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Journal Cover Universal Journal of Geoscience
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   ISSN (Print) 2331-9593 - ISSN (Online) 2331-9615
   Published by Horizon Research Publishing Homepage  [54 journals]
  • Hydrogeology of the Archean Crystalline Rock Massif in the Southern Part
           of the Yenisseyskiy Ridge (Siberian Craton)

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Geoscience  Volume  5  Number  5  Andrey Ozerskiy   The manuscript deals with the hydrogeological condition of Archean rock massif investigated for underground building of radioactive wastes isolation. Exploration methods included well boring up to depth of 700 m, geophysical logging, hydrogeological pumping tests; water and rock sampling. Pumping tests carried out with systematically scaled intervals of 50 meters isolated by packers. Water samples were tested with chemical methods for main ions, ICP MS for trace elements and for radioactivity. Rock samples were tested in porosity, permeability, chemical composition, physical properties. Rock massif is represented by lower Archean gneisses pierced by dykes of dolerite. All rocks have very low reservoir properties due to an intense metamorphism. Laboratory tests have indicated that an average open porosity is equal to 0.33%. Almost 70% of obtained values of hydraulic conductivity belong to the range of 0.0001 m•day-1 – 0.001 m•day-1, while average hydraulic conductivity is equal to 0.004 m•day-1. There were found four vertical zones depending on the bases of drainage and differing in rock permeability and filtration conditions. The TDS of groundwater varies from 140 to 641 mg•L-1, the type of water is HCO3–Na–Ca, water has alkaline and reductive media.
      PubDate: Oct 2017
  • Phylogeny and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Bacteria in Sediments of Aegean

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Geoscience  Volume  5  Number  5  Ilknur Tuncer   The bacterial diversity and antimicrobial resistance in coastal areas indicate the variability in the community structures and metabolic activities. In the present study, antibiotic susceptibility and phylogenetic analysis of bacteria isolated from stations with different depths and influenced by terrestrial and marine fluxes in eastern Aegean Sea were illustrated. Half of the isolates were found as resistant and 14 percent showed high MAR index indicating the high-risk sources of contamination in the environment. According to 16S rRNA gene analysis, the isolates were found as belonging to the phylum Firmicutes and the class Gammaproteobacteria with the genera Bacillus, Halomonas, Oceanobacillus, Photobacterium, Pseudoalteromonas, Psychrobacter and Vibrio. Approximately half of Bacillus strains which were dominant among all isolates were resistant. In addition to phylogenetically diverse bacteria, the variability in resistance, intermediate and high MAR index levels of the study area indicated the effect of geographical differences.
      PubDate: Oct 2017
  • Seismic Site Effect Estimation Using Microtremor Studies in Zarqa City in

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Geoscience  Volume  5  Number  5  Waleed Eid Olimat   In this study we determined the local site effect by means of the horizontal-to-vertical (H/V) spectral ratios. The Nakamura's concept (Nakamura Y. 1989) is applied in Zarqa city in order to determine the resonance frequencies and amplification factors for, finding the dynamic characteristics for structural engineering purposes. Results obtained in this study shows that; dominant frequencies F varies between 0.37 Hz and 2.98 Hz in the city area, while, the amplification factor A varies "between" 0.8 to 8.55. This means that structural culture in most localities of the study area might be seriously affected by any of eventually major short periodic earthquakes released by the nearby seismologic active sources westward, except of localities characterized by long periodic dominant frequencies of the study areas, considering that most structures of the study area are characterized by one to three story profiles.
      PubDate: Oct 2017
  • Free Choice of the Nature in the Changing World

