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Publisher: Horizon Research Publishing   (Total: 54 journals)   [Sort by number of followers]

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Journal Cover Linguistics and Literature Studies
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   ISSN (Print) 2331-642X - ISSN (Online) 2331-6438
   Published by Horizon Research Publishing Homepage  [54 journals]
  • Autonomous Learning and Principles for Deep Knowledge

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2018
      Source:Linguistics and Literature Studies  Volume  6  Number  1  I-Chin Nonie Chiang   This study aims to understand whether students have the ability to interpret the connotation of deep knowledge based on afterschool autonomous learning activities, habitual domains and principles for deep knowledge, and to use deep knowledge principles to analyze the relationship between the common autonomous learning activities and knowledge as well as students' rating on various types of deep knowledge. There were 71 participants in this study, and data were collected from group discussions and written records. The results showed that the students have the ability to understand the connotation of deep knowledge and propose a variety of autonomous learning methods. This study explored how these autonomous learning methods are closely connected to the deep knowledge of habitual domains based on the methods proposed by the students. The author also gave teaching suggestions in accordance with the participants' rating on the deep knowledge.
      PubDate: Jan 2018
       
  • The Use of Relative Clauses in Humanities and Social Sciences Research
           Articles: A Case Study

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2018
      Source:Linguistics and Literature Studies  Volume  6  Number  1  Tanju Deveci   and Roger Nunn   For authors to publish their research papers in peer-reviewed journals, it is important to provide a clear rationale for their study, have a strong methodology, interpret their findings effectively, and highlight the contribution of their study to existing literature. However strong these aspects of content may be, it is nonetheless authors' language and communication competence that influence whether or not the message is conveyed to readers successfully. To this end, authors need to be meticulous in sentence construction. Varying sentence complexity is one important consideration in this respect. Although relative clauses play a significant role in sentence complexity, they have received relatively limited attention from researchers investigating academic writing. This case study is an attempt to identify how authors in humanities and social sciences use relative clauses in their research articles. To this end, we investigated their use in research papers in five journals. Our corpus was comprised of 22,801 running words. Data revealed that relative clauses accounted for 40% of the total number of sentences in the corpus. They were more commonly used in the introduction and discussion & conclusion sections. Reduced relative clauses were also generally more common than full relative clauses, with comparatively frequent use in the results section. We also found that the active voice was more dominant than the passive voice in relative clauses in all sections except the methodology, discussion and conclusion sections. We discuss the results from the perspective of transitivity, and offer some recommendations.
      PubDate: Jan 2018
       
  • Beaver Fur and Deer Skin: Teaching Colonial American Literature in
           Taiwan's Context

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2018
      Source:Linguistics and Literature Studies  Volume  6  Number  1  Ya-Shu Chen   English majors in Taiwan mostly are not familiar with American literature, let along American literature in the colonial times. However, should one compare the colonial history of Taiwan in the Age of Exploration with that of America in the similar era by the Dutch, students are more willing to participate in class discussion, their learning attitude has changed from passive to more active, and the result is therefore more rewarding too. The main reason of such a result lies in that, in my opinion, both colonial histories of Taiwan and US are alike, that is, both were discovered by Europeans in the Age of Exploration, and there are similarities between the colonization processes in Tainan, Taiwan, and several Dutch colonies along the east coast of America. The two colonial powers used trade as a means, exchanging mink and deerskin with native Aborigines respectively and eventually led to the abolition of the two indigenous peoples. This study aims at exploring similarities and differences between Taiwan and US colonial histories through examining their colonization processes in detail. I hope that from such a comparison, putting colonial American literature in the context of colonial Taiwan, American literary history may become more interesting to Taiwan Students.
      PubDate: Jan 2018
       
  • A Comparative Study of the Effects of Task Repetition, Unguided Strategic
           Planning, and Pressured On-line Planning on the Accuracy of
           Upper-intermediate EFL Learners' Written Production

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2018
      Source:Linguistics and Literature Studies  Volume  6  Number  1  Navid Bayat   The present study set out to explore the effects of task repetition (TR), unguided strategic planning (USP), and pressured on-line planning (POP) on the accuracy of Iranian EFL Upper-intermediate learners' written production. To achieve this, 90 EFL learners from three intact classes of an English institute were randomly assigned to three experimental groups. All participants in three groups experienced a written narrative task based on a set of six pictures as pre-test, a week prior to the 10-session treatment, two weeks after it as post-test, and for the treatment itself as well. Participants in the first group (TR) were required to write a 150-word narrative based on the pictures they were shown and repeat the performance a week later. In the second group (USP), participants were given 10-minute planning before performing the narrative task. Finally, students in the third group (POP) were asked to perform the task within the time limit of 17 minutes. All participants' performance was then analyzed and measured in terms of accuracy. The findings of the study revealed that repeating the task contributed in improvement in accuracy. In a similar vein, giving students the opportunity for on-line planning resulted in a similar effect on accuracy in their output, whereas no statistically significant enhancement in accuracy was achieved in strategic planning group.
      PubDate: Jan 2018
       
  • Cross-cultural Variations of the HIV/AIDS IS DEATH Pictorial Metaphor

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2017
      Source:Linguistics and Literature Studies  Volume  5  Number  5  Magonya Achieng' Lilian   For three decades now, HIV/AIDS undeniably remains one of the leading killer diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa. The same narrative is advanced in the literature by sociologists and epidemiologists where mental images that cognitively represent a true African embodied experience with HIV /AIDS is death and its respective personifications such as HIV/AIDS IS A SNAKE, HIV/AIDS IS A WALKING CORPSE and HIV/AIDS IS GRIM REAPER (cf. Sabatier, 1987, Sontag, 1988, De Waal, 2006 and Magonya, 2012). From the foregoing, it can be said that linguistic studies on cross-cultural variations of the HIV/AIDS IS DEATH pictorial metaphor in posters are relatively few in cognitive linguistics. Furthermore, there is need to undertake scientific investigations on how mental images are psychologically and metaphorically linked to the embodied experience with the pandemic. In this regard, the two fold objectives of this paper are: First and foremost, to study the cross-domain mappings of the HIV/AIDS IS DEATH pictorial metaphors and second to investigate cross-cultural variations of the aforementioned pictorial metaphor. The conceptual framework guiding the study espouses arguments from Lakoff and Johnson (1980) and Lakoff and Turner (1989) on the conceptual metaphor theory (CMT), with specific focus on death metaphors outlined in More than cool reason. A field guide to poetic metaphor, together with Kövesces (2010) arguments on metaphor and variation. The study will employ an analytic research design and data will be collected from 11 purposively sampled websites where a total of 20 posters coined around HIV/AIDS IS DEATH pictorial metaphor were drawn. Using content analysis, data collected from online sources was coded, arranged into themes and analyzed qualitatively. The findings for the study are consistent with Kövesces thesis on the existence of cross-cultural variations in HIV/AIDS IS DEATH conceptual metaphor.
      PubDate: Sep 2017
       
