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Publisher: Horizon Research Publishing   (Total: 54 journals)   [Sort by number of followers]

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Journal Cover Immunology and Infectious Diseases
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   ISSN (Print) 2333-2719 - ISSN (Online) 2333-3286
   Published by Horizon Research Publishing Homepage  [54 journals]
  • Clinicopathological Investigation of Foot and Mouth Disease and Serotype
           Identification of the Viruses in Cattle of Bangladesh

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2017
      Source:Immunology and Infectious Diseases  Volume  5  Number  2  Mohammad Shahidul Islam   Mohammed Ahasan Habib   Mohammad Rafiqul Islam   Mohammad Showkat Mahmud   Provat Chandra Saha   Tahmina Ruba   Priya Mohan Das   and Mohammad Abu Hadi Khan   Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease of farm animals. This study was aimed to identify symptoms, characteristics pathology and viral serotypes involved in infected cattle of Bangladesh. Dominant signs observed were salivation, vesicular eruption, lameness and maggot infestations in 66%, 80%, 36% and 14% cattle respectively. Out of 202 infected cattle investigated, 35 were below six months of age. A total of 18 young calves and 8 adult cattle were died due to FMD. Seven young calves and two adult cattle were examined at necropsy, 'Tiger heart disease' was commonly seen both in the young and adult cattle. The 'currant jelly clot' was common in the atrium, ventricles, aorta and veins of the heart of adult cattle. Congested and consolidated lungs, atrophied spleen, and fibrosed udder were grossly seen in the infected and dead cattle. Microscopically, hyalinization of cardiac muscle in young calf and degeneration, necrosis and multifocal lymphocytic infiltration in heart muscle were suggestive for infectivity due to FMD viruses. There were bronchiolitis, pulmonary emphysema, interstitial pneumonia and thickening of interlobular septa of lungs. Cattle survived from the acute infection developed respiratory distress in 15% cattle. Out of 202 samples tested in reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), 187 samples found to generate positive amplicons. Single infectivity due to FMD viral Serotypes O, A and Asia 1 were seen in 115 (62%), 26 (14%) and 34 (18%) cases, respectively. Seven cattle were co-infected with FMD viral Serotypes O and Asia 1 and four with FMD viral Serotypes O and A. FMD viral serotype O was dominating in cattle all over the country and was related to death of infected young and adult cattle. Cardiac myonecrosis and respiratory failure were the dominant lesions may be related to death of infected animals.
      PubDate: Oct 2017
       
  • Adaptation of Three Different BLRI Strain (O, A, Asia 1) of Foot and Mouth
           Disease Virus Serotypes in Baby Hamster Kidney-21 Cell Line

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2017
      Source:Immunology and Infectious Diseases  Volume  5  Number  2  Mohammad Showkat Mahmud   Eusha Islam   Mohammed Abdus Samad   Md. Rezaul Karim   Amal Kumar Saha   and Md. Giasuddin   Baby Hamster Kidney-21(BHK-21) cells are the most commonly used cell for viral seed preparation and vaccine production. The aim of the present study was to adapt BLRI three different field isolates of foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotypes (O, A, Asia 1) into baby hamster kidney-21 cell line for FMD trivalent master seed preparation. For this, samples were collected from the tongue epithelium, saliva, milk and inter digital tissues of the suspected animals from different districts of Bangladesh during the year 2011-2014. All samples were subjected to RNA extraction and RT-PCR for detection and serotyping of FMDV. BHK-21 cell subculture was done from a previously cultured flask containing BHK-21 cells. Prepared inocula (positive for serotype O, A, Asia 1) were inoculated into BHK-21 cell culture and cytopathic effects (CPE) were observed in BHK-21 cell line characterized by rounding and flattening of the cells, multinucleated giant cells formation, breaking down of the intracellular bridges and finally cell death indicated the presence of FMDV. Adaptation of the virus into baby hamster kidney-21 cell line was confirmed by detection of viral infection in infected cells by RT-PCR with serotype specific primers. The cell adapted foot and mouth disease virus in the present study provides a scope to undertake further research on foot and mouth disease virus in Bangladesh towards development of trivalent FMD vaccine for use in the country.
      PubDate: Oct 2017
       
  • Emergence of Extensively Drug-resistant Shigella sonnei in Bangladesh

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2017
      Source:Immunology and Infectious Diseases  Volume  5  Number  1  Mahbubur Rahman   AKM Fahmidul Haque   Iztiba Mallik Deeba   Dilruba Ahmed   Tanha Zahidi   Afrina Hossain Rimu   Mahmuda Akter   Fatema Akter   and K A Talukder   The objective of the study was to investigate current species distribution and growing antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of Shigella isolates for proper treatment. Shigellae, isolated from faecal samples in International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease research, Bangladesh, Dhaka hospital in 2015, were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility by disc diffusion method to ampicillin, co-trimoxazole, ciprofloxacin, azithromycin, mecillinam, ceftriaxone/cefixime and meropenem. Extensively drug-resistant (XDR, resistant to 5 or 6 of 7 useful anti-Shigella drugs tested) Shigella isolates resistant to 6 drugs were analyzed for ESBL and AmpC phenotypes, plasmid profiles, R-plasmids transfer, blaSHV, blaTEM, blaCTX-M, blaOXA; and mphA, mphB, ermA, ermB, ermC, ereA, ereB, mefA and msrA genes by PCR; and clonality of S. sonnei by PFGE. Of 134 isolates cultured from 3722 (3.6%) diarrhoeal faecal samples, 46% were S. sonnei, 37% S. flexneri, 4% S. boydii, 5% S. dysenteriae and 7% non-typeable. Multidrug-resistant (MDR, resistant simultaneously to ≥3 drugs) S. sonnei were 95% compared to 66% (P
      PubDate: Mar 2017
       
  • Preliminary Studies on Processed Garri as a Source of Bacterial Hazards to
           Students