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Geoscience  Volume  5  Number  5  Yuri Fiodorovitch Arefjev   Our changeable world threatens the life of organisms in the nature. To survive, the populations of organisms have to change adequately. They need freedom for adaptive actions. The adaptability gives populations a chance to survive. Man-made forest plantings of the Central Russian Upland do not provide for their forest components the possibility of self-control as they are homogeneous and are the prerequisite for inharmonious development of biota, for the excessive development of some parasitic for forest trees species. Such plantings become the real "kingdom" of forest trees parasitic fungi and insects. Global warming and a wrong human activity can worsen health of the forests even more. A natural renewal in these forest plantings is impossible. The purpose of this work is to promote the natural biotic self-control of pathogenic processes and self-regeneration in forest ecosystems and to exclude thanks to it the need of use of both chemical and biological pesticides for forest protection. One of the key positions of a self-regulation of pathogenesis is inbreeding in populations of parasitic organisms. The self-control in forest plantings is achieved through forming of mosaic highly heterogeneous forest ecosystems. Functionally such plantings are close to the natural woods. Such plantings must be created. It's necessary to understand that the solution of environmental issues has to correspond not only to local, but also global interests.
      PubDate: Oct 2017
  • Mathematical Modeling of the Thermomechanical Effect of Geofluid on
           Fracture Walls

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jun 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Geoscience  Volume  5  Number  3  R. R. Koon Koon   and L. Ufondu   The paper focuses on a mathematical perspective to the behaviour of fractured systems due to the thermo-mechanical effects of geofluid. The research was built on the foundation of other pre-existing work, specifically the concept of considering the fracture as a thick-walled cylinder. The paper presents a novel approach at investigation into a micro-scale realm of fractures from which areas within the rock matrix exhibiting maximum thermal deformation are attained. Hence the thermo-mechanical response of a system can predictively be determined through the applications of the mathematical model. Solutions to the mathematical model are acquired through well core data by the AccuMap software. This generates the extent of deformation of fracture paths at different depth ranges within the Province of Saskatchewan, Canada. Therefore the deformation distribution maps serve as a preliminary tool for investigating the response of formations to fluid flow. In addition, these maps can be coupled with heat flow and hydraulic maps for an enhanced method of determining site locations for greater output of the reservoir through injection and production wells. The area of interest within the depth range 2500m-3000m yields a region of high deformation West of Estevan, localized southwards along the Williston Basin.
      PubDate: Jun 2017
  • Suitability Analysis of Water Pan Sites for Pastoralists: A Case Study of
           Kajiado County in Kenya

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jun 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Geoscience  Volume  5  Number  3  Christine Mutua   and Mark Boitt   The paper looks into the analysis of water spatial accessibility by pastoralists in Kajiado County. Since it's a pastoralist area, the demand for water is essential, but due to climate change, the area experiences erratic rains, extreme temperatures and cyclic and prolonged droughts. The need to access improved water supply is considered to boost economic development poverty alleviation. With inadequate water harvesting structures, integrated journal positions the need to excavate more water pans which require a systematic study to come up with the suitable positions where excavation will occur. To come up with a commendable finding and analysis, the paper gives a methodology for data collection identifying relevant factors affecting citing of water. The factors incorporated in questionnaires were slope, soils, location of pastures, villages, existing water points and grazing routes. Therefore, both critical and descriptive discussion of the field's issues is warranted. From the suitability analysis, of the county's land mass 3.06% is in very highly suitable, 28.67% is highly suitable, 67.98% is moderately suitable and 0.29% is not suitable. The comparative analysis shows that the new water pans are established in moderately suitable area. The study concludes by crediting the need to attributed GIS analysis and spatial modeling for the purpose of helping the County Government effort to provide sustainable water pans to its people.
      PubDate: Jun 2017
  • Magnetotelluric (MT) and Resistivity Survey along Belsara-Rasunpur
           Traverse Delineating Conductivity Structure over Bakreswar Geothermal
           Region in Birbhum District, West Bengal

