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Journal Cover Immunology and Infectious Diseases
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   ISSN (Print) 2333-2719 - ISSN (Online) 2333-3286
   Published by Horizon Research Publishing Homepage  [54 journals]
  • Evaluation of Anti-arthritic Activity of Hydroalcoholic Extract of
           Capparis decidua (Forssk.) Edgew. on Freund's Complete Adjuvant-induced
           Arthritis in Rats

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2018
      Source:Immunology and Infectious Diseases  Volume  6  Number  1  Prashant Kumar Dhakad   Pramod Kumar Sharma   and Sokindra Kumar   Capparis decidua has been traditionally used in the Ayurveda to treat rheumatoid arthritis and it is reported to have anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. Considering its anti-inflammatory activity the present research work has been designed to assess the anti-arthritic activity in Wistar rats. The anti-arthritic activity of hydroalcoholic extract of C. decidua root, stem and leaves was evaluated using Freund's complete adjuvants (FCA) induced arthritic models in Wistar rats. Oral administration of C. decidua extract at the dose of 100mg/kg, 200mg/kg, per se group (only 200mg/kg of C. decidua) was subjected to Wistar rats for 28 days. Standard drug Diclofenac sodium at the dose of 5mg/kg and FCA at 1mg/ml was used in the study. The normal control group was administered only distilled water at 1ml/kg without induction of arthritis. The arthritic investigation was carried out on basis of parameters including changes in body weight, paw volume, hematological studies like ESR count, RBC count, WBC count, Hemoglobin count, platelet count. At the end of study period, animals were sacrificed and histological parameters were evaluated. Phytochemical analysis of C. decidua extract was done to assess the various constituents present in C. decidua. The results of C. decidua extract administration significantly (P
      PubDate: Mar 2018
  • Study of Antibiotic Resistant Pattern of Escherichia coli Isolated from
           Urinary Tract Infections of Patients of Bangladesh

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2018
      Source:Immunology and Infectious Diseases  Volume  6  Number  1  Reazul Karim   and M. A. Hakim   Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are serious health affecting problems worldwide. Urinary tract infection (UTI) can be caused by a lot of bacteria. Among them, E. coli is one of the main causes of both nosocomial and community acquired Urinary tract infections in humans. Drug resistance of E. coli is becoming alarming with the passage of time worldwide in general and in third world countries in particular. The study was intended to collect and analyze the samples from the patients suffering from Urinary tract infection of two medical of southern region of Bangladesh to reveal the antibiotic resistance pattern of E. coli responsible for Urinary tract infection. 50 samples from each hospital were taken. 36 and 41 samples respectively were identified as E. coli. Antibiotic sensitivity testing was done on Mueller-Hinton agar by Kirby–Bauer disc diffusion method. All samples exhibited a different percentage of resistance where ciprofloxacin was showed evidence of higher resistance rate, which was 63.88% and 70.73% respectively. Higher resistance (63% & 75%) against Ampicillin was also found in patients of both medical. On the other hand, 16% resistance against ceftriaxone and 23.53% resistance against cefotaxime suggesting, they were comparatively more effective.
      PubDate: Mar 2018
  • Clinicopathological Investigation of Foot and Mouth Disease and Serotype
           Identification of the Viruses in Cattle of Bangladesh

