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Journal Cover International Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics
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   ISSN (Print) 2331-9925 - ISSN (Online) 2331-9933
   Published by Horizon Research Publishing Homepage  [54 journals]
  • Concentrations of Fat-soluble Vitamins of Trema guineensis Aqueous and
           Ethanolic Extracts and Rats Supplemented

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2018
      Source:International Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics  Volume  6  Number  1  Droucoula Guillaume Cyril   Tra Bi Irié Otis   Miezan Bile Aka Patrice   Kouakou Sylvain Landry   Bla Kouakou Brice   and Yapi Houphouët Félix   This study was undertaken to determine vitamins A, D and E composition of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Trema guineensis and effect of supplementation of these extracts on serum concentrations of these vitamins. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Trema guineensis were obtained by decoction and maceration of leaves powder, respectively. Then, they were administered to animals at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight against a control group treated with distilled water for two weeks. Composition of vitamins in extracts and serum concentrations of vitamins A, D and E were performed by HPLC. Results showed that Trema guineensis extracts contained high concentrations of vitamins A, D and E. Thus, vitamins A and D serum concentrations were weakly influenced while that of vitamin E increased strongly during administration of Trema guineensis extracts. This study therefore showed that extracts of Trema guineensis had vitamins A, D and E and a beneficial effect on serum concentrations of these vitamins.
      PubDate: Jan 2018
  • In vitro Investigation of the Anti-sickling and Erythrocyte Membrane
           Stabilizing Potentials of Elaesis guineensis Jacq Flower

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2018
      Source:International Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics  Volume  6  Number  1  Florence Ezewanyi Ogwutum   Augustine Amadikwa Uwakwe   Mathew Owhonda Wegwu   and Justice Obinna Osuoha   Anti-sickling activity of Elaeis guineensis jacq flowers was investigated to determine the capability of the plant to inhibit the polymerization of sickle cell hemoglobin, maintain membrane osmotic fragility and recover the Fe2+/Fe3+ ratio. Spectrophotometric technique was employed to determine the rate of sodium metabisulphite provoked HbSS erythrocytes polymerization. The profile for HbSS erythrocytes polymerization of test and control specimens demonstrated growing level of polymerization at three investigational concentrations (20mg/ml, 40mg/ml and 60mg/ml) while (80mg/ml, 100mg/ml, 120mg/ml) concentrations of the extracts showed pronounced anti-sickling activity through inhibition of HbSS gelation. The estimation of mean corpuscular fragility (MCF), which is the concentration of saline causing 50% hemolysis of the erythrocytes, revealed that the plant extract decreased the MCF values of the HbSS erythrocytes at all concentrations in comparison to the control. The Fe2+/Fe3+ investigation revealed an increase in the test groups when compared to the control. The aqueous extracts of Elaeis guineensis jacq flowers demonstrated towering potency in altering the polymerization of sickle cell hemoglobin at increased concentration, enhancement in Fe2+/Fe3+ ratio and maintaining erythrocyte membrane integrity.
      PubDate: Jan 2018
  • Fabrication and Characterization of Layered Graphene Oxide Biocompatible
           Nano-Film by Various Methods

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2018
      Source:International Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics  Volume  6  Number  1  Himanshu Kharkwal   H.C. Joshi   and K.P. Singh   The present study includes preparation, fabrication and characterization of GO, GO coated PCTE and Egg membrane respectively. Characterization of GO was done by UV-Visible spectrophotometery, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Different membranes i.e. PCTE (Polycarbonate track etch membrane) and egg membrane are used for the coating of graphene oxide. The egg membrane was isolated from the egg shell by dipping the egg in 8% HCl solution. These membrane i.e. PCTE and egg membrane were then fabricated with graphene oxide by drop casting method and vacuum filtration. The coated membrane was then characterized by different imaging technique such as FE-SEM, Inverted microscopy, FT-IR, and EDX. Based on the characterization best suited method for coating was determined and we found vacuum filtration method as the best method for coating. The simple (non-coated) and GO coated membrane of Egg and PCTE were then used for checking the potential gradient across the membrane by using digital multimeter and from this we came to conclusion that the potential gradient across the GO coated PCTE membrane is highest and lowest potential is of GO coated Egg membrane. Above all we found that GO coated egg membrane is highly beneficial and cost effective as compared to artificial membranes.
      PubDate: Jan 2018
  • Organic Pesticides Concentration in Water, Sediments and Fish Tissues
           obtained from Ogbakiri River in the Niger-Delta Region, Nigeria and Its
           Health Implication on Human Consumption

