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Publisher: Horizon Research Publishing   (Total: 54 journals)   [Sort by number of followers]

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Journal Cover Universal Journal of Psychology
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   ISSN (Print) 2332-3477 - ISSN (Online) 2332-3485
   Published by Horizon Research Publishing Homepage  [54 journals]
  • Effectiveness of Group Counseling Using Cognitive and Behavior Therapy
           Intervention to Reduce Stress among Nurses

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  5  Number  5  Wan Anor Wan Sulaiman   Mohd Dahlan HA Malek   Wan Nor Fatini   and Adi Fahrudin   This study was conducted as to explore the effectiveness of the treatment modules in group counselling between the Cognitive Therapy Group Counselling and Behavior Therapy Group Counselling in reducing stress level among nurses in Women and Children Hospital in Kota Kinabalu. There are two objectives that guided this mixed methods study. Firstly, this study was to test the effectiveness of the Cognitive Therapy Group Counselling (CTGC) by looking at the different between pre-test and post-test results on the level of stress among nurses who have followed the CTGC with nurses who did not follow the CTGC (control group). Secondly, this study was to test the effectiveness of the Behavior Therapy Group Counselling (BTGC) by looking at the different between pre-test and post-test results on the level of stress among nurses who have followed the BTGC with nurses who did not follow the BTGC (control group). The results showed that there was a significance difference on the level of stress between nurses who joined either GCCT and GCBT with those nurses who did not join the treatment (Control group). In fact, nurses who have joined either treatment have shown some decrease in their stress level. However, when comparing between the two (CTGC and BTGC), BTGC showed better results in reducing stress level among nurses in the hospital. Therefore, both CTGC and BTGC are suitable to reduce stress among nurses in the hospital.
      PubDate: Oct 2017
       
  • Three-factor Predictors of Marital Adjustment among Couples in Abeokuta
           Metropolis, Ogun State, Nigeria

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  5  Number  5  Onabamiro, Adegbenga Ade   Owoyele, Jimoh Wale   and Elijah, Ayodele Oiukunle   The importance of couples understanding their personality characteristic is germane to marital bliss and adjustment. This study examined self-esteem, emotional intelligence and coping skills as predictors of marital adjustment among couples in Abeokuta metropolis. This study adopted a non-experimental ex-post facto research. It is also correlative in nature. The target population for the study comprised all the married persons in Anglican Communion Churches in Abeokuta South and North Local Government Areas in Ogun State, Nigeria. Using simple, random sampling technique a total of fifteen married persons were selected from each of the churches, making a total of three hundred and thirty, married persons (330) from Abeokuta North and South Local Government Areas, Ogun State. The study used four instruments Coping Style Questionnaire (CSQ), Self-Esteem Scale Questionnaire (SESQ), Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (EIQ), and Marital Adjustment Questionnaire (MAQ) to generate data for the study. Frequency counts and percentage were used for presenting the data obtained from the questionnaire. Pearson Product Moment Correlation and Multiple Regression analysis were used for testing the null hypotheses. The result shows that there is no significant relationship between coping style and marital adjustment, that there is no significant relationship between self-esteem, emotional intelligence, and marital adjustment. The study recommended among others that couples should endeavor to accentuate attitude of co-operative understanding, valuing partnership, demonstrating trust, general good will towards one another and positive values in their marriage while family counselors should organize workshops, seminars and conferences whereby couples would be sensitized on causes of marital adjustment and resolution strategies for resolving marital mal-adjustment.
      PubDate: Oct 2017
       
  • Do Early Intelligent Scores Predict Long-term Achievement: A Quadrennial
           Longitudinal Study

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  5  Number  5  Tatlı E.C.   and Ergin D.A.   The Purpose of the Study: In this study, establishing a linear regression model that explain academic achievement in terms of assessing academic achievement and intelligence is aimed. Method: In this study, a longitudinal pattern is designed by using 85 students' scores of Culture Fair Intelligence Test (CFIT) (evaluated in 5th grade), Primary Mental Abilities Ages (PMAA) (evaluated in 7th grade) and Transition From Basic To Secondary Education (TEOG) (evaluated in 8th grade). Findings and Conclusion: Findings show that there is positively meaningful relation between PMAA and TEOG scores. In established regression model, the scores of PMAA is seemed to explain the 14% of the variance. This finding is thought to prove that TEOG is based on the skill of reading comprehension rather than reasoning. For further studies, it is suggested to consider the predictors of personal variables in addition to academic achievement and intelligence scores.
      PubDate: Oct 2017
       
