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Publisher: Horizon Research Publishing   (Total: 54 journals)   [Sort by number of followers]

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Intl. J. of Biochemistry and Biophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
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Universal J. of Accounting and Finance     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
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Journal Cover Environment and Ecology Research
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   ISSN (Print) 2331-625X - ISSN (Online) 2331-6268
   Published by Horizon Research Publishing Homepage  [54 journals]
  • Determination of Cesium Adsorption Breakthrough Curves Using Carbonized
           Rice Hull and Beech Sawdust as Adsorbents

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2017
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  5  Number  6  Asa Miura   To determine the adsorption breakthrough curves of carbonized rice hull and beech sawdust, which were selected as candidate natural materials for Cesium (Cs) adsorption in our previous study, fixed-bed adsorption experiments were conducted. These experiments were performed using a glass column with a continuous flow system and a variable packed-bed height of the above materials. For carbonized rice hull, the breakthrough point appeared relatively early, although a long adsorption time was required to reach the end point. In addition, for beech sawdust, the maximum Cs concentration at the column outlet was approximately 1.2 times that at the inlet. Regarding the Cs mass balance in the packed-bed layer, the amount of Cs adsorbed per unit weight of adsorbent was greater for carbonized rice hull than for beech sawdust. Furthermore, the adsorption ratio in the packed-bed was higher for beech sawdust than for carbonized rice hull. However, following estimation of the length of the adsorption zone formed in the packed bed using the model formula commonly employed in the design of the fixed-bed adsorption apparatus, it was not possible to calculate the real length of the adsorption zone.
      PubDate: Oct 2017
       
  • When Allotment Gardens Become Urban Green Spaces like Others, Providing
           Cultural Ecosystem Services

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2017
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  5  Number  6  Amélie Robert   and Jean Louis Yengué   Different kind of nature can be observed in urban settings: forest or semi-natural spaces, ornamental gardens and allotment gardens (community gardens). Our article focuses on the last ones and questions some ecosystem services they offer, in order to know if they are urban green spaces like others. This study comes in the framework of the research program SERVEUR (funded by the French Centre-Val de Loire region), which is interested in the services given by urban green spaces. Here we set out one case-study, the Bergeonnerie allotments in Tours (France). To identify the services these allotments offer, we conducted: - in situ observations and surveys of Bergeonnerie allotments users, - interviews of some municipal stakeholders and decision-makers of several cities of the region Centre-Val de Loire. The in situ study revealed that allotments offered not only provisioning services - according to the MEA [1] ecosystem services list, in this case food. They also provide cultural services, becoming a source of well-being for the gardeners but not only. We could observe that some other people come in these green spaces, like in other ones, to walk. They are places of sociability and education, what the municipal stakeholders and decision-makers confirm. Allotments give more benefits for the population than expected; they are more than places used to cultivate vegetables.
      PubDate: Oct 2017
       
  • Factors Influencing the Success of a Market Based Conservation Initiative
           to Promote Rural Land-use Compatibility

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2017
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  5  Number  6  John M. Diaz   Robert E. Bardon   Dennis Hazel   Jackie Bruce   K.S.U Jayaratne   and Anne-Lise Velez   Encroachment of incompatible land uses increasingly threatens military training across the country. In many states, military training grounds are part of the rural landscape resulting in significant interest from military leadership in the maintenance and enhancement of land uses that are compatible with training operations. In the southeast, a vast majority of the rural landscape is under private ownership increasing the needs for policies that address the interests of landowners and provide meaningful incentives for maintaining land-use compatibility. Market-based conservation strategies have the potential to provide an effective means for conserving large landscapes used for military training. This issue is particularly salient in North Carolina that has an extensive military training footprint. We conducted a case study to evaluate a cross-sector partnership in the state that collaboratively developed a Market-Based Conservation Initiative Pilot to promote land use compatibility by engaging private landowners in performance-based contracts. This study determined the factors that influenced pilot project outcomes and lessons learned when developing market-based strategies that integrate military interests. Data analysis identifies five key factors that are 1) military funding authority to establish agreements, 2) development of landowner trust and program credibility, 3) military understanding the purpose and associated risks of a pilot program, 4) military perception of rural landownership patterns, and 5) institutional mandates of the Navy.
      PubDate: Oct 2017
       
