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Publisher: Horizon Research Publishing   (Total: 54 journals)   [Sort by number of followers]

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Journal Cover Universal Journal of Plant Science
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   ISSN (Print) 2332-337X - ISSN (Online) 2332-3450
   Published by Horizon Research Publishing Homepage  [54 journals]
  • Comparative Survey of Lignification in Aerial Organs during Development of
           Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.)

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2018
      Source:Universal Journal of Plant Science  Volume  6  Number  1  Maryam Kolahi   Mohammad Reza Tabandeh   Majd A   Jonobi P   and Mahmoud Hashemitabar   Cell-wall lignification is among the new features that appeared as early plants began to adapt to land, possibly aiding in the development of more complex bodies. Saccharum officinarum L., a typical C4 plant with unique structure and anatomy, is one of the most important energy crops in the world with a very high yield of biomass. We analyzed lignification in the anatomy of leaf, sheath and stem, in sugarcane seedlings at four distinct stages of growth: germination stage, tillering stage, ground growth stage and maturation stage. Kranz anatomy with well-developed bundle sheath associated with Kranz mesophyll was observed but Kranz system was absent in large vascular bundles. Lignification of tissues and cells in sheath during early developmental stages is expected confirmed because during this stage, when stem tissue is absent in sugarcane, may be critical for the expansion of lignification and development of the stem and increasing the mechanical rigidity of the young plant. The lignified tissues and the intensity of lignification increased during later stages of development, especially in the stem. The most lignified tissues of the stem can be observed during the maturation stage and a little before it, which provides the stem with mechanical strength. These differentiation features may be linked to stem development, while the relevant changes in metabolites may be related to sucrose accumulation.
      PubDate: Jan 2018
       
  • Nitrogen (N) and Potassium (K) Supplementation to Improve Salt Tolerance
           in Brassica (Brassica juncea, cv: Agati sarheen)

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2018
      Source:Universal Journal of Plant Science  Volume  6  Number  1  M. U. Shirazi   M. T. Rajput   M. A. Khan   and R. U. Ansari   To observe the mitigating effects of nitrogen and potassium under salinity on Brassica juncea (cv. Agati sarheen), N and K was supplemented at different stages of growth. The studies were conducted under control condition (gravel culture). Salinity (12 dS/m) was imposed by NaCl salt after three weeks of germination through irrigation (1/4th Hoagland solution). Nitrogen and Potassium was applied exogenously in the form of KNO3 @ (T1. 30mM and T2 60mM) at vegetative and flowering stage. There was decrease in growth and yield under salinity. However; the relative reduction in plant height, slique length, grain wt/ 5 slique and grain yield/ 15 plants was comparatively low due foliar application of N and K as compared to non applicated plants. The overall accumulation of organic solutes (proline and glycine betaine) was significantly high under salinity. The response of N and K application was almost nil in case of proline accumulation. On the other hand application of KNO3 @ 30mM showed increased accumulation of glycine betaine. The uptake of Na under salinity was less in plant having KNO3 application @ 30mM (T1). Potassium content under saline condition was high in KNO3 @ 60mM (i.e. T2 treatment), resulting in high K/Na ratio. The application of KNO3 also found to increase in nitrogen content in brassica. It is therefore concluded that better performance of brassica genotype under salinity might be due to low Na uptake and high K/ Na ratio especially under T1 treatment (i.e KNO3 @ 30mM).
      PubDate: Jan 2018
       
  • Antimicrobial, Antifungal & Cytotoxic Activities Screening of Stem Bark
           Fractions from Terminalia chebula

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Plant Science  Volume  5  Number  3  Md. Lutful Kabir   Mohammad Tuhin Ali   and Md. Enamul Haque   The fractionated crude extracts and two isolated pure compounds TC-1(Phytol) and TC-2(Stigmasterol) from stem bark of Terminalia chebula were screened for their antibacterial and antifungal activities and cytotoxicity against brine shrimp nauplii. Petroleum ether, ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and methanol (MeOH) extracts and the compounds isolated from EtOAC fractions were studied for their antimicrobial activities. Cytotoxic activities were conducted only with crude extract. Both EtOAc and petroleum ether extract showed promising and moderate antimicrobial activities against most of the gram positive and gram negative bacteria whereas the MeOH extract did not show any antimicrobial activities. The isolated pure compounds TC-1 & TC-2 exhibited activities against most of the bacterial strains. The cytotoxicity towards brine shrimp nauplii of the crude extract was studied. The LC50 values of plant crude extract is found to be 5.623413µg/mL.
      PubDate: Sep 2017
       
  • Survey and Identification of Common Weeds Associated with Rice and
           Vegetable Production in Rosario, La Union, Philippines