  • Applications of the Axiomatic Method in Social Science: The Declaration of
           Independence, Einstein and Ethics, and Balance and Dissonance Attitude
           Theories

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  5  Number  5  Sheldon G. Levy   The value of the axiomatic method in conjunction with Muncaster's PropCalc Workplace to analyze and increase the precision of social science theory is illustrated through applications that include political philosophy, ethical reasoning, and theories of attitude change. All of the examples were originally expressed through verbal statements. A formal logical analysis is applied to the US Declaration of Independence which provides a set of propositions upon which governments are based, Einstein's essay on the laws of science and the laws of ethics, and basic concepts of balance and dissonance theories of attitude change. In each case, symbolic representations of the verbal language are then subjected to analysis for consistency and redundancy among the propositions and sample conclusions from each model are presented. The Muncaster's PropCalc is a valuable aid in identifying the integrity and consequences of the models. The discussion includes an examination of the relationship between the models and their correspondence with reality.
      PubDate: Oct 2017
       
  • The Dual Quadbrain Model and Modular Consciousness

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jun 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  5  Number  3  Bruce Eldine Morton   A multiple module model of human consciousness is needed because several powerful subconscious elements have been found which strongly influence behavior. Recognition of the existence of brain-mind modules is as old as written history. Recently, McLean's evolutionary Triune Brain model, has been expanded to Morton's Dual Quadbrain Model of modular consciousness. The bilaterality of the cerebrum is necessary because the left hemisphere is specialized in top-down logic, which cannot occur in the same space as the right hemisphere's bottom-up orientation. These differences have led to the concept of hemisity, which is based upon which side of the anterior cingulate, part of the executive ego, was larger, thus determining the right or left brain-orientation of the individual. The cerebellum which is also bilateral, houses Freud's Superego with its life and social orientation, so often emulated in religion. It also houses the Thanatos, Reactive Mind, Pain Body, and mutated developmental arrest repair program (xDARP), source of conflict between mates leading to more than 50% to divorce in the US. Lastly, the brain core is also bilateral with Freud's ferocious wolf-Id on one side and the loyal and supportive dog-Id on the other. These produce the hostile or friendly ultimate brain output. With these seven brain modules active, we are a formidable society of seven.
      PubDate: Jun 2017
       
  • Fetal Dreams and the Source of Desire

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jun 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  5  Number  3  Bradley Y. Bartholomew   This paper presents the theory of French neurophysiologist Michel Jouvet that REM dreaming sleep acts as a genetic programming mechanism for the brain in utero. In addition the French neurobiologist Jean-Didier Vincent in his book Biology of Passions provides a great deal of research material concerning the development of the fetus as a desiring subject. This material is presented in support of the general theory of desire principally developed by French psychoanalysts Françoise Dolto and Jacques Lacan. It is shown that at the time of birth the fetus has already developed a desiring attachment to the conditions in the womb and that the act of being born does represent a rupture to its established desiring patterns thus reinforcing and explaining all the theory that has emerged concerning the trauma of birth.
      PubDate: Jun 2017
       
  • Effects of Distance between Home Plate and the Backstop on Self-confidence
           of Intercollegiate Baseball Players

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jun 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  5  Number  3  Darrin Sorrells   and Kyle Kempf   The purpose of the study was to determine whether the distance between home plate and the backstop may impact the levels of self-confidence of intercollegiate baseball pitchers when throwing their pitches. The null hypothesis (H0) is that there is no difference in baseball pitchers' levels of self-confidence when the distance between home plate to the backstop is greater than 25 feet. The research hypothesis (H1) is that there is a statistically significant difference in baseball pitchers' levels of self-confidence when the distance between home plate to the backstop is greater than 25 feet. The participants in the study were eleven (N=11) baseball pitchers who were members of the same intercollegiate baseball team in the United States. The research team concludes that there was a slight decrease in self-confidence overall when the backstop was more than 25 feet away from home plate, but the decline in the level of self-confidence for the participants seemed to be minor. The decline in self-confidence with a distance of greater than 25 feet was statistically significant for the best pitch but not statistically significant for the second best pitch.
      PubDate: Jun 2017
       
  • Being Deaf in Mainstream Education in the United Kingdom: Some
           Implications for their Health

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jun 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  5  Number  3  Mike Berry   This paper explores the issue of deaf children in mainstream education and the implications this has for their health. Currently more than 48,000 children in the UK are classified as deaf with some 85% taught in mainstream schools although they are significantly educationally underachieving. The vulnerability of deaf children and some of the difficulties they face are highlighted. An outline is provided of the nature of deafness and the Deaf Community, together with a description of cochlear implants and of British Sign Language. Some of the issues relating to the need for assessment, treatment and support for deaf children are discussed, including increased risk of sexual and physical abuse. Possible professional roles for psychologists are identified.
      PubDate: Jun 2017
       