  • Semantic vs. Empirical Issues in the Bear Diversionary Baiting Controversy

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2017
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  5  Number  6  Stephen F. Stringham   Lynn L. Rogers   and Ann Bryant   Conventional North American management of human-bear conflicts assumes that bears become more dangerous and destructive of human property if the bears have become food conditioned. Bears perceived as dangerous or destructive are usually killed. Conflict management to protect both people and bears focuses on minimizing bear access to anthropogenic foods. That can work where bears have access to sufficient wild foods. During famines of profitable wild foods, however, the key to minimizing conflicts can be providing food to bears – so-called diversionary baiting. Wild food supply is only one of numerous factors determining why provisioning bears intensifies conflicts in some situations, but minimizes conflicts in other situations. Identifying and quantifying the role of each factor is best done through formation of a more comprehensive conceptual model, followed by hypothesis derivation and testing. Literature synthesis and paradigmatic reconceptualization have thus far been hampered by terminological ambiguity. To overcome this constraint, we propose systematically integrated definitions for key terms: (a) conflict zones and sites, conflict foods, provisioning, incursionary feeding, baiting for diversion and other purposes; (b) numerous sorts of food conditionning: respondant, instrumental, opportunistic, transient, compensatory, agonistically induced, preferential, location- specific, person- specific, direct, indirect. (c) Food source descriptors: presence, abundance, density, accessibility, harvestability, availability, attractiveness, palatability, profitability, preference, reliability (predictability), and microhabitat suitability.
      PubDate: Oct 2017
       
  • Influence of Growth of Reeds on Evapotranspiration in Horizontal
           Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2017
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  5  Number  6  Tokuo Yano   Masatomo Nakayama   Kazuhiro Yamada   Akiko Inoue-Kohama   Shinya Sato   and Keijiro Enari   In this study, the influence of growth of reeds on evapotranspiration (ET) was estimated, and a commonly used meteorological estimate of potential evapotranspiration (PET) was compared with direct measurements of ET. The salinity of the inside of HSF of the raw leachate inflow was 15.0±3.4g Cl-/L and that of the double diluted inflow was 9.3±1.9g Cl-/L. Although the growth of reeds in the raw leachate inflow was impeded remarkably compared to that of the double diluted leachate inflow, the reeds in the double diluted inflow bed showed healthy growth. The difference in the salinity gave rise to large differences in the growth of the reed. The annual ET rates in the poor vegetation bed, the dense vegetation bed and the unplanted bed were 656.5mm, 2,334.3mm and 22.2mm, respectively. The difference of the growth of the reed provided a large difference in the ET rate. The annual PET estimated on the basis of the Hamon equation was 751.6mm. The PET rate was much lower compared to the ET rate in the dense vegetation bed. It was necessary to consider site-specific factors such as the growth of plants in the evaluation of the water budget in the HSFs.
      PubDate: Oct 2017
       
  • Cadmium Toxicity Induced Changes on Morphological, Photosynthetic,
           Biochemical and Antioxidative Enzymes Level in Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2017
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  5  Number  6  M. Mahalakshmi   K. Marisamy   and V. Ramasubramanian   Heavy metals of soils due to intensive industrial activities and agricultural development is usually a source of environmental problems. Heavy metal phytotoxicity is considered to be main factor limiting plant growth when cultivate in metal polluted soils. Heavy metals have strong impact on human health through the food chain. The aim of this study was to investigate the ill effects of cadmium on the morphological, biochemical and enzymatic characters of Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper which are commonly used in the fireworks industries of this area. After ten days treatment with different concentrations of cadmium (2, 4, 6, 8 & 10mM), the plant exhibited a decline in growth, chlorophyll contents, soluble sugar and protein than in the control. In contrary, the content of free amino acid, proline, leaf nitrate and the activities of enzymes such as catalase and peroxidase were found increased with the increase in the concentration of cadmium while the activity of nitrate reductase were found to be decreased. Comparison of the parameters analyzed between the treated and control reveals that cadmium have seriously affected the Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper. Based on this, it was concluded that high concentration of cadmium severely affect the plant growth and result in growth inhibition, decline in physiological and biochemical activities of crop plants.
      PubDate: Oct 2017
       
