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Journal Cover Universal Journal of Materials Science
  [3 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2331-6691 - ISSN (Online) 2331-6705
   Published by Horizon Research Publishing Homepage  [54 journals]
  • Investigation of the Hygrothermal Effect on the Nanocomposite Material
           under High Strain Rate Torsion

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2018
      Source:Universal Journal of Materials Science  Volume  6  Number  1  Fadhel Abbas Abdullah   and Zahra khalid Hamdan   This study aims to explain the effect of high strain rate torsion on unidirectional fiber glass / epoxy composite with and without adding nano particles (carbon and alumina) with weight percentage 2% and study the effect of the temperature and humidity on the samples under torsion dynamic test. Using the torsional Hopkinson split bar to testing under angle of the twist θ=10°. It can noticed that the maximum of the shear (stress, strain) of the composite increased with adding nano particles by rate of (24.8%, 3.2%) with added 2% nano carbon and (26%, 8.5%) with added 2% nano alumina, where the shear stress, shear strain and shear strain rate of all samples decreased with increasing (temperature and humidity) with different percentages. Finally, it was modifying Johnson-Cook constitutive model by adding parameter represented the humidity effect to simulate the experimental results, and then it was found the error percentages between the experimental results and theoretical results which range (0.0044% and 15.5%).
      PubDate: Jan 2018
  • Measurement of High Values of Q-factor of 1.3 GHz Superconducting Cavity
           of TESLA-type

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2018
      Source:Universal Journal of Materials Science  Volume  6  Number  1  Azaryan, N.S.   Batouritski, M.A.   Budagov, Yu.A.   Demyanov, S.E.   Karpovich, V.V.   Liubetski, N.V.   Maximov, S.I.   Rodionova, V.N.   and Shirkov, G.D.   Presented the ideas and techniques underlying the measuring workbench created within the framework of a Dubna-Minsk research project to estimate, by measuring of S11, of a high value (about 1011) of Q-factor of a 1.3 GHz superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) niobium cavity of TESLA-type, which is a key element the superconducting accelerating system of the International Linear Collider (ILC) operating at 1.3 GHz and made of thousands of such cavities. In the paper, the results of measurements and Q-factor estimates are also presented and discussed.
      PubDate: Jan 2018
  • Mechanism and Morphology of Formation of Micropores in the Structure of DC
           Cast AlMgSi Alloy

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Materials Science  Volume  5  Number  4  I. Buljeta   Z. Zovko Brodarac   A. Beroš   and M. Zeko   The phenomena defects in the triple junction grain boundaries affect the properties of the microstructure of aluminum alloys. For that purpose the microstructure of the alloy EN AW 6060 on the billet sample cast by DC (Direct Chill) technology was analysed in order to gain insight into the origin and form pores in the final stages of solidification. Mechanisms of solidification shrinkage, thermal contraction and low permeability of interdendritic channels networks were discussed in moment when melt becomes isolated in separate locations forming new structure. Under such conditions, the tensile stress caused by anisotropic thermal contraction of a coherent dendrites network, causing the formation of pores in the corners of the grain boundaries whose morphology is determined by SEM / EDS analysis.
      PubDate: Nov 2017
  • Fabrication and Characterization of SiC and Si3N4 Reinforced Aluminum
           Matrix Composites

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Materials Science  Volume  5  Number  4  Mahmut Can Şenel   Mevlüt Gürbüz   and Erdem Koç   In this study, Si3N4 (varying from 0 to 12wt.%) or SiC (varying from 0 to 30wt.%) reinforced aluminum matrix composites were fabricated by powder metallurgy method. The effects of reinforcement element (SiC or Si3N4) addition on the mechanical properties of aluminum composites were newly examined for large-scale distribution. Microstructures and crystal structures of composites were analyzed via scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD), respectively. Density, hardness and compressive strength of composites were tested by density meter, micro Vickers hardness tester and universal test machine. From the experimental results, it was observed that the hardness value of pure aluminum was obtained 30 HV. Also, the highest hardness values were obtained at Al-9%Si3N4 (57 HV) and Al-30%SiC (79 HV) composite. Similarly, the highest yield and ultimate compressive strength were determined at Al-30%SiC and Al-9%Si3N4 composite. Pure Al, Al-30%SiC and Al-9%Si3N4 were measured as 82, 138, 198 MPa and 113, 224, 292 MPa, respectively. Increased to weight percentage of Si3N4 from 9% to 12% in Al-Si3N4 composites, the apparent density, Vickers hardness and compressive strength of Al-12 wt.%Si3N4 composite sharply decreased due to the agglomeration of Si3N4. As a result, it has been observed that SiC or Si3N4 addition makes a positive contribution to the mechanical and microstructure of aluminum composites. These composites should be used for the wear application of aluminum.
      PubDate: Nov 2017
  • Thermoelectric Ceramics Based on the Layered Cobaltates of Bismuth and
           Alkaline-Earth Metals