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jun 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Geoscience  Volume  5  Number  3  D.C. Naskar   Magnetotelluric (MT) and resistivity methods have been carried out over the geothermal region of Bakreswar, West Bengal to obtain a preliminary idea about the nature of conductivity structure and to prepare a meaningful conceptual model of the geothermal region. One conductive anomaly zone is mapped along resistivity traverse Bakreswar-Asanshuli at "n" (separation parameter) =10 in between 1200-1500 m station. Bakreswar hot spring lies adjacent to it and geologically it may be the source of it controlled by hidden fault. In resistivity traverse from Chandrapur to Tantipara, the presence of subsurface conductive bodies (50-400 Ohm-m) mapped between stations 1000-1200 m at a pseudo depth of 400-700 m. This may be the structural breaks like shear zones/geothermal region. The high resistive layer below conductive layer is interpreted by MT survey at a depth of 3001-38103 m showing its occurrence at a shallow depth of 3001 m at Rajnagar but a greater depth of 38103 m at Nakrakonda. This steep gradient in between these two stations could possibly be attributed to a fault zone. Similar type of fault is inferred in between Belsara (7484 m) and Nakrakonda (38103 m). The steep gradient observed between stations also may be coincident with the postulated fault plane. One highly conductive zone is observed in MT pseudo-sections, which may be due to the geothermal zone in the area. Some static shift is evident from the vertical elongations of the apparent resistivity contours (zone of weakness) between Idgachha to Rasunpur region which are not reflected in the phase pseudo-sections. This may be due to the presence of faults/lineament/fracture/shear zone. A high conductive feature is inferred beneath Lokpur and Idgachha region extending from shallow surface into the deep crust. The lower crust in the entire study area is rather conductive whereas the upper crust is resistive.
      PubDate: Jun 2017
  • Developments in Cartographic Generalization

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jun 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Geoscience  Volume  5  Number  3  Ferim Gashi   and Pal Nikolli   In recent decades, great efforts and successes have been achieved in the digital cartographic generalization. The main focus in this process has been the formalization of the theory of generalization and its practical applications. Depending on whether you will generalize data vector or raster, there are different generalization tools available in ArcGIS software. The article emphasizes the importance of integrating knowledge and systems of cartographic generalization.
      PubDate: Jun 2017
  • Uncertainties in TIR Hyperspectral Image Cube Unmixing

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Geoscience  Volume  5  Number  1  Keshav Dev Singh   The spectral unmixing in the thermal infrared (TIR) region is not a linear case. For simplicity, the spectral mixing for pixel deconvolution is assumed to be linear, but in reality, the intimate mixture spectra are non-linear. The multiple scattering effects due to texture and fabric do affect the spectral shape and form. In this paper, the uncertainties in unmixing of TIR hyperspectral image cube are investigated.
      PubDate: Feb 2017
  • Survey of the Middle Struma Complex Morphostructural Passage (South-West

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Geoscience  Volume  5  Number  6  Tzanko Tzankov   Svetla Stankova   Rosen Iliev   and Ilia Mitkov   The Middle Struma complex morphostructural passage (N 42°14'62''-41°21'19''; E 24°10'21''-23°20'21'') is a negative landform located in South-West Bulgaria. Represents a negative regional morphounit composed of linear orderly (from north to the south) Dupnitsa morphostructural threshold, Dzherman morphostructural passage, Slatino morphostructural threshold, Mursalevo morphostructural passage, Kocherinovo morphostructural threshold, Riltsi kettle morphostructure, Byalo Pole morphostructural threshold, Blagoevgrad kettle morphostructure, Zheleznitsa morphostructural gorge, Simitli kettle morphostructure, Kresna morphostructural gorge, Sandanski morphostructural passage, Damyanitsa morphostructural threshold, Petrich kettle morphostructure and Rupel morphostructural gorge. The mentioned regional complex morphounits are limited by Bregalnitsa morphostructural zone to the west and the Rila-Pirin morphostrutural range to the east. The Middle Struma complex morphostructural passage is the relict from the post Early Pleistocene orthoplain in the eastern part of the Balkan Peninsula. The internal morphostructures of that orthoplain fragment were formed in the same time with the building of the dome-like morphostructures of the Bregalnitsa morphostructural zone and the Rila-Pirin morphostrutural range.
      PubDate: Dec 2017
  • Geogenic and Anthropogenic Chromium Contamination in Groundwater in an
           Ophiolitic Area, Northeastern Iran