  • The Hydrogeochemical Occurrence of Fluoride in Groundwater and Its Effect
           on Human Health: A Case Study from Sanliurfa, Turkey

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2017
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  5  Number  2  Ayse Dilek Atasoy   and Mehmet Irfan Yesilnacar   Fluoride ions in drinking water higher than the permissible level lead to negative effects on the human health. More than 200 million people in the world were adversely affected from the high fluorine water. Endemic fluorosis originating from the consumption of high fluorine water was observed also in some parts of Anatolia, Turkey. Volcanic formations are found in areas with high fluoride concentrations in ground waters. In this study, fluoride concentration in ground water was researched in two villages in Sanliurfa where comprised generally sedimental formations thereupon the identified fluorosis cases on the primary school students.
      PubDate: Mar 2017
       
  • Evaluation of Tree Species for Agroforestry Practice on Entisols in the
           Sudan Sahel Region of Nigeria

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2017
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  5  Number  2  Ioryisa Verinumbe   1) Background: Evaluation of Acacia nilotica, Acacia Senegal, Azadirachta indica, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Khaya senegalensis, Leucaena leucocephala and Prosopis juliflora for growth and interactions with soil and crops for agroforestry development was undertaken on Entisols in the Sudan Sahel region of North Eastern Nigeria. One hundred trees of each species were established at 2 x 2m spacing on a sandy loam entisol by intercropping with beans (Vigna unguiculata) for the initial 2 years. Tree growth was regularly recorded and changes in soil properties as well as yield of Sorghum vulgare on them also evaluated. 2) Results: The tree species recorded more than 60% survival and grew rapidly. The highest annual mean tree girth growth rate of 3.65cm occurred in Leucaena leucocephala, followed by Acacia nilotica (3.61cm), Azadirachta indica (3.01cm), Eucalyptus camaldulensis (2.78cm), Khaya senegalensis (2.72cm), Acacia Senegal (2.55cm) and Prosopis juliflora (2.23cm). The trees accumulated sand and improved nutrient status of the soil under them. Sorghum vulgare crop grown on the forest soils produced higher dry matter yield than the surrounding field soil. The best crop yield of 3.22 g/plant occurred on Leucaena leucocephala soil, followed by Azadirachta indica (2.92 g/plant), Acacia nilotica (2.33 g/plant), Eucalyptus camaldulensis (2.22 g/plant), Prosopis juliflora (1.80 g/plant), Acacia Senegal (1.71 g/plant), the control (1.59 g/plant) and Khaya senegalensis (1.22 g/plant). 3)Conclusions: The study ranked species according to their growth and agroforestry qualities. It also observed some inter-tree species interactions which, when fully developed, will be very useful for scientific management of mixed species tropical agroforests.
      PubDate: Mar 2017
       
  • Mangrove Vegetation Dynamics of the Tanbi Wetland National Park in The
           Gambia

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2017
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  5  Number  2  Adam Ceesay   N'Da Hypolite Dibi   Ebrima Njie   Matthias Wolff   and Tidiani Koné   Changes in mangrove vegetation have been identified as important indicators of environmental deterioration. The mangroves of the Tanbi Wetland National Park (TWNP) connect the Atlantic coast with the estuary of the River Gambia and as such, play an invaluable role in the agriculture, tourism and fisheries sectors of The Gambia. Our research seeks to understand the long-term changes in the mangrove vegetation in order to strengthen the formulation of sustainable alternative livelihoods and adaptation strategies to climate change. Mangrove vegetation dynamics was assessed by remote sensing, using decadal Landsat images covering 1973 - 2012. Physicochemical parameters were analyzed during the rainy and dry seasons for correlation with climate data. Our findings indicate that the long-term changes in salinity (24.5 and 35.8ppt) and water temperature (27.6℃ and 30.2℃) during the rainy and dry seasons respectively are retarding mangrove growth. Mangrove vegetation cover declined by 6%, while grassland increased by 56.4%. This research concludes that long-term hyper-salinity is the cause for the stunted vegetation and lack of mangrove rejuvenation in TWNP. We propose that specialized replanting systems such as the use of saplings be adopted instead of the conventional use of propagules. Alternative livelihoods also need to be diversified to support coastal communities.
      PubDate: Mar 2017
       