  • Counter Productive Work Behavior, Health and Safety Management System in
           the Ready Made Garments Industry of Bangladesh

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jun 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  5  Number  3  Md. Shahinuzzaman   Imranul Hoque   and Asoke Kumar Saha   The present study examined the relationship between counter productivity work behavior, and health & safety management systems of readymade garments employee of Bangladesh. The sample consisted of 384 participants over the age of 22 years old, 192 of whom were males and 192 were females. They were selected from different readymade garments industries of Dhaka City by using two stage cluster sampling technique. The instruments used in this study were demographic and personal questionnaire, Adapted Occupational Health and Safety Management System [6] and Bangla version of Counterproductive Work Behavior Checklist (CWB-C) [7]. Mean, Standard deviation, correlation and stepwise multiple regressions were performed. Results indicated that emergency response (β=.-312, p
      PubDate: Jun 2017
       
  • Relationship between Trait Mindfulness and False Memory: A Bilingual
           Deese-Roediger-McDermott Paradigm

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jun 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  5  Number  3  Li-Hao Yeh   and Angela Yi-Chun Lu   Mindfulness-based interventions are known to increase false memory. However, high trait mindfulness is associated with an external encoding style and field independence, which in turn are associated with low false memory. The present study used a bilingual context to disentangle these contrasting findings. Sixty Chinese-English bilinguals completed a Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) false recognition task and were evaluated using the Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS). Results showed negative and positive correlations between trait mindfulness and false recognition in Chinese-Chinese and Chinese-English conditions, respectively. The polar directions of the observed correlations suggest that trait mindfulness is associated with direct and analytical perception of objects and with cognitive flexibility in activating semantic information. The former improves source monitoring, whereas the latter increases the likelihood of generating false memories in the DRM paradigm.
      PubDate: Jun 2017
       
  • Mindfulness and Divergent Thinking: The Value of Heart Rate Variability as
           an Objective Manipulation Check

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jun 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  5  Number  3  Julia Keller   Eric Ruthruff   and Patrick Keller   Mindfulness (MF) is a form of mental training that has been linked with more creative problem-solving. Most MF studies recruit participants interested in meditation, and thus are biased towards positive effects. Participants in this study (n = 73) therefore signed up for "mental training," not "mindfulness meditation"; the vast majority (54) had little to no prior meditation experience. This is also the first such experiment to use an objective measure of MF (coherence, a physiological correlate of MF that can be indexed by heart rate variability or HRV) as a manipulation check. Participants were randomly assigned to either MF training or a control condition (a memory exercise), and completed a test of divergent thinking (Unusual Uses Task) before and after mental training. Coherence was significantly higher in the MF group and heart rate was significantly lower in the MF group.
      PubDate: Jun 2017
       
  • A Review of Psi Activity in the DNA

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  5  Number  1  Bradley Y. Bartholomew   This paper presents a general summary of psi experiments conducted with the DNA in the latter decades of the 20th Century particularly at the HeartMath Institute (HMI) in Boulder Creek, CA, by Dr. Glen Rein, relating to the ability of "healers" to affect the conformation of the DNA molecule simply by concentrating their mental and emotional powers of the brain and heart. In particular it was found that the intentional states of healers could change the molecular structure of water which in turn could alter the conformation of the DNA. Further to these findings about the relationship between water and DNA, this paper discusses a journal article by a team led by 2008 Nobel Prize for Medicine recipient Dr. Luc Montagnier, which describes an electromagnetic field in the DNA that is capable of being projected into water and which contains all the information of its sequence of bases in memory, and is capable of reconstructing itself into the identical chemical molecule; provided the ambient electromagnetic environment in the water is maintained at a frequency of not less than 7Hz which is in the same frequency window as Alpha rhythm brainwaves and the natural Schumann resonance of the Earth. This paper goes on to discuss new research in optogenetics where human beings have been able to modify gene expression with their Alpha rhythm and Mu rhythm brainwaves in the same frequency window as the Schumann resonance, simply by adopting different mental states, and takes note of the fact that these same Alpha and mu rhythms are the main conduit frequency for Brain Computer Interfaces (BCIs). The paper presents a general summary of earlier research relating to psi phenomena resulting from interference of brainwaves with the Schumann resonance, and proposes a novel explanation for the recently discovered "mirror neurons" phenomena where the Mu rhythm brainwaves emanating from the motor cortex are able to interfere constructively or destructively with the Schumann resonance of same frequency and thus bring about mental telepathic as well as psychokinesis happenings.
      PubDate: Feb 2017
       