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2017
      Source:Immunology and Infectious Diseases  Volume  5  Number  3  Okafor Arthur C.   Aquaowo Uwakmfon A.   Ojiagu Kingsley D.   and Agu Kingsley C.   Microbial contamination is considered the most significant hazard associated with food. Data on pathogens present in foods are needed to provide valuable information on the exposure of consumers to certain food borne pathogens. Also, consumption habits among consumers may increase the risk of health hazards. This study aimed to assess some practices, signs and symptoms associated with consumption of soaked garri among university students, to also determine the presence and virulence characteristics of some bacteria in garri on sale in the market. A questionnaire was designed and distributed to a hundred university students to ascertain their perception on safety of garri and handling practices. Fifty samples of garri were randomly collected from the market and assessed for presence of bacteria. Isolates of selected genera were then screened for some virulence-associated properties. The results showed that majority of the students (91%) affirmed they do consume soaked garri at least once in a while, even though almost 70% think garri is nutritious. The students (54%) reported to have experienced at least a symptom of ill health after consuming garri soaked in water. The most commonly reported signs and symptoms were: stomach upset> malaise> fever> nausea> vomitting. There was a direct relationship between the number of students that suspect garri could be a source of illness (57.1%) and those that have actually experienced at least a symptom after consuming garri (54%). Results of bacteriological analysis of garri samples from the market indicated mean total aerobic plate count to be 5.42 log cfu/g. Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella were found in 60% of the samples collected. Most isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella and Pseudomonas were found to be positive for haemolysin and biofilm formation tests which indicate their pathogenic potential. The conclusion is that bacteria with pathogenic potential are common in processed garri being sold in the market and that university students in the habit of consuming soaked garri are probably at risk of health hazards associated with pathogens in garri. Therefore, new food safety regulations should be formulated to incorporate food safety management systems during processing of garri in order to reduce the prevalence of food borne pathogens.
      PubDate: Dec 2017
       
  • Factors Influencing the Development of Urothelial Lesions and Breast
           Tuberculosis among Pulmonary TB Patients Undergoing Directly Observed
           Therapy in Abeokuta and Ilishan Metropolises, Ogun State, Nigeria

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2016
      Source:Immunology and Infectious Diseases  Volume  4  Number  3  Jude Ogechukwu Okoye   Precious Enyinnaya Okorie   Nnodimele Onuigbo Atulomah   Folahan Sholeye   Ukpai Agwu Eze   Esther Chinenye Okoro   and Gideon Taiwo Faloye   This questionnaire-laboratory based cohort study evaluated some socio-demographic characteristics and urothelial integrity among pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients. A total of 49 confirmed TB positive patients (males= 17 and females =32) within the age range of 10-79 years were recruited from Abeokuta and Ilishan metropolises, and divided into 2 groups: patients on anti-TB drugs and those not on anti-TB drugs. Smears made using cell deposits from fresh clean catch urine samples were stained by the Papanicolaou and Giemsa techniques. In this study, high frequency of TB infection was associated with gender, ethnicity, residency, marital status, occupation, and income status. The prevalence of urothelial lesion and breast tuberculosis was 24.5% and 8.2%, respectively with high frequency among patients within the age range of 30 to 39 years. A significant difference between patients on anti-TB drugs and those not on anti-TB drugs was observed in relation to low grade urothelial lesions (p
      PubDate: Sep 2016
       
  • Ebola-2014 – A Case of Fictional Reality'

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2016
      Source:Immunology and Infectious Diseases  Volume  4  Number  1  Chetan Datta Poduri   As per UNAIDS database, India has the World's third largest population of people living with HIV infection. Nigeria is second in position in this list of people living with HIV. This observation is significant for the simple reason that Nigeria is also presently affected with the recent Ebola epidemic (Ebola-2014). The West African region, to which Nigeria belongs, suffers the Ebola-2014 from a different strain of Ebola virus as compared to a concurrent epidemic in Equatorial African nation of Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Presented in this article is an analysis of the documented literature on this multi-dimensional Ebola-2014 epidemic. The mystifying phenomenon of persistence of the epidemic in West Africa is explained through various aspects attributable to the geopolitics of the region, biology of the virus, funeral customs in the region, fiction, economics and conspiratorial theories.
      PubDate: Mar 2016
       
  • A Comparison Study of Biology of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV), Human
           Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Ebola Virus (EbV)

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2016
      Source:Immunology and Infectious Diseases  Volume  4  Number  1  Chetan Datta Poduri   In the past there were at least 23 epidemics with Ebola virus (EbV). Presently there are pandemics with Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The recent epidemic of EbV has taken an year to get contained. Infections with HCV and HIV are continuing to increase. At present, except for EbV, neither HCV nor HIV have a vaccine to prevent future infections. Here, a snapshot of the three viruses with regard to their characteristics and prevalence (both global and Indian) are generated with an emphasis to study the infection dynamics of these three RNA viruses in relation to each other. An emphasis is made towards the common or shared features of the three viruses.
      PubDate: Mar 2016
       
  • Estimating of Origin and Evolutionary History of Human Immunodeficiency
           Virus Type 2 in Cuba