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Materials Science  Volume  5  Number  4  Andrei Klyndyuk   Ekaterina Chizhova   and Natalie Krasutskaya   Using solid-state reactions method the ceramic samples of (Bi,Pb)2Ba2(Co,M)2Oy, (Bi,Pb)2Sr2(Co,M)1.8Oy, and (Bi,Pb)2Ca2(Co,M)1.7Oy(M = Mn, Zn) solid solutions had been prepared, their lattice constants had been determined and their thermal expansion, electrical conductivity and thermo-EMF had been measured, and their power factor had been calculated. Effect of the bismuth substitution by lead and cobalt substitution by manganese and zinc in the layered cobaltates of bismuth and alkaline-earth metals (AEM) on the crystal structure and physicochemical and functional properties of their derivatives was analyzed. It was found that cobaltates studied are p-type conductors, which linear thermal expansion coefficient (LTEC) values varied within (9.68-13.2)•10-6 K-1. Power factor values for the samples studied unmonotonously changed when temperature increased and at 1000 K were maximal for Bi2Ba2Co2Oy, Bi2Sr2Co1.7Mn0.1Oy, and Bi2Ca2Co1.7Oy compounds - 12.1, 10.1, and 10.6μW/(m•K2) respectively.
      PubDate: Nov 2017
  • Analysis of Organic Photovoltaic Device at Different Series Resistances

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Materials Science  Volume  5  Number  4  Nikhil Rastogi   Narender Singh   and Sandeep Saxena   GPVDM is simulation software that is used to analyze the optical and electrical properties of organic solar cell, based on P3HT: PCBM organic materials. The bulk hetero junction organic solar cell has been electrically simulated by GPVDM software at different series resistances. Organic bulk hetero junction solar cell is a mixture of P3HT and PCBM used as active layer material, ITO; a transparent electrode, PEDOT: PSS; an electron blocking layer and Al, back electrode. In this analysis, the electrical simulation has been done at different series resistances. It is observed that current density-voltage (J-V) characteristics are varied with the series resistance. The best J-V characteristic as well as maximum short circuit current is obtained at 1Ω series resistance.
      PubDate: Nov 2017
  • Crystallization Properties of the Glass Ceramics Prepared from Iron-Rich
           Nickel Slag

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Materials Science  Volume  5  Number  2  Kongjin Zhou   Qinglin Zhao   and Yulin Zhang   For the purpose of broadening the scope of applications of nickel slag, this paper focuses on the crystallization properties of glass ceramics with large amounts of iron-rich nickel slag. In this research, the properties including activation energy of crystallization, crystalline growth pattern, main crystalline phase and micro structure were discussed. It was shown that when KNO3 was added, the Fe2+ oxidized to Fe3+, the activation energy of crystallization increased from 283.70 kJ/mol to 345.45 kJ/mol and the Avrami changed from 2.40 to 2.35. The main crystalline phase for both samples was pyroxene and it grew in one-dimension.
      PubDate: Mar 2017
  • Effect of Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes in the Nanocomposites (Mo2C)
           1_x–(TiC)x (2≤x≤4)//1wt% SWCNTs during Field Activated Sintering
           Technique (SPS): Physical, Mechanical Properties and Sintering Process