  • Literary Artists and African Witchcraft: The Unending Search for Solutions

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2017
      Source:Linguistics and Literature Studies  Volume  5  Number  5  Simiyu Kisurulia   Humankind is the most rational and manipulative being. Men and women will always look for solutions to problems and issues affecting them. This search for solutions is at the first instance located within the natural sphere. When nature fails to provide adequate answers, human beings often turn to the spiritual sphere for answers. Witchcraft also referred to as sorcery or black magic, falls anywhere between the natural and the spiritual or supernatural. The practice is an age-old one and, according to anthropological studies, cuts across all the continents of the world. This paper concerns itself with the rendition of the practice from a Swahili literary perspective. The analysis aims at attempting to understand the existence of the practice, its social effects and reasons for its persistence in the society. We analyse the practice of witchcraft as depicted in two Swahili works of art namely Kisima cha Giningi/The well at Giningi (Abdulla, 1968) and Hatimayanguniipi'/What is my destiny'(Chipeta, 2010). These two novels present the practice in two different ways thus attracting the attention of the reader to curiously and critically interrogate the whole practice. The two have been purposively selected as they depict the practice and have been subjected to content analysis to unearth the inherent belief concerning witchcraft and the artist's point of view concerning the same. The analysis is guided by realism and social dynamic theory. It is baffling that even with the advancement in science and technology, and even with the more practical solutions offered by major religions of the world, such a vicious practice that simply escapes human understanding still persists. As such, this analysis widens our perception of the practice of witchcraft as a persistent social practice.
      PubDate: Sep 2017
       
  • Phonological Development of an Arabic-English Bilingual Child during the
           One-word Stage

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2017
      Source:Linguistics and Literature Studies  Volume  5  Number  5  Hana A. Daana   The main purpose of this article is to provide a description of the phonological development in the speech of an Arabic-English bilingual child during the meaningful one-word production stage that is from 7 to 20 months of age. Data presented here are the result of recording sessions of spontaneous and non-spontaneous speech between the child and the author. The record, thus, is representative of the sounds which were produced in a meaningful verbal context. To the author’s best knowledge, data on the phonological development of an Arabic-English bilingual child has not been published before. Therefore, this report may be of interest and value to researchers in the field of child language acquisition in general and bilingual first language acquisition in particular.
      PubDate: Sep 2017
       
  • A Cognitive Analysis of Woman Metaphors in Ekegusii Language

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2017
      Source:Linguistics and Literature Studies  Volume  5  Number  5  Aunga Solomon Onchoke   and Xu Wen   It has been argued by linguists that language expresses a people's way of life; this paper examines a cultural-specific metaphor in Ekegusii, an African Bantu language in Kenya since a metaphor makes our thoughts clearer, richer with imagery, and, act as a conduit between human mind and culture. A qualitative research design was used in the collection of the metaphors from the two counties of Gusii, Nyamira and Kisii, where 60 native respondents were picked and asked to identify and explain terms and phrases that describe a woman in Ekegusii, describe the social-cultural values and explain the mapping processes involved. The data was analyzed by identifying qualities in the donor domains and mapping them to the recipient domain using the Cognitive Metaphor Theory (CMT). It is clear from the results that in Ekegusii, a woman is perceived as an object, a plant, an animal or the appropriate behavior she exhibits based on the values such as immorality, selfishness, beauty, ugliness, harshness, talkativeness, age, and faithfulness, and also, the cultural background plays an important role in the conceptualization and interpretation of these metaphors. Finally, we recommend more research of metaphors in other languages to enable comparisons.
      PubDate: Sep 2017
       
  • Gëzim Hajdari: On a Poet and His Poetry of Exile

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2017
      Source:Linguistics and Literature Studies  Volume  5  Number  5  Alessandra Mattei   Gëzim Hajdari's poetic subject is an exceptional case within the contemporary scenario. He has been spending in Italy his exile from Albania since 1992. Hajdari tries to express a semantic universe able to overpower effectively his readers' literary and cultural identities of reference, by adjusting the classical referents existing in several Mediterranean traditions. He has been always interested in the creation of a new epic, recalling - to overcome without abandoning it - his status of permanent dispatrio through the choice of genres and references, both alluded and manifest. The constant exile, which he and his work live in, is tied to the testimonial obligation of the horrors of dictatorship and the slaughter of an entire intellectual class; it also focuses attention on significant matters of the classical tragic and epic thought - especially the Greek one - and introduces it in the research of a widespread classical style, open to the literary traditions which are far from the Western ones. This aim, pursued by writing Delta del mio fiume [16], leads him to the editorial choices for Erranze series he runs, and to the latest decision to publish his first compendium in three languages.
      PubDate: Sep 2017
       
  • "Dark Ages" in Comparative Studies and Ethnogenesis of Georgians in the
           Framework of the History of Comparative Studies