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Plant Science  Volume  5  Number  3  Angelina T. Gonzales   A preliminary survey, collection and identification of weeds in rice and vegetable production areas in Rosario, La Union, Philippines were done to identify most common and prevalent weeds associated with rice and vegetable. Fields surveys were done according to the quantitative survey method using 1.0m x 1.0m size quadrat with 20 samples from each field. Weeds present in each field were identified and the data were used to calculate frequency and relative dominance values for each species. A total of 45 species of weeds were collected and identified. Dominant weeds in vegetable and rice production during wet season were Digitaria sp., F. littoralis, A. conyzoides, C. pubescens and D. aegyptum. However, dominant weeds in rice production area were: Digitaria sp. and Dactyloctenium aegyptium; while Chloris sp. and Fimbristylis littoralis Gaudich, Centrosema pubescens Benth and Cyperus killingia and Cyperus rotundus L. and Dactyloctenium aegyptium at vegetable area. Based on the survey annuals were more dominant than perennial. More survey work is needed on a regular basis to identify possible problematic weed and weed population shifts and direct research toward new or improved control measures.
      PubDate: Sep 2017
       
  • Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) Induced Changes in Germination, Seedling Growth
           and Water Relation Behavior of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Genotypes

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Plant Science  Volume  5  Number  4  Most. Faijunnahar   Abdullahil Baque   Md. Ahsan Habib   and H. M. M. Tariq Hossain   Pre-sowing seed treated with Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) assumed to be a potential priming agent to increase the germination, seedling growth and water relation behavior of grain. With this view, a lab investigation was carried out to find out the effect of various PEG concentrations on the germination, seedling growth and water relation behavior of wheat. Seeds of ESWYT-5, ESWYT -6 and ESWYT-7 wheat genotypes and BARI Gom 28 were pre-soaked in water with 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% PEG solutions. Results of the study revealed that seed priming enhanced germination, seedling growth and water relation behavior of wheat genotypes. Among four wheat genotypes, ESWYT-5 performed the best regarding germination, seedling growth and water relation behavior where wheat genotypes ESWYT-6 and BARI Gom 28 performed moderately and ESWYT-7 showed consistently poor performance. All the characters showed the best results when wheat seeds treated with 10% PEG solution compared to nonprime and hydro primed seeds and the value decreased gradually with increasing PEG concentration. These results suggest that seed priming had significant effect to boost the germination, seedling growth and water relation behavior of wheat genotypes.
      PubDate: Nov 2017
       
  • How Does Storing Containers on Farmers Stored Boro Rice Seed Affect the
           Seed Qualities'

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Plant Science  Volume  5  Number  4  Muhaiminur Rashid   Ismail Hossain   Kamrul Hassan   and Fuad Mondal   The experiment was conducted at Laboratory of Plant Pathology, Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU), Mymensingh and Seed Pathology Centre, BAU, Mymensingh during 2010 to 2014 to investigate the effect of storing containers on moisture content, germination percentage, seedling vigor, apparently healthy of seeds and infection of rice stored seeds. The rice seed samples of cv. BR14, BRRI dhan28, BRRI dhan29 and Guti were collected from 36 farmers belonging to the individual villages at Ishwarganj Upazila under Mymensingh District. Four types of storing containers were used by farmers own selves following traditional practices. Storing containers were gunny bag lined with polythene, bamboo bin lined with polythene, gunny bag and earthen pot locally called motka. The highest percentage of moisture content was in gunny bag (14.32%) and the lowest in gunny bag lined with polythene(12.59%) similarly best germination was in gunny bag lined with polythene (78.04%) and worst in motka (65.16%) consequently maximum vigor index was shown in gunny bag lined with polythene (1756) and minimum in motka (1458). The experiment also found the highest percentage of apparently healthy seeds in gunny bag lined polythene (55.01%) and lowest in motka (46.42%).Sequentially maximum seed borne fungi infection occurred in gunny bag (28.98%) and minimum infection in bamboo bin lined with polythene (22.70%). The result of the experiment evidently proved that polythene sheet was the key indication to protect the quality of seeds. On the other hand, the earthen pot or motka was the worst material to deteriorate the quality of seeds during storing time.
      PubDate: Nov 2017
       
  • Status of Agricultural Statistics in Sudan

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Plant Science  Volume  5  Number  2  Nuha Mohamed Elamin Ahmed   and Mawahib Elsaied   Agriculture is playing a very important role in the Sudan economy of the country as more than 70 per cent of the population is engaged directly or indirectly in this activity. Sudan earns 45 per cent of its GDP from Agriculture. The current paper presents evolution of statistical activities and setting up of its institution is taken up since 1903. The objectives of the survey were: To estimate the average yield per feddan and consequently estimate the total production of sorghum; to estimate the harvested area depending on response from the selected farmers by identifying planted and harvested area; and also the same sample or a sub sample can be used to collect information on cost of production and marketing of agricultural products. The survey design used was stratified two stage random sample with uniform sampling fraction (proportionate allocation). For collection of data the agriculture sector in the country was divided into "Irrigated" and "Rainfed" sectors. Rainfedsector was further divided into "mechanized" and "traditional" sectors for the purposes of sampling designs. The country prepares Balance Sheet Cereal of and has a methodology for assessment of Food and Nutrition Security. The paper also outlined the existing Market Information System for Crop and Livestock.
      PubDate: Jul 2017
       