  • A Review of the Geographical Research of Isolation and Separation Features
           of the Balkan Peoples and States in the Time of Cvijić and Today

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2017
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  5  Number  2  Dejan Šabić   and Snežana Vujadinović   The Balkan Peninsula is a geographical region where different civilizations meet and permeate, but also a region of isolation and separation of its peoples. Its territory was the place where the interests of the great economic and political powers often collided and merged, mostly for political and military reasons. The historical processes that marked the last decade of the 20th century on the Balkan Peninsula were not in accordance with the integration processes in Europe, which took place after the Second World War, and whose intensity heightened after the fall of the Berlin Wall and the reunification of the two parts of Germany. Most nations in the region were not economically and politically ready to accept social changes in Europe and therefore remained isolated and separated in most cases. The article focuses on the geographical research of the isolation and separation features of the Balkan peoples and the states in the time of Jovan Cvijić and nowadays, through the prism of contemporary political and economic processes.
      PubDate: Mar 2017
       
  • Geo-spatial Analysis of Habitat Suitability for Common Leopard (Panthera
           pardus Linnaeus, 1758) in Shivapuri Nagarjun National Park, Nepal

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2017
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  5  Number  2  Bishnu Maharjan   Shahnawaz   Tej B. Thapa   and Purna Man Shrestha   Existence of predators like common leopard (Panthera pardus) is associated with high biodiversity, so the protection of their habitats is one of the most effective ways to conserve biodiversity globally. Considering the facts above, the main objective of this research is to predict and map the possible habitat for Common Leopard in Shivapuri Nagarjun National Park by using remote sensing and GIS approach. In order to achieve that, Species Distribution Modeling (MaxEnt) was demonstrated to predict the Common Leopard's distribution and was applied to figure out possible suitable area in Shivapuri Nagarjun National Park. By using presence - only data of Common Leopard (Panthera pardus) occurrences, 138 observation points alongside several environmental variables which consist Distance from Settlement Area, Forest, Bush, Road, Sparse Forest and Agricultural Area were developed in to MaxEnt Programme. Remotely sensed imagery of ResourceSat-2 imagery used by applying supervised classification in order to determine land use land cover characteristics of the study area. Image processing and feature extraction was done by Erdas Imagine 2011 and maximum likelihood supervised classification was done. The contribution of variable "Distance from Settlement Area (52.4%)" was highest to impact the model. The model performance was accessed through using Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) plots and Jackknife tests. The Area under Training data (ROC) curve (RUC) 0.828 and that of Test data ROC curve was 0.678 which is acceptable than the Random Prediction Model (AUC) of 0.5.
      PubDate: Mar 2017
       
  • An Investigation of the Effect of Ship Capacity to Shipping Emissions

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2017
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  5  Number  2  Levent Bilgili   and Ugur Bugra Celebi   Shipping has the major part of world trading with a ratio of approximately 90%. Besides their great benefits on economy, shipping activities are responsible for considerable amounts of harmful emissions and wastes which can be occurred in gaseous, liquid and solid forms. Most of the gaseous emissions are formed during operation phase. In this study, three scenarios are developed based on real shipping data in order to investigate the effect of ship size to air emissions formed during operation phase. In the first scenario, Ship A carries 170,000 tons of goods, per se. In the second scenario, Ship B and Ship C carry 170,000 tons of goods in the same route with Ship A. In the third scenario, Ship B, Ship D and Ship E carry the same amount of load in the same route with the previous scenarios.
      PubDate: Mar 2017
       
  • Biohydrogen Production by Anaerobic Fermentation of Sewage Sludge - Effect
           of Initial pH

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2017
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  5  Number  2  Ilknur Senturk   and Hanife Buyukgungor   The aim of this study is to investigate the usability of sewage sludge, a waste from waste water treatment facility, at constant temperature and different pH conditions in the hydrogen production by dark fermentation. It was understood from the results that hydrogen production varies according to the characterization of activated sludge. In the experiments performed at different pH values (pH 4-8) at 35℃, maximum hydrogen production was achieved within the first 24 hours. Except for one performed at pH 8, hydrogen gas release was observed at other pH values within 2 hours. However, according to the results obtained at the 24th hour, maximum hydrogen production (2489 mL/m3H2) was observed at pH 8.
      PubDate: Mar 2017
       