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2017
      Source:Linguistics and Literature Studies  Volume  5  Number  5  Tsira Baramidze   The paper discusses the history of the issue of the ethnogenesis of Georgians. The comparative method of linguistics is universal and applicable to any language family. Like the methods of natural sciences the method is exact and verifiable. At some stages of contemporary linguistics, a crisis arose not because a method has some drawbacks, but because the method was considered to be useless to prove extralinguistic hypotheses by some linguists. As far as such extra-linguistic hypotheses cannot be proven by the comparative method, their authors tend to purposefully discredit comparative studies: I. They devalue the strictness of the method - language families are deliberately grouped into phyla; for instance, Noetic, Nostratic, Boreic, Dene-Caucasian... Hence, members of the Iberian-Caucasian family appeared in different phyla: Kartvelian languages - in Nostratic, Abkhaz-Adyghe and Daghestanian ones - in Dene-Caucasian. II. They ignore the method, linguistic items are qualified as languages and dialects by means of non-immanent marking. III. The comparative method is considered to be a non-universal one for the Iberian-Caucasian languages. IV. They consider the method to be unilateral, it was assumed that the method explained diverging process, however, it could not explain outcomes of convergence. V. The strength and credibility of sound correspondences was questioned; on the other hand, the establishment of secondary sound correspondences was considered possible. By way of a priori acknowledging the above-said, the allogenetic hypothesis was posited to be parallel with the theory of linguistic affinity. The paper analyzes the stages, having preceded the final proving of the Iberian-Caucasian affinity: it presents the research outcomes of the empirical data of the Iberian-Caucasian languages, the hologram principle of the reflection (resp. occurrence) of synchronic sound correspondences in diachrony, theoretical postulates determining the present-day level of the comparative study of the Iberian-Caucasian languages, research achievements and challenges. The detection of regular sound correspondences in the establishment of language affinity is one and not the only objective of comparative studies. Another significant objective of comparative studies is the representation of the temporal-spatial model of the divergence of a parent-language of a family, the establishment of absolute chronology of the existence of a parent-language, the compilation of comparative phetics and grammars, etymological dictionaries, the localization of the homeland of the parent-language-speaking ethnic group, and the reconstruction of proto-culture. Attempts to establish "Dark Ages" in comparative studies periodically occur at various times with various data and make 'obstacles' to linguistics. The paper provides answers to the challenges in the framework of the comparative method. The ethnogenesis of Georgians is determined with respect to its belonging to the Iberian-Caucasian family.
      PubDate: Sep 2017
       
  • The Lexicalization Patterns of Old Chinese Motion Verbs and the Manner/
           Result Complementarity

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2017
      Source:Linguistics and Literature Studies  Volume  5  Number  6  Lei Qiu   Rappaport Hovav and Levin[1,2] propose the manner/result complementarity (MRC), which predicts the non-existence of verbs lexicalizing both manner and result at a time. Scholars [3, 4] argue against the MRC as a general lexical principle governing the lexicalization patterns of verbs by naming verbs which seem to encode both meaning components simultaneously. One type of counterexample verbs are based on the lexicalization properties of typologically different languages. Following Slobin [5], Shi and Wu [6] suggest that manner and result meaning components exhibit complementary distribution in satellite-framed languages but not verb-framed languages. Though Modern Chinese is generally classified as a satellite-framed language, Old Chinese is regarded as a verb-framed language and the lexicalization patterns of Old Chinese motion verbs are also subjected to controversy. Drawing evidence from motion verbs in Old Chinese, this study tries to answer whether the MRC constrains the possible lexicalization patterns of motion verbs in verb-framed languages. Detailed analysis indicates that though typologically different languages may use morphosyntactic devices specific to the language to differentiate verbs falling into different ontological categories, Old Chinese motion verbs conform to the MRC hypothesis.
      PubDate: Nov 2017
       
  • Stereotyping and Stigmatizing of Poor Whites in Today's USA

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2017
      Source:Linguistics and Literature Studies  Volume  5  Number  6  Concepción Parrondo Carretero   The stigma once imposed upon poor whites (also known by the terms of 'white trash,' 'cracker,' 'red neck,' or 'hillbilly,' among others) still lives on in a specific type of poor, notorious for their laziness, dirt-eating, propensity to criminality, sexual perversity, consanguinity, feeblemindedness, and chronic disease portability. It is through mass media communications that this group has been placed on the margins of a capitalist interest-driven market economy in the hands of the dominant whites who dictate the rules by which all members of society are to abide. It is no longer the account of the traveler or the written text what can be damaging to the public image of a social group, but a much powerful vehicle of communication that attracts large numbers and travels at the speed of light. As an image is worth a thousand words, the visual impact created by TV or the cinema has no equal. This paper aims to examine the social stereotyping and stigmatizing of poor whites (the bad type) in mass media communications through the analysis of two films (Deliverance 1972 and Monster 2003), a documentary (The Wild and Wonderful Whites of West Virginia 2009), and a reality TV series (Here Comes Honey Boo Boo 2012) to ultimately come to the realization that social stigmatizing is very much alive in the United States of the 21st century.
      PubDate: Nov 2017
       
  • An Empirical Study on College English Curriculum Assessment and
           Cultivation of Intercultural Communication Competence

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2017
      Source:Linguistics and Literature Studies  Volume  5  Number  6  Qian Wang   Developing intercultural competence has been increasingly vital in the current college English curriculum reform. Based on data collected in curriculum assessment of English courses for non-language majors together with surveys and interviews, this study, explored critical factors in English curriculum that influence students' intercultural competence with the purpose of promoting effective teaching of intercultural competence and providing empirical evidence for the college English curriculum reform. Results suggested that class engagement, autonomous learning, and teaching methods had significant impacts on the overall level of intercultural competence and its specific dimensions, while the impacts of English language skills and satisfaction rate on intercultural competence were not statistically significant. Besides, students with different backgrounds and campus environments were significantly different in intercultural competence. The findings of this study on the relationships between curriculum factors and intercultural competence shed light on systematic development of intercultural competence in foreign language teaching and improvement of intercultural teaching.
      PubDate: Nov 2017
       
  • Differentiating African and Western Feminisms through Room Symbolism

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2017
      Source:Linguistics and Literature Studies  Volume  5  Number  6  André Kaboré   The current study is a comparative analysis of the room symbolism in some Western and African feminist writings, such as Virginia Woolf's A Room of One's Own, Monique Ilboudo's 'Le féminisme au Burkina Faso: mythes et réalités'', and Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie's We Should all be Feminists. Thus, this paper tries to shed light on these female writers' projections of feminism by 'decoding' the room images found in their works and by making comparative projections that demonstrate the necessity to make a distinction between African and Western feminisms.
      PubDate: Nov 2017
       
  • Language Teaching and Grammar: Practices and Implications in the
           Multimedia Age

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2017
      Source:Linguistics and Literature Studies  Volume  5  Number  6  Rosario Pellegrino   Attempts to reflect on the not always idyllic relationship between language teaching and grammar are not entirely obvious and seem to recur more frequently in the light of recent technological discoveries, which have revolutionized both methods and processes. Starting from the role played by grammar within language teaching, the present study aims to investigate linguistic practices and structural considerations, including the Eclectic approach, which is characterised by experimentation and indeterminateness. This study will consider the underlying dynamics of the action-oriented approach proposed by the CEFR, which, thanks to new technologies, sensitizes learners to the otherness, to the inner workings of the language in communicative, comparative and functional modes as required by the demands of today's new, flexible and computerised society.
      PubDate: Nov 2017
       
  • Sorry as a Marker for Self-negation Used by Learners in Language
           Classrooms