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2017
      Source:International Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics  Volume  5  Number  4  Chinedu J. Okonkwo   Idongesit E. Archibong   Chioma J. Okereke   Justice O. Osuoha   and Uche C. Njoku   Organic pesticides concentrations in tissues of Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus (catfish) and Liza falcipinis (mullet) sampled from Ogbakiri River, Niger Delta, Nigeria were investigated to find out the extent of pesticide contamination in the river and its possible health implication on human consumption assessed. Pesticides were analyzed using gas chromatography coupled with electron capture detector (GC-ECD). The concentration of pesticides ranged from 0.0010±0.0001 to 0.0095±0.0002 µg/l and 0.0007±0.0001 to 0.0110±0.0002µg/g in water and sediments, respectively. Similarly, pesticides concentration in fish tissues ranged from 0.0002±0.0001 to 0.0185±0.0002µg/g and 0.0003±0.0001 to 0.0098±0.0002µg/g in liver and muscle respectively. Moreso, to assess health risk concerns, the measure concentrations of pesticide residues were compared with regulatory benchmarks. Risk hazard estimates of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes, Chlordanes, hexachlorobenzene in the studied fishes showed no potential adverse effect to human consumption at the observed concentrations. The cancer risk was also evaluated according to the guideline as stipulated by USEPA and was within acceptable risk range of 10-4. Thus exposed populations are not at cancer risk through consumption of fish from this river.
      PubDate: Nov 2017
  • Simulating the Ideal Body Weight in Human Populations

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2017
      Source:International Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics  Volume  5  Number  4  Md. Abdul Hakim   Estimation of ideal body weight in human samples in a fine located geographic level is vital for effective health promotion programmes, provision of better health services and population-specific health planning and management. Lack of nutritional knowledge and information gap on various health and nutritional tools negatively impacts the ability of local and national agencies to manage serious health issues and related risks in the community. A solution to this challenge would be to develop a method that simulates reliable statistics on assessing the ideal body weight of human populations. This paper provides a significant appraisal of the biophysical methodologies for estimating ideal body weight to mitigate health-related problems of populations at geographical limited areas. There is no procedure in this multidisciplinary area in estimating ideal body weights of human samples in health physics and biostatistics. The dietician is often at bay in the route ahead of perfect dieting to hold up nutritional soundness of the sample at a population in a community. The aim of this current study is making a dot over these ongoing perils simulating a biophysical modeling to be used in prescribing a confounding free diet. The study findings are the equations (7), (8) and (9) in different health plight regarding to age groups in human population can be an outstanding mathematical modeling as a dieting tool in nutritional physics applicable to the study on health and nutritional research and in the branch of biostatistics. Also it can be a uniquely functional biophysical modeling in the branch of health pedagogy in nutritional epidemiology.
      PubDate: Nov 2017
  • Evaluation of Doses-response and Combined Preventive Effects of Zinc and
           Vitamin D on Liver Toxicity Induced by Carbon Tetrachloride in Wistar Rats

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jun 2017
      Source:International Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics  Volume  5  Number  2  Serge D. Kone   Francis A. Yapo   Goue Gnahoue   and Felix H. Yapi   Severe hepatic insufficiency caused by a toxic is a strong danger to the individual survival. Zinc and vitamin D are micronutrients involved in the prevention of several diseases. Our study was to evaluate the potential preventive effects of these micronutrients in hepatic toxicity induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in rats. One hundred and fourteen (114) male rats were divided into 19 lots of 6 male rats each according to their body weight. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) was used to induce hepatic toxicity in rats. The rats were treated respectively with 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg of zinc and 6, 12 and 24μg/kg of Vitamin D and also with the combination of zinc and Vitamin D at the same concentrations. There was a significant increase in serum of ALT, AST without changing Total Protein level in the serum of rats treated with CCl4 compared to rats in the control lots. However, Zinc and Vitamin D supplementation caused a significant decrease in serum of ALT and AST activity without changing Total Protein concentration in the serum of rats. This study revealed that that zinc combined with Vitamin D could be a good protection against hepatic toxicity induced by chemicals.
      PubDate: Jun 2017
  • Study of Microalbuminuria and hs-CRP in Non-obese and Obese Normotensive
           and Hypertensive Males and Evaluation of Microalbuminuria and hs-CRP
           Changes according to the Stages of Hypertension & Grades of Hypertensive
           Retinal Changes

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jun 2017
      Source:International Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics  Volume  5  Number  2  A.G. Thivyah Prabha   Aims & Objectives: To measure Microalbuminuria and hs-CRP in obese and non-obese male hypertensive patients and control groups and to correlate their levels with various stages of hypertension and different grades of hypertensive retinal changes. Men have higher prevalence of hypertension (29.4%) than women (26.5%)[1] Materials & Methods: The study was conducted among 60 normotensive individuals and 60 hypertensive individuals over a period of 6 months on OPD basis. All individuals were males in the age group of 40-60 years. Blood samples were collected and estimation of plasma glucose, urea, creatinine, lipid profile, hs- CRP and Urinary microalbumin were done. Results: The mean value of microalbuminuria and hs- CRP were higher among obese hypertensives than obese controls and were statistically significant. The changes in the mean value of microalbuminuria and hs-CRP within the different stages of hypertension were highly significant. Similarly the correlation of microalbuminuria and hs-CRP within the different grades of hypertensive retinal changes were highly significant. Conclusion: The serum level of hs-CRP and urinary microalbuminuria were elevated in hypertensive patients. The increase of both hs- CRP and microalbuminuria were significantly higher in obese hypertensives than non-obese hypertensives. Microalbuminuria & hs CRP levels correlate with various grades of hypertensive retinal changes.
      PubDate: Jun 2017
  • Xenon-Water Interaction in Bacterial Suspensions as Studied by NMR