  • Mechanical Wastewater Facility Challenges in the Canadian Arctic

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2017
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  5  Number  2  Ken Johnson   Glenn Prosko   and David Lycon   The consistent performance of wastewater treatment in the far north of Canada, in general, remains an elusive objective, and a frustration for engineers, communities, senior governments, and regulators. Lagoon systems suffer from performance inconsistencies, and a significant scientific effort has been underway by the Government of Nunavut to study and predict the performance of lagoon systems. It has been pointed out that those systems which are technologically simple, and engineered for sufficient capacity tend to perform well, however lagoon systems are ultimately at the mercy of the natural environment, which is extreme in the far north. Mechanical systems do offer the opportunity to reduce the influence of the natural environment, however a multitude of other factors affect the design, construction, operation and maintenance of mechanical systems in the far north. As an opportunity to mitigate the challenges associated with mechanical wastewater systems, a synopsis of the community mechanical treatment facilities in the north has been compiled. Lessons learned from the challenges with mechanical wastewater systems in the far north have been catalogued as a legacy document to future project stakeholders. This compilation is a first attempt to provide a documentation to serve as a reference for improving the development, execution, and operation of future mechanical wastewater treatment projects, where this technical option is deemed appropriate.
      PubDate: Mar 2017
       
  • Fish Assemblage Structure Indicates Limited Restoration Progress over a
           Lustrum of a Severely Degraded Estuary in Southern Tamaulipas, Mexico

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jun 2017
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  5  Number  4  Alejandro Fierro-Cabo   and Carlos E. Cintra-Buenrostro   Today the biggest incentive to attempt the restoration and protection of estuarine systems is their widely recognized ecological and economic importance. In the reconstruction of an estuary where the original aquatic communities disappeared before the restoration interventions, the fish assemblage is an adequate source of indicators of initial recovery. Following substantial restoration efforts, this study reports on the biannual for a lustrum monitoring and assessment of a severely degraded estuary (Garrapatas) in terms of its fish assemblage using a reference estuary (Barberena) in Tamaulipas, Mexico. Twenty fishes were associated with the restoring and reference estuaries. Species composition (richness, abundance, dominance) clearly showed differences among sites. No piscivorous estuarine or marine fishes were found in Garrapatas pointing at an unbalanced and incomplete trophic chain. On the other hand, the mangrove plant community appears to have fully recovered. Water parameters were more variable in Barberena compared to the restoring sites, especially salinity, DO, and pH, which were also higher. Estuaries are transitional systems with inherent variation of abiotic parameters. It is proposed that this variability of abiotic parameters still missing in the restored sites, and may be key to the full recovery of biotic assemblages and ecosystem function.
      PubDate: Jun 2017
       
  • Plastic Pellets on Campeche Beach (Santa Catarina Island, Brazil): A
           Seasonality and Composition Study

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jun 2017
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  5  Number  4  Patrícia Louro   and Walter Martin Widmer   Alerts regarding marine contamination by microplastics motivated this study, conducted in Santa Catarina Island, South Brazil. During 12 sampling events, spatial and temporal distribution of plastic resin pellets, collected at two locations of Campeche beach, was analyzed, and polymer composition was identified. Plastic pellets were found in every sampling day, with a mean average of 1.16 pellets/ m2. Their abundance was influenced by two factors: Sampling location and Sampling day nested in each Season. There was a variable abundance along the monitoring period, with an increase of pellets in autumn. A significantly higher amount of pellets was found in one sampling place. The composition of the sampled pellets was heterogeneous, with a prevalence of low density polyethylene polymers. It is clear that a series of proceedings regarding production, stocking, transport and transformation of plastic pellets, must be considered, to avoid pellets loss of into the environment.
      PubDate: Jun 2017
       
  • Farmers Adaptation Strategies to the Effect of Climate Variation on Rice
           Production: Insight from Benue State, Nigeria