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2017
      Source:Linguistics and Literature Studies  Volume  5  Number  6  Robin Ruowei Yang   This study analyzes the naturally occurring English word sorry in adult learners' talk in a language classroom and examines its role as a marker for self-negation from the perspective of pragmatic negation. The database for this study consists of 40 hours of video recordings of online tutorials for learning Chinese as a second language at a university in Hong Kong. The detailed analysis shows that to address various types of problematic utterances they make, learners do not always use an explicit negation operator such as no to negate their prior utterances but instead use sorry as an alternative. Rather than being used as a negation of a truth-functional operator for propositions, sorry is prominently used by learners as a device for objecting to a prior utterance in conversational implicature or other aspects of language use related to pragmatic negation. The findings also show that sorry plays a dual role by negating the prior utterance and predicting the next utterance, which may be either by the speaker or by the hearer, for correction. The reason for sorry being used as a marker for negation is discussed, and the study suggests that as sorry is perceived and understood maturely by speakers and hearers in context, it realizes the function of pragmatic negation.
      PubDate: Nov 2017
       
  • Assimilation in the Djelfa Dialect of Algerian Arabic: An OT Account

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2017
      Source:Linguistics and Literature Studies  Volume  5  Number  3  Slimani Khedidja   and Jisheng Zhang   The Djelfa dialect (DJ) is one of the varieties of Algerian Arabic that is characterized by complicated regressive and progressive assimilatory processes. The current paper addresses some of these assimilatory mechanisms, namely, nasal assimilation, lateral assimilation, /t/ assimilation, devoicing assimilation, emphasis assimilation and guttural place assimilation. The paper offers a straightforward analysis and provides a comprehensive picture of these assimilatory processes within the framework of Optimality Theory (OT), [1] [2], [3] and [4] by means of accounting for the trigger motivating them, which is reflected through the relevant constraints at play and their way of interaction. The paper concludes that regressive assimilation is very pervasive in the dialect as the latter endeavors to abide by IDENT-STEM-ONS (F) and IDENT-ONS (F) as much as possible unless a higher ranked constraint is endangered. Moreover, the paper lends support to McCarthy and Prince's (1995) claim that root faithfulness outranks affix faithfulness as DJ prefers to keep stem segment features intact at the expense of affixes' feature change.
      PubDate: May 2017
       
  • The Position of Marsha Norman's Female Characters from the Perspective of
           the Socialist-feminist Ideology

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2017
      Source:Linguistics and Literature Studies  Volume  5  Number  3  Yasemin Güniz Sertel   Socialist-feminism discusses the subordination and victimization of women in relation with men, the capitalist structure of the society, its institutions, the hegemonic patriarchal culture and history. Marsha Norman as a contemporary American feminist playwright portrays the position of women as victims of the societies they live in her plays. This study aims not to analyze Marsha Norman's plays in a detailed manner, but the purpose of this work is to give an introductory knowledge about Norman's female characters in her plays Third and Oak, Loving Daniel Boone, Sarah and Abraham and Circus Valentine by discussing their oppression in relation with the historical, cultural and social perspectives which are the main points of discussion in the Socialist-Feminist Theory.
      PubDate: May 2017
       
  • Reading to Learn, Learning to Write Pedagogy: How Effective is it on
           Teaching Narrative Writing to Non-Chinese Speaking Students'

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2017
      Source:Linguistics and Literature Studies  Volume  5  Number  3  Mark Shiu-kee Shum   and Dan Shi   The current paper aims to introduce the 'Reading to Learn, Learning to Write" (R2L) pedagogy [11] and its application in teaching Chinese narrative writing to non-Chinese speaking (NCS) students in Hong Kong. Based on the needs of the NCS students in Chinese language learning for education and employment in Hong Kong, R2L pedagogy functions as an effective toolkit for L1 Chinese teachers to teach L2 NCS students to read and write Chinese texts successfully. Guided by the teaching and learning cycles accentuated in R2L pedagogy, sufficient scaffolding will be provided for students with teachers' explicit inculcation. With a view to understanding the effect of using R2L pedagogy on genre writing, students' pre- and post-tests representing their different levels of achievement (low, intermediate, high) will be evaluated and compared by R2L assessment criteria incorporating the four language dimensions of context, discourse, grammar, and graphic features [11]. The findings show a significant improvement of NCS students' narrative writing in the post-tests after the pedagogic intervention in comparison with their pre-tests. It is hoped that the R2L-based pedagogic practices can be served as a teaching reference for L1 language teachers on their way to L2 language education.
      PubDate: May 2017
       
  • Using N-Gram Analytics to Improve Automatic Fingerspelling Generation

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2017
      Source:Linguistics and Literature Studies  Volume  5  Number  3  John McDonald   Rosalee Wolfe   Souad Baowidan   Ningshan Guo   Sarah Johnson   and Robyn Moncrief   Fingerspelling recognition is one of the last skills acquired, due to the complex nature of fingerspelling and a lack of display technology that is sufficiently natural for recognition practice. This paper describes a corpus-based study utilizing an n-gram extension to ELAN to gain a deeper understanding of deletion and coarticulation in fingerspelling. The analysis shows that coarticulation and deletion increase with fingerspelling speed and that deletions form an increasing percentage of the modifications at shorter durations. Insights from the study informed strategies to improve current avatar-based fingerspelling generation.
      PubDate: May 2017
       
  • Some Doctrinal Aspects Contained into the Religious Questions of Ibn
           Khatima's Treatise of the Pest (14th Century)

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2017
      Source:Linguistics and Literature Studies  Volume  5  Number  3  Luisa María Arvide Cambra   This paper is a study of fragments contained into the religious questions (VII-X) of pest treatise, entitled in Arabic 'Tahsil gharad al-qasid fi-tafsil al-marad al-wafid' (succeeding in clarify pest disease), which was written in the 14th century by the well-known Spanish physician Ibn Khatima (d.circa1369), being referred to the Black Death, the terrible pandemic that devastated Asia, Africa and Europe at that time. The article includes an introduction about the author and his literary and scientific significance, as well as a section containing a few fragments of the religious questions (VII-X), translated to English from the Arabic manuscript no.1785 from the Library of El Escorial and concerning to some doctrinal aspects of the Hadith, the dogmatic law of Medieval Islam and the Islamic thought in the Middle Ages.
      PubDate: May 2017
       