  • Folly, Mental Health, Disembodiment

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  5  Number  1  Seonaid Abernethy   Maori World-View (a pre-industrial cultures' episteme of an individual intricate relationships to Nature and others) exemplifies Aristotles Good and the concept of embodied proportionality. Maori World-View is a window through which to understand embodiment, proportionality and The Good otherwise obscured by Cartesian and Ramist methodology. In modern 'Mental Health' practice of risk assessment, there has been a disembodiment, a disproportionality and loss of the end of the Good. This loss is best approached through the historicity of Shakespeares' Twelfth Night for varied reasons. Twelfth Night shows us that an embodied personal performance within a distemperature (mild 'mental health' illness) requires a critical distance from technology and retrieval of proportionality, individuated in any pre-industrial culture.
      PubDate: Feb 2017
       
  • Family History and Its Influence on Infants' Language Development

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  5  Number  1  Geetanjali Das   and Priya M.   Infants' language development built upon a variety of experience. Language is commonly defined as an organized way of combining symbols in order to communicate. Parents and caretakers plays an important role in helping children learns to communicate, read and write. There is possibly no greater shift in development than the advancement of language abilities from birth to three. So in present study researcher had made an attempt to identify the language development from 0-2 years. The study was undertaken in Coimbatore district with the total sample of 100 infants selected randomly in the age group 0-2 years and the researcher also interviewed their caretakers like parents, grandparents/aya whose age range from 22-65 years. The researcher framed self-prepared questionnaire to interview care takers as well as had observation of each child. The researcher contacted the infant's care takers and also made direct observation and collected information on how infants respond to their environment, family health status, home environment, care takers role, family type, number of children they have and quality of child care given. Researcher made observation on infants' responses to language or speech and child's abilities in language. From this study it has been found that there was a significant difference observed in infants' language development with respect to gender, number of children present in family, type of family and type of care taker. Family history and health status were less affected on female infants' language development compared to male infants. Whereas, child's age did not predict much influences on language development. Joint family children performed better language and social skills compared to nuclear and extended families. Even though mother and child interactions were more important for language development, children did better when they were along with the grandparents and parents. However when children brought up with helper/aya were not able to think, respond and communicate properly and also discovered they were slower in language abilities.
      PubDate: Feb 2017
       
  • Cultivating Resilience and Self-control among University Students: An
           Experimental Study

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  5  Number  1  Renee Morrison   and Aileen M. Pidgeon   University Students report a range of demands such as academic responsibilities, financial pressures or developing new social networks to be major sources of stress. The literature demonstrates that university students report higher levels of psychological distress compared to the general population. Therefore, the cultivation of resilience and self-control among university students could result in many benefits. Resilience is the ability to adapt successfully to stress and adversity, while self-control is the ability to resist short-term desires in order to meet long-term goals. This experimental study examined the efficacy of using brief willpower strengthening exercises to enhance resilience, self-control, and reduce psychological distress in university students. Forty-six university students were randomised into one of two groups: Willpower Strengthening Group or the Control Group. A two-way repeated MANOVA revealed that university students in the Willpower Strengthening Group reported significantly higher levels of resilience and self-control, and significantly lower levels of psychological distress. The positive feedback and high rate of compliance reported by students to the exercises as per instructions (i.e. every hour, for six hours per day, over seven days) supports the feasibility of using willpower strengthening exercises in programs aimed at increasing resilience. Future research into the feasibility and effectiveness of willpower strengthening exercises has the potential to improve the psychological wellbeing of university students.
      PubDate: Feb 2017
       
  • The Perceptions and Attitudes of Georgian Migrants in Portugal

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  5  Number  6  Ekaterine Pirtskhalava   This study describes the processes of adaptation of Georgian migrants in Western Europe. Massive migration from Georgia started after the collapse of the Soviet Union when some of the former Soviet republics became independent and began their journey to the democratic society. The difficulties led to the highest levels of out-migration from Georgia. Later an economic crisis was exacerbated by political turmoil and a violent conflict with Russia. A volatile political situation and a worsening socioeconomic picture incited the continuation of the migration processes from Georgia. Motivation and processes of migration differ among individuals and family migrants. People's decision to migrate is often motivated by the complex of interrelated factors: social, institutional, political, health and even environmental. The study describes the process of Georgian migrants' adaptation and integration into the host societies of Portugal and France after their resettlement. This work focuses on the dynamics of adaptation process in the new socio-cultural spaces based on subjective perceptions of the Georgian migrants, on the attitudes toward the host society and the type of interactions and social networks which Georgian migrants make use of in the country of destination. It assesses how they find housing and jobs and their experiences with adapting to a new society. Based on the in-depth interviews with the migrants living in Portugal and France, the study shows typical variations of cultural identity - typology of commonly used identity tactics based on the analysis of content characteristics.
      PubDate: Dec 2017
       