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jun 2016
      Source:Immunology and Infectious Diseases  Volume  4  Number  2  Liuber Y Machado   Orlando Martínez   Héctor M Díaz   Enrique Noa   Madeline Blanco   Dayamí Martín   Dervel F Díaz   María L Sánchez   and Marta Dubed   Background: Infection with human HIV-2 is endemic in West Africa. The virus originated from West African sooty mangabeys during the first half of the 20th century and an epidemic initiation in Guinea Bissau that coincides with the independence war (1963-1974). The HIV-2 group A is categorized as epidemic group. The presence of HIV-2 group A in Cuba has been previously documented. However, the evolutionary history of HIV-2 group A in the Cuban epidemic is unknown. The aim of this work is to estimate the origin and evolutionary history of the HIV-2 group A in Cuba. Methods: We used a Bayesian coalescent method to analyze the env gene of Cuban HIV-2 group A. The rate of nucleotide substitution was determined and was used to date the phylogenies and reveal the evolutionary history of HIV-2 group A in Cuba. Results: Multiple introductions of HIV-2 group A, mainly from Guinea Bissau and Portugal were detected. The most recent common ancestor of Cuban HIV-2 groups A was dated back to about 1972 (95 % HPD: 1966-1978). The rate of nucleotide substitutions was 5.02 x 10-3 substitutions per site per years (95 % HDP: 4.51-5.52 x 10-3). Conclusions: The results of this study allowed for the first time to estimate the evolutionary history of HIV-2 in Cuba and establish the basis for phylogeographic and phylodynamics studies.
      PubDate: Jun 2016
       
  • Optical Coherence Tomography Retinal Nerve Fiber Analysis: A Measure of
           Axon Loss in Multiple Sclerosis

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jun 2016
      Source:Immunology and Infectious Diseases  Volume  4  Number  2  Aileen Antonio-Santos M.D.   Eric R. Eggenberger   Fiona Costello M.D.   and Laura Balcer M.D.   Objective to investigate whether optical coherence tomography (OCT) could demonstrate axonal loss through thinning of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Furthermore, the degree of RNFL loss was compared in the different MS subgroups (with or without optic neuritis, affected or fellow eye, single episode or recurrent optic neuritis, relapsing remitting or progressive MS). RNFL thinning was also determined in MS patients who had serial OCT without any intervening clinical optic neuritis. Design: Retrospective chart review. Setting: Academic tertiary care MS centers. Participants: 177 patients (334 eyes) with multiple sclerosis, with or without optic neuritis, and 159 healthy controls that underwent OCT RNFL measurements. Main Outcome: Retinal nerve fiber layer measurements by OCT. Results: Average RNFL measurements were thinner in MS patients (90 μm) compared to controls (105 μm), p
      PubDate: Jun 2016
       
  • Detection of Pathogenic Leptospiral DNA Traces in Canine Sera Serum
           Samples by Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP)

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2016
      Source:Immunology and Infectious Diseases  Volume  4  Number  4  Sylvia Grune Loffler   Carlos Leiva   Exequiel Scialfa   Leandro Redondo   Mónica Florin-Christensen   Mara Martínez   Graciela Romero   and Bibiana Brihuega   Leptospirosis is a worldwide distributed zoonosis, caused by pathogenic strains of spirochetes belonging to the genus Leptospira spp. So far, the only gold standard diagnostic method for this disease has been the Micro-Agglutination Test (MAT). The purpose of this study was to test whether a correlation exists between serological diagnosis by MAT and the presence of Leptospira spp. DNA traces in serum. Anti-Leptospira spp. antibody titers were determined in dog serum samples obtained at a canine shelter from Buenos Aires Province, Argentina (n= 80) by MAT using ten Leptospira spp. serovars. DNA extracted from these samples using Chelex-100 resin was used as template for Leptospira spp. specific PCR and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) tests. In the latter case, product detection by incubation with malachite green dye was set up, obtaining optimal results at a dye concentration of 0.02% (w(v)) and a pH of 6.1. PCR and LAMP showed the same sensitivity, detecting leptospiral DNA in 12 out of the 48 MAT- positive sera. No detection was attained by either method in MAT-negative samples. These results show that it is possible to use LAMP for the detection of leptospirosis in non-human mammals. It also shows that, in the case of serum samples, MAT has higher diagnostic sensitivity than the currently available PCR and LAMP tests.
      PubDate: Dec 2016
       
  • Epidemiological Study of Bovine Fasciolosis: Prevalence and Risk Factor
           Assessment at Shahjadpur Upazila of Bangladesh

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2015
      Source:Immunology and Infectious Diseases  Volume  3  Number  3  Md. Rezaul Karim   Mohammad Showkat Mahmud   and Md. Giasuddin   Fasciolosis is an economically important parasitic disease of cattle in Bangladesh. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of fasciolosis in cattle and identifying the potential risk factors associated with the disease. A cross-sectional survey was carried out from November 2012 to October 2013 on bovine fasciolosis in and around Shahjadpur upazila of Bangladesh. For this, a total of 762 fecal samples were collected from crossed breed cattle and all samples were subjected to standard sedimentation test at Animal Health Laboratory of BLRI regional station, Shahjadpur, Bangladesh. The overall prevalence of bovine fasciolosis was found to be 66.14% from 504 positive samples. From the various risk factor analysed, age categories of cattle, sex and seasonal influence were found to be significantly associated (p
      PubDate: Sep 2015
       
  • Bio-molecular Diagnosis of Avian Influenza Virus from Different Species of
           Birds in Bangladesh