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jun 2017
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  5  Number  4  Idoma Kim   Ikpe Elisha   Ejeh Lawrence   and Mamman Moses   The study investigated farmers' adaptation strategies to the effect of climate variation on rice production in Agatu Local Government Area of Benue State. Specifically, the study assessed the socio-economic characteristics of farmers, farmers' climate related constraints, the adaptation strategies employed by farmers and barriers to adaption practices. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select two hundred and forty respondents for the study. Data collected through questionnaire were analyzed using frequency counts, percentages, mean distribution and Pearson Product Moment Correlation. Results obtained showed that farmers in the study area were mostly males with a mean age of 42.8 years. Major climate related constraint cited were high rate of weed growth ( =2.8), stunted growth ( =3.2), incidence of flooding ( =2.6) and low rainfall ( =3.4). Pearson product moment correlation indicated that there were significant and positive relationships between perceptions of climate change indicators (increasing flood, increasing hot temperature, unpredictable rain and shorter duration of rain) and adaptation strategies. Therefore, efforts should be geared towards reinforcing farmers' adaptability to climate change through improved rice species that are tolerant to change in climate elements and weather extremes like flood and drought, enhancement of farmers' income through provision of credit facilities and encouragement of irrigation farming as supplements to rain fed agriculture in the study area.
      PubDate: Jun 2017
       
  • Coastal Objects: Mangrove Area Extraction Using Remote Sensing and Aerial
           LiDAR Data in Roxas, Oriental Mindoro

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jun 2017
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  5  Number  4  Donald A. Luna   Davies V. Ocampo   Sarena Grace L. Quiñones   Efren C. Rivera   Charmina G. Sejalbo   Precious R. Zara   Kenneth Bernard M. Hizon   Jovy Anne V. Delos Reyes   Victor S. Ticzon   and Damasa M. Macandog   The Phil-LiDAR 2 program aims to extract the natural resources of the Philippines from the available two points per square meter LiDAR data. Mangroves, being coastal resources, were one of the foci of this program under the Aquatic Resources Extraction from LiDAR Surveys (CoastMap). The object-based image analysis (OBIA) approach, and support vector machine (SVM) algorithm were utilized to classify three major classes from the LiDAR data, namely: mangrove, other vegetation, and non-vegetation. Object feature values used in the classification include the mean, standard deviation, mode, and texture values from the generated LiDAR derivatives. These derivatives include the Digital Surface Model (DSM), Digital Terrain Model (DTM), Canopy Height Model (CHM), Intensity, Number of Returns, Normalized DSM (NDSM), Slope, and Slope of Slope. Moreover, field data collection and validation provided key references in the supervised SVM classification and contextual editing of the extracted mangrove areas. From the implemented classification, an overall accuracy of above 90% was achieved. Focusing with the final classified mangrove coverage, management of the mangrove resources can be made proper and efficient. Furthermore, high resolution or detailed spatial information can support programs like Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation Plus (REDD+) and biodiversity studies.
      PubDate: Jun 2017
       
  • Assessment of Aquatic Toxicity of River Keya Using Daphnia magna

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jun 2017
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  5  Number  4  Nan-Min Wu   and Wen-Chin Chen   This study assessed the aquatic toxicity of the River Keya during its passage through the Hsin Chu City, Taiwan. The River Keya receives effluent from the Union Wastewater Treatment Plant of Hsin Chu Science Industrial Park (UWTP-HCSIP) primarily covering more than 500 semiconductors-related high-tech industries. Although the effluent from the UWTP-HCSIP has met the current environmental regulations of Taiwan, the aquatic environment of the River Keya was frequently subjected to unknown interferences. The aim of present study was to assess the acute toxicity of the River Keya using Daphnia magna. Six sampling sites were arranged where four were at downstream from the confluence of the effluent from the UWTP-HCSIP to the River Keya, and the other two were at the upstream to serve as references. Daphnia magna was employed to test the static 24-h acute toxicity, and the data obtained were further analyzed using the Probit and Spearman-Karber statistical models. Results showed a significant increase of the electric conductivity, BOD5, and COD in those sampling sites downstream of the confluence point. The toxicity unit (TU) of the river water showed an increase-then-decrease fashion, and up to a 3-fold increase of TU was found downstream the UWTP-HCSIP effluent convergent to the River Keya. In comparison with the TU of the samples taken at the discharge point of the UWTP-HCSIP and the downstream of the convergence, the former is two times higher than the latter. These comparative results revealed that the aquatic toxicity effect is close related to the effluent from the UWTP-HCSIP, and a carry capacity of River Keya, especially for aquatic toxicity should be established.
      PubDate: Jun 2017
       