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2017
      Source:International Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics  Volume  5  Number  1  Victor Rodin   Alexander Ponomarev   Maxim Gerasimov   and Leonid Gurevich   Xenon is a perspective gas for creation of oxygen free environment for different applications of biomaterials. To use xenon in suspensions and products properly it is necessary to know the molecular mechanisms of its interactions with water and cells. This work reports the study of bacterial suspensions of Escherichia coli in the presence of xenon using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The work studied how the spin-lattice relaxation times of water protons in suspension change under xenon conditions. Xenon is able to form clathrate hydrates with water molecules at a temperature above the melting point of ice. The work studied NMR relaxation times which reflect the rotation freedom of water molecules in suspension. Lower relaxation times indicate reduced rotational freedom of water. Single exponential behavior of spin-lattice relaxation of protons in the suspensions of microorganisms has been registered. A recovery of longitudinal magnetization in cell suspensions with xenon clathrates has been characterized by two peaks in T1-distribution. Fast relaxing T1-component was related to the intracellular water and depended on the amount of xenon clathrates. The obtained results elucidate how the NMR method can monitor the process of clathrate formation and how the xenon atoms and hydrates interact with cells.
      PubDate: Feb 2017
  • Study of the in vitro Antibacterial Activity of the Aqueous and
           Hydroethanolic Extracts from the Leaves of the Erythrococca anomala
           (Euphorbiaceae) on Six Bacterial Strains

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2017
      Source:International Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics  Volume  5  Number  1  Miezan Bilé Aka Patrice   Koffi Allali Eugene   BY Philemon   Okpekon Aboua Timothée   and Yapi Houphouët Felix   The problems of resistance of pathogenic bacteria to the common antibiotics in hospitals and the high costs of the treatments of pathologies caused by those resistant bacteria have brought about innovation in the search for alternative treatments: plants. The purpose of this study is to assess the antibacterial activities of the aqueous and hydroethanilic extracts from the leaves of the Erythrococca anomala on the in vitro growth of six multiresistant bacterial strains: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli Klebsiella pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, isolated from patients. The results of the studies showed that the aqueous extract, more active than the hydroethanolic extract, contains Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) which vary between 0.78 mg/mL and 12.5 whereas the minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) vary between 0.78 mg/mL and 25 mg/mL. Concerning the hydroethanolic extract, the MICs and the MBCs, vary between 3.125 mg/mL and 25 mg/mL each. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus are more susceptible because they need 0.78 mg/mL and 1.56 mg/mL respectively before they are completely inhibited by the aqueous extract. Compared with the Ciprofloxacin, a pure molecule, those extracts have clearly better antibacterial activity. That may justify why those leaves are used in traditional areas as anti-infective treatment. Erythrocacca anomala is a glimmer of hope for the treatment of infectious diseases in Côte d'Ivoire.
      PubDate: Feb 2017
  • Unexpected Aftereffects of Low Dose γ-irradiation on Quality of
           Individual Dry Pea Seeds

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2017
      Source:International Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics  Volume  5  Number  1  Tatiana V. Veselova   Vladimir A. Veselovsky   and Natalie V. Obroucheva   Time-dependent aftereffect induced by γ-radiation in dry pea seeds at non-lethal 0.19-10 Gy doses is considered. By using phosphorescence at room temperature (RTP), seed lot was fractionated to strong and weak seeds producing normal and abnormal seedlings, respectively, and to dead seeds. After 0.19 Gy γ-radiation, strong seeds transformed to weak seeds during two months, whereas seeds after 7-10 Gy became weak during 2-4 days that was accompanied by doubling glucose content and decreasing seed hydration. This indicated non-enzymatic hydrolysis of carbohydrates apparently caused by γ-induced activation of water molecules. At 7-10 Gy, an unexpected back transition of weak seeds to "improved" seeds occurred, producing normal seedlings. This "improvement" is due to glucose decrease to strong- seed level presumably via reaction between free glucose carbonyl and protein amino group. "Improvement" is transient; these seeds gradually die apparently due to end products of amino-carbonyl reaction (Amadori-Maillard products). Therefore, two effects of indirect non-target action of γ-radiation on dry seeds at low doses were suggested: non-enzymatic hydrolysis of carbohydrates and then amino-carbonyl reaction. They result at first in transition of strong to weak seeds and then of weak to "improved" seeds, response time being dependent on γ-radiation dose.
      PubDate: Feb 2017
  • Nutritional Effect of Boiled and Baked Soybean Dockounou on the Wistar
           Rats Health Conditions