  • Enhancing Strawberry Productivity through Bee Pollination

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Plant Science  Volume  5  Number  2  Asiko Grace   Oketch Jane   Mochorwa Jared   Nzano Patricia   Momanyi Dinah   Okecha Teresa   Okinyi Blaise   Koech Christine   Yego Ruth   and Palla David   Bees play a vital role in strawberry pollination, for fruit quality and increased productivity. Greenhouse experiments were conducted at the National Beekeeping Institute, in collaboration with EU-AU Sponsored ICIPE Bee Health Project. Using honeybee pollinators increased super quality fruits (84% total). Harvested industry fruits were absent in the open field plants, outside the greenhouse, with multi-pollinators. These, however, greatly reduced in the harvested fruits, inside the greenhouse (4.3% total), with the honeybee as the sole pollinator, demonstrating the superiority of the latter in enhancing strawberry productivity through pollination.
      PubDate: Jul 2017
       
  • Susceptibility, Antioxidant Defense, and Growth Inhibitory Response of
           Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) against the
           Virulence of Metarhizium anisopliae Isolates

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Plant Science  Volume  5  Number  2  Abid Hussain   Muhammad Rizwan-ul-Haq   and Ahmed Mohammed AlJabr   Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, commonly referred to as red palm weevil (RPW), is an invasive Indian sub-continent pest that infests date palms in the Arabian peninsula and dates-growing countries. In an effort to manage red palm weevil infestations, exotic isolates of entomopathogenic fungi, especially Metarhizium anisopliae were procured from different sources for possible use against red palm weevil larvae. In this study, we evaluated the virulence attributes including the viability and relative hydrophobicity of the spores of M. anisopliae isolates 8453, 7234 and 406; and their impact on the host susceptibility, growth and antioxidant defense. Results indicated that isolate 8453 had 20.64% higher relative hydrophobicity compared with the least virulent isolate 406 that showed the highest LT50 value (10.90 days). The feeding performance experiment revealed significant differences in ECI and ECD indexes. The most virulent isolate 8453 (LT50 = 7.55 days) established in the current study tremendously declined ECI (26.15%) and ECD (39.84%) indexes compared to control treatment larvae. However, the least virulent isolate 406 (LT50 = 10.90 days) could only reduce 7.38% and 12.06% of ECI and ECD indexes, respectively. Furthermore, the virulent isolate 8453 established in the current study successful imparted 100% larval mortality compared with other tested isolates of M. anisopliae. Host antioxidant defense from hemolymph, gut and fat was explored after 24 h of infection by qRT-PCR. The quantification of catalase and peroxidase genes revealed significant differences in their expressions. Overall, the least virulent isolate (406) failed to induce the expression of catalase and peroxidase. However, isolate 8453 greatly induced the expression of studied antioxidant genes. These results indicated that M. anisopliae isolate 8453 seems to be a promising bio-control agent against the infestations of red palm weevils.
      PubDate: Jul 2017
       
  • Stimulation of Defense Enzymes in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and
           Chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) in Response to Exogenous Application of
           Different Chemical Elicitors

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Plant Science  Volume  5  Number  1  Y.S.M. Asanka Indunil Kumari   and A. Vengadaramana   The objective of this study was to evaluate the response to exogenous application of different chemical elicitors on the stimulation of defense enzymes such as chitinase, peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL) and polyphenoloxidase (PPO) in tomato and chilli plants leaves tissues. Chemical elicitors are compounds, which activate chemical defense systems in plants. Various biosynthetic pathways are activated by chemical elicitors in plants depending on the elicitors used. Two times exogenous application of 200 ppm of salicylic acid (SA), ascorbic acid (AA), jasmonic acid (JA) and H2O2 and ethanol (1 mL of 95% ethanol in 1 L distilled water) induced the four defense enzymes production in chilli and tomato plants leaves tissues and significantly reduced viral disease incidence in chilli plants compared to control. SA at 200 ppm enhanced significantly chitinase, peroxidase, PAL and PPO enzymes in leaves tissues of tomato plants. Tomato plants treated with chemical elicitors and control did not show any disease symptoms.
      PubDate: Apr 2017
       
  • Managing Ambient Air Quality Using Ornamental Plants-An Alternative
           Approach

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Plant Science  Volume  5  Number  1  Manish Kapoor   Air quality management involves the determination of the relative contribution of current or future source emissions at receptor sites to ground level pollutant concentrations coupled with implementation of effective management plan to reduce emission level. From the last few decades, urban air pollution has become an inevitable issue for its possible consequences on public health. In order to manage the ambient air quality, there are several methodologies with each having some specific advantages and constrains. Improvement of ambient air quality involves the basic approaches like emission reduction at source level, conversion of pollutants to a less damaging compounds and sequestration of pollutants. However, in order to manage the air quality, application of ornamental plants may be considered a well alternative approach. Although, it may not be imperative to consider plants as a sole alternative for urban ambient air quality management, but certainly it may useful to manage air quality for a small confined area, especially in case of indoor air. This paper reviews the possible application of ornamental plants, which may be trees, shrubs or herbs for its possible applications to regulate air quality. Some selective plant species has also been recommended based on its air pollution tolerance index.
      PubDate: Apr 2017
       
  • Comparative Effect of Different Potting Media on Vegetative and
           Reproductive Growth of Floral Shower (Antirrhinum majus L.)