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Geoscience  Volume  5  Number  6  Abdolreza Jafarian   and Susan Jafarian   Geology of Iran shows an ophiolitic belt around the central Iran micro-continent. One of the main ophiolite suites, with ca. 100km long and 15km wide, located northeastern Iran as Sabzevar ophiolite suite. Ultramafic rocks of this ophiolite suite, display a high concentration of chromium (1000-3000ppm) as a compatible element, especially in pyroxene group minerals. Average Chromium content of this ophiolite suite in peridotites is 2558ppm, with maximum 4525ppm (in pyroxenite) and minimum 832ppm (in dunite). Dunite layers lie underneath of these ultramafic rocks, containing chromite lenses (FeCr2O4) with 20.56wt% Cr2O3. Today, about 10 active mining sites excavate ultramafic rocks for chromite ore mineral and altered ultramafic rocks, serpentinite, dump as unconsolidated gangue materials along stream pathways. There is an unconfined aquifer just southern of this ophiolite range containing detrital altered ultramafic rocks with the high concentration of chromium minerals. In this study 23 groundwater samples, collected from unconfined serpentinite alluvium aquifer that shows cumulative increasing Cr towards south because of increasing residence time, and much more water-rock interactions. Total Cr concentrations in this aquifer are from 12 to 61µg/l, higher than normal level of Cr mentioned by WHO (2µg/l). On the other hand, discharging of chromite mine and mineral processing site, contaminate one of drinking well at Forumad village up to 61µg/l of total chromium. Although trivalent Cr is an essential nutrient, in oxidation conditions with increasing Eh and pH, it changes to chromate (CrO4-2) and dichromate (Cr2O72-) as dissolved anions which will be toxic and carcinogenic in groundwater. Based on California EPA Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA), 7.2% of total Cr is hexavalent. Recent information indicates that hexavalent chromium varies from 50% to 90% of the total chromium in many water supplies.
      PubDate: Dec 2017
  • Characterizing and Indexing Regolith Materials Using Geochemistry towards
           Hidden Mineral Anomaly Delineation: A Case Study of Savannah Region of NW

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Geoscience  Volume  5  Number  6  Emmanuel Arhin   Musah S. Zango   and Raymond Kazapoe   As the discovery rate of world-class gold deposits continues to decline, increased attention is focused on geochemical exploration methods designed for regolith-dominated terrains. This involves mapping the regolith and classifying the mapping units into different regolith classes on the basis of weathering and geomorphic histories. The challenges of identifying some regolith mapping units in the field by novice in regolith mapping require the characterization and indexing of regolith from major element geochemistry in the regolith profiles. XRF analytical method was used to measure the weight % of the major oxides in regolith samples. The metal weight % of Mg, K and Al were calculated from their oxides and were normalized relative to immobile Al calculated from its oxide. The plot of Mg/Al and K/Al identified the regolith of the study area to consist of 137 transported clays, 4 ferruginous sediments or ferricrete, 2 lateritic duricrust and 4 saprolites. Plot of Mg/Al and K/Al highlighted the compositional variability of the regolith samples and refute the notion of the homogeneity of all the sampled materials in the area. The study thus recognized Mg/Al versus K/Al plots to be used in supporting field identification of regolith mapping units particularly in complex regolith terrains of savannah regions of Ghana and in similar areas where geochemical exploration surveys are being carried out under cover.
      PubDate: Dec 2017
  • Relationship between Important Deciduous Traits in Bulgaria