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2017
      Source:Immunology and Infectious Diseases  Volume  5  Number  2  Mohammad Shahidul Islam   Mohammed Ahasan Habib   Mohammad Rafiqul Islam   Mohammad Showkat Mahmud   Provat Chandra Saha   Tahmina Ruba   Priya Mohan Das   and Mohammad Abu Hadi Khan   Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease of farm animals. This study was aimed to identify symptoms, characteristics pathology and viral serotypes involved in infected cattle of Bangladesh. Dominant signs observed were salivation, vesicular eruption, lameness and maggot infestations in 66%, 80%, 36% and 14% cattle respectively. Out of 202 infected cattle investigated, 35 were below six months of age. A total of 18 young calves and 8 adult cattle were died due to FMD. Seven young calves and two adult cattle were examined at necropsy, 'Tiger heart disease' was commonly seen both in the young and adult cattle. The 'currant jelly clot' was common in the atrium, ventricles, aorta and veins of the heart of adult cattle. Congested and consolidated lungs, atrophied spleen, and fibrosed udder were grossly seen in the infected and dead cattle. Microscopically, hyalinization of cardiac muscle in young calf and degeneration, necrosis and multifocal lymphocytic infiltration in heart muscle were suggestive for infectivity due to FMD viruses. There were bronchiolitis, pulmonary emphysema, interstitial pneumonia and thickening of interlobular septa of lungs. Cattle survived from the acute infection developed respiratory distress in 15% cattle. Out of 202 samples tested in reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), 187 samples found to generate positive amplicons. Single infectivity due to FMD viral Serotypes O, A and Asia 1 were seen in 115 (62%), 26 (14%) and 34 (18%) cases, respectively. Seven cattle were co-infected with FMD viral Serotypes O and Asia 1 and four with FMD viral Serotypes O and A. FMD viral serotype O was dominating in cattle all over the country and was related to death of infected young and adult cattle. Cardiac myonecrosis and respiratory failure were the dominant lesions may be related to death of infected animals.
      PubDate: Oct 2017
  • Adaptation of Three Different BLRI Strain (O, A, Asia 1) of Foot and Mouth
           Disease Virus Serotypes in Baby Hamster Kidney-21 Cell Line

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2017
      Source:Immunology and Infectious Diseases  Volume  5  Number  2  Mohammad Showkat Mahmud   Eusha Islam   Mohammed Abdus Samad   Md. Rezaul Karim   Amal Kumar Saha   and Md. Giasuddin   Baby Hamster Kidney-21(BHK-21) cells are the most commonly used cell for viral seed preparation and vaccine production. The aim of the present study was to adapt BLRI three different field isolates of foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotypes (O, A, Asia 1) into baby hamster kidney-21 cell line for FMD trivalent master seed preparation. For this, samples were collected from the tongue epithelium, saliva, milk and inter digital tissues of the suspected animals from different districts of Bangladesh during the year 2011-2014. All samples were subjected to RNA extraction and RT-PCR for detection and serotyping of FMDV. BHK-21 cell subculture was done from a previously cultured flask containing BHK-21 cells. Prepared inocula (positive for serotype O, A, Asia 1) were inoculated into BHK-21 cell culture and cytopathic effects (CPE) were observed in BHK-21 cell line characterized by rounding and flattening of the cells, multinucleated giant cells formation, breaking down of the intracellular bridges and finally cell death indicated the presence of FMDV. Adaptation of the virus into baby hamster kidney-21 cell line was confirmed by detection of viral infection in infected cells by RT-PCR with serotype specific primers. The cell adapted foot and mouth disease virus in the present study provides a scope to undertake further research on foot and mouth disease virus in Bangladesh towards development of trivalent FMD vaccine for use in the country.
      PubDate: Oct 2017
  • Emergence of Extensively Drug-resistant Shigella sonnei in Bangladesh

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2017
      Source:Immunology and Infectious Diseases  Volume  5  Number  1  Mahbubur Rahman   AKM Fahmidul Haque   Iztiba Mallik Deeba   Dilruba Ahmed   Tanha Zahidi   Afrina Hossain Rimu   Mahmuda Akter   Fatema Akter   and K A Talukder   The objective of the study was to investigate current species distribution and growing antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of Shigella isolates for proper treatment. Shigellae, isolated from faecal samples in International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease research, Bangladesh, Dhaka hospital in 2015, were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility by disc diffusion method to ampicillin, co-trimoxazole, ciprofloxacin, azithromycin, mecillinam, ceftriaxone/cefixime and meropenem. Extensively drug-resistant (XDR, resistant to 5 or 6 of 7 useful anti-Shigella drugs tested) Shigella isolates resistant to 6 drugs were analyzed for ESBL and AmpC phenotypes, plasmid profiles, R-plasmids transfer, blaSHV, blaTEM, blaCTX-M, blaOXA; and mphA, mphB, ermA, ermB, ermC, ereA, ereB, mefA and msrA genes by PCR; and clonality of S. sonnei by PFGE. Of 134 isolates cultured from 3722 (3.6%) diarrhoeal faecal samples, 46% were S. sonnei, 37% S. flexneri, 4% S. boydii, 5% S. dysenteriae and 7% non-typeable. Multidrug-resistant (MDR, resistant simultaneously to ≥3 drugs) S. sonnei were 95% compared to 66% (P
      PubDate: Mar 2017
  • Preliminary Studies on Processed Garri as a Source of Bacterial Hazards to