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2013
      Source:Universal Journal of Plant Science  Volume  1  Number  3  Tahir Mehmood Waqas Ahmad Khawaja Shafique Ahmad Jamil Shafi Muhammad Asif Shehzad and Muhammad Aqeel Sarwar This research project was conducted to investigate the comparative effect of different potting media with different compositions on growth and flowering of Antirrhinum majus L. ‘Floral Shower’. The data for both morphological and physiological parameters analyzed statistically showed significant effect of media combinations over control values. Each treatment was consisted of 10 plants and was replicated thrice. Agricultural and municipal wastes are good, cheap potting media components for the production of flowering plants. An economical and high-quality production of ‘Floral shower’ can be attained by using most suitable media. The results regarding growth and flowering parameters showed significant increase in Leaf Mould potting media. The media containing Farm Yard Manure alone and in combination with silt with its higher pH, showed least results for these parameters. On the other hand, plants grown in Farm Yard Manure comprising media provide minimum results for all the characteristics except for media nitrogen content which were statistically similar to control. Peat moss containing growing substrate also showed positive results for plants vegetative and reproductive growth. However, Farm Yard Manure was seen to prove less effective for better plant growth due to its less contribution for the availability of nutrients. Availability of Phosphorus contents in soil has positive relationship with growth and flowering indices. Maximum Phosphorus content was found when Farm Yard Manure and Leaf Mould were used alone in combination with silt + topsoil. Thus, it is suggested that Leaf Mould can be recommended as a standard potting media for Antirrhinum majus L. growth.
      PubDate: Oct 2013
       
  • Meliola Marthomaensis Sp. Nov. an Addition to Meliolaceae from Western
           Ghat Region in Kerala State, India

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2013
      Source:Universal Journal of Plant Science  Volume  1  Number  3  Jacob Thomas Teena Elizabeth Alex and Riya J. Thomas During the exploration of foliicolous fungi in the Pathanamthitta district of Western Ghats region of Kerala state, Hymenodictyon obovatum Wallich. (Rubiaceae) was found infected with black mildew fungus. Critical microscopic examination of the fungus revealed that it is hitherto undescribed species of the genus Meliola Fr. and hence the report.
      PubDate: Oct 2013
       
  • In Vitro Micropropagation of the Ornamental Plant Dieffenbachia-A Review

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2013
      Source:Universal Journal of Plant Science  Volume  1  Number  3  Azza Migdam Elsheikh Hussien Mohamed Daffalla and Mutasim Mohamed Khalfala Ornamental industry has applied immensely in vitro propagation approach for large-scale plant multiplication at very high rates of elite superior varieties. As a result, hundreds of plant tissue culture laboratories have come up worldwide. Dieffenbachia species are popular foliage potted plants used in interiorescapes of homes, offices, and malls throughout the world. Most of Dieffenbachia species are now propagated by tissue culture for better utilize of species and expedite plant improvement. This review paper summarizes valuable literature on in vitro techniques including type of explants used, media optimized, ways of propagation and improvement through 45 years of research on Dieffenbachia spp. Which were provide basis for future studies such as genetic transformation for breeding aims, develop new cultivars, develop disease-resistant plants and overcome the environmental obstacles. There is a need for more application of the plant tissue culture techniques on Dieffenbachia to investigate the responses of different cultivars and explants to variable culture media.
      PubDate: Oct 2013
       
  • Effect of Fertilizers (Urea, Farmyard and Chicken Manure) on Growth and
           Yield of Rhodes Grass (Chloris Gayana L. Knuth.)

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2013
      Source:Universal Journal of Plant Science  Volume  1  Number  3  Ahmed M. Yossif and Yassin M. Ibrahim A field experiment was conducted during (2009/2010) season in Demonstration Farm of the Faculty of Agricultural Studies, Sudan University of Science and Technology at Shambat, Sudan. The objective was to study the effect of fertilizers (urea, farmyard and chicken manure) on growth and yield of Rhodes grass. The fertilizer treatments used in this study were urea [U (100KgN/ha)], farmyard manure [FYM (5ton/ha)], chicken manure [ CHM (3ton/ha)], combinations between them (U+FYM, U+CHM, FYM+CHM, and U+FTM+CHM) with 8 cuts (Two months for the first cut and monthly after that to 8th cut). The experiment was laied out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replicates. The results revealed that growth parameters were not significantly affected by fertilizers except plant population but yield parameters were significantly affected by fertilizers.
      PubDate: Oct 2013
       
  • Growth and Yield of Rice (Oryza sativa) as Influenced by Humic Acid and
           Poultry Manure