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2017
      Source:International Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics  Volume  5  Number  1  Kouadio N. Joseph   Kra K. A. Sevérin   and Niamké L. Sébastien   This study was to assess the physiological impact of boiled and baked soybean Dockounou on Wistar rats wealthy after feed them with these diets. For this, 15 strains Wistar rats aged 50 ± 3 days and with average weight between 55 and 60 g were fed with different diets. Biochemical parameters of their serum and weight of organs (liver and kidney) were performed at the end of experiment. The glycemia content registered in serum was 0.74 ± 0.13g/L and 0.74 ± 0.11g/L for boiled and baked soybean Dockounou, respectively. That of cholesterol was 0.91 ±0.16g/L and 0.86 ±0.15g/L and HDL was 0.65 ± 0.069g/L and 0.62 ± 0.05g/L for the same diets respectively. Any pathological, dysfunction and physiological abnormalities were not identified as far as concern rat's serum and organs. Thereby, any significant difference at 5% level was registered between the control diet results and those of soybean Dockounou. Thus, the consumption of boiled and baked Dockounou is benefit for Wistar rats' health and also these feed can be advised as a good diet for their use in laboratory.
      PubDate: Feb 2017
  • Homology Modeling, Molecular Dynamics Simulation and Essential Dynamics on
           Anopheles gambiae D7r1

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug 2017
      Source:International Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics  Volume  5  Number  3  Chayanika Goswami   Manikandan Jayraman   Tamizhmathi Bakthavachalam   Guneswar Sethi   and Ramadas Krishna   The proteins produced by the saliva and salivary glands of blood sucking arthropods play a vital role in transmission of the infected parasite to host and interfere the parasitic life cycle. The structure prediction of D7r1 and its active site leads to inhibition of hemostasis and inflammation in the host. D7r1 is a member of D7-related (D7r) salivary gland proteins that interferes various aspects of host physiology. Considering the significance of a protein, three dimensional structure of D7r1 model was generated by homology modeling and validated by PROCHECK, ERRAT, Verify-3D, RAMPAGE and Q mean server. The predicted structure has 96.9% of residues in the most favored region of the Ramachandran plot. The sequence and structural alignment between D7r1 and template 2PQL reveals that similar active site residues such as Ile42, Arg43, Tyr45, His56, Met57, Val60, Phe131, and Met156 involved in binding pocket formation. Further, a molecular dynamics simulation study was performed to reveal the prolonged stability of D7r1 protein. The essential dynamics which include PCA and FEL analysis were used to evaluate the conformational stability of D7r1. This combined molecular dynamics simulation and essential dynamics were used to provide comprehensive information of D7r1 and its active site prediction gain insights into the development of novel lead molecules for disrupting host-seeking behavior of mosquitoes.
      PubDate: Aug 2017
  • Application of Nanopore of Solid Membrane for Recognition of fluorescent

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug 2017
      Source:International Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics  Volume  5  Number  3  H. C. Joshi   K. P. Singh   Abhishek Tomar   and Prashant Singh   The uses of biosensors for sensitive and specific detection of various analytes are of great importance, and its success is often dictated by the nature of the detection element (the specific ligand) and the choice of target analytes. The conventional agriculture caused considerable impacts on soils and waters. It is important to change certain agricultural managements to environmental cleaner techniques. The sustainable agriculture has pointed many approaches and techniques to reduce environmental impact. One of those strategies is the utilization of the soil microbiota to induce plant growth, control of plant diseases and biodegradation of xenobiotic compounds. Studies on the relationship between roots and microbiota are essential to achieve agricultural applications. These studies indicate that one of the most abundant microorganisms in the rhizosphere (area around the roots) is fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. They have been considered as an alternative to agrochemicals for controlling plant diseases and increasing plant development. In the present study gold coated polycarbonate membrane of pore size 100 nm was used. The coated membrane carries carboxylic, thiol and hydroxyl groups. Carboxylic groups are being activated by treating the coated nanoporous membrane with the NHS-EDC linker for the binding of antibodies against the pathogen (fluorescent Pseudomonas) to be detected. After the activation of the membrane, antibodies (which are generated against the fluorescent Pseudomonas) were immobilized over the membrane in the humid chamber. After leaving it for an hour, unbound antibodies were washed by Phosphate buffer Saline. The remaining sites on membrane were then blocked by the Bovine serum albumin. The membrane was then subjected for the detection of pathogen by the electrochemical immunosensor by observing the change in the impedance value. The characterization of such membrane was done by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and Thermo gravimetric Analyzer (TGA).
      PubDate: Aug 2017
  • Evaluation of Antioxidant Activities and Estimation of Zinc Content of
           Aqueous and Methanolic Extracts of Three Medicinal Plants: Cochlospermum
           Planchonii, Pericopsis Laxiflora and Harungana Madagascariensis