  • Plant Naming Patterns as a Reflection of Language Image of the World

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2017
      Source:Linguistics and Literature Studies  Volume  5  Number  3  Khoshimkhujaeva Mokhiruh   The paper is devoted to analysis of English and Uzbek plant naming patters as a reflection of original language image of the world. Particularly, by answering the questions how and why some elements of national culture and mindset are used for naming plants, we explored the principles of perception and categorization of the world by English and Uzbek people. Based on the theory of "language image of the world" first suggested by Weisgerber and revised then by Whorf, we tried to understand what associations are put under the base of some popular patterns of naming the plants both in English and Uzbek, and how these association can explain general and specific features of the languages’ image of the world. To achieve this goal we divided all the collected plant names into special association fields (Religion, animals and house belongings). Plant name analysis within these special fields expressing national specific worldview most vividly, showed us how notions related to religion, animals and house belongings (artifacts) can serve as a mean of fixing information about different properties of plants in the minds of the nations. As a result we discovered particular analogous and peculiar features of English and Uzbek worldviews.
      PubDate: May 2017
       
  • Effects of Pre-reading Activities on EFL Reading by Iranian College
           Students

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2017
      Source:Linguistics and Literature Studies  Volume  5  Number  3  Mohammad Reza Salehi   and Ebrahim Abbaszadeh   This study investigated the effects of two pre-reading activities (class discussion and vocabulary definitions) and a control condition on the reading comprehension of 57 Iranian college freshmen. It also investigated the differential facilitative effect of the two pre-reading activities on the students' comprehension. Each student read an expository text under one of the three conditions and immediately afterwards answered a 9-item short answer test designed to measure comprehension of the text. A one-way ANOVA and a post-hoc comparison test were applied to the results. This revealed that the two pre-reading activities produced significantly higher comprehension scores than the control condition. Vocabulary definitions activity resulted in increased comprehension compared with the control condition, but was significantly less effective than the class discussion activity. Results of the study were interpreted in relation to the schema-theoretic view of the reading process, and to their implications for EFL reading instruction.
      PubDate: May 2017
       
  • The Effect of Alternative Assessment Techniques on EFL Learners' Reading
           Comprehension Ability and Self-efficacy in Reading: The Case of Iranian
           Junior High School Students

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2017
      Source:Linguistics and Literature Studies  Volume  5  Number  3  Seyed Hesamuudin Aliasin   and Mehdi Amanlu   Self-efficacy plays a major role in learners' ultimate success. The present study investigated the effect of alternative assessment techniques of reading comprehension on the participants' self-efficacy in reading and their performance in reading comprehension. Matching items, gap filling items, C-tests, editing tasks and ordering techniques were used as alternative assessment techniques as replacements to traditional techniques such as multiple- choice type or essay- type items. Based on the proficiency test results, 77 intermediate junior high school students were selected from among 99 students in intact classes as the participants. The instruments included an adapted self-efficacy-in-reading questionnaire, the KET test and a reading comprehension test developed and piloted by the researchers. The results of t-test analyses indicated that the learners were significantly aware of self-efficacy while involved in reading comprehension of their English textbook texts. In other words, the participants possessed high self-efficacy in reading as measured by the questionnaire mentioned above. However, the findings revealed no significant effect for the use of alternative assessment techniques on the participants' self-efficacy in reading comprehension. Finally, the t-test results indicated a significant effect for the use of alternative assessment techniques on the participants' performance on the reading comprehension test.
      PubDate: May 2017
       
  • Adjective Distribution in Mongolian and Japanese

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2017
      Source:Linguistics and Literature Studies  Volume  5  Number  3  Wenchao Li   This paper tackles how adjectives distribute in Mongolian and Japanese in light of the framework 'scale structure'. It is explicated that Mongolian resultatives are of three types, i.e. adjective-post resultative; adjective-initial resultative; co-verb resultative. The acceptability of adjectival complements in inherent resultatives runs from 'Totally open-scale AP' down to 'Lower closed-scale AP, Upper-closed scale AP, Totally closed-scale AP'. Mongolian welcomes all layers of adjectives in direct perception expressions. Japanese adjectives are re-categorised into two types, i.e. open-scale adjectives (corresponding to the traditional i-adjective) and closed-scale adjectives (corresponding to the traditional na-adjective). Though both are capable of rendering an inherent result, the resultatives rendered by open-scale adjectives and closed-scale adjectives present different lexicalisation patterns. Moreover, like Mongolian, derived resultatives are also missing in Japanese. The lack of derived resultatives in Altaic languages is down to the following reason, i.e. Altaic languages are likely to lexicalise the RESULT into the MAIN VERB. In inherent resultatives, there is a connection between CAUSE EVENT and RESULT EVENT, i.e. the verb carries an implication of result. In derived resultatives, a GAP arises between ACTION and RESULT. Regarding direct perception expressions, Japanese seems to welcome both open-scale and closed-scale APs. The perceptual verb 見るmiru solely delivers the perceived event and is thus deemed objective. 見える mieru, on the other hand, cannot fulfil a metaphorical interpretation, and appears to be subjective.
      PubDate: May 2017
       
  • An Overview of Canonical Text Services

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2017
      Source:Linguistics and Literature Studies  Volume  5  Number  2  Jochen Tiepmar   and Gerhard Heyer   This paper provides a comprehensive overview of Canonical Text Services (CTS) and the surrounding tools that were developed on the basis of a MySQL based implementation. As such it covers a broad set of topics including a general explanation of CTS, various software tools and a wide array of text mining techniques. The goal is to compile the relatively widespread and potentially confusing amount of information into one document that focuses on the practical aspects and implications for researchers that work with text data. More technically focused aspects are discussed in the two papers that accompany this implementation ([20] and [21]) and the official CTS specifications. Additionally this paper introduces a licensing mechanism, a CTS based citation analysis workflow, a real time text alignment method and set of management tools including a central namespace resolver for CTS URNs.
      PubDate: Mar 2017
       
  • Reliably Measuring Something That Isn't Completely Objective: The Quality
           Triangle Approach to Translation Quality Assurance

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2017
      Source:Linguistics and Literature Studies  Volume  5  Number  2  Leonid Glazychev   The article introduces the first hybrid language quality assurance (LQA) methodology for translated texts, the Quality Triangle. This methodology was developed to assess original translated materials, with no available reference translations. It combines holistic and analytical approaches and provides the most flexible solution for a wide variety of applications and subject areas. Special attention is paid to the proposed approach detailing how holistic quality factors can be taken into account given the challenge they represent: these factors need to be assessed, but are at the same time not completely objective by definition. The resulting Quality Triangle methodology provides a reliable model for incorporating semi-objective, holistic factors into quality assurance metrics and can serve as the foundation for building models applicable in real production processes and serving a multitude of purposes.
      PubDate: Mar 2017
       