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2013
      Source:Universal Journal of Plant Science  Volume  1  Number  3  R Saha M A U Saieed and M A K Chowdhury Humic acid (HA) and poultry manure (PM) were applied on T. aman rice cv. BRRI dhan39 to observe their effects on rice. Three levels of humic acid viz. 0, 3 and 6 L ha-1 and three levels of poultry manure viz. 0, 3 and 6 t ha-1 were applied along with recommended doses of N, P, K and S fertilizers from urea, TSP, MoP and gypsum, respectively following Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). Parameters used in the experiment were plant height, effective tillers hill-1, panicle length, no. of grains panicle-1, 1000-grain weight, grain and straw yields. The application of different treatments showed positive trend in all the parameters of BRRI dhan39. The highest grain yield (4.07 t ha-1) was recorded by the application of 6 L ha-1 humic acid along with 3 t ha-1 poultry manure which was identical with the application of 6 L ha-1 humic acid along with 6 t ha-1 poultry manure but was different from other treatment combinations.
      PubDate: Oct 2013
       
  • Development of Management Stratigies against Red Ant (Dorylus Orientalis
           Westwood) of Potato

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2013
      Source:Universal Journal of Plant Science  Volume  1  Number  3  C. K. Dash K. Hassan M.E.A. Pramanik M. H. Rashid and A. R. Choudhury Several management approaches against red ant of potato Dorylus orientalis (Westwood) were studied at farmer’s field near Hill Agricultural Research Station, Khagrachari during 2008-09 and 2009-10 cropping seasons to find out the most effective management technique. Dursban 20 EC and Sevin 85 WP reduced red ant damage significantly. From both the season (2008-09 and 2009-10), three times application of Dursban 20 EC @ 5ml/lit of water around the root zone starting from 45 days after sowing of potato tuber at 10 days interval gave the lowest tuber infestation (17.28% and 10.68%) with (62.77% and 56.60%) infestation reduction over control closely followed by 3 times application of Sevin 85 WP @ 3 gm/lit of water (20.14% and 13.73%) with (85.77 % and 81.71%) infestation reduction over control. Both the season the highest infestation (46.41% and 75.06%) was recorded from the control treatment.
      PubDate: Oct 2013
       
  • Efficacy of Different Plant Extract on Reducing Seed Borne Infection and
           Increasing Germination of Collected Rice Seed Sample

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2013
      Source:Universal Journal of Plant Science  Volume  1  Number  3  Mansur Ahmed Mehbub Hossain Kamrul Hassan and Chandra Kanta Dash Thirty six rice seed samples of varieties BR6, Pajam and Joya were collected from Parshuram upazila, Feni district of Bangladesh and nine seed-borne fungi were detected from these seed samples. The identified fungi were Fusarium oxysporum, F. moniliforme, Bipolaris oryzae, Alternaria padwickii, Curvularia lunata, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium sp. and Nigrospora oryzae. Five different plants extracts viz. garlic, allamanda, neem, chirata and bishkatali with two dilutions (1:1 & 1:2) were tested for seed treatment. Garlic extract (1:1) dilution found best for three varieties which successfully reduced seed-borne infection and also increased seed germination up to 68.39% over control. Neem (1:1) and chirata (1:1) extracts also increased seed germination up to 66.09% and 67.81%, respectively. Based on the present study, it may be concluded that among the five plant extracts with two dilutions (1:1 & 1:2), garlic (1:1) is most effective in controlling seed-borne fungal flora of rice followed by neem (1:1) and chirata (1:1) extract.
      PubDate: Oct 2013
       
  • Results and Prospects in Apple Breeding

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2013
      Source:Universal Journal of Plant Science  Volume  1  Number  3  Sedov E. N. The results of many-year investigation of some features of apple ontogenesis in connection with breeding and propagation of new cultivars are briefly given. On the ground of 60-year work on apple breeding the author of this paper have attempted to retrace the changes in breeding goals and methods and record the most urgent trends in breeding at present and the nearest future. The contemporary and rapidly increasing demands for new cultivars are noted. The topical character of the development of the cultivars with improved biochemical fruit composition, high resistance and immunity to scab and powdery mildew and also varieties with complex resistance to the cardinal diseases and pests is shown. On the ground of the wide experimental material the author shows the prospects of the development of triploid cultivars which are notable for more regular fruit-bearing, high fruit marketability and higher autogamy. The development of triploid and scab immune apple cultivars is of particular interest. The urgency of columnar apple creation for super intensive orchards is noted. The experience in the hybrid pool establishing for the purpose of selecting highly winter hardy intercalary stocks of different vigour is presented. The prospects of the development of true-rooted apple trees and also autogamous cultivars with the use of apetalous plants are noted.
      PubDate: Oct 2013
       
  • Generation Means Analysis for Five Physiological Traits of Bread Wheat
           under Rainfed Condition

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jun 2013
      Source:Universal Journal of Plant Science  Volume  1  Number  1  Usman Ijaz Smiullah   and Muhammad Kashif To understand the genetics of drought tolerance, two promising elite lines V-04189 and V-03138 were crossed to develop F1, F2 and back cross generations (BC1 and BC2). Six generations (P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1 and BC2) were raised with no recommended irrigations. Analysis of variance showed presence of sufficient genetic variability among six generations. Hybrid vigor was observed in most of the cases except flag leaf area. Generation means analysis revealed two parameter model [md] provided the best fit for relative water contents and excised leaf water loss which shows the presence of additive genetic effect is prominent with simple inheritance The remaining traits exhibited higher parameter models and indicating complex inheritance. Generation means analysis indicating the presence of additive genetic affects that can be fixed in early segregating generations.
      PubDate: Jun 2013
       