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Materials Science  Volume  5  Number  2  Badis Bendjemil   Jacques Nodem   Mohamed Mouyane   Jerome Bernard   Jean Michel Reboul   Yannick Guhel   and David Houivet   Nanocomposites are wear resistant materials used in cutting tool applications. The materials are composed of ultrafine powder hard phase grains surrounded by a tough binder phase carbon nanotubes (Mo2C)1_x–(TiC)x (2≤x≤4)//1Wt% SWCNTs. Composite bicarbide Mo2C-TiC was rapidly synthesised and simultaneously consolidated by Field activated sintering technique (spark plasma sintering) at which the extensive volume expansion occurred as a function of the volumic fraction from 20 to 40 vol.% of TiC powders and 1 Wt% of SWCNTs as reinforcement of the NCMC's. The sintered powder mixture was examined by XRD patterns, the morphology of the obtained phase was observed by SEM and the phase compositions in different regions were analyzed by EDX. The composites were processed using Field Activated Sintering Technique, spark plasma sintering (SPS) at temperatures in the range of 1700-1800℃ with addicting of SWCNTs. The effects of SWCNTs addition on phases morphology, microstructure hardness and fracture toughness of the nanocomposite were investigated. The best product contained 1.0 Wt% SWCNTs from (Mo2C)1_x–(TiC)x, x= 0.2 which was sintered at 1700 ℃ , 70 MPa for 10 min, M0.8T0.2/ 1 Wt% SWCNTs exhibit a better density, highest hardness and a good ductility. Relative densification was achieved 99.5 % from the theoretical and a good mechanical properties like hardness and fracture toughness (KIC=5.6 Mpa m1/2) are enhanced. The results were confirmed using Raman spectroscopy.
      PubDate: Mar 2017
  • Biogenic Silver Nanoparticles as Sensors of Cu2+ and
           Pb2+ in Aqueous Solutions

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Materials Science  Volume  5  Number  2  Luisa E. Silva-De Hoyos   Victor Sánchez-Mendieta   Alfredo R. Vilchis-Nestor   and Miguel A. Camacho-López   Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) were bio-synthesized using Camellia sinensis (green tea) aqueous extract. Nanoparticles prepared with 10-3M AgNO3 solution, using 3mL of green tea extract and at 60℃, have spherical shape with a mean diameter of 7nm. The formation of the nanoparticles was confirmed by UV-Vis spectrophotometry through studies of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The morphology, size and crystalline structure of the Ag-NPs were determined using high definition transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Moreover, these green synthesized Ag-NPs were found to exhibit good sensing properties towards Cu2+ and Pb2+ ions in aqueous solutions. This metal ions-sensing ability of the biogenic Ag-NPs was monitored by UV-Vis spectrophotometry (SPR analyses) and fluorescence spectroscopy.
      PubDate: Mar 2017
  • A Single-domain Approach to Simulate the Effect of Convective Flow on the
           Mushy-zone Structure in Czochralski Growth of Gadolinium Gallium Garnet

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Materials Science  Volume  5  Number  3  Reza Faiez   and Yazdan Rezaei   A numerical study was carried out to describe the effect of the melt hydrodynamics on the crystallization front shape in the Czochralski growth of a semitransparent oxide crystal. In the present model calculation, the enthalpy-porosity method was used to solve the phase change problem with the convection due to buoyant, thermocapillary and centrifugal forces. It was shown that the rotationally-driven flow protrudes into the mushy zone when the crystal rotation rate was increased to a certain critical value corresponding to Gr/Re2=0.89 as the ratio between the intensity of buoyancy and forced convection flow in the melt. The ratio between the vertical and horizontal temperature gradients beneath the mushy zone was found to be decreased by increasing the crystal rotation rate. It was shown that the shape of the zone deforms abruptly when the ratio between the axial and radial temperature gradients decreased to the values smaller than the unity. The Burger's number condition was found to be violated in the case Gr/Re2
      PubDate: Jul 2017
  • Fracture Toughness and Strength of Bamboo-Fiber Reinforced Laterite as
           Building Block Material

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Materials Science  Volume  5  Number  3  F.O. Kolawole   O.M. Olugbemi   S.K. Kolawole   A.F. Owa   and E.S. Ajayi   Modern day building materials must be sustainable, cheap, environmental friendly, durable and available. Laterite reinforced with bamboo fiber was moulded into blocks to determine the compressive strength, flexural strength and fracture toughness using universal tensile machine (UTM), while the elemental composition was determined by EDS, SEM/Gwyddion software were used to study the fractured surface of the bamboo-fiber reinforced laterite (BFRL) block. Water absorption test and bulk density were also carried out. The blocks were moulded by varying the percent weight (%wt) fraction of bamboo fiber from 0 to 25%. The dimensions for the compressive and flexural samples were 100 x 100 x 100 mm and 600 x 100 x 100 mm respectively. The results of the experiment showed that at 25 %wt of bamboo fiber a maximum compressive strength, flexural strength and fracture toughness of 5.0±0.25 MPa, 2.25±0.113 MPa and 1.70±0.085 MPa respectively were obtained. EDS result reviewed the following elements Al, Si, Ca, Fe and C. SEM images analyzed using Gwyddion software reviewed different fracture patterns.
      PubDate: Jul 2017
  • Iron, Copper, and Nickel Removal with Calcium Hydrogen Phosphate and
           Calcium Pyrophosphates in Solution