  • Habitat and Phytochemical Analysis of Gemor (Nothaphoebe sp.) on
           Peat-swamp Forest Areas, Central Kalimantan

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jun 2017
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  5  Number  4  Yudi Firmanul Arifin   Siti Hamidah   Trisnu Satriadi   and Gusti Muhammad Hatta   Gemor is one of the forest products of high economic value. The bark can be used for the manufacture of mosquito coils; so many people collect them for sale. The selling price of wet-bark reaches 231-385 USD per ton. High prices of Gemor lead to increased exploitation. Conservation efforts are not done yet, so this species will be endangered. This study was conducted to determine the characteristics of Gemor habitat and phytochemical confounds of leave, twig, and bark. From this research which part can produce insecticide besides stem bark can be known. It can be used for an alternative for utilization of Gemor besides bark. It was revealed that the Gemor tended to live well on habitats which have on peatlands, sometimes flooded, pH of 3.52-3.58, and pyrite of 0.17-0.21%. It needed N of 1.21-1.43%, P of 9.00-9.10mg/100g, C of 3.78-9.29%. This species was living generally in secondary forests with a light intensity of 3-5% and humidity of 88-99%. Phytochemical analysis indicated the other anatomy of Gemor besides the bark, namely leaves and twigs also contain secondary metabolites, such as; alkaloids, steroids, flavonoids, and phenolic. Flavonoids and phenolic compounds were potentially as natural insecticides. Flavonoids and phenolic in leaves were higher than the bark, so it can be said that the leave of Gemor was potentially as natural insecticides.
      PubDate: Jun 2017
       
  • Weather and Climate Extremes on the Canadian Prairies: An Assessment with
           a Focus on Grain Production

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jun 2017
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  5  Number  4  E. Ray Garnett   and Madhav L. Khandekar   The Canadian prairies are Canada's granaries, producing up to 75 million tons of grain (primarily wheat, barley, and oats) and oilseeds (primarily canola) during the summer months of June to August. Canada is a major grain exporting country; exports have a market value of about 30-40 billion US dollars. The Canadian prairie agricultural industry is a major socio-economic activity for western Canada, employing thousands in farming communities and in other industries such as transportation on a year-round basis. A good grain harvest in a given year depends critically on various summer weather and climate extremes which can adversely or favorably impact grain yield and quality. Typical among such extremes that can impact crop yield and quality are: extended drought accompanied by heat; wet and cool summers; and frosts during sowing period (late May to early June) and during ripening (August) and the harvest period (late August to mid-October). This paper presents a number of examples of how extreme weather is implicated in grain production and quality estimates and annual exports. The paper analyzes some of the weather and climate extremes and their linkages to large-scale atmosphere-ocean circulation patterns. Among some of the important large-scale parameters that impact prairie summer weather are: the ENSO (El Nino-Southern Oscillation) phase in the equatorial Pacific, the MJO (Madden-Julian Oscillation in the eastern tropical latitude) and the PNA (Pacific North American) atmospheric flow pattern. Also detected is the impact of solar variability as identified by a geomagnetic index called the AP index (averaged planetary index). Please see Glossary of Terms in the Appendix.
      PubDate: Jun 2017
       
  • Influence of Edaphic and Phytosociological Attributes on Semideciduous
           Remnants Vegetation