  • Sociometric Mapping for Predictive Performance Analysis: The Measurement
           of Attitudes of Social Acceptance or Rejection through Expressed
           Preferences among Members of a Social Grouping

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  5  Number  6  John Hathaway   The level of group acceptance or rejection through Sociometric preferences was measured and correlated to the Summative performance of a small class of post graduate students studying Human Resource Management. Acceptance above the average score for the social atom indicated a better performing student, whereas students with low acceptance scores were struggled to achieve. No student achieving above average Sociometric preference scores failed, while 30% struggled to achieve pass marks. Additional contributing factors such as ethnicity illustrated areas for further investigation within the research. The central thesis was confirmed and Sociometric performance scores offer scope for the development of praxis into predictive performance analysis.
      PubDate: Dec 2017
       
  • Executive Laterality: Evidence from Hemisometry, Hemisity, and MRI

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  5  Number  6  Bruce E.   and Morton Stein Rafto   The bilateral human brain includes structures producing a preconscious executive element, the source of the final decision to act. This executive element appears to be located unilaterally in the brain on the larger side of the anterior cingulate cortex. In a given individual, its side of residence is genetically determined in idiosyncratic manner by a phenomenon called hemisity. Using flash hemisometers, a single 0.5ms flash was directed to both cerebral hemispheres of the subject simultaneously. This was done either by stimulating nasal retinal surfaces or temporal retinal surfaces of the subject's eyes. Of 91 subjects, 87 (96%) reported seeing two flashes; the first appearing on one idiosyncratic side, closely followed by another on the same side. Yet, only single flashes were reported when nasal and temporal retinae were simultaneously stimulated. This non-intuitive two flash result would occur if on one side of the brain the flash went directly to a unilateral executive observer to be seen first. Because the flash going to the other, non-executive side of the brain would not be perceived there, it would have to cross the corpus callosum to reach the executive observer as a delayed second flash. Here, the individual brain side of the executive observer determined by this method was highly correlated with each subject's larger anterior cingulate and MRI-calibrated hemisity. These results provide confirmatory evidence for the existence of executive laterality.
      PubDate: Dec 2017
       
  • Comparing the English Video Lineup with the 48-Person Lineup

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  5  Number  6  Avraham Levi   Levi has been experimenting with large lineups, in particular a 48-person lineup. After showing experimental participants a 2 minute video more than an hour before, participants were shown 4 screens of 12 lineup members. They could view the screens as often as they liked before reaching a decision. This study compared the 48-person lineup with the British lineup. Contrary to prediction, the British lineup did not outperform the 48-person one in identifications of the target. As there was also no difference in mistaken choices in target-absent lineups, as expected the 48-person lineup outperformed the British lineup, since the likelihood that the innocent suspect would be the person chosen is 1/10 in the ten-person British lineup, while only 1/48 in the 48-person lineup.
      PubDate: Dec 2017
       
  • The Anorectic Girl and Her Father - The Interpersonal and Intrapsychic
           Meaning to the Girl

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  5  Number  4  Elisabeth Bratt Neuberg   and Gerhard Andersson   Background: Little is known about the role of the fathers of anorectic women. The aim of this study was to investigate the attachment state of mind in anorectic women and their fathers. In addition, two other groups of young women and their fathers were included. Methods: In total there were three groups consisting of women between 18-30 years with anorexia nervosa (AG), drug-dependency problems (DG) and students (SG) without significant problems. We also included the parents of all three groups. The diagnoses of anorexia nervosa and drug-dependency were made according to DSM-IV [1] and ICD-10 [2]. Several methods were used in the study. [3, 4] The Adult Attachment Interview [5] was the focus of this report. Results: The analyses showed that the Anorectic women (AG) had more of a dismissing attachment state of mind, than those who were categorized as enmeshed or secure/autonomous. The attachment of the fathers showed more of a dismissing state of mind than of those categorized as with secure or enmeshed attachment. The subcategories showed that both among the anorectic women and the fathers the dismissing attachment state of mind with restriction of feelings was most represented. The dependent women (DG) had more of an unresolved/enmeshed attachment state of mind than those who were categorized as dismissing or secure/autonomous. The attachment of the fathers showed more of an unresolved/secure attachment state of mind than of those categorized as dismissing or enmeshed. The subcategories showed that enmeshed attachment state of mind of the dependent girls differed from fathers with the unresolved/secure attachment state of mind. Conclusion: This study illustrates the similarities and the differences of attachment styles among anorectic women and their fathers in comparison to the dependent women and their fathers. The insecure attachment is dominant in the two groups but differ in its expressions. The number of participants in the study was low and larger studies are needed to clarify the interpersonal and intra-psychic meaning to the anorectic woman.
      PubDate: Aug 2017
       