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2015
      Source:Immunology and Infectious Diseases  Volume  3  Number  1  Mohammed Hafizur Rahman   Mohammed Giasuddin   Mohammed Rafiqul Islam   Mahmudul Hasan   Mohammad Showkat Mahmud   Mohammed Ahsanul Hoque    Paritosh Kumar Biswas   Emdadul Haque Chowdhury   Bidhan Chandra Das   Mohammed Ziaur Rahman   Nitish Chandra Debnath   Garba Ahmed   and Mat Yamage   Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) causes enormous losses to the poultry industry of Bangladesh every year since the detection of first outbreak in 2007. In this study biomolecular diagnosis of avian influenza virus in Bangladesh from different species of birds was carried. A total of 1135 samples including 280 from migratory birds, 680 from live bird market (LBM) chickens, 118 from ducks and 57 from pigeons were collected from different locations of Bangladesh during the period from July 2013 to June 2014. Out of 1135 samples, 69 were found positive for influenza A by real time RT-PCR. In addition, 741 Influenza A positive samples collected by different institutes from different species of birds under the FAO-led surveillance program were also received at Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute (BLRI) for further analysis. The real time RT-PCR positive samples were inoculated in 10-day-old embryonated chicken eggs. Out of 810 (741+ 69) influenza A positive samples, 110 were selected on the basis of species and region to cover the whole country and were sent to the OIE reference laboratory for detailed study. The bio-molecular results revealed that in case of migratory bird samples one was H5 (HPAI), two were H9 and eight were of undetermined subtype. Among the LBM chicken samples, seven were H5 (HPAI), 51 were H9, six were mixed infection with H5 & H9 and three were of undermined subtype. In case of duck samples, one was H2, six were H4, six were H5 (HPAI), one with mixed infection with H5 & H2, one with both H5 & H4, two were H9 and one was H7N5, though H7 was genetically distinct from that of the novel H7N9 virus of China. Among quail samples, one was H5 (HPAI) and one was H9. In case of pigeon samples, all three contained H9. From this study it was revealed that HPAI (H5N1) is still circulating in our poultry population. The novel avian influenza virus H7N9 was not found during this study.
      PubDate: Jan 2015
       
  • Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Patients with Diarrhea
           at Wonago Health Center, Southern Ethiopia: A Retrospective Study

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2015
      Source:Immunology and Infectious Diseases  Volume  3  Number  1  Girum Tefera   Background: Intestinal parasitic infections are among the most common infections worldwide. High prevalence is found in people with low socio-economic status, poor living condition, overcrowded areas, poor environmental sanitation, improper garbage disposal, unsafe water supply and unhygienic personal habits. Thus, the objective of this retrospective study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis among patients with diarrhea who visited Wonago health center Southern Ethiopia. Methodology: Institution based retrospective study design was employed. Stool examination records of all patients with diarrhea who visited Wonago health center from September 2010 to September 2012 were included. A total of 10694 stool examination results of those diarrheic patients were analyzed for this study. Samples were examined using direct saline wet mount technique. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS version 16 and results were shown in percent and prevalence rates. Results: The overall prevalence of intestinal parasite for at least one parasite in this retrospective study was 1776/10694(16.6%). Furthermore, 5.7% of those positive patients were infected by two species of parasites and 4.6%of patients had triple infections. The most prevalent parasites were E. histolytica/dispar 956/1776(53.8%) followed by G. lamblia 420/1776(23.7%) and Taenia species 140/1776(7.9%) respectively. Conclusion: Intestinal parasitosis is highly prevalent in varying magnitude among diarrheic patients who visited Wonago health Center, Southern Ethiopia. E. histolytica/dispar was the most prevalent parasite infecting patients followed by, G. lamblia, Taenia species and H. nana. Because of absence of molecular diagnosis for E. histolytica, over diagnosis might be possible for the high prevalence of amoebiasis.
      PubDate: Jan 2015
       
  • Addressing the Unmet Need for ART among HIV+ Women and Newborns in
           Cameroon through Strengthening the Supply Chain of PMTCT Commodities

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2015
      Source:Immunology and Infectious Diseases  Volume  3  Number  4  Nfor E.   K. Kakanda   G. Buki   A. Kane   and J. Dongang   Background: The Government of Cameroon and its partners have made major investments in the last decade in prevention, treatment, and care of HIV-infected patients. However, unmet need for antiretroviral therapy (ART) among HIV-positive pregnant women remains high at 66%. Critical to satisfying this need is ensuring adequate availability of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) commodities for rollout of new Option B+ guidelines. The Cameroon supply system consists of a cost recovery system for essential medicines and other health commodities and a free-of-charge system for priority commodities including those for PMTCT and ART. This study examines options for improving the supply and availability of these commodities. Method: Supply chain (SC) operational data was collected in July 2014 from central (CENAME) and 4 regional warehouses (CAPRs); 10 district stores; and 30 service delivery points (SDPs), including ART and PMTCT sites. The study also included seven central private-sector logistics firms. In addition, SC cost data was obtained from CENAME and CAPRs financial statements audited in 2013. Data collected served for analysis of three options to improve effectiveness of delivering PMTCT commodities, based on the four variables detailed in Figure 2.4.1. Results: Asset utilization within the cost recovery system ranged between 73% and 89% while inventory turnover was at 1.5. Therefore, a reliable supply of medicines to SDPs is ensured. However, for PMTCT and ART commodities, distribution to the SDPs was unreliable (in 2013, 40% of prescriptions remained unfilled). Meanwhile, results of the options analysis indicated that the model of CAPRs delivering PMTCT commodities to SDPs was the most desirable. Although the distance traveled was higher, the need for network storage space was minimal. Moreover, its total cost and human resource requirements were more favorable. Conclusion: As a result of disseminating the findings, the Ministry of Health adopted Option 2. PMTCT free-of-charge commodities are also amenable to being managed within the existing effective cost recovery system.
      PubDate: Dec 2015
       
  • Comparison of Two Phenotypic Double Disc Diffusion Test (DDDT) for
           Detection of Extended Spectrum β-Lactamase Production by
           Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas Species at a Tertiary Care Hospital in
           Bangladesh