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2017
      Source:Immunology and Infectious Diseases  Volume  5  Number  3  Okafor Arthur C.   Aquaowo Uwakmfon A.   Ojiagu Kingsley D.   and Agu Kingsley C.   Microbial contamination is considered the most significant hazard associated with food. Data on pathogens present in foods are needed to provide valuable information on the exposure of consumers to certain food borne pathogens. Also, consumption habits among consumers may increase the risk of health hazards. This study aimed to assess some practices, signs and symptoms associated with consumption of soaked garri among university students, to also determine the presence and virulence characteristics of some bacteria in garri on sale in the market. A questionnaire was designed and distributed to a hundred university students to ascertain their perception on safety of garri and handling practices. Fifty samples of garri were randomly collected from the market and assessed for presence of bacteria. Isolates of selected genera were then screened for some virulence-associated properties. The results showed that majority of the students (91%) affirmed they do consume soaked garri at least once in a while, even though almost 70% think garri is nutritious. The students (54%) reported to have experienced at least a symptom of ill health after consuming garri soaked in water. The most commonly reported signs and symptoms were: stomach upset> malaise> fever> nausea> vomitting. There was a direct relationship between the number of students that suspect garri could be a source of illness (57.1%) and those that have actually experienced at least a symptom after consuming garri (54%). Results of bacteriological analysis of garri samples from the market indicated mean total aerobic plate count to be 5.42 log cfu/g. Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella were found in 60% of the samples collected. Most isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella and Pseudomonas were found to be positive for haemolysin and biofilm formation tests which indicate their pathogenic potential. The conclusion is that bacteria with pathogenic potential are common in processed garri being sold in the market and that university students in the habit of consuming soaked garri are probably at risk of health hazards associated with pathogens in garri. Therefore, new food safety regulations should be formulated to incorporate food safety management systems during processing of garri in order to reduce the prevalence of food borne pathogens.
      PubDate: Dec 2017
  • Factors Influencing the Development of Urothelial Lesions and Breast
           Tuberculosis among Pulmonary TB Patients Undergoing Directly Observed
           Therapy in Abeokuta and Ilishan Metropolises, Ogun State, Nigeria

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2016
      Source:Immunology and Infectious Diseases  Volume  4  Number  3  Jude Ogechukwu Okoye   Precious Enyinnaya Okorie   Nnodimele Onuigbo Atulomah   Folahan Sholeye   Ukpai Agwu Eze   Esther Chinenye Okoro   and Gideon Taiwo Faloye   This questionnaire-laboratory based cohort study evaluated some socio-demographic characteristics and urothelial integrity among pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients. A total of 49 confirmed TB positive patients (males= 17 and females =32) within the age range of 10-79 years were recruited from Abeokuta and Ilishan metropolises, and divided into 2 groups: patients on anti-TB drugs and those not on anti-TB drugs. Smears made using cell deposits from fresh clean catch urine samples were stained by the Papanicolaou and Giemsa techniques. In this study, high frequency of TB infection was associated with gender, ethnicity, residency, marital status, occupation, and income status. The prevalence of urothelial lesion and breast tuberculosis was 24.5% and 8.2%, respectively with high frequency among patients within the age range of 30 to 39 years. A significant difference between patients on anti-TB drugs and those not on anti-TB drugs was observed in relation to low grade urothelial lesions (p
      PubDate: Sep 2016
  • Ebola-2014 – A Case of Fictional Reality'

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2016
      Source:Immunology and Infectious Diseases  Volume  4  Number  1  Chetan Datta Poduri   As per UNAIDS database, India has the World's third largest population of people living with HIV infection. Nigeria is second in position in this list of people living with HIV. This observation is significant for the simple reason that Nigeria is also presently affected with the recent Ebola epidemic (Ebola-2014). The West African region, to which Nigeria belongs, suffers the Ebola-2014 from a different strain of Ebola virus as compared to a concurrent epidemic in Equatorial African nation of Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Presented in this article is an analysis of the documented literature on this multi-dimensional Ebola-2014 epidemic. The mystifying phenomenon of persistence of the epidemic in West Africa is explained through various aspects attributable to the geopolitics of the region, biology of the virus, funeral customs in the region, fiction, economics and conspiratorial theories.
      PubDate: Mar 2016
  • A Comparison Study of Biology of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV), Human
           Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Ebola Virus (EbV)