  • Epenthesis and Devocalization in the Djelfa Dialect of Algerian Arabic: An
           OT Account

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2017
      Source:Linguistics and Literature Studies  Volume  5  Number  2  Khedidja Slimani   The paper provides a straightforward analysis of some phonological processes attested in the Djelfa dialect, viz., epenthesis, and devocalization. The Djelfa dialect is one of the varieties of Algerian Arabic that has never been investigated before. Thus, this paper aims at delving into some of its phonological intricacies. The paper is couched within Optimality Theory framework (OT) and reveals the interaction underlying the markedness and faithfulness constraints to yield the well-formed syllable structures attested in the dialect. It mainly accounts for /i/ epenthesis to repair the undesired word-final C(C)VVCC and C(C)VCCC syllable structures, which is primarily ascribed to the interplay between *ϛϛ and *3μ. Vowel hiatus, however, is resolved by glide epenthesis unless the first member of the hiatus is [-high] and accordingly, the hegemony of CONTIGUITY-IO ([-high]V) renders devocalization imperative.
      PubDate: Mar 2017
       
  • Integrating Canonical Text Services into CLARIN's Search Infrastructure

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2017
      Source:Linguistics and Literature Studies  Volume  5  Number  2  Jochen Tiepmar   Thomas Eckart   Dirk Goldhahn   and Christoph Kuras   Today's digital research infrastructures target a variety of user groups. A key task to achieve acceptance and active participation among them are both user-friendly and machine-readable interfaces to digital resources. This is especially the case for highly integrated infrastructures like the CLARIN project. The Canonical Text Service Protocol CTS is an established system in document based Digital Humanities that covers many of associated problems, like dealing with varying levels of text granularity, persistent identification, address resolution and simple interfaces for an integration in various automatic work flows. The paper shows the advantages of integrating a CTS instance into CLARIN and also demonstrates additional benefits of this CTS implementation in form of built-in text mining techniques.
      PubDate: Mar 2017
       
  • Bible from the Prism of Culture: Reading the "Song of Songs" in the Moose
           Culture

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2017
      Source:Linguistics and Literature Studies  Volume  5  Number  2  F. Emilie G. Sanon-Ouattara   and R. Jacques Ouedraogo   This paper is about the cultural adaptation of Biblical texts for the Moose, a continental people of West Africa, whose cultural realities are quite different from those of the Jewish people. To achieve this, excerpts from the book of "Song of Songs" in the King James version of the Bible and "Viim Sid-sid Zamsg Wennaam Sebre" were paralleled to bring out their nuances and deduct the translation strategies implemented by the Moore Bible translators to achieve their purposes. It comes out of the study that Bible translators were ill at ease in the translation of the Song of Songs into Moore. This is seen in their translation strategies.
      PubDate: Mar 2017
       
  • Divergences in American and Chinese Scholars' Researches on Yang Xiong's
           Fu

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2017
      Source:Linguistics and Literature Studies  Volume  5  Number  2  Lu Jie   American sinologists and Chinese scholars' researches on Yang Xiong's Fu show heterogeneity and variation in their perspectives, paradigms and views due to the differences in cultural moulds and poetic traditions. The primary divergences lie in their researching backgrounds and purposes, perceptions of the literary and ideological value of Yang Xiong's Fu, and their comments on Yang's imitation of his predecessors in his Fu writing. American sinologists develop fresh insights in this research and their erudition and precision cast new light on their Chinese peers. A mutual interpretation, testimony, complementation and communication between Chinese and American cultures can be gained through the study on divergences in researches on Yang Xiong's Fu carried out by Chinese and American scholars.
      PubDate: Mar 2017
       
  • Ellipsis or Compression' (With Special Reference to English Modal
           Adverbs)

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2017
      Source:Linguistics and Literature Studies  Volume  5  Number  2  Yelena Mkhitaryan   and Zara Kostanian   The paper examines the underlying origin of English modal adverbs known in linguistics also as disjuncts. It is acknowledged that disjuncts are semantic derivations of identical adverbs functioning as adverbial modifiers of manner. We assume that disjuncts (certainly, frankly, etc.) have passed through a number of reconstructive operations before they come to be used as such, i.e. parentheses expressing the speaker's attitude to the whole utterance. The basic aim of the research is to find out what constructions underlie these lexical units and what kind of reconstructions the latter undergo before they come to be used as disjuncts. The research is carried out in the framework of cognitive and transformational grammar. The results of the study allow us to state that lexical units of this type are the outcome of various kinds of reconstructions, which, in addition to ellipsis, include deletion, substitution, movement, expansion, etc. Each of these reconstructions generally recognized as compression defines a transformational step which the underlying structures take before obtaining their final form as single units. The paper also examines cases with some adjectives occurring in the initial position, which makes them identical to the respective adverbs functioning as disjuncts.
      PubDate: Mar 2017
       
  • Tricksterism and Humor in Bread Givers (1925) by Anzia Yeziaska

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2017
      Source:Linguistics and Literature Studies  Volume  5  Number  2  Zhou Jingqiong   This paper deals with the trickster narrative and humorous characterization in Bread Givers (Anzia Yezierska, 1925). It starts first with characteristics typical of tricksterism, which is divided into two parts, trickster narrative and humorous characterization. Then the social and cultural circumstances are introduced of the early 20th-century decades where Anzia Yezierska stood out as a unique Jewish writer with her masterpiece, Bread Givers. The trickster narrative of the female protagonist is explored, followed by the humorous characterization of Reb Smolinsky, her father. To conclude, tricksterism and humor serve their thematic and moral functions in the novel: they help the characters tide over poverty, sexism, and racism, and ultimately enable Sara, the narrator protagonist to rise from ghetto to a middle class career.
      PubDate: Mar 2017
       
  • Contemporary Chinese Youth's Reading Preference on Han Fu

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2017
      Source:Linguistics and Literature Studies  Volume  5  Number  4  Chen Qi   The paper analyses the Han Fu's reading preference of contemporary young people in China. A questionnaire on the basis of Yang Xiong's four Fu, including two Big Fu and two Small Fu, and two Tang poems were designed and 200 non-Chinese major undergraduates in two universities were chosen out randomly to answer it. The investigation shows that most of the respondents do not like Small Fu but Big Fu. The author observes three special phenomena respectively in diction and rhythm, understanding, and length, and discovers they are closely connected with the prosperity of Chinese society and with the use of network. Moreover, compared with Han Fu, most of those respondents like Tang poem because of the understanding and length which provides more evidences on the reasons of the special phenomena. The decline of the understanding ability of reading and the lack of reading patience caused by the use of network should be on the alert.
      PubDate: Jul 2017
       