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2015
      Source:Immunology and Infectious Diseases  Volume  3  Number  2  Taslima Yesmin   Mohammed Abdun Nur Sayam   Md. Manjurul Quader   Abul Hossain Khan   and Md. Abdullah Yusuf   Background: The detection of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing (ESBL) bacteria is of importance for infection control and epidemiological surveillance. Objective: The purpose of the present study was to compare two phenotypic methods for the detection of ESBL-positive Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas species. Methodology: This cross sectional study was carried out in the Department of Microbiology at Mymensingh Medical College, Bangladesh from January 2011 to June 2011. Patients of all ages and genders presented with UTI or wound infection were taken as study population. Gram negative bacilli (GNB) were analyzed by two methods used for routine susceptibility testing which were Disk diffusion methods and MIC reduction methods. Two methods designed for the detection of ESBL production Ceftazidime and Ceftazidime plus Clavulinic acid, (CAZ/CAZC) and Cefotaxime and Cefotaxime plus Clavulinic Acid (CTX/CTXC) were used and the PCR was considered as gold standard for evaluation of the other test methods. Result: A total number of 300 GNB were isolated and identified of which 214(71%) were ESBL positive. For the disk diffusion method, resistant to third generation Cephalosporins were the highest 87.0%, when tested by ceftazidime and by MIC reduction methods were 67%. For the phenotypic confirmatory methods, specificities were 64% by (CAZ/CAZC), 59% by (CTX/CTXC) and by both method 52%. Among the phenotypic confirmatory ESBL positive strains by Genotypic method ESBL positive were 50.46% TEM, 18.69 % SHV and 46.72% CTX-M gene. Conclusion: Two-step strategies using both DDDT phenotypic methods are useful diagnostic tools for the detection of ESBL from the Gram negative bacilli.
      PubDate: Apr 2015
       
  • A Case of Spontaneous Streptococcus Salivarius Meningitis

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2015
      Source:Immunology and Infectious Diseases  Volume  3  Number  2  Ayman Rihawi   Glen Huang   and Royce Miller   This article discusses Streptococcus salivarius meningitis in a 39-year old woman. She was admitted to the hospital for general fatigue, headache, and fever. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed leukocytosis and cultures were positive for Streptococcus salivarius. Streptococcus salivarius meningitis is rare and has been documented to be associated with procedures involving the spinal column such as epidural anesthesia. In this patient the meningitis caused by Streptococcus salivarius was thought to be spontaneous.
      PubDate: Apr 2015
       
  • Potentiality of Selected Commercial Antibiotics Challenged with Aeromonas
           sp.

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2015
      Source:Immunology and Infectious Diseases  Volume  3  Number  2  Sharif Neowajh   Md. Mer Mosharraf Hossain   Ibrahim Kholil   Sumana Nasrin Mona   Sherajul Islam   and Mitheela Kabi   This study was intended to address, the effect of oxytetracycline, erythromycin, and streptomycin on the antimicrobial resistance of Aeromonas sp. isolated during the production process, from infected common carp (Cyprinous carpio). Antimicrobial resistance patterns were defined by determination of minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of three antimicrobial drugs, and bacteria. Results indicated that In vitro bactericidal activity, oxytetracycline showed lowest number of bacterial colonies (1×10-4 c.f.u./ml) than erythromycin (3×10-4) and streptomycin (4.5×10-4) compared to the control (9×10-4). Oxytetracycline showed the highest maximum zone of inhibition (20 mm) than erythromycin (18 mm) and streptomycin (15 mm) in antibiotic susceptibility test. In infection inhibition assay, serum from oxytetracycline fed diets inhibited Aeromonas infection to common carp. The susceptibility of the fish fed antibiotics (50 µg/mg feed) and challenge with Aeromonas sp. (1×10-4) was examined for 30 days. There was high relative percent of survivility (RPS) in oxytetracycline was 73%. Very low RPS 63% and 47.37% was found in erythromycin and streptomycin against Aeromonas sp. infection. These results demonstrated that the oxytetracycline might be a potential for Aeromonas sp. infection to common carp (Cyprinous carpio).
      PubDate: Apr 2015
       
  • Rhinoscleroma: A Look at an Unusual Fascinating Disease from the Tropics
           (Review of the Literature and Report of 2 New Cases)

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2014
      Source:Immunology and Infectious Diseases  Volume  2  Number  3  Suresh J. Antony   Rhinoscleroma is an unusual disease that is seen in many parts of the tropics. It is caused by a bacteria called Klebsiella rhinoscleromatis and can leave the patient with a chronic inflammatory lesion of the upper respiratory airway and much disfigurement. In the age of global migration and travel physicians must learn to recognize this disease especially in immigrants and patents that come from countries endemic of the disease. It is endemic in parts of Mexico, Central and South America, Central and Eastern Europe, Southeast Asia and Africa. Humans are the only identifiable host and the transmission is thought to be airborne. This disease is mostly seen in the poor rural areas of the world where overcrowding and poor hygiene are common.
      PubDate: Sep 2014
       
  • Prevalence of Malaria and Associated Factors among Patients Attending at
           Hallaba Health Center, Southern Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2014
      Source:Immunology and Infectious Diseases  Volume  2  Number  3  Girum Tefera   Back ground: Malaria is usually an important hazard in order to open health and economic progress inside the African continent. Throughout sub-Saharan the African continents, 90% of all demise largely below 5 youngsters tend to be due to malaria. Yearly you can find in relation to 270-480 million circumstances associated with malaria leading to in relation to one million demise, largely inside The African continent as well as especially within 5 youngsters. Almost all of the full division of Ethiopia is actually malarious, doing malaria the best open health problem inside Ethiopia. The purpose of this particular review seemed to be to look into your frequency as well as associated factors among patients attending at Hallaba health center based on thick and thin blood film examination. Thus, this research was launched to determine the prevalence of malaria and associated factors among patients who attended at Hallaba health center. Methods: Health center based cross sectional study was conducted from April 19 to June 21, 2009 at Hallaba health center on a total of 204 individuals who were selected conveniently. Structured questionnaire was used to obtain socio-demographic and other data. Then the data were entered and analyzed by using SPSS software. Statistical tables and graphs were used to present the result. Chi-square tests and OR (95% CI) were used to test the association. Results: The analyses showed that the highest prevalence of malaria was found between age group of 0-19 year. There was association between age group and prevalence of malaria (X2= 77.07, P
      PubDate: Sep 2014
       