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2016
      Source:International Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics  Volume  4  Number  3  Koffi A. Jeanne   Bla K. Brice   Silué K. Dieudonné   Tuo Karim   and Yapi H. Félix   Malaria disease is a pathology which occurs as a result of the oxidative stress. Three plants of the Ivorian pharmacopoeia are particularly used in the traditional medicine for the treatment of malaria in Côte d'Ivoire. They are Cochlospermum planchonii (Placo), Pericopsis laxiflora (Laper) and Harungana madagascariensis (Madhar).The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant activity of the aqueous and methanolic extracts of three medicinal plants of Côte d'Ivoire. The quantitative measurement of total flavonoids gave the following results: Laper (560.80 mg QE/g ± 7.40), Madhar (352.50 mg QE/g ± 9.46) and Placo (314.20 mg QE/g ± 4.41). The total polyphenols were more concentrated in Laper (262.50 mg GAE/g ± 9.47) and Placo (203.20 mg GAE/g ± 2.21). Noticeable zinc content was found in Laper (13.56 ppm) and Placo (11.40 ppm) against 3.43 ppm in Madhar. The radical scavenging activity by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) and antiradical power measurement by ABTS (2,2' azino bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) assay have showed good activity for Laper (IC50 = 7.50 μg/mL) and placo (IC50 = 8.01 μg/mL). The standard antioxidant compound (quercetin) gave an IC50 = 4.00 μg/mL. This study suggested that the high content of total flavonoids, total phenols and minerals in these plants could partly justify the therapeutic use of at least two of the three plants.
      PubDate: Oct 2016
  • Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts of
           Stem Bark of Xylopia villosa Chipp (Annonaceae)

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2016
      Source:International Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics  Volume  4  Number  3  Kouame Yao Yves   Okpekon Aboua Timothée   Niamketchi Gilles Léonce   Gbassi Komenan Gildas   and Yapi Houphouët Félix   This study aims to evaluate antioxidant activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Xylopia villosa stem bark. The quantitative study of polyphenols showed that ethanolic extract (75.00 ± 3.82 g/L EqAG) contains more than the aqueous extract (55.83 ± 1.67 g/L EqAG). It is the same for the quantitative analysis of total flavonoids where ethanolic extract (135.00 ± 1.44 g/L EqQ) contains more than the aqueous extract (115.00 ± 6.61 g/L EqQ). The antioxidant activity in vitro showed that the extracts neutralize DPPH and ABTS + ° with enhanced activity of the ethanolic extract. The ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Xylopia villosa causing 50% inhibition (IC50) of the DPPH radical gave concentrations of 10.50 ± 0.24 and 24.50 ± 0.18 mcg / ml respectively for ethanol extract and aqueous extract. On the reduction of radical ABTS + °, aqueous extract caused a reduction of the radical cation ABTS + 7.82 ± 0.17 micromol TE / L while the ethanol extract reduced by 10.52 ± 0.27 micromol TE / L. Evaluation of antioxidant activity in vivo of xylopia villosa revealed that this is the ethanol extract (9.17 ± 0.48 mmol / L TBA-MDA) which offset the concentration of TBA-MDA adduct more than the aqueous extract (22.67 ± 0.33 mmol / L TBA-MDA). Concerning the total antioxidant activity, ethanolic extract reduced iron III to Iron II more than aqueous extract. After this study, it appears that the ethanolic extract has better antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo that the aqueous extract.
      PubDate: Oct 2016
  • Vibration Characteristics of Misfolded Proteins and Their Consquences

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jun 2016
      Source:International Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics  Volume  4  Number  1  B.G. Majumder   and Utpal Ch. De   The functioning of native protein has been discussed briefly. Disruption in native protein with misfolding in its structure due to infection or otherwise has also been discussed .The physical characteristics of prion- a variety of protein responsible for number of both degenerative and non-degenerative diseases have been detailed here from the view point of protein vibration due to external stimuli. Attempts have been taken to focus on the effects of charge groups on the surface of both folded and misfolded protein. Suggestion for application of magnetic materials which may be able to create potential barrier in controlling the chain process of infectious prions and other similar proteins have also been discussed basing on the frequencies of vibration of protein and also on the vibration energy thus evaluated.
      PubDate: Jun 2016
  • The Role of Intrinsic Noise in Origin of Quorum Sensing

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jun 2016
      Source:International Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics  Volume  4  Number  1  Sarangam Majumdar   Many biological phenomena about quorum sensing in bacteria are driven by experimentally and mathematically in the last few decades. Symbiosis, virulence etc. are the major area in which these theoretical models work well. But no specific origin was established so far which can explain quorum sensing itself. This weakly nonlocal fluid dynamical model of bacterial communication system introduces a pancake model which involves the intrinsic noise of the system to explain the origin of quorum sensing. The internal structure of quorum sensing analogues to Zeldovich model and origin of internal noise in this mechanism is responsible for quorum sensing.
      PubDate: Jun 2016
  • Some Biochemical Changes of Rat Hippocampal Slices under the Long-term
           Creatine Intraperitoneal Supplementation