  • Linguistic Analysis of a Literary Discourse for Revelation of Ideology

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2017
      Source:Linguistics and Literature Studies  Volume  5  Number  4  Lai Peng   Adopting Van Dijk's theory of ideology as theoretical framework, using Fairclough's dialectical-relational approach as CDA methodology, this paper analyzes the language in a novel written by Mo Yan (莫言), the Nobel Prize winner in literature in 2012, a writer who is adept at describing the Chinese society. In his earlier novel "The Abandoned Baby" (弃婴), he depicted the reality of gender discrimination in Chinese society, aiming to defy traditional ideology and call for gender equality. In order to reveal the dialectical relation between the language he used and the social wrong he tried to address, this paper makes a linguistic analysis of two types of discourse structures in the novel: modality and rhetoric, in terms of their semiotic realization of ideologically based gender discrimination as a social wrong. This linguistic analysis of Mo Yan's literary writing helps to reveal the function of literature which he mentioned after he won the Nobel Prize: to change the society for the better through the use of language. It coincides with the mission of critical discourse studies: to reveal social problems through discourse analysis, thus to raise people's awareness in correcting it.
      PubDate: Jul 2017
       
  • Allegory in Prison Letters: Art or Puzzle'

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2017
      Source:Linguistics and Literature Studies  Volume  5  Number  4  Bajram Kosumi   This article examines the style and discourse in prison epistles, a special literary manifestation in the Albanian literature of the late 20th century. The allegoric and hermetic discourse dominates in these letters. Why does this happen: to hide the thoughts from the censorship of the prison administration (to disorient the censor, authors in general used many words with obscure meanings, and many other allegoric texts, which in reality are hypertexts) or simply for aesthetic and stylistic effects' This is a question which determines the status of the text. In this analysis special attention is given to words in the semantic and stylistic aspects. The focus of attention is especially allegoric and hermetic words and sentences. Decoding the words and sentences, of the allegoric and hermetic discourse, brings to a new light the text itself: whether it is a literary or a referential text. The stylistic analysis method and the critical discourse analysis are used in the examination. The critical discourse analysis is necessitated by the polysemy of the text, which lies always beyond the text and is interrelated with different textual or life contexts.
      PubDate: Jul 2017
       
  • Thinking and Language in the Body / Psyche Issue: A Cognitive Ethology
           Focused on Human Being

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2017
      Source:Linguistics and Literature Studies  Volume  5  Number  4  Felicia Ceauşu   and George Ceaușu   This article aims to investigate the relationship between thinking and language. In the early years of life, natural language develops in close connection with intelligence, configuring broadly the features of thought. The child's mind has a limited number of reference systems from which it can, through experience, constitute the qualities that underlie the processing of knowledge and the skills formed at the representation level. In maturity, at the same time as the development of thinking, the mind constructs signification and communication procedures that go beyond natural language. The language of a community is a development environment for the individual due to the close relationship between thinking and speech. By summoning various cultural resources, we can conclude that the language contains our image of the world: in this regard, symbolic imagination is stronger than iconic (based on signs and symptoms of visual). We will address the body / psyche problem and not the body / soul from the point of view of the philosophy of mind. Consequently, we will use the scientific themes of body and psyche. Our body is clearly and distinctly perceived by the other bodies and its perception also indicates a direction of exploration of the world from the inside to the outside: my body, the bodies of the others, then the anorganic bodies in the outer space.
      PubDate: Jul 2017
       
  • Lexical Diffusion and Gramaticalization: The Case of Tibetan slob sbyong
           byed

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2017
      Source:Linguistics and Literature Studies  Volume  5  Number  4  Chin-Wen Huang   Lexicalization and grammaticalization are two of the most important processes in linguistic change (Laurel and Traugott, 2005; Hopper and Traugott, 2003). Spoken Standard Tibetan (SST) offers an example of both these processes applying sequentially to the phrase slob sbyong byed, 'to study; to learn.' This phrase is an instance of a full verb byed becoming a light verb (grammaticalization) after compounding (lexicalization). In Tibetan, three light verbs: byed, rgyag and gtong compete lexically. This lexical competition can be treated under the Lexical Diffusion Theory proposed by Wang (1969; 1979).
      PubDate: Jul 2017
       
  • Cross-linguistic Spatio-temporal Association: Empirical Studies by
           Boroditsky

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2017
      Source:Linguistics and Literature Studies  Volume  5  Number  4  Yiqing Liao   and Rong Xiao   This paper provides a critical review of cross-linguistic empirical research on spatio-temporal association among English and Chinese languages to see if it is possible to render the actual relations between language and reality in a systematic manner. It discusses a selection of relevant studies conducted by scholars within this domain. Hopefully this paper will shed light on the cross-linguistic studies of the relationship between language and thought in mental conceptualization. Implications are also given for future empirical research.
      PubDate: Jul 2017
       
  • Queering a Queer Novel: Is There Something Queer about Running'

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2017
      Source:Linguistics and Literature Studies  Volume  5  Number  4  Donald Christopher Risker   This investigation examined Patricia Nell Warren's gay classic Front Runner as a queer text. Queer theory has been traditionally applied to heterosexual contexts and texts to demonstrate similarities between gay behavior and heteronormative behavior. This investigation applied queer theory to Front Runner to determine what, if anything is queer about being a gay Olympic-level runner. While there is much in Front Runner that relates to American gay culture in the 1970s, this investigation focused on the running passages in Front Runner to assess the effect of applying queer theory to a queer novel. The investigation found that some passages were consistent with heteronormative athletic portrayals, while other passages emphasized the gay protagonist as tough and competitive, as if to establish a hetero-normative machismo for the protagonist. Other passages were simply typical of hetero-normative sport literature.
      PubDate: Jul 2017
       
  • Semantic Annotation of Anaphoric Links in Language

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2017
      Source:Linguistics and Literature Studies  Volume  5  Number  4  Kiyong Lee   The main purpose of this paper is to make some linguistic contributions to an ISO initiative to formulate a standard on the semantic annotation framework of reference, coreference, and other types of anaphoric phenomena in natural language. For this purpose, we first make a brief review of some of the existing coreference annotation (CA) schemes. We then formulate an abstract syntax Asynana for anaphoric annotation on which a variety of concrete syntaxes such as an XML-based concrete syntax CsynanaX can be developed to provide an interoperable representation format for the annotation. To satisfy the semantic adequacy of the proposed abstract syntax even partially, we check the possibility of developing formal semantics based on it. Such a semantics may be accepted as a valid application of the proposed annotation scheme. We finally consider the multilingual applicability of proposed ASynana by applying it to Korean, a non-inflectional agglutinating language with pro-drop properties.
      PubDate: Jul 2017
       