  • Soil-Weed Seed Communication Systems

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jun 2013
      Source:Universal Journal of Plant Science  Volume  1  Number  1  Jack Dekker The nature of weeds is a complex adaptive, soil-seed communication system. The nature of weedy Setaria life history is an adaptable, changeable system in which complex behaviors emerge when self-similar plant components self-organize into functional traits possessing biological information about spatial structure and temporal behavior. Setaria life history behavior is a Markov chain of irreversible and reversible processes regulated by morpho-physiological traits acting through environment-plant communication systems (environment-plant-seed, soil-seed). Heritable functional traits are the physical reservoirs of information guiding life history development, emergent behavior. The consequence of structural self-similarity and behavioral self-organization has been the evolution of a complex adaptive seed-soil communication system. Weedy Setaria life history is represented in algorithmic form as FoxPatch, a model to forecast seed behavior. Weedy Setaria seed life history behaviors are controlled by environmental information (signals) flowing from the soil to the seed embryo. The specific signal to which Setaria is tuned affecting seed behavior in the soil is the amount of oxygen and heat (T, thermal) in soil water over time, oxy-hydro-thermal time (O2-H2O-T-Time). The Shannon environmental-biological communication system between the soil and the Setaria seed contains the five elements (E) and components:E1, information source, soil; E2, transmitter, soil particle contact with seed surface water films; E3, channel, continuous soil particle-seed surface water films; E4, receiver, living seed interior from the transfer aleurone cell layer (TACL) membrane to aleurone layer to embryo; E5, destination, embryo. The signal is soil O2-H2O-T-Time; the message is O2-H2O-T stimulating embryo respiration. The Setaria soil-seed communication system seed behavior can be also expressed as operations (processes) computed by seed algorithms. Information is physical: memory resides in several locations in the Setaria seed. Memory is expressed in the long-term by responsiveness to O2-H2O-heat messages as determined by the morpho-physiological soil-seed communication system (hull, TACL membrane, scavenger protein). The message is remembered: plants pass on a range of heteromorphic seeds appropriate to continuing, successful local adaptation.
      PubDate: Jun 2013
       
  • Genetic Analysis of Some Metric Plant Traits in Upland Cotton (Gossypium
           hirsutum L.) through Hybridization

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jun 2013
      Source:Universal Journal of Plant Science  Volume  1  Number  1  Muhammad Muzaffar Raza Muneeb Munawar Ghazanfar Hammad Rasheda Aslam Sajida  Habib and Amir  Latif Five cotton cultivars (NIAB-884, Bt-101, CRIS-310, MS-39 and UCD-581) were crossed in a complete diallel design to investigate the inheritance pattern of some metric plant traits. Genetic differences were found significant (b>0.01) for all traits under study. Adequacy test showed that all the characters were fully adequate for genetic analysis. Additive component of genotypic variance (D) was significant and predominant for Plant height, number of sympodial branches, boll weight, seed cotton yield, lint percentage, staple length, fibre strength and fibre fineness, while over dominance effects (H1 and H2) mainly contributed for no. bolls per plant. Partial dominance was involved for plant height, no. of sympodial branches, boll weight, and yield of seed cotton, lint percentage, staple length and fibre strength. The value of H2/4H1 demonstrated asymmetrical and unequal distribution of dominant genes in the parents for all the traits.
      PubDate: Jun 2013
       
  • Effect of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers on Proximate Analysis of
           Rhodes Grass (Chloris gayana L. Knuth.)

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2013
      Source:Universal Journal of Plant Science  Volume  1  Number  4  Ahmed M. Yossif   and Yassin M. Ibrahim   A field experiment was conducted during (2009/2010) season in Demonstration Farm of the Faculty of Agricultural Studies, Sudan University of Science and Technology at Shambat, Sudan. The objective was to study the effect of fertilizers (urea, farmyard and chicken manure) on nutritive value of Rhodes grass. The fertilizer treatments used in this study were urea [U (100KgN/ha)], farmyard manure [FYM (5ton/ha)], chicken manure [CHM (3ton/ha)], combinations between them (U+FYM, U+CHM, FYM+CHM, and U+FTM+CHM) with 8 cuts (Two monthes firstly and monthly after that to 8th cut). The experiment was arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replicates. The results revealed that all proximate analysis parameters were not significantly affected by fertilizers.
      PubDate: Dec 2013
       
  • Evaluation of Some Spices Powder as Grain Protectant against Pulse Beetle,
           Callosobruchus Chinensis (L.)