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2016
      Source:Immunology and Infectious Diseases  Volume  4  Number  1  Chetan Datta Poduri   In the past there were at least 23 epidemics with Ebola virus (EbV). Presently there are pandemics with Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The recent epidemic of EbV has taken an year to get contained. Infections with HCV and HIV are continuing to increase. At present, except for EbV, neither HCV nor HIV have a vaccine to prevent future infections. Here, a snapshot of the three viruses with regard to their characteristics and prevalence (both global and Indian) are generated with an emphasis to study the infection dynamics of these three RNA viruses in relation to each other. An emphasis is made towards the common or shared features of the three viruses.
      PubDate: Mar 2016
  • Estimating of Origin and Evolutionary History of Human Immunodeficiency
           Virus Type 2 in Cuba

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jun 2016
      Source:Immunology and Infectious Diseases  Volume  4  Number  2  Liuber Y Machado   Orlando Martínez   Héctor M Díaz   Enrique Noa   Madeline Blanco   Dayamí Martín   Dervel F Díaz   María L Sánchez   and Marta Dubed   Background: Infection with human HIV-2 is endemic in West Africa. The virus originated from West African sooty mangabeys during the first half of the 20th century and an epidemic initiation in Guinea Bissau that coincides with the independence war (1963-1974). The HIV-2 group A is categorized as epidemic group. The presence of HIV-2 group A in Cuba has been previously documented. However, the evolutionary history of HIV-2 group A in the Cuban epidemic is unknown. The aim of this work is to estimate the origin and evolutionary history of the HIV-2 group A in Cuba. Methods: We used a Bayesian coalescent method to analyze the env gene of Cuban HIV-2 group A. The rate of nucleotide substitution was determined and was used to date the phylogenies and reveal the evolutionary history of HIV-2 group A in Cuba. Results: Multiple introductions of HIV-2 group A, mainly from Guinea Bissau and Portugal were detected. The most recent common ancestor of Cuban HIV-2 groups A was dated back to about 1972 (95 % HPD: 1966-1978). The rate of nucleotide substitutions was 5.02 x 10-3 substitutions per site per years (95 % HDP: 4.51-5.52 x 10-3). Conclusions: The results of this study allowed for the first time to estimate the evolutionary history of HIV-2 in Cuba and establish the basis for phylogeographic and phylodynamics studies.
      PubDate: Jun 2016
  • Optical Coherence Tomography Retinal Nerve Fiber Analysis: A Measure of
           Axon Loss in Multiple Sclerosis

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jun 2016
      Source:Immunology and Infectious Diseases  Volume  4  Number  2  Aileen Antonio-Santos M.D.   Eric R. Eggenberger   Fiona Costello M.D.   and Laura Balcer M.D.   Objective to investigate whether optical coherence tomography (OCT) could demonstrate axonal loss through thinning of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Furthermore, the degree of RNFL loss was compared in the different MS subgroups (with or without optic neuritis, affected or fellow eye, single episode or recurrent optic neuritis, relapsing remitting or progressive MS). RNFL thinning was also determined in MS patients who had serial OCT without any intervening clinical optic neuritis. Design: Retrospective chart review. Setting: Academic tertiary care MS centers. Participants: 177 patients (334 eyes) with multiple sclerosis, with or without optic neuritis, and 159 healthy controls that underwent OCT RNFL measurements. Main Outcome: Retinal nerve fiber layer measurements by OCT. Results: Average RNFL measurements were thinner in MS patients (90 μm) compared to controls (105 μm), p
      PubDate: Jun 2016
  • Detection of Pathogenic Leptospiral DNA Traces in Canine Sera Serum
           Samples by Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP)