  • The Relationship between Iranian EFL Learners' Academic Self-schemas and
           Their Willingness to Communicate

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2017
      Source:Linguistics and Literature Studies  Volume  5  Number  4  Farzaneh Dehghan   and Azita Ajdari   This study examined how Iranian EFL learners' level of academic self-schema is related to their willingness to communicate (WTC). To this end, 243 female undergraduate EFL university students from Islamic Azad University, Shiraz Branch (convenience sampling) completed two questionnaires, namely, a WTC and a researcher-made self-schema questionnaire. The latter questionnaire was developed based on two types of self-schemas, namely, entity and incremental. Entity self-schema regard ability as fixed or unchangeable while incremental self-schema regards it as improvable and changeable in future. Correlation results (r=0.380, p
      PubDate: Jul 2017
       
  • Theory Travel: Translation of Western Contemporary Literary Theories to
           China

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2017
      Source:Linguistics and Literature Studies  Volume  5  Number  4  Lu Jie   From the beginning of the 20th century, many Western contemporary literary theories, including formalism, the New Criticism, phenomenology, hermeneutics, reception aesthetics, structuralism, deconstruction, psychoanalysis, post-colonialism and Western Marxism, have been translated into Chinese. Translation of those Western literary theories has undergone four phases in China over a century's travel: the commencement and development from the early 1920s to the late 1940s, the frustration and depression from the late 1940s to the end of 1970s, the recovery and revival from the late 1970s to the late 1990s as well as the sustained development and new turn from the beginning of the 21st Century till now. Translation of Western contemporary literary theories is an indispensable part in modern "eastward transmission of Western learning," therefore, to retrospect and summarize its procedure in China is not only helpful to recognize the value and significance of Western contemporary literary theories in Sino-Western cultural exchanges but also beneficial to rationally reconsider the ways to construct Chinese contemporary literary theories in a new era.
      PubDate: Jul 2017
       
  • The Word against the Sword: Arabic Poetry in the Face of Despotism

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2017
      Source:Linguistics and Literature Studies  Volume  5  Number  1  Salaheldin Elgebily   The relationship between authority and literature has been one of the closest and oldest relations. It originated when politicians realized the significant role of poetry in supporting political systems, or opposing them. The role which poetry played in ancient times is similar to the role played by the mass media in modern times; mobilizing masses and forming their lives. On the other hand, poets also realized the great influence of monarchs and politicians and the importance of their power over humans. The poets preferred being in the security zone next to the ruler, away from the circle of danger, in which the public are situated. To them, approaching the authority meant receiving grants, acquiring influential power and gaining the attention of broad sectors of people. This research is a brief attempt to understand the relationship between poetry and politics, and the enticements that mar it. It is a study of "the poets of rebellion and rejection", those milestones in the history of Arabic poetry, who stood in the face of the authority. Some of them paid their lives for their choice, while the others kept their lives, but they were marginalized and had to live on the outskirts of society.
      PubDate: Jan 2017
       
  • Subjective' Emotional' Emotive': Language Combinatorics based
           Automatic Detection of Emotionally Loaded Sentences

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2017
      Source:Linguistics and Literature Studies  Volume  5  Number  1  Michal Ptaszynski   Fumito Masui   Rafal Rzepka   and Kenji Araki   In this paper presents our research in automatic detection of emotionally loaded, or emotive sentences. We define the problem from a linguistic point of view assuming that emotive sentences stand out both lexically and grammatically. To verify this assumption we prepare a text classification experiment. In the experiment we apply language combinatorics approach to automatically extract emotive patterns from training sentences. The applied approach allows automatic extraction of not only widely used unigrams (tokens), or n-grams, but also more sophisticated patterns with disjointed elements. The results of experiments are explained with the use of means such as standard Precision, Recall and balanced F-score. The algorithm also provides a refined list of most frequent sophisticated patterns typical for both emotive and non-emotive context. The method reached results comparable to the state of the art, while the fact that it is fully automatic makes it more efficient and language independent.
      PubDate: Jan 2017
       
  • Ideology Versus Multilingualism in South Africa: Should National
           Legislation Be Published in All Official Languages'

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2017
      Source:Linguistics and Literature Studies  Volume  5  Number  1  Cornelus Johannes Alexander Lourens   Does the failure to publish all national legislation in all official languages constitute unfair (unlawful) discrimination' The question whether 'officiality' implies the obligation that all national legislation should be published in all official languages is discussed with references to the historic development of the Constitutional Language provisions in South Africa, international and foreign law are referred to as well as the three Lourens decisions. The restrictive approach by the court is criticised as they sanctioned an unfair language discriminatory practice, that English is elevated to the only true official language. The need for the intellectualisation/modernising of the indigenous languages is highlighted. In the conclusion the challenge of a constitution pretending to be the supreme law of the Country against a National Government, without any political will to enhance the indigenous languages without which speakers' have de facto accepted English as super official language is evaluated.
      PubDate: Jan 2017
       
  • Development and Analysis of Verb Frame Lexicon for Hindi

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2017
      Source:Linguistics and Literature Studies  Volume  5  Number  1  Rafiya Begum   and Dipti Misra Sharma   A verb frame (VF) captures various syntactic distributions where a verb can be expected to occur in a language. The argument structure of Hindi verbs (for various senses) is captured in the verb frames (VFs). The Hindi verbs were also classified based on their argument structure. The main objective of this work is to create a linguistic resource of Hindi verb frames which would: (i)Help the annotators in the annotation of the dependency relations for various verbs; (ii)Prove to be useful in parsing and for other Natural Language Processing (NLP) applications; (iii)Be helpful for scholars interested in the linguistic study of the Hindi verbs. In this study of Hindi verbs, the verb argument relations are captured using the dependency relations from Paninian Grammatical Framework (PGF). Analysis of Hindi verbs is the focus of this study since it gives us a good understanding of syntactic and semantic behaviour of verbs which is required for dependency annotation and for parsing. [1]. The preliminary work on this study was published as "Developing Verb Frames for Hindi" [1] in Language Resources and Evaluation Conference (LREC), 2008.
      PubDate: Jan 2017
       
 
 
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