  • Determinants of Anemia in Pregnant Women with Emphasis on Intestinal
           

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2014
      Source:Immunology and Infectious Diseases  Volume  2  Number  4  Girum Tefera   Back ground: Anemia is a common and serious problem in pregnancy. Parasitic infections contribute to iron deficiency anemia in pregnant women. The objective of the study was to assess determinants of anemia among pregnant women with emphasis on intestinal helminthic infection at Sher- Ethiopia hospital, Ziway, southern Ethiopia. Method: A cross-sectional study was carried out among pregnant women who came for their antenatal care follow up at Sher-Ethiopia hospital, Ziway, Southern Ethiopia from April, 1/2014 – June 30/ 2014. A total of 748 pregnant women were screened for intestinal parasitic infection using direct microscopy and formol ether concentration techniques and level of hemoglobin was determined using hematocrit screening technique. Other determinants of anemia during pregnancy were also assessed by using structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS for windows version 16.0. Statistical tests were performed at the level of significance of 5%. Result: Prevalence of intestinal parasite infection in pregnant women was 58.2%. Out of 436 intestinal parasite infected women 176(40.4%) had more than one intestinal parasitic infection. Prevalence of anemia in this study subjects was 51.9% and the mean hematocrit level was 34%. Anemic women were 10 times likely to have hookworm plus other intestinal helminthic infection (p value = .000), 2 times likely to have birth interval less than two years (p value = .018), 2 times likely not to have shoe wearing habit (p value = .045) and 2 times likely not having taken iron during pregnancy (p value = .025). Conclusion: From the result it can de concluded that all antenatal care attendants should be screened for anemia and intestinal helminthic infection at their first visit and those anemic and helminthic infected women should be treated properly.
      PubDate: Nov 2014
       
  • The Utility of Procalcitonin in Elderly Patients with COPD Exacerbation

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2014
      Source:Immunology and Infectious Diseases  Volume  2  Number  2  Razi Syed   Daniel H. Havlichek   Gary E. Stein   and Curtis L. Smith   OBJECTIVES: To determine the usefulness of Procalcitonin (PCT) in detecting bacterial infection in hospitalized elderly patients with COPD exacerbation. DESIGN: Prospective observational study to compare PCT levels in patients with and without pneumonia. SETTING: Acute care community hospital in United States. PARTICIPANTS: 18 elderly patients age 65 years and older admitted to an internal medicine ward. MEASUREMENTS: Demographic characteristics, general signs and symptoms, laboratory and chest radiographic results, PCT levels, antibiotic use and duration, length of hospital stay and 90-day readmission rates. RESULTS: Eight (44%) patients had a diagnosis of pneumonia. Procalcitonin levels suggestive of a bacterial infection were found in only four patients and each of these patients had pneumonia. Three patients with pneumonia had positive sputum cultures without an elevated PCT level. No patient without pneumonia had an elevated PCT level. The sensitivity and specificity for predicting a bacterial pneumonia in our patients was 50% (95% CI, 16-84%) and 100% (95% CI, 69-100%), respectively. This biomarker had a positive predictive value of 100% (95% CI, 40-100%) and a negative predictive value of 71% (95% CI, 42-91%) CONCLUSION: Our study results suggest that PCT is not sufficiently sensitive to be used as a diagnostic test of bacterial infection in elderly patients with COPD exacerbation. It may assist clinicians in identifying patients without pneumonia who do not require antibiotics due to its high specificity and negative predictive value.
      PubDate: May 2014
       
  • The Clinical Utility of Polymerase Chain Reaction and Adenosine Deaminase
           (ADA), for the Diagnosis of Pleural Tuberculosis: Indian Scenario

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2014
      Source:Immunology and Infectious Diseases  Volume  2  Number  2  Paras Singh   Mradula Singh   Devika Tayal   Vithal Prasad Myneedu   Manpreet Bhalla  Puncham Adlakha   and Rohit Sarin   Background and Objectives: In spite of higher incidence and prevalence of tuberculosis, the diagnosis of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) in various clinical specimens (such as pleural fluid, ascitic fluids, CSF, lymph node aspirate etc), remains true challenge. Current tools for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in various body fluids are suboptimal. Clinicians underestimate these diseases, and use of insensitive conventional analytical method has contributed to the difficulties in managing patient with extra pulmonary tuberculosis. It is important to develop rapid, sensitive and specific test for early diagnosis of extra pulmonary tuberculosis because of the lack of sensitivity & specificity of the conventional methods as AFB smear by ZN technique and culture on LJ media. Pleural tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis often requires invasive procedures such as pleural biopsy. The study was undertaken to evaluate the combined utility of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for different gene targets (IS6110, MPB64 and protein antigen b; Pab ) especially in pleural fluid specimens with adenosine deaminase (ADA) levels in the diagnosis of pleurisy. Methods: Total 430 clinical specimens (412 extra-pulmonary and 18 pulmonary tuberculosis) were recruited from the outdoor and indoor Department of National Institute of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases, New Delhi during the 2011-2013 periods. All specimens were further processed for AFB smear, culture on LJ media, ADA level and conventional PCR (IS6110 & MPB 64 and Pab gene targets). Results: The PCR positivity IS6110, MPB64 &Pab gene targets was found to be 90.3% (N=28/31) in smear negative & culture positive (as gold standard) extra pulmonary tuberculosis cases. However the total PCR positivity of Pab (43.9%; 181/412) gene target was found to be significantly low as compared to the IS6110 (65.3%; 269/412; X2=37.058; pc=0.000; Odds ratio 2.401; 95% CI=1.795-3.213) & MPB 64 (63.6%; 262/412; X2=31.245; pc=0.000; Odds ratio 2.229; 95% CI=1.669-2.978) gene targets in extra pulmonary tuberculosis cases. Further we have analyzed the combined utility of PCR with ADA levels among the body fluids (165 pleural fluid, 15 ascitic fluid, 1 lymph node and 1 cerebrospinal fluid; CSF). Our results indicated that the PCR alone can detect total 72.5% (132/182) TB cases, whereas ADA alone can detect 61.5% (112/182; considering cutoff value>40IU/L or confirmed cases of TB on clinic-radiological findings), M.tuberculosis in body fluids. Further data was compared in between single, two and three gene targets considering cut off value ADA>40IU/L levels in body fluids. Our observation showed that the positivity of tuberculosis cases were significantly higher through three gene targets (N=48/83; 57.8%; Mean of ADA>40IU/L =127.3) as compared to single gene target (N=10/83; 12.1%; Mean of ADA>40IU/L =68.2; X2=36.27; pc=0.000; Odds ratio 10.011; 95% CI=4.272-24.008) utilizing conventional PCR technology. No significant difference has been observed in other body fluids. The combined evaluation of both techniques (PCR and ADA) raised 14-15 % additional diagnosis of tuberculosis in body fluids (158/ 182; 86.8%; in pleural fluid= 147/165; 89.1%).Interpretation and Conclusion: Our results suggested that Protein antigen b (Pab) gene target showed less sensitivity as compared to IS6110 & MPB64. This study demonstrated the combined utility of both techniques (multigene target PCR with ADA level), enhanced the sensitivity of diagnosis of tuberculosis in body fluids. The study also confirmed the high diagnostic utility of PCR and ADA methods in diagnosis of tuberculosis in various paucibacillary body fluids in Indian scenario.
      PubDate: May 2014
       