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2016
      Source:Immunology and Infectious Diseases  Volume  4  Number  4  Sylvia Grune Loffler   Carlos Leiva   Exequiel Scialfa   Leandro Redondo   Mónica Florin-Christensen   Mara Martínez   Graciela Romero   and Bibiana Brihuega   Leptospirosis is a worldwide distributed zoonosis, caused by pathogenic strains of spirochetes belonging to the genus Leptospira spp. So far, the only gold standard diagnostic method for this disease has been the Micro-Agglutination Test (MAT). The purpose of this study was to test whether a correlation exists between serological diagnosis by MAT and the presence of Leptospira spp. DNA traces in serum. Anti-Leptospira spp. antibody titers were determined in dog serum samples obtained at a canine shelter from Buenos Aires Province, Argentina (n= 80) by MAT using ten Leptospira spp. serovars. DNA extracted from these samples using Chelex-100 resin was used as template for Leptospira spp. specific PCR and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) tests. In the latter case, product detection by incubation with malachite green dye was set up, obtaining optimal results at a dye concentration of 0.02% (w(v)) and a pH of 6.1. PCR and LAMP showed the same sensitivity, detecting leptospiral DNA in 12 out of the 48 MAT- positive sera. No detection was attained by either method in MAT-negative samples. These results show that it is possible to use LAMP for the detection of leptospirosis in non-human mammals. It also shows that, in the case of serum samples, MAT has higher diagnostic sensitivity than the currently available PCR and LAMP tests.
      PubDate: Dec 2016
  • Epidemiological Study of Bovine Fasciolosis: Prevalence and Risk Factor
           Assessment at Shahjadpur Upazila of Bangladesh

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2015
      Source:Immunology and Infectious Diseases  Volume  3  Number  3  Md. Rezaul Karim   Mohammad Showkat Mahmud   and Md. Giasuddin   Fasciolosis is an economically important parasitic disease of cattle in Bangladesh. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of fasciolosis in cattle and identifying the potential risk factors associated with the disease. A cross-sectional survey was carried out from November 2012 to October 2013 on bovine fasciolosis in and around Shahjadpur upazila of Bangladesh. For this, a total of 762 fecal samples were collected from crossed breed cattle and all samples were subjected to standard sedimentation test at Animal Health Laboratory of BLRI regional station, Shahjadpur, Bangladesh. The overall prevalence of bovine fasciolosis was found to be 66.14% from 504 positive samples. From the various risk factor analysed, age categories of cattle, sex and seasonal influence were found to be significantly associated (p
      PubDate: Sep 2015
  • Bio-molecular Diagnosis of Avian Influenza Virus from Different Species of
           Birds in Bangladesh

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2015
      Source:Immunology and Infectious Diseases  Volume  3  Number  1  Mohammed Hafizur Rahman   Mohammed Giasuddin   Mohammed Rafiqul Islam   Mahmudul Hasan   Mohammad Showkat Mahmud   Mohammed Ahsanul Hoque    Paritosh Kumar Biswas   Emdadul Haque Chowdhury   Bidhan Chandra Das   Mohammed Ziaur Rahman   Nitish Chandra Debnath   Garba Ahmed   and Mat Yamage   Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) causes enormous losses to the poultry industry of Bangladesh every year since the detection of first outbreak in 2007. In this study biomolecular diagnosis of avian influenza virus in Bangladesh from different species of birds was carried. A total of 1135 samples including 280 from migratory birds, 680 from live bird market (LBM) chickens, 118 from ducks and 57 from pigeons were collected from different locations of Bangladesh during the period from July 2013 to June 2014. Out of 1135 samples, 69 were found positive for influenza A by real time RT-PCR. In addition, 741 Influenza A positive samples collected by different institutes from different species of birds under the FAO-led surveillance program were also received at Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute (BLRI) for further analysis. The real time RT-PCR positive samples were inoculated in 10-day-old embryonated chicken eggs. Out of 810 (741+ 69) influenza A positive samples, 110 were selected on the basis of species and region to cover the whole country and were sent to the OIE reference laboratory for detailed study. The bio-molecular results revealed that in case of migratory bird samples one was H5 (HPAI), two were H9 and eight were of undetermined subtype. Among the LBM chicken samples, seven were H5 (HPAI), 51 were H9, six were mixed infection with H5 & H9 and three were of undermined subtype. In case of duck samples, one was H2, six were H4, six were H5 (HPAI), one with mixed infection with H5 & H2, one with both H5 & H4, two were H9 and one was H7N5, though H7 was genetically distinct from that of the novel H7N9 virus of China. Among quail samples, one was H5 (HPAI) and one was H9. In case of pigeon samples, all three contained H9. From this study it was revealed that HPAI (H5N1) is still circulating in our poultry population. The novel avian influenza virus H7N9 was not found during this study.
      PubDate: Jan 2015
  • Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Patients with Diarrhea
           at Wonago Health Center, Southern Ethiopia: A Retrospective Study

