State. Primary and secondary data were used in the study. The primary data comprised the geographic coordinates of all the healthcare facilities in the State, while the secondary data included the list of all the healthcare facilities in the State. The cartographic model for determining the optimum location of healthcare facilities was developed. The data were analysed using percentage and Geographical Information System (GIS) analysis tools such as nearest neigbour ratio (NNR), buffering, overlay and query. The study identified 919 healthcare facilities of four categories, namely, primary (603, 65.6%), private (262, 28.5%), secondary (51, 5.6%) and tertiary (3, 0.3%) in the State. Primary and private healthcare facilities depicted clustered patterns of distribution; while secondary and tertiary depicted random distribution patterns. Using the secondary healthcare facilities as a case study, the developed cartographic method revealed both the optimum number and locations of additional facilities required, at 10km buffer distance to meet the set standards. The study identified that additional seven secondary healthcare facilities are required in four of the 30 LGAs of the State. The model also holds for primary, private and tertiary healthcare facilities by simply varying the buffer distance at 5km, 5km and 20km respectively. The study concluded that there were inequalities in the spatial distribution of healthcare facilities in the study area.
      PubDate: Dec 2017
  • Learning Styles and Use of Clinical Knowledge Sources among Junior Doctors

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Public Health  Volume  5  Number  5  Christian Gerdesköld   Eva Toth-Pal   Inger Wårdh   Lars-Erik Strender   and Gunnar H. Nilsson   Objective: The primary aim of this study was to explore the use of clinical knowledge sources among junior doctors in relation to their learning styles. The secondary aim was to describe how junior doctors value different qualities of knowledge sources in clinical situations. Methods: A cross-sectional study among 63 junior doctors in a Swedish hospital. A questionnaire was used to collect information about the use of knowledge sources, to identify learning styles according to Kolb and to record the value of qualities of knowledge sources in clinical situations. The 1-Sample Sign Test and the Mann-Whitney test were used to analyse the non-parametric data. Results: The most frequently used knowledge sources were personal contacts with colleagues (n=14, p=0.0002) followed by internet-based guidelines (n=14, p=0.0034) and printed reference literature (n=14, p=0.0225). Learning styles aggregated into two main clusters, converging (54%) and assimilating (30%). Access was the most valued quality of knowledge sources. Conclusions: Although personal contacts were most frequently used, internet-based sources reached almost the same level. Learning styles among junior doctors were in accordance with the findings in previous studies. Convergers seemed to use computer-based knowledge sources less than the assimilators. This needs further investigation. Access should be addressed in the design of knowledge tools since this was overall the most valued quality in clinical situations.
      PubDate: Aug 2017
  • The Effects of Recreational and Sports Activities on Psychological Status
           in Young People Aged 11-13 Years

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Public Health  Volume  5  Number  5  Yener Aksoy   Soner Çankaya   and M. Yalçın Taşmektepligil   This study was conducted to investigate the depressive state and loneliness in a total of 219 male adolescents between the ages 11 and 13 who were registered at the summer school of the Vezirköprü Provincial Directorate of Youth Services and Sports based on whether or not they participated in recreational and sports activities during the summer holiday. One hundred and fifteen of the participants participated in recreational and sports activities organized during the summer, while 104 did not. Information about the depressive states of the participants was collected via the Beck Depression Scale, while information about their loneliness was collected with the UCLA Loneliness Scale. High total scores on both scales indicated that depression and loneliness levels were high. The Cronbach's alpha internal consistency coefficient was calculated to determine the reliability of the answers given by the participants to the items of Beck Depression Scale and UCLA-LS. In the statistical assessment of the research results, it was found that the error terms were not normally distributed (P
      PubDate: Aug 2017
  • The Co-production of Biomedical Research in Canada: Are Scientists Ready
           to Take the Plunge' An Empirical Example from Food Allergy Research

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Public Health  Volume  5  Number  5  Jenna Dixon   Susan J. Elliott   and Ann. E. Clarke   End-user involvement in research through collaborative research models, known as Integrated Knowledge Translation (IKT) in Canadian health, can improve recruitment, quality, relevance and acceptability of research. Despite potential benefits, application to biomedical research remains rare. This study aims to explore baseline knowledge, attitude and practices of Canadian biomedical scientists towards IKT as a foundation for a funded program of research related to causes and treatments of an emerging public health epidemic. A qualitative methodology was used. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with all 16 scientists on the GET-FACTS project. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic content analysis was performed on the data. Findings highlight the limited exposure of biomedical scientists to IKT activities. Though Knowledge Translation (KT) was a term familiar to participants, most described it as end of grant activity (not 'integrated'). A majority of participants expressed that their research could take on a new direction or focus with the input of end-users, would prove to be a valuable research tool, and that IKT could help researchers think creatively about problems. All participants acknowledged challenges associated with this approach to research. We argue that biomedical scientists are open and eager to engaging in IKT but are held back by a lack of concrete examples and experiences to draw on. Integrating end-users and research scientists is an important step in ensuring end-users receive the research knowledge they require and that research is created to address their pressing needs.
      PubDate: Aug 2017
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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