  • Administration of an Autogenous Vaccine in Patients with Chronic Bacterial
           Osteomyelitis

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2014
      Source:Immunology and Infectious Diseases  Volume  2  Number  1  Danila De Vito   Emilio Jirillo   Andrea Ballini   and Giuseppe Mastrorillo   Since we face the problem of rapidly growing rates of antimicrobial resistance, autovaccination may provide a treatment alternative at least in those patients which suffer from treatment refractory infections. Interest is turning towards the therapy of infectious diseases by stimulation of the immune defence mechanisms. In fact there are reports of drug resistance in a wide range of bacterial diseases. In our experience, autovaccine immunization has the potential to treat chronic infections such as osteomyelitis unresponsive to antimicrobial therapy.
      PubDate: Jan 2014
       
  • Determination of Immunodominant Antigens of Dicrocoelium Dendriticum by
           Hyperimmune Sera

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2014
      Source:Immunology and Infectious Diseases  Volume  2  Number  1  Meshgi B   and Khodaveisi M.   Dicrocoeliasis caused by the small liver fluke Dicrocoelium dendriticum (syn. D.lanceolatum), which live in the bile ducts and gall bladder of wild and domesticated mammals, particularly livestock farming. Parasitological methods are not reliable enough for diagnosis of this trematode infection. In the present study, the sera from rabbits immunized with somatic and excretory-secretory antigens of D.dendriticum were assayed with immunoblot technique. Adult worms were collected from infected livers of sheep at a local abattoir. The excretory-secretory product and somatic antigens were prepared through homogenization and incubation of trematodes, respectively. Polyclonal antibodies were raised in rabbits after inoculation of the two antigens with emulsified Freunds adjuvant followed by booster injection. Comparative study between D.dendriticum antigens and those of Fasciola, cysticercus tenuicollis and hydatid cyst fluids antigens was carried out. SDS-PAGE of antigens was performed and for immunoblotting analysis, hyperimmune sera were obtained from immunized rabbits of case and control groups. Immunoblot analysis of rabbits antisera against somatic and excretory-secretory antigens of D.dendriticum were showed six and four protein bands ranging from 25 to more than 170 and 25 to 70 kDa molecular weights, respectively. However cross-reaction with other specific proteins was observed in Fasciola excretory-secretory, hydatid cyst and cysticercus tenuicollis fluid antigens. The results demonstrated that the 25-27 kDa proteins were strongly recognized by both hyperimmune sera and was common in both somatic and excretory-secretory antigens. According to the results of this study performed with two antigens of D.dendriticum shows that the 25-27 kDa polypeptide as immunodominant protein, could be considered for the immunodiagnosis of dicrocoeliasis and it probably induces protective immunity against Dicrocoelium infection.
      PubDate: Jan 2014
       
  • Late Onset Mania in Dengue Fever

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2014
      Source:Immunology and Infectious Diseases  Volume  2  Number  1  ShailenMohan Tripathi   and Neeti Mishra   Here, we are reporting a case of late onset mania in a 61 year old male secondary to dengue fever. The past and family history of the mood disorder was absent in the patient. Episode of mania had a temporal correlation with the dengue fever. Psychiatric co-morbidities are mentioned in the literature following dengue fever but the literature on the mania following dengue is sparse. The late onset mania in dengue fever is unreported in the literature.
      PubDate: Jan 2014
       
  • Interaction of HLA-DRB1*1501 and TNF-Alpha in a Population-based
           Case-control Study of Multiple Sclerosis

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2013
      Source:Immunology and Infectious Diseases  Volume  1  Number  1  Dhelia M. Williamson. Ruth Ann Marrie Allison Ashley-Koch and Glen A. Satten This study was conducted to determine whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in nine genes (human leukocyte antigen (HLA), T cell receptor beta (TCA receptor β), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF α), tumor necrosis factor β (TNF β), apolipoprotein E (APOE), interleukin 7 receptor alpha chain (IL7RA) interleukin 2 receptor alpha chain (IL2RA) myelin basic protein (MBP) and vitamin D receptor (VDR)) associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) could be replicated in a population-based sample, and to determine if these associations are modified by presence of HLA DRB1*1501. DNA was available from 722 individuals (223 with MS and 499 controls) who participated in a population-based case-control study. Cases and controls were matched on ancestry, age, gender and geographic area. HLA DRB1*1501 risk allele (T) was confirmed in this population using a genotypic test, controlling for multiple comparisons. Examining the effect of each SNP in the presence or absence of the HLA DRB1*1501 risk allele identified significant associations with TNF α-1031 (rs1799964) among those without the HLA risk allele. No additional interactions were significant in a cases-only analysis. Our results indicate that an interaction between SNPs in TNF α and HLA DRB1*1501 may influence the risk of developing MS.
      PubDate: Sep 2013
       