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Materials Science  Volume  5  Number  3  Hiroaki Onoda   and Kohei Sasaki   Calcium phosphate is an important material used in ion exchangers and adsorbents. In this work, calcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate, , was prepared from calcium nitrate solution and phosphoric acid. This phosphate transformed to calcium hydrogen phosphate un-hydrate, CaHPO4, by heating at 200℃, and calcium pyrophosphate, Ca2 P2 O7, by heating at 400 and 700℃. These calcium phosphates were used to remove trivalent iron cation, Fe3+ in solution. Samples without heating and those heated at 200℃ indicated a high iron removal ratio. By the addition of these calcium phosphates and stirring for 5 minutes, a high ratio of iron cation was removed from the solution. This removal depended not only on the substitution of calcium to iron, but also on the precipitation of iron hydroxide. Calcium phosphates were also used to remove copper and nickel cations, Cu2+ and Ni2+. The removal ratios of copper and nickel cations were lower than those of iron cation.
      PubDate: Jul 2017
  • Interest of a Rheokinetic Study for the Development of Thermoplastic
           Composites by T-RTM

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Materials Science  Volume  5  Number  1  Matthieu Thomassey   Baptiste Paul Revol   Frédéric Ruch   Julia Schell   and Michel Bouquey   Until today, thermosetting polymer based composites were predominant, but are faced with environmental rules more stringent (COV, recyclability...). Thermoplastic composites are a good answer to the evolution of environmental rules, and have an increased need due to their improved properties compared to thermosets. One thermoplastic process route offered is the injection of monomers with a low viscosity (around 10mPa.s): Thermoplastic-Resin Transfer Molding (T-RTM). Currently, reactive thermoplastics are not technically matured for industrial applications. Indeed, their chemistry and rheology especially in the presence of fibers are not well studied and understood. The reaction time is the most crucial parameter for a well-controlled injection and the viscosity should stay low until full impregnation is achieved. The other point is the reaction kinetics. The faster the reaction, the more reaction heat is released in less time which results in overheating in the center of very thick parts. In a first approach the pure polymer is investigated. To better understand the reaction time during an injection process, rheological measurements were achieved at different shear rates and temperatures. In parallel, the reaction kinetics through the exothermic reaction during polymerization are modelled and experimentally verified.
      PubDate: Jan 2017
  • Material Flow Data for Numerical Simulation of Powder Injection Molding

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Materials Science  Volume  5  Number  1  I. Duretek   and C. Holzer   The powder injection molding (PIM) process is a cost efficient and important net-shape manufacturing process that is not completely understood. For the application of simulation programs for the powder injection molding process, apart from suitable physical models, exact material data and in particular knowledge of the flow behavior are essential in order to get precise numerical results. In this work, the flow behavior of a 316L stainless steel feedstock for powder injection molding was investigated. Additionally, the influence of pre-shearing on the flow behavior of PIM-feedstocks under practical conditions was examined and evaluated by a special PIM injection molding machine rheometer. In order to have a better understanding of key factors of PIM during the injection step, 3D non-isothermal numerical simulations were conducted with a commercial injection molding simulation software using experimental feedstock properties. The simulation results were compared with the experimental results. The mold filling studies amply illustrate the effect of mold temperature on the filling behavior during the mold filling stage. Moreover, the rheological measurements showed that at low shear rates no zero shear viscosity was observed, but instead the viscosity further increased strongly. This flow behavior could be described with the Cross-WLF approach with Herschel-Bulkley extension very well.
      PubDate: Jan 2017
  • Survey of Literature on Various Factors Affecting Inventory Management

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Materials Science  Volume  5  Number  1  Sarbjit Singh   Materials, manufacturing and marketing departments are the three major operating subsystems of any organization whether it is a production house or a service center, i.e. neither the goods producing organization nor the service providing organizations works without inventory, they have to maintain some inventory for smooth running of their businesses. In recent years, the study of inventory management has gained importance and lot of work has been done in the field of inventory management. This study provides insights to major work done on the various factors affecting inventory management.
      PubDate: Jan 2017
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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