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2016
      Source:International Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics  Volume  4  Number  4  Burjanadze George   Shengelia Mariam   Dachanidze Natalia   Koshoridze Marine   Menabde Ketevan   Tsagareli Sulkhan   and Koshoridze Nana   For the last few decades, aggression has been linked to various modifications in cellular metabolic pathways. It has also been shown that patients undergoing extended creatine (Cr) treatment display increased aggressiveness. However, molecular mechanisms underlying a correlation between the two phenomena have not been sufficiently identified. To gain a deeper understanding of the changes resulting from supplementation of Cr into non-aggressive animals, we compared some behavioral and biochemical characteristics of Cr-treated and originally non-aggressive individuals with those of naturally non-aggressive and naturally aggressive groups. In this paper we show that extended supplementation of creatine into non-aggressive animals modifies the number of exploratory characteristics and fear-related reactions. In addition, it also changes several biochemical properties in the hippocampus among rats, by significantly reducing the content of Ca2+ions. This could be the result of Cr's direct influence on the NMDA-receptor and its functional inhibition. In conclusion, behavioral and biochemical parameters of non-aggressive individuals display changes under extended supplementation of creatine, which could provide a significant insight into formation of aggression-related behaviors and processes.
      PubDate: Dec 2016
  • The Role of Microsomal Galactose-tissues Specific Lectins from Prostate in
           Gland Peroxidation

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2016
      Source:International Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics  Volume  4  Number  4  Nino Kvitsinadze   Elene Davitashvili   Maka Koshoridze   Ketevan Chubinidze   Nana Koshoridze   Mzia Goguadze   Omar Tsintsadze   Guram Karazanashvili   and Revaz Solomonia   Galactose-specific lectins are proteins with multifunctional properties, modulate cancerogenesis multistep process, and induce the remarkable generation of intracellular hydrogen peroxide. In this data we aim to investigate the effects of galactose-specific lectins isolated from the microsomal fraction of prostate post-operation tissues with different diagnosis in vitro model experiments (bovine liver tissue cells) on some aspects of peroxidation processes as one of the causes of tumor genesis. The beta-galactose-specific lectins were isolated from the microsomal fraction of prostate tissues with different diagnosis: benign prostate hyperplasia with low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (BPH/LGPIN), high grade intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN), atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (AAH) and adenocarcinoma (PC). The molecular weight (60kDa) of lectins found to be similar, but their biological effects are different. The lectin from BPH/LGPIN tissue microsomes did not change the amount of malondyaldehyde (MDA), while the lectin from HGPIN, AAH and PC tissue microsomes induced increasing production of MDA. The lectins from all sources increase the amount of H2O2 in time-dependent manner. These effects are mediated by galactose binding domain of the lectins as are completely abolished by the inclusion of galactose. We proposed that one of the reasons of the revealed changes in the biological properties of lectins induced by alteration in the lectin's carbohydrate moiety structure. There is evidence that the changes of biological properties of prostate galactose-specific lectins are functionally related to development of the metabolic changes during prostate pathogenesis. In view of endoplasmic reticulum in many ways involved in carcinogenesis, we proposed the possible way, the released galactose-specific lectins from damaged microsomes enhances further transformation of prostate tissue by induction of MDA production and generation of free H2O2.
      PubDate: Dec 2016
  • Media Optimization for Exopolysaccharide Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae
           KU215681 under Varying Cultural Conditions

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug 2016
      Source:International Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics  Volume  4  Number  2  T. Sivakumar   T. Shankar   V. Thangapandian   and S. Mahendran   The soil samples were collected from Western Ghats. It was processed as per microbiological procedure. The observations in terms of morphological, physiological, biochemical and genetical were made for identifications of selected exopolysaccharides producing bacteria. The selected isolate was confirmed as Klebsiella pneumoniae by 16S rRNA sequences. It was taken up for further studies to ascertain the various cultural conditions for exopolysaccharide production. The EPS (exopolysaccharides) producing ability was evaluated by nutritional defined media. The data obtained reveals that the pH, temperature, carbon, nitrogen, aminoacids surfactants, metal ions conditions had the most significant influences. Among the various nutritional sources of interactive effects the maximum EPS production was recorded at pH 7.00 (1.58 ± 0.0096), Temperature at 37℃ , Jaggery (1.37 ± 0.003), Tryptone (1.56 ± 0.012), Ferric chloride (1.98 ± 0.02), Glutamine (2.13 ± 0.067), Polyethylene glycol (0.79 ± 0.043).
      PubDate: Aug 2016
  • Hypolipidemic Effect of Hyphaene thebaica (Doum-palm) in Induced
           Hypercholestrolemic Wistar Albino Rats