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2013
      Source:Universal Journal of Plant Science  Volume  1  Number  4  Md. Saiful Islam   Md. Azizul Haque   Kazi Shahanara Ahmed   Md. Fuad Mondal    and Chandra Kanta Dash   The biological activity of four spices powder namely black pepper (Piper nigrum L.), black cumin (Nigella sativa L.), methi (Trigonella foenum-graecum) and garlic (Allium sativum L.) was assessed on the basis of adult mortality, oviposition performance, adult emergence of pulse beetle Callosobruchus chinensis L, and seed damage and consequent weight loss of gram (Cicer arietinum) caused by this insect at 0.25 g, 0.50 g and 1.00 g powder/kg gram seeds. All the tested spices powder showed significant effect on the above parameters. The highest adult mortality was recorded when gram seeds were treated with black pepper powder at 1.00 g/kg. whereas methi showed the least effect on adult mortality. Spices powder used in the experiment effectively controlled adult emergence by inhibiting oviposition and growth and development of life stages of pulse beetle. In all the treatments lowest number of adult emergence was obtained from gram seeds treated with black pepper at 1.00 g/kg seeds. The highest weight loss was observed in control treated seeds followed by methi powder at 0.25 g/kg gram seeds. Black pepper treated seeds showed the lowest seed weight loss followed by black cumin, garlic and methi. From this present study the toxicity of the spices powder were found in the order black pepper> black cumin> garlic> methi.
      PubDate: Dec 2013
       
  • Response of Wheat (Triticum Aestivum) Cultivars to Different Tillage
           Practices Grown under Rice-wheat Cropping System

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2013
      Source:Universal Journal of Plant Science  Volume  1  Number  4  Ali Imran   Jamil Shafi   Nadeem Akbar   Waqas Ahmad   Mubasher Ali   and Sohail Tariq   A field experiment was carried out to determine the effect of tillage on growth and yield of two wheat cultivars sown after rice at the Agronomic Research Area, University of Agriculture, and Faisalabad during the winter season 2012-13. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with split plot arrangement having three replications with a net plot size of 3.0 m × 7.0 m. The experiment comprised of two wheat cultivars with four tillage treatments viz. Zero tillage, reduced tillage (only one cultivation+hand drilling), conventional method (3 cultivation followed by planking +hand drilling) and deep ploughing (one deep ploughing with chisel plough and one cultivation followed by planking+hand drilling). Maximum grain yield was obtained in Zero tillage treatment in both cultivars as compared to all other three tillage treatments. Similarly, the spike length number of tillers, number of grains spike-1, 1000- grain weight, biological yield, and harvest index were the highest in Zero tillage. Zero tillage in wheat performed well in the entire crop data parameters and showed effectively high yield in wheat.
      PubDate: Dec 2013
       
  • Development of High-throughput Molecular Markers for Blackleg
           (Leptosphaeria maculans) Resistance Genes in Brassica napus for Gene
           Stacking

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2013
      Source:Universal Journal of Plant Science  Volume  1  Number  4  Zining Wang   ‘Quinta’ and ‘Glacier’ are two important winter type canola cultivars from Europe. ‘Quinta’ has two independent blackleg resistance gene loci, Rlm1 and Rlm4; ‘Glacier’ has two other genes, Rlm2 and Rlm3. This study focuses on mapping the resistance genes Rlm1 and Rlm3 using high throughput SRAP (sequence related amplified polymorphism) markers and SNPs. The F2 and F3 populations were constructed with crosses of ‘Westar’ × ‘Quinta’ and ‘Westar’ × ‘Glacier’. The populations were screened with the corresponding isolates. The phenotype segregation in the populations supported that a single dominant resistance gene controls the resistance in ‘Quinta’ and “Glacier” separately. The closest SRAP marker was identified for the resistance gene in ‘Quinta’ by using 256 pairs of primers and screening 2,500 polymorphic loci. B342 is 1.5 cM to Rlm1 and 6.8 cM to Rlm3. SNP80870 developed from the N7 orthologous region in Arabidopsis was 3 cM to Rlm3. A population for stacking the three resistance genes (Rlm1, Rlm3 and LepR3) was constructed. Marker screening and disease inoculation were both used for the selection of lines with the three resistance genes.
      PubDate: Dec 2013
       
  • Cytotoxic Activities of Extracts of Medicinal Plants of Euphorbiacae
           Family Studied on Seven Human Cancer Cell lines

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2013
      Source:Universal Journal of Plant Science  Volume  1  Number  4  Ekta Prakash   and D.K.Gupta   Plant extracts of species of the family Euphorbiaceae used by traditional healers for the treatment of ulcers, cancers, tumors, warts and other diseases. were tested in vitro for their potential anti-proliferative activity. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the in-vitro anti- cancer effects of ethanolic extract of three plant species namely Ricinus communis Linn, Euphorbia helioscopia, Jatropha curcas of the family Euphorbiaceae by SRB assay against seven human cancer cell lines. Colon cancer cell line (Colon HT-29, SW-20, SiHa, Colon 502717), Liver cancer cell line (Hep-2), Breast cancer cell line (T-47D), Cervix cancer cell line OVCAR-5, Prostrate cancer cell line (PC-3) and Lungs (AF-49). The SRB assay was done in replicates to test cytotoxic activity of the three above mentioned plants against seven human cancer cell lines. The activity was evaluated at 100 µg/ml concentration of test material. Jatropa curcas showed 47% activity against SiHa. The ethanolic fraction of seed part of Ricinus communis showed 41% activity against Colon 502713 while stem part exhibited maximum activity against SiHa (47%). The ethanolic extract of Euphorbia helioscopia inhibited the growth of three cancer cell lines viz Hep-2, T-47D and PC-5.Hep-2 showed 27% activity.
      PubDate: Dec 2013
       