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Geoscience  Volume  5  Number  6  Simona Peteva   Hristina Kalcheva   and Mariyana Lyubenova   Forest ecosystems cover about 30% of the Earth's surface and provide important ecosystem goods and services. Forest traits: specific leaf area (SLA), leaf weight ratio (LWR) and growth index (It) are among the key indicators of forest ecosystems functioning. The investigation deals with meta-analysis (including ANOVA and RDA analysis) for 20 Bulgarian locations of Quercus cerris L. and Q. frainetto Ten. forests. The results are verified with the data from TRY database. For all analysis as a response, variables are chosen selected indexes - SLA, LWR and It and as explanatory variables - listed characteristics of locations: latitude, longitude, altitude, precipitation and temperature. The positive correlation of growth index and SLA and negative - with altitude for all locations are obtained. The growth index correlated negatively with LWR and positively with longitude only for Bulgarian locations. The established dependences are indispensable for higher precision of the ongoing analyzes, filling the gaps of data and creating a new generation of vegetation models.
      PubDate: Dec 2017
  • Numerical Study of Tsunami Propagation in Mentawai Islands West Sumatra

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Geoscience  Volume  5  Number  4  Noverina Alfiany   Kazuhiro Yamamoto   and Masaji Watanabe   Shallow water equations were analyzed numerically for simulation of tsunami propagation from the source area to coastal zone of Mentawai Islands along West Sumatra Island. A triangular mesh was set for spatial discretization and a system of partial differential equation is reduced to a system of ordinary differential equations. Initial displacement based on Okada model was applied. Our numerical techniques were demonstrated with a simulation of tsunami generated from an earthquake with epicenter near South Pagai Island, Mentawai Islands, Indonesia.
      PubDate: Aug 2017
  • Coastal Risk and Water Flow Analysis in Eastern Algeria (Western

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Geoscience  Volume  5  Number  4  Lubna A. Amir   and Barbara Theilen-Willige   In this paper, we present the combination of tsunami modelling studies with a GIS approach to analyse the coastal flooding risk in eastern Algeria. The Jijel and Bejaia regions are well-known for their seismic and tsunami risk. The modelling was carried out with the Geoclaw software. It provided the water flow velocities in addition to water heights results for several points of interest located between the Bejaia and the Jijel coast. The simulations were based on a 7.6 magnitude earthquake offshore the Jijel bay. Maps visualizing the susceptibility to flooding were generated in ArcGIS using the GIS integrated weighted overlay tools. By aggregating and weighting morphometric factors (such as the lowest height levels and lowest slope gradients) influencing the susceptibility to flooding the coastal areas prone to inundations in case of high energetic flood waves (tsunami, storm surge, meteo .tsunami) from the sea side can be determined. The entrances of river mouths are the locations marked by the highest susceptibility to potential flooding.
      PubDate: Aug 2017
  • Preliminary Findings into Thermal Properties of Specific Stratigraphy for
           Geothermal Energy Prospecting Along the Williston Basin

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Geoscience  Volume  5  Number  4  R. R. Koon Koon   I. Haraksingh   and L. Ufondu   The paper focuses on the thermal evaluation of geological well data along the Williston Basin, possessing the greatest potential for geothermal energy development. The research follows the criteria for possible electrical generation through binary type systems for medium-temperatures exceeding 80℃. The bottom-hole temperatures (BHTs) obtained from the geological well data are corrected to thermal equilibrium through the Harrison correction method, from which the findings clearly point to the Estevan 103.5'W region, as the best geothermal energy prospect for a binary type system. Three wells having the highest recorded temperatures at depth are seen in particular with well locators of 101/11-14-002-09W2/00, 121/10-28-001-10W2/02, and 141/03-08-001-11W2/00 having temperatures of 106℃, 100℃ and 127℃ at depths respectively. The thermal distribution map serves as a preliminary tool for investigating the potential of the Williston Basin for geothermal energy development. These maps, coupled with hydraulic maps, can be used as an enhanced method of determining prospective site locations for wells. Finally, temperatures above 80℃ were found at depths exceeding 2250m for the Williston Basin, overlying the Winnipeg and Deadwood formations.
      PubDate: Aug 2017
  • Prioritization of Kashafrud Sub-basins in Terms of Flooding Sensitivity
           Based on ELECTRE-TRI Algorithm