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug 2016
      Source:International Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics  Volume  4  Number  2  Nema A. Elhaj   and Nabiela M. ElBagir   This study is designed to investigate the effect of feeding the whole bulb (mesocarp) of Hyphaene thebaica fruit, as 3% of the diet, on lipid profile in Diet-induced hypercholesterolemic Wistar albino rats. Various dietary rations were prepared by addition of H. thepaica, to assess their impact on the serum triglycerides, total cholesterol and its fractions the LDL-C, HDL-C and VLDL-C in normal and induced hypercholestrolemic rats. The rats were divided into four groups and fed for three-weeks as follows: Group 1 fed basal rat diet, group 2 fed the basal rat diet mixed with H. thebaica, group 3 fed high fat diet (the basal rat diet mixed with, calculated amount of, egg yolk to formulate a diet of 1% cholesterol) and group 4 fed the high fat diet mixed with H. thebaica. By the end of the experiment a significant (P=0.03) increase in serum triglycerides and the VLDL-C was observed in groups (3 and 4) compared to the control group. Also the level of LDL-C increased significantly (P=0.04) in group 3 but decreased numerically in group 4. Moreover, the lowest level of the total cholesterol was recorded in group 2 compared to the other groups. However, feeding H. thebaica when mixed with high fat in the diet, resulted in significantly (P=0.02) decreased HDL-C levels. In conclusion this study suggested that H. thebaica contains active ingredients that can manipulate blood lipids and can protect from an increase of the bad cholesterol in the blood, even if a high fat diet is consumed. The present experiment also showed that, the increase of serum triglycerides and VLDL-C levels due to feeding high fat diet in group 3, was augmented by adding H. thebaica to the diet in group 4, so the study of the fatty acid composition of these lipid fractions is recommended.
      PubDate: Aug 2016
  • Insight into the LGP2 Helicase Domain – An in Silico Approach

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2015
      Source:International Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics  Volume  3  Number  2  Subhomoi Borkotoky   Chetan Kumar Meena   Aswathy Soman   and Ayaluru Murali   LGP2, a member of retinoic acid inducible gene–I like receptors (RLR), encoded by the gene DHX58 in human induces antiviral response against many RNA viruses. The LGP2 shares a considerable similarity to the amino acid sequence of Hef Helicase Domain, the helicase domain of RIG-I-like protein helicase-associated endonuclease (Hef), which is involved in RNA binding. Earlier studies suggest that RLR contains a conserved C-terminal domain (CTD), which is responsible for the binding specificity to the viral RNAs and C-terminal domain of LGP2 also takes part in RNA binding. The present study is aimed to explore the interactions of LGP2 and RNA, thereby finding the crucial residues for the interaction, with the help of in-silico tools. The predicted crucial residues were validated by docking and molecular dynamics simulation studies as well as by fitting the model on a LGP2 density map. Our results in this study suggest that the residues in the helicase domain of LGP2 are crucial for RNA binding and it is positioned around the groove region of LGP2. Though earlier experimental studies identified the RNA binding residues, but our in silico binding studies with the full length LGP2 predicted some additional residues that can be valuable
      PubDate: May 2015
  • Importance of Screening Type-II Diabetics for Thyroid Dysfunction and

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2015
      Source:International Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics  Volume  3  Number  2  Peeyush Yadav   G. G. Kaushik   and Sonali Sharma   OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate association between thyroid dysfunction, lipid profile and glycated hemoglobin in type 2 diabetic patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study has been conducted on 100 diagnosed patients of Diabetes Mellitus Type – II and 100 healthy subjects of either sex of similar age group admitted or attending outpatient department of Jawahar Lal Nehru Hospital, Ajmer. Venous blood sample were withdrawn and assayed for thyroid function such as FT4, FT3, T3, T4, TSH and other biochemical investigation such as FPG, HbA1c and lipid profile. Statistical analysis was carried out using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 12.0 for windows). Independent t test was used to compare quantitative data in groups. RESULTS: There is a marked Dyslipidemia with characteristic increase in the levels of Total Cholesterol, TG, VLDL-C, and LDL-C whereas the level of HDL-C decreases in Diabetic patients. Out of 100 Diabetic patients 34 have Thyroid Dysfunction out of which 26 have Hypothyroidism and 8 have Hyperthyroidism. The increase in the value of Serum Total Cholesterol, Triglyceride, LDL-C, VLDL-C and decrease in HDL –C level was observed statistically Highly Significant (p
      PubDate: May 2015
  • Change in Concentration of Vitamin D2 in Oyster Mushrooms Exposed to 254nm
           and 365nm UV-light During Growth