  • Evaluation of Polymerase Chain Reaction and Cobas TaqMan Real Time PCR in
           the Diagnosis of Tuberculosis: Indian Prospective

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2013
      Source:Immunology and Infectious Diseases  Volume  1  Number  1  Mradula Singh Paras Singh Vithal Prasad Myneedu Manpreet Bhalla Puncham Adlakha Pusphendra Verma and Rohit Sarin Background & Objectives: Globally, tuberculosis (TB) still remains a major public health problem. India is a high TB burden country contributing to 26 per cent of global TB burden. Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) cases are more common (~ 90% of cases) while extra pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) constitutes around 10 to 20% of all tuberculosis cases in India. The diagnosis of the EPTB cases is difficult because of few bacilli and consequently is associated with low sensitivity of Zhiel-Neelson (ZN) smear and culture on LJ media. The present study evaluates the utility of PCR for the detection of M. tuberculosis in paucibacillary extra pulmonary and pulmonary tuberculosis samples. Methods: A total of 561 samples (553 EPTB & 8 PTB cases) were collected from the extra pulmonary and pulmonary tuberculosis patients which were processed for ZN smear, culture on LJ media and conventional PCR using two gene targets (IS6110 and MPB64). Results: The PCR positivity of IS6110 and MPB64 gene targets was found to be 91.3% (N=63/69) and 89.9% (N= 62/69) in majority of smear negative & culture positive (as a gold standard) extra pulmonary cases, respectively. However the PCR positivity was observed 100% in smear positive, culture positive Line probe assay tested MDR PTB cases (true positive controls; N=34). Further the PCR specificity was determined>95% (true negative healthy controls; N=26). The positivity of M. tuberculosis by IS6110 & MPB 64 gene targets was found to be range of 88% to 100% in various clinical paucibacillary extra pulmonary samples i.e. pleural fluid, ascitic fluid, lymph node, pus, CSF and others. Our data on 64 samples (non respiratory, n=63 & respiratory samples, n=1) revealed 40.6% positivity by Cobas TaqMan Real Time PCR (utilizing 16S rRNA probe; Roche, USA). Interpretation & Conclusion: Our data revealed that utility of both PCR and Real Time PCR in rapid diagnosis of M. tuberculosis in paucibacillary extra pulmonary tuberculosis samples in Indian scenario.
      PubDate: Sep 2013
       
  • Role of Chemokine Ligand CCL20 and its Receptor CCR6 in lntestinal
           Inflammation

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2013
      Source:Immunology and Infectious Diseases  Volume  1  Number  2  Waheedha Basheer   Dale Kunde   and Rajaraman Eri   Chemokines are important players in the immune system with individual chemokine axes demonstrating significant associations with numerous inflammatory disorders. The chemokine receptor CCR6 and its ligand CCL20 are reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease, however the exact mechanism remains elusive. The Ccr6gene has been identified as a susceptibility gene in Crohn’s disease, while the expression of its ligand, CCL20 is up regulated following inflammatory stimulus in the intestine. The identification of the role of CCR6-CCL20 axis during the inflammation will shed valuable light into the pathogenesis of IBD as well as providing a potential therapeutic target for treatment for IBD.
      PubDate: Nov 2013
       
  • HIV Disease: “Facts and Controversies in India”

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2013
      Source:Immunology and Infectious Diseases  Volume  1  Number  2  Amit Shankar Singh   Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) disease pose a significant health hazard in developing countries like India which is carrying pressure of world second most population burden. Both visible and covert factors dominate in the failure of control of this disease. But despite that intensified efforts are needed to surmount this hurdle of misery and debility.
      PubDate: Nov 2013
       
  • Comparative Evaluation of PCR with Commercial Multiplex M. tuberculosis
           Detection Kit

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2013
      Source:Immunology and Infectious Diseases  Volume  1  Number  2  Paras Singh   Puncham Adlakha   Pusphendra Verma   Vithal Prasad Myneedu    and RohitSarin   Background & Objectives: Undiagnosed and mismanaged tuberculosis (TB) continues to fuel the global epidemic. Rapid, accurate and early diagnosis of tuberculosis is a major health concern especially in developing country like India. It is important to develop rapid, sensitive and specific test (i.e. Polymerase chain reaction; PCR) for early diagnosis of tuberculosis because the conventional methods like Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) smear, lack the sensitivity & specificity, cultures on Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) media is time consuming and cumbersome techniques. Current study evaluates the significance of In house PCR with commercially available multiplex PCR kit (IS6110 and MPB64 gene targets) in clinical M. tuberculosis samples. Methods: The performance of In-House PCR for the detection of M. tuberculosis (IS6110 & MPB 64 gene target) was compared with multiplex M.tuberculosis PCR kit (SeeplexRMTB ACE Detection Kit; www. Seegene.com). Fifty samples were processed for ZN smear, culture on LJ media and for PCR.Results: Overall combined PCR positivity for both PCR (In House PCR and multiplex M. tuberculosis PCR kit) was observed 76% (38/50) and 70.7% (29/50) in smear negative (S-ve), culture negative (C-ve) extra-pulmonary tuberculosis samples. No significant difference was observed between the positivity rate of both PCR (p = 0.832; χ2 =0.045). However the smear ZN (6%) and culture positivity (14%) in LJ media was observed very low in extra-pulmonary paucibacillary samples.Interpretation & Conclusion: Current study evaluated the significance of In-House PCR (IS6110 & MPB 64 gene target) with multiplex M. tuberculosis PCR kit in rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis in clinical tuberculosis samples particularly in extra-pulmonary smear negatives.
      PubDate: Nov 2013
       
 
 
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