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Geoscience  Volume  5  Number  4  Adel Sepehr   Abolfazl Abdollahi   Abbasali Mohammadian   and Mojgan Pashaie Nejad   Flooding is one of the natural disasters which have effects most areas of the country and caused the loss of life and property; therefore identifying of areas which are sensitivity to flooding is one the most important measures in reducing losses. Classification and prioritization of sub-basins the first step to counter or mitigate the effects of flooding in the drainage basins. On this basis, the purpose of this study was to classify the flooding potential of sub-basins of "Kashafrud" basin in the "Khorasan Razavi" province by the using of ELECTRE-TRI Algorithm as one of the most credible multiple criteria decision making (MCDM) classification techniques based on optimistic procedure and consistency control perspectives. To achieve this, the 1:250,000 topographic map and waterways map of the target area were studied and area was divided into 10 sub-basins, then 8 morph hydrological parameters affecting the flooding potential including basin's form factor, elongation ratio, circularity ratio, bifurcation ratio, drainage density, mean basin slope and area were evaluated. After the evaluation, it was found that "Mashhad" and "Torghabe" sub-basins had a high-risk of flooding because of the high value of drainage density and low value of bifurcation ratio in these areas, which both have a higher effect in flooding potential compared to other factors. Toos, Chenaran, Qazqanand ... sub-basins hada low risk of flooding because of the low values of the factors which increase the flooding potential and high values of the factors which decrease it. Results obtained from the original rankings and sensitivity analysis of the results reveals that the ELECTRE TRI method could rank the strategic options of flooding sensitivity. The results of the model in this paper indicate its ability to raise evaluation of flooding criteria in classification of alternatives based on various criteria.
      PubDate: Aug 2017
  • Assessment of Desertification Dynamics in Machakos County, Kenya

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Geoscience  Volume  5  Number  2  Mark Kipkurwa Boitt   and Patrick Ambi Odima   Many countries face desertification as a challenge, and Kenya is not an exception to this. Desertification means an intensification of desert like conditions and a decline in biological productivity. The Princeton University Dictionary defines it as “the process of fertile land transforming into desert typically as a result of deforestation, drought or improper/inappropriate agriculture”. Desert areas are usually sparsely populated, because it is very difficult to carry out most productive human activities such as farming, and also due to the harsh weather conditions. Often, desertification leads to the migration of human and animal populations to more productive areas. This causes overpopulation in the more productive areas, giving rise to more problems. Remote Sensing techniques have proven to be effective, and have been used worldwide for environmental studies. The availability of free data from satellites such as Landsat has provided a cheap and efficient method of conducting such studies. Thus it is necessary to use current, efficient and cheap methods such as Remote Sensing technology in order to assess desertification trends in the country. Many parameters have been used globally to assess desertification, and those used in this study include NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, TGSI (Topsoil Grain Size Index) and Albedo. The aim of this research was to assess desertification dynamics in Machakos County, Kenya. The period of this assessment was between 1990 and 2010. It is realized that desertification can be mapped using the methods of NDVI, TGSI and Albedo. Environmental, human and social activities are factors that determine the desertification of a given area or region.
      PubDate: Apr 2017
  • Numerical Model for the Orbit of the Earth