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2015
      Source:Immunology and Infectious Diseases  Volume  3  Number  1  Girum Tefera   Background: Intestinal parasitic infections are among the most common infections worldwide. High prevalence is found in people with low socio-economic status, poor living condition, overcrowded areas, poor environmental sanitation, improper garbage disposal, unsafe water supply and unhygienic personal habits. Thus, the objective of this retrospective study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis among patients with diarrhea who visited Wonago health center Southern Ethiopia. Methodology: Institution based retrospective study design was employed. Stool examination records of all patients with diarrhea who visited Wonago health center from September 2010 to September 2012 were included. A total of 10694 stool examination results of those diarrheic patients were analyzed for this study. Samples were examined using direct saline wet mount technique. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS version 16 and results were shown in percent and prevalence rates. Results: The overall prevalence of intestinal parasite for at least one parasite in this retrospective study was 1776/10694(16.6%). Furthermore, 5.7% of those positive patients were infected by two species of parasites and 4.6%of patients had triple infections. The most prevalent parasites were E. histolytica/dispar 956/1776(53.8%) followed by G. lamblia 420/1776(23.7%) and Taenia species 140/1776(7.9%) respectively. Conclusion: Intestinal parasitosis is highly prevalent in varying magnitude among diarrheic patients who visited Wonago health Center, Southern Ethiopia. E. histolytica/dispar was the most prevalent parasite infecting patients followed by, G. lamblia, Taenia species and H. nana. Because of absence of molecular diagnosis for E. histolytica, over diagnosis might be possible for the high prevalence of amoebiasis.
      PubDate: Jan 2015
  • Addressing the Unmet Need for ART among HIV+ Women and Newborns in
           Cameroon through Strengthening the Supply Chain of PMTCT Commodities

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2015
      Source:Immunology and Infectious Diseases  Volume  3  Number  4  Nfor E.   K. Kakanda   G. Buki   A. Kane   and J. Dongang   Background: The Government of Cameroon and its partners have made major investments in the last decade in prevention, treatment, and care of HIV-infected patients. However, unmet need for antiretroviral therapy (ART) among HIV-positive pregnant women remains high at 66%. Critical to satisfying this need is ensuring adequate availability of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) commodities for rollout of new Option B+ guidelines. The Cameroon supply system consists of a cost recovery system for essential medicines and other health commodities and a free-of-charge system for priority commodities including those for PMTCT and ART. This study examines options for improving the supply and availability of these commodities. Method: Supply chain (SC) operational data was collected in July 2014 from central (CENAME) and 4 regional warehouses (CAPRs); 10 district stores; and 30 service delivery points (SDPs), including ART and PMTCT sites. The study also included seven central private-sector logistics firms. In addition, SC cost data was obtained from CENAME and CAPRs financial statements audited in 2013. Data collected served for analysis of three options to improve effectiveness of delivering PMTCT commodities, based on the four variables detailed in Figure 2.4.1. Results: Asset utilization within the cost recovery system ranged between 73% and 89% while inventory turnover was at 1.5. Therefore, a reliable supply of medicines to SDPs is ensured. However, for PMTCT and ART commodities, distribution to the SDPs was unreliable (in 2013, 40% of prescriptions remained unfilled). Meanwhile, results of the options analysis indicated that the model of CAPRs delivering PMTCT commodities to SDPs was the most desirable. Although the distance traveled was higher, the need for network storage space was minimal. Moreover, its total cost and human resource requirements were more favorable. Conclusion: As a result of disseminating the findings, the Ministry of Health adopted Option 2. PMTCT free-of-charge commodities are also amenable to being managed within the existing effective cost recovery system.
      PubDate: Dec 2015
  • Comparison of Two Phenotypic Double Disc Diffusion Test (DDDT) for
           Detection of Extended Spectrum β-Lactamase Production by
           Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas Species at a Tertiary Care Hospital in