  • The Effectiveness of Emotion-focused Cognitive Therapy in Decreasing
           Depression due to Marital Relationship Problems

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  5  Number  4  Seyedeh Fatemeh Hashemi   and Seyed Ali Kimiaei   Marital distress and marital relationship problems are effective in generation and acceleration of depression. Depression is a significant contributor to the global burden of disease and affects people in all communities across the world. This study aims to determine the effectiveness of emotion-focused cognitive therapy in decreasing depression caused due to marital relationship problems. The design of this study was semi-experimental with pre-test, post-test and control group. The research population consisted of all couples referred to the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad Clinic of Psychology. 10 couples with marital problems were selected by convenience sampling, and randomly assigned to an experimental group and a control group. The experimental group received emotion-focused cognitive therapy while the control group received no treatment. The research measurement instruments consisted of BDI-II and CPQ. ANCOVA models were used to test the study hypothesis. The results showed that EFCT had been effective in decreasing depression due to marital relationship problems (P < 0.001). The results of our study not only demonstrated that the importance of cognition and emotion in marital relationship but also product useful information about effectiveness of EFCT on depression caused due to marital relationship problems for researchers, counselors and psychotherapists.
      PubDate: Aug 2017
       
  • Role of Stress Management on the Relationship between Information Overload
           Syndrome and Performance of Universiti Utara Malaysia

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  5  Number  4  Saralah Devi Mariamdaran   and Arsaythamby A/L Veloo   Research has identified the moderating role of stress management on the relationship between information overload syndrome and performance (IOS&P) of university students. Observation conducted due to Information Technologies usages. Research has become relatively easy as all the materials are readily available, but at the same time too much information acts as a noise and students feel problematic in choosing the right information which causes stress and affects students' performance. The IOS&P framework has been tested with the help of primary data collected from the students of Universiti Utara Malaysia. The findings of the study revealed that information overload syndrome has a negative impact over the performance of students. Furthermore, the addition of moderating variable i.e. stress management converts the negative impact into positive impact and has increased the value of explained variation. Thus, the overall framework has been approved and the study highlighted that there is a significant moderating role of stress management over the relationship between information overload syndrome and students performance.
      PubDate: Aug 2017
       
  • Detecting Differences between Clinical Presentations in ADHD through the
           Cognitive Profile Obtained from WISC-IV

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  5  Number  4  Ignasi Navarro Soria   Javier Fenollar Cortés   Rocio Lavigne Cerván   and Rocio Juarez Ruiz de Mier   Objective: The current study explores whether WISC-IV cognitive profiles could allow to differentiate between presentations of ADHD. Method: A clinical sample of 216 subjects aged between 6 and 16 years and distributed into 2 subgroups (ADHD inattentive type group aged M = 8.5, SD = 2.4; and ADHD combined group M = 10.1, SD = 2.6) was recruited for the study. Results: Processing Speed Index mean score was significantly higher (F (1,214) = 14.7, p< .001, d = 0.52) in ADHD-Inattentive group (M = 90.7; SD = 12.1) than ADHD-Combined group (M = 97.7; SD = 14.7). Furthermore, PSI was negatively associated with "Inattention" dimension (β = -.21, p< .001 family and β = -.19, p< .001 teachers) while it was positively associated with "Hyperactivity/Impulsivity" dimension (β = .27, p< .001 family and β = .33, p< .001 teachers). Conclusions: The higher inattentiveness the lower PSI mean score, while a higher hyperactivity/impulsivity mean score would reduce the impact caused for inattentiveness. Thus, ADHD-I profile would tend to show a significant lower PSI mean score than ADHD-C.
      PubDate: Aug 2017
       