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2015
      Source:International Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics  Volume  3  Number  1  Tindibale L. Edward   M. S. K. Kirui   Josiah O. Omolo   Richard G. Ngumbu   Peter M. Odhiambo   and Kamweru Paul K.    The sun emits ultraviolet radiation in form of ultraviolet-A (UV-A), ultraviolet-B (UV-B), and ultraviolet-C (UV-C) bands. Ultraviolet light has the potential to boost vitamin D2 production in mushrooms which human bodies cannot synthesize. The ergosterol in mushrooms, a component of fungal cell membranes which serves the same function as cholesterol in animal cells, can be converted into vitamin D2 by exposure to controlled ultraviolet light. However mushrooms are conventionally grown in the dark, necessitating artificial ultraviolet irradiation. This study investigated the effects of UV-A (365nm) and UV-C (254nm) light exposure time during mushrooms growth, on the concentration of vitamin D2 in oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus species) after harvest. Mushrooms samples exposure times were varied from 10-60 minutes per day at intervals of 10 minutes, and irradiation done for three days. UV spectroscopy was used to determine the amounts of Vitamin D2. It was found that the absorbance of vitamin D2 for UV-A light ranged from 0.18-0.49 for the 10-60 minutes of irradiation respectively, while for UV-C light the vitamin D2 content absorbance was 0.38-0.81 for the 10-60 minutes of irradiation respectively. There was a linear relationship between time of irradiation and absorbance vitamin D2 content up to 50 minutes for UV-A and 40 minutes for UV-C.
      PubDate: Feb 2015
  • Antitumor Drug Mitoxantrone Do Not Preclude Salt-driven B-Z Transition of
           Poly (dG- dC)

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2015
      Source:International Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics  Volume  3  Number  4  Armen T. Karapetyan   Margarita A. Torosyan   and Yurik S. Babayan   Despite of the existence in literature of large number of reports the binding modes of mitoxantrone (MTX) with DNA must be subject to refinement. Moreover there is no any report yet on interaction of MTX with Z-DNA. Here we present results of circular dichroism (CD) studies on MTX binding to salt driven left-handed conformation of poly(dG- dC). It was shown, that in contrast with classical intercalating ligands (ethidium bromide, acridine orange etc.) that bind with B-form DNA and obstacle B-Z transition at high concentrations of NaCl MTX interferes B-Z transition, but does not prevent the transitions process, thus suggest the semi intercalating (partial stacking) mode of MTX interaction with Z-form of DNA.
      PubDate: Dec 2015
  • Protein-crystal Interactions in Calcium Oxalate Kidney Stone Formation

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug 2015
      Source:International Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics  Volume  3  Number  3  Anuj Aggarwal   Richard Tessadri   and Bernd Grohe   We have studied the ability of urinary molecules in altering the precipitation of kidney stone-related calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals and correlated the resulting morphologies with those of idiopathic COM kidney stones. We found that weakly acidic but highly glycosylated polyelectrolytes (Tamm Horsfall protein (THP), fetuinA, hyaluronic acid) do not significantly affect crystallization, and that THP and fetuinA show the tendency to aggregate in the presence of nascent crystals. It is proposed that highly glycosylated polyelectrolytes encapsulate nascent urinary crystals, prevent their aggregation, and thus act supportive in crystal excretion. Strong effects on crystallization were observed in the presence of the highly acidic molecules osteopontin (OPN), citrate, and the non-urinary glycosaminoglycans heparin and dextran sulfate. OPN formed non-structured concretions comparable with those found in the core of stones, while citrate formed platelets closely resembling crystal shapes found in the mantle region. However, it is unclear how the columnar growth in the mantle takes place. It is assumed that changing polyelectrolyte compilations/concentrations affect stone forming processes (e.g. equilibria, enhanced self-assembly), perhaps resulting in these structures. We have indeed shown that peptides can induce the formation of such structures. Moreover, heparin and dextran sulfate inhibited COM formation; implicating that these molecules could assist OPN, citrate but also THP in preventing stone formation.
      PubDate: Aug 2015
  • Influence of Different Degradation Techniques on the Molecular Weight
           Distribution of κ -Carrageenan

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug 2015
      Source:International Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics  Volume  3  Number  3  Mohammad Taghi Taghizadeh   and Reza Abdollahi   Carrageenan as an abundant natural carbohydrate could be used as a representative material instead of synthetic polymers. In this work, the degradation of κ-Carrageenan by means of ultrasound irradiation at a frequency of 24 kHz and its combination with heterogeneous Titanium dioxide, followed by a photocatalytic process was investigated. The scission of carrageenan chains induced by a high intensity field of ultrasonic irradiation; result in various molecular weights of carrageenan. The low molecular weight species of carrageenan have biological and pharmaceutical uses that only should be obtained from the degradation method. The ultrasound power not only led to enhanced turbulence and liquid streaming, but also increased the active surface area. Therefore, TiO2 sonophotocatalysis was carried out faster than sonolysis and sonocatalysis processes. The influence of the basic operational parameters such as, ultrasound power and amount of TiO2 on the degradation rate of carrageenan was also studied. The results revealed that the extent of sonolytic degradation was increased with increasing of ultrasound power (in the range 30–80 W) and at higher catalyst concentration, the degradation rate in the solution soared. The degraded carrageenans were characterized by gel permeation chromatography (GPC).
      PubDate: Aug 2015
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