  • Estimation of New Tetraploid Apple Forms as Donors of Diploid Gametes for
           Selection on a Polyploidy Level

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug  2013
      Source:Universal Journal of Plant Science  Volume  1  Number  2  G. A. Sedysheva  and N. G. Gorbacheva The comparative analysis of meiosis in a process of microsporogenesis in a number of new tetraploid apple forms is given. The suitability of these apple forms for the application in breeding on a polyploidy level as donors of diploid gametes have been determined. Forms 25-37-47 (SR0523, 2x X Antonovka ploskaya, 4x) and 30-47-88 (Liberty, 2x X 13-6-106, 4x) are especially valuable as initial forms for breeding, since they give a sufficient amount of the fertile pollen and carry genes of immunity to scab: Form 25-37-47 carries gene Vm and Form 30-47-88 carries gene Vf that is very important for the development of new adaptive and high-qualitative triploid apple cultivars.
      PubDate: Aug 2013
       
  • Genetic Variability of Different Morphological and Yield Contributing
           Traits in Different Accession of Saccharum Officinarum L

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug  2013
      Source:Universal Journal of Plant Science  Volume  1  Number  2  Smiullah    Farooq Ahmed Khan Usman Ijaz and Abdullah   Ten genotypes of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) viz. COJ-84, CPF-235, COL-54, SPSG-26, COJ-64, SPF-232, CPF-237, S-97-US-297, KATHA and No-61 were evaluated for twelve characters and analyzed for genotypic and phenotypic correlation. Analysis of variance indicated highly significant differences exist for all the traits. Among the traits leaf area, number of tillers, cane thickness, and cane yield had the positive and significant correlation with brix value at both genotypic and phenotypic levels. Cane height had negative but non-significant correlation with brix value at genotypic and phenotypic level. Similarly cane weight had positive correlation both at genotypic and phenotypic level with cane height, number of tillers per plant and brix value. The study of path analysis for yield related traits depicted that cane height, cane thickness, leaf area, internodal length and brix value had the direct negative effects on yield.
      PubDate: Aug 2013
       
  • Seed Health and Quality Test of Three Rice Varieties for the Detection of
           Fungi Associated with Seed Sample

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug  2013
      Source:Universal Journal of Plant Science  Volume  1  Number  2  Mansur Ahmed Mehbub Hossain Kamrul Hassan and Chandra Kanta Dash The experiment was carried out at the Seed Pathology Centre (SPC) and MS Laboratory of the Department of Plant Pathology, Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU), Mymensingh during the period of August, 2008 to October, 2009 to detect the fungi associate with the seed samples and to record the germination of seed samples of Parshuram upazila of Feni district. Three rice varieties are collected for the studies were BR6, Pajam and Joya (Local) from Parshuram upazila of Feni district to determine the seed health and quality. For determining the seed health and quality, Dry inspection and blotter tests were performed. Apparently healthy seeds (61.50-78.00%), spotted seeds (6.15-12.90%), discoloured seeds (4.80-14.25%), deformed seeds (2.00-7.25%), varietal mixtures (2.20-9.80%) and chaffy grains (0.95-6.50%) were found among the three rice varieties. The germination of rice seeds of the variety BR6 was 54.67%, while the varieties joya and Pajam showed 58.00% germination respectively. Nine seed-borne fungi were detected from these seed samples. The identified fungi were Fusarium oxysporum, F. moniliforme, Bipolaris oryzae, Alternaria padwickii, Curvularia lunata, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium sp. and Nigrospora oryzae. Seeds of rice variety Joya and Pajam carried the lower infection of all the seed-borne fungi than the variety BR6.
      PubDate: Aug 2013
       
  • Estimation of Genetic Variability and Divergence for Fruit Yield and
           

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug  2013
      Source:Universal Journal of Plant Science  Volume  1  Number  2  Sandeep Kumar Dharminder Kumar Ramesh Kumar KS Thakur and Balbir Singh Dogra Thirty diverse genotypes of cucumber collected from different indigenous sources were planted in randomized complete block design, during rainy season of 2009 and were assessed to know the nature and magnitude of variability and genetic divergence for different horticultural traits. The genotype LC-1 gave maximum mean value for fruit weight and yield per plot. High phenotypic coefficient of variability (PCV), genotypic coefficient of variability (GCV) and heritability estimates coupled with high genetic gain were observed for seed vigour index-I and yield per plot, indicated the existence of wide range of variations and offers better scope for improvement through selection. The genotypes were grouped into 4 clusters and the highest (6.168) inter cluster distance was recorded between cluster-II and III. The diverse genotypes characterized by maximum inter cluster distance will differ in phenotypic performance and therefore, selection of divergent parents should be based on these cluster distances to obtain favourable hybrids and transgressive segregants in cucumber.
      PubDate: Aug 2013
       
 
 
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