  • Color Preference in Luxury Electrical Appliances

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  5  Number  4  Ibarra Gutiérrez, Laura Edith   Rosales Cinco, Rosa Amelia   and Prado León, Lilia Roselia   Objects are signs which transmit social, political, religious, economic or cultural messages, among others. The meanings of these messages are directed from the emitting object to the recipient, the person who uses or owns the item. The aim of this research is to determine which colors the population of Guadalajara, Mexico relates to luxury in the case of electrical appliances. The study was based on a Product Personality Profiling (PPP) evaluation of six appliances. The features of those products represent a social-economic level which is linked to the consumer of luxury objects. The target of the survey was to determine the colors that represent the luxurious electronic appliance market, which could be linked to a luxury car. The colors in the survey (all metallic versions) were sand, silver, black, blue, grey, white, green and "other." Participants chose two colors for the luxury objects. Silver was chosen for the first three and metallic black for the last three. The results show that the colors silver and black are related to luxury and that the remaining colors are less likely to be related to luxury appliances.
      PubDate: Aug 2017
       
  • Effectiveness of a Multimodal Intervention for Group Counseling with
           Children of Divorce in Iran

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  5  Number  4  Mehrdad Hajihasani   Parental divorce is the issue of most concern for children. The purpose of this article is to describe interventions for children from divorced family. Literature review and references look at divorce groups from multiple perspectives so as to include as many diverse issues as possible. Group counseling helps students understand the wide variety of different issues that arise in the context of groups, helps with universality, and brings support and healing to the very essence of their life. The overall purpose, to empower students to make healthy adjustments in their lives given the immense life changes, is well served by group counseling. Measurable goals and evaluation methods insure a high degree of rigor in the process. Finally, 9 sessions are spelled out in detail including clear objectives, necessary materials and specific strategies so as to insure success in realizing the purpose of the group. Results of multivariate analysis of variance showed that the interventionist model developed by the researcher was effective in improving psychological adjustment (P
      PubDate: Aug 2017
       
  • For Value or for Worth' Part 1: Speaking Syllogistic Attractors of
           Appropriations in a Thought-Action-Mood-Space

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  5  Number  2  Gottfried Reinhold Sebastian Treviranus   Epistemiology requires trans-disciplinary logics for convergence. As a fundamental of the brain, this essay's hypotheses revisit the Goethean alternation between "Newtonian" symbolic frontal 4-dimensional (Halford) processing ("4D-Thought"), and parietal intellectual intuition ("5D+-Action") interpreting high-dimensional articulated motor-chains (Rizzolatti). SuchS a classical temperamental and anxio-affective triad of dimensions ("Thought", "Action", "Mood") constitutes the "dyn4-TAM-cube"-model, reflecting segregated cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuits. "dyn4-TAM-cube" harbors cycling "Appropriation Waves" transiting from private "4DThought" to public "5+Action" and back. At "Intention" to act predictive Pavlovian cues, possibly tempting by discounted effort, incentivate, and at "Perception" Skinnerian learning relates "worth"-related outcome to effortful appropriations (see part2). Sorrentino's prime motivating "orientation" when facing the unexplained unknown dictates this balance. Thereby uncertainty- versus certainty-oriented actors ("UOs" vs. "COs") differ inversely and interactively in "Mood": whilst reducing future effortful "known unknowns" by models or by doing. Rats show a arguably homologous sign- versus goal-tracking dimension, as controlled by the thalamic paraventricular nuclei, where mast cells might mediate the reversal in orientation observed in depression. Natural language terms denoting the 8 corners and 56 intercalated processes link "dyn4-TAM-cube" to psychotherapy and to thalamic (neuro-)linguistics, as "dyn4-TAM-cube" via syllogisms of a doubled Square of Oppositions maps language to logical terms, which speak through the former.
      PubDate: Apr 2017
       
  • An Axiomatic Approach to Human Behavior

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  5  Number  2  Sheldon Grant Levy   Since Euclid's development, the axiomatic method ha44s appealed to a limited number of non-mathematicians.. These include Newton's laws of motion, Spinoza's Ethics, and the political philosophy represented in the United States Declaration of Independence. In psychology, the notable efforts have been those of Hull and more recently of Smedslund. However, none of these examples have stated the premises in symbolic logic notation. An illustrative set of postulates for human behavior is present in which only the relationships---"not", "and", "or" and "implies"--- are employed. These propositions include basic concepts such as anxiety, aggression, and identification and fundamental empirical results, for example, the basic law of effect of Thorndike. The model then capitalizes on Muncaster's PropCalc which provides a computer analysis of a set of propositions expressed in symbolic notation for their consistency and redundancy. The procedure also provides a basic set of deductions implied by the propositions. Examples of conclusions derived from the model are presented and limitations of the prototypical model are discussed. The focus of the paper is to illustrating the utility of the axiomatic approach for theory development in psychology.
      PubDate: Apr 2017
       