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Geoscience  Volume  5  Number  2  S. Karna   and A. K. Mallik   In this paper, we constructed a 3-D numerical model of the Earth-Sun geometry. Our model defines Earth's orbit as an inclined plane of spherically symmetric system. We calculated the degree of the tilt of the Earth orbit to the ecliptic plane by converting from ecliptic frame of reference to the orbital frame of reference and then we made all the measurement. Initial inputs of our model are aphelion and perihelion parameters. It is interesting to examine that our results obtained from Earth inclined orbit are same that observed value from Earth's circular orbit. In other words, values of the axial tilt of Earth and Sun, the time taken for the Sun to move from vernal equinox to autumnal equinox and then back to the vernal equinox does not change. Moreover, we were also able to derive mathematical relations for finding the length of the apparent solar days throughout the year. On introducing the new types of the length of the day, called Saurya day, the rate of precession of equinox is calculated.
      PubDate: Apr 2017
  • The Indian Promontory: A Bridge between Plate Tectonics and Life Evolution

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Geoscience  Volume  5  Number  2  Christian Vérard   Gérard Stampfli   Gilles Borel   and Cyril Hochard   Since the 1970's, the Cretaceous–Cenozoic migration of the India subcontinent is fairly well-established. Seafloor magnetic anomalies in the Indian Ocean allow positioning the subcontinent during this time frame. India broke-up slowly from Antarctica in the Early Cretaceous, speed up (~18-20 cm/year) in the Late Cretaceous, and then slow down (~5 cm/year) in the early Cenozoic, a period for which geologists report the first evidences of the India–Eurasia collision leading to the formation of the Himalayan–Tibetan Orogen. However, fossil records as well as biogeography deduced from molecular phylogeny cast a doubt on the tectonicists' confidence on their palaeopositions, because faunal evidences support India as a 'biotic ferry' from its break-up from Gondwana in the Jurassic and then connectivity between Asia and India as early as the Cretaceous. The two types of observations can be reconciled if an Indian Promontory formed when India separated from Australia and Antarctica. In our plate tectonics model, the Indian Promontory drifted northward together with the Indian plate from the Cretaceous, but collided as early as the Campanian with Eurasia, id est about 40 Ma before the northern margin of 'Greater India' collide and form the Himalayas. The proposed Indian Promontory can therefore solve the paradox of having evidences for early land connectivity between India and Asia, the need of excluding unrealistic 'Greater India' (i.e. 4000-4500 km at ca. 80 Ma), and the need of having a plate tectonic scenario consistent with geological records (subsidence curves, exotic origin of terranes from the promontory), geophysical records (age and structure of the Argo Abyssal Plain), and geodynamical consideration about stress transmission of forces acting at plate boundaries.
      PubDate: Apr 2017
  • Comparative Study of Variability of Formic Acid and Acetic Acid in the
           Atmosphere of the Humid Savannah of Lamto in Côte d'Ivoire and Djougou in

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2017
      Source:Universal Journal of Geoscience  Volume  5  Number  2  Pêlèmayo R. Touré   Georges K. Kouadio   Urbain K. Koffi   and Véronique Yoboué   From January 2005 to December 2009, a total of 457 and 444 samples were collected respectively rains in humid savannas of Djougou and Lamto. Using Henry's law, we determined the content in the air of the major organic monoacid (HCOOH and CH3COOH) from their concentration in rainwater. At Lamto, annual partial pressure of formic acid (FA) and acetic acid (AA) on the five year study is very little variable. It covers a range of 0.1 ppbv and 0.2 ppb to 0.4 to 0.7 ppbv respectively for formic acid (FA) and acetic acid (AA). While in Djougou, it is very variable. It varies from 0.01 to 0.19 ppbv to formic acid (FA) and 0.04 to 0.54 ppbv to acetic acid (FA). For both stations, it is a two times higher in the dry season than the wet season factor. This difference is related to the enrichment of a monoacid organic acid content in the air by supplying various sources of these acids. However, the correlation analysis that enables the production of formic acid (FA) and acetic acid (AA) Djougou like Lamto is not related to the marine source although the latter is close to the Gulf of Guinea.
      PubDate: Apr 2017
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