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2015
      Source:Immunology and Infectious Diseases  Volume  3  Number  2  Taslima Yesmin   Mohammed Abdun Nur Sayam   Md. Manjurul Quader   Abul Hossain Khan   and Md. Abdullah Yusuf   Background: The detection of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing (ESBL) bacteria is of importance for infection control and epidemiological surveillance. Objective: The purpose of the present study was to compare two phenotypic methods for the detection of ESBL-positive Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas species. Methodology: This cross sectional study was carried out in the Department of Microbiology at Mymensingh Medical College, Bangladesh from January 2011 to June 2011. Patients of all ages and genders presented with UTI or wound infection were taken as study population. Gram negative bacilli (GNB) were analyzed by two methods used for routine susceptibility testing which were Disk diffusion methods and MIC reduction methods. Two methods designed for the detection of ESBL production Ceftazidime and Ceftazidime plus Clavulinic acid, (CAZ/CAZC) and Cefotaxime and Cefotaxime plus Clavulinic Acid (CTX/CTXC) were used and the PCR was considered as gold standard for evaluation of the other test methods. Result: A total number of 300 GNB were isolated and identified of which 214(71%) were ESBL positive. For the disk diffusion method, resistant to third generation Cephalosporins were the highest 87.0%, when tested by ceftazidime and by MIC reduction methods were 67%. For the phenotypic confirmatory methods, specificities were 64% by (CAZ/CAZC), 59% by (CTX/CTXC) and by both method 52%. Among the phenotypic confirmatory ESBL positive strains by Genotypic method ESBL positive were 50.46% TEM, 18.69 % SHV and 46.72% CTX-M gene. Conclusion: Two-step strategies using both DDDT phenotypic methods are useful diagnostic tools for the detection of ESBL from the Gram negative bacilli.
      PubDate: Apr 2015
  • A Case of Spontaneous Streptococcus Salivarius Meningitis

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2015
      Source:Immunology and Infectious Diseases  Volume  3  Number  2  Ayman Rihawi   Glen Huang   and Royce Miller   This article discusses Streptococcus salivarius meningitis in a 39-year old woman. She was admitted to the hospital for general fatigue, headache, and fever. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed leukocytosis and cultures were positive for Streptococcus salivarius. Streptococcus salivarius meningitis is rare and has been documented to be associated with procedures involving the spinal column such as epidural anesthesia. In this patient the meningitis caused by Streptococcus salivarius was thought to be spontaneous.
      PubDate: Apr 2015
  • Potentiality of Selected Commercial Antibiotics Challenged with Aeromonas

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2015
      Source:Immunology and Infectious Diseases  Volume  3  Number  2  Sharif Neowajh   Md. Mer Mosharraf Hossain   Ibrahim Kholil   Sumana Nasrin Mona   Sherajul Islam   and Mitheela Kabi   This study was intended to address, the effect of oxytetracycline, erythromycin, and streptomycin on the antimicrobial resistance of Aeromonas sp. isolated during the production process, from infected common carp (Cyprinous carpio). Antimicrobial resistance patterns were defined by determination of minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of three antimicrobial drugs, and bacteria. Results indicated that In vitro bactericidal activity, oxytetracycline showed lowest number of bacterial colonies (1×10-4 c.f.u./ml) than erythromycin (3×10-4) and streptomycin (4.5×10-4) compared to the control (9×10-4). Oxytetracycline showed the highest maximum zone of inhibition (20 mm) than erythromycin (18 mm) and streptomycin (15 mm) in antibiotic susceptibility test. In infection inhibition assay, serum from oxytetracycline fed diets inhibited Aeromonas infection to common carp. The susceptibility of the fish fed antibiotics (50 µg/mg feed) and challenge with Aeromonas sp. (1×10-4) was examined for 30 days. There was high relative percent of survivility (RPS) in oxytetracycline was 73%. Very low RPS 63% and 47.37% was found in erythromycin and streptomycin against Aeromonas sp. infection. These results demonstrated that the oxytetracycline might be a potential for Aeromonas sp. infection to common carp (Cyprinous carpio).
      PubDate: Apr 2015
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