  • Spiritus contra Spiritum: Including Spirituality in Addiction Treatments
           for Recovery, a Systematic Review

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  5  Number  2  Santiago De Ossorno Garcia   Javier Martin Babarro   and Mª de la Paz Toldos Romero   Spirituality had been acknowledged as a key construct to observe in the treatment and recovery from addictions. Due to the individualistic nature of the construct and overlap with religion, it is still not clear how spirituality influence treatment and recovery of individuals. Different treatments and approaches like AA philosophy or spiritual practices embrace the whole construct to obtain better outcomes in recovery for addictions. The aim of this review was to examine the effects of this construct and its relationship with recovery. A search strategy was followed to retrieve 457 scientific papers related with the matter of study. A total of 14 studies were selected and assessed for quality. Experimental and observational studies were categorised by design, and reviewed through narrative synthesis. Results showed that due to the lack of experimental research, poor quality and diverse conceptions of the construct, spiritual treatments are not more effective than other treatments whereas high levels of spirituality and spiritual practices tend to reduce the substance use outcomes and improve in other areas of recovery. From the findings reviewed which need to be considered with caution, it was concluded that implementing this construct within the therapy or approach may improve, in many cases, to achieve a successful recovery. More research is needed to determine if spiritual-related treatments have better outcomes, and some recommendations were addressed for future research, in addition to an encouragement for the inclusion of spirituality with its diversity into different domains of clinical practice.
      PubDate: Apr 2017
       
  • For Value or for Worth' Part 2: A Neuroeconomical
           Thought-Action-Mood-Space Modulated by (Un-)Certainty as Sign- or
           Goal-tracking

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  5  Number  2  Gottfried Reinhold Sebastian Treviranus   Epistemiology requires trans-disciplinary logics for convergence. Here a logico-geometrically expanded cyclical version of the classical French temperamental and anxio-affective thought-action-mood-model, 'dyn4-TAM-cube', harboring Appropriation Waves (AWs), encounters an effort-related node of present neuro-economical debates: the cyclical relation between 'value' and 'worth'. Accordingly, as a fundamental of the brain, this essay's second part continues to explore the alternation between symbolic frontal 4-dimensional (Halford) processing ('4D-Thought'), and high-dimensional parietal (Rizzolatti) intel- lectual intuition ('5D+-Action'), as balanced according to Richard Sorrentino's prime motivator trait (Un-)Certainty Orientation ('UO-versus-CO') interacting with 'Mood'. The two mentally processed transitions between these low-and high-dimensional domains, '4D-T~' and '5D+-A~', are complexity-reductive Perception P{} and -expan- sionist Intention (I{}), from which two kinds of learning feed into '4D-T~' for decision. Specifically in early AW the not just predictive, but incentive among Pavlovian cues putatively promises discounts in effort which foster intentions for worth-appropriative moves: I{}. As 'UO-versus-CO' to date seems homologous to the more sign- or more goal-tracking dimension ('ST-versus-GT') in rats. Since ST is controlled by the thalamic paraventricular nuclei and GT e.g. by the hippocampus, putative intruding mast cells might cause the depressive reversals in orientation, establishing mast cells as bio-economical agents.
      PubDate: Apr 2017
       
  • Perceptions of Teachers on Psychosocial Life Skills in the Secondary
           School SiSwati Curriculum

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Psychology  Volume  5  Number  2  Oloyede, O. I.   and Sihlongonyane, T   The study investigated the perceptions of teachers on psycho - social life skills in the secondary school siSwati curriculum. The study set out to achieve three objectives and answer three research questions which were meant to establish the teachers' level of perception of life skills. A mixed method design which combined qualitative and quantitative research was used. Questionnaire and semi structured discursively oriented interviews were used to collect data. A simple random sampling procedure was employed to get twenty siSwati teachers from four schools in the Shiselweni region in Swaziland to respond to questionnaires. The follow up semi structured discursively oriented interviews were used to collect data from twelve teachers. The study established that most teachers were aware of life skills found in the siSwati curriculum but the level of perception was low. The research findings indicated that siSwati teachers were less involved in the promotion of life skills mostly because of lack of knowledge on how to integrate life skills in the siSwati lessons. Conclusions drawn from findings were that lack of time, life skills materials, and teacher training on life skills teaching were the challenges that hinders life skills teaching. Based on the findings it was recommended that in-service workshops for the siSwati teachers on the teaching of life skills be organised, teaching materials especially teacher's guide be provided, and time should be allocated on the schools time table for life skills.
      PubDate: Apr 2017
       
 
 
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