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jun 2017
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  5  Number  4  Maria Teresa Vilela Nogueira Abdo   Sergio Valiengo Valeri   and Antonio Sergio Ferraudo   Atlantic forest biome in Brazil has high biodiversity that is threated due to fragmentation and its remnants retain important residual flora that should be preserved. Studies of environmental conditions that influence species occurrence in those areas are very important to preserve them. This study characterized two remnants vegetation in the Biological Reserve, Pindorama-SP, Brazil, classified as seasonal semideciduous forest sampled in 65 plots of 400 m2, using soil attributes and vegetation data. Soil attributes altitude, basal area, height and number of trees with diameter at breast height (DBH) ≥ 5 cm were evaluated in the plots and non-arboreous species infestation was evaluated in a randomly drawn quadrant of 100 m2. The hierarchical clustering, based on soil attributes, separated plots in two major groups and five subgroups of similarity used to characterize the vegetation and the species diversity, by the Shannon Index (H') and the Pielou Equitability Coefficient (J). Soil attributes influenced endemic trees and non-arborous vegetation showing that preservation of native vegetation should consider these species relationships. Plots with higher clay percentage and higher fertility had higher infestation of non-arboreous plants as bamboo, lianas and different grasses species and had lower species diversity, basal area and height of tree species.
      PubDate: Jun 2017
       
  • Risk Evaluation of Seven Personal Care Detergents Based on Chemical and
           Ecotoxicological Characterization in Synthetic Aqueous Media

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2017
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  5  Number  1  Oguz Kizek   Deniz İzlen Çifçi   Füsun Ekmekyapar   Antonietta Siciliano   and Sureyya Meriç   Personal care products (PCPs), composed of various chemicals as complex mixture nature, are evaluated among those MPs found often in treated sewage and greywater. Among PCPs, detergents (PCDs) are forming specific complex mixtures containing various endocrine disruptor chemicals, to be handled accurately. In this study, acute toxicity of seven PCDs including shampoos (4) and shower gels (3) collected from different Hotels located in different countries was investigated. Chemical characterization (Chemical oxygen demand, COD; Total organic carbon, TOC) was performed according to Standard Methods. Besides, absorbance spectrum of each PCD was screened using UV-vis instrument. Acute toxicity of synthetic solutions prepared by dissolving PCDs in distilled water was assessed on two freshwater crustaceans Daphnia magna (D. magna) and Ceriodaphnia dubia (C. dubia) according to ISO 6341 Method. Acute toxicity was assessed for 24 and 48 h of exposure time by dividing the number of immobile organisms by total tested organisms (20) to score immobilization percentiles of each sample tested. By this way it was possible to calculate the concentration of EC50indicating a 50% population immobilization, using PROBIT program. The results of chemical characterization showed that the biodegradability by means of TOC/COD ratio of PCDs was very low. C. dubia was observed to be more sensitive than D. magna regarding lower values of EC50. All tested chemicals were found to be harmful according to EC50 toxic chemical's evaluation scoring system.
      PubDate: Jan 2017
       
  • Acoustic Design and Repetitive Speech and Motor Movement in Children with
           Autism

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2017
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  5  Number  1  Shireen Kanakri   Emerging research in Evidence-Based Design for interiors such as classrooms has begun considering the unique sensory needs of users with autism spectrum disorders. The current study observes the impact of the acoustic environment on repetitive speech and motor movement in children with autism. An observational study was conducted in four school classrooms to observe changes in behavior associated with changes in the decibel levels in the room. Forty-two children diagnosed with high-functioning autism between the ages of six and nine years old were observed in classroom settings. Variant decibel levels in the classrooms and variance in the frequency of repetitive behaviors were measured to determine the strength and direction of the correlations between the two. Results were analyzed using Noldus Observer XT software, and confirmed the hypothesized relationship. The finding that repetitive behavior is correlated with the acoustical condition of the environment should be considered in the design of classrooms for children with autism, for the benefit of user comfort and educational performance.
      PubDate: Jan 2017
       
  • Tanzanian Controversy on Resources Endowments and Poverty

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2017
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  5  Number  1  Msafiri Yusuph Mkonda   and Xinhua He   This paper examines the existing resources curse in Tanzania with detailed analyses on the controversy. A country with high resources endowments: i.e. about 44 million hectares of arable land, precious minerals, forests resources, water and wildlife but is among the poorest countries in the planet Earth. Here we reviewed over 25 reports, journal papers and books and found that all precious natural resources have insignificant contribution to socio-economic development of the people. The resource curse is confirmed in about all resources as there is no correlation between the quality of life and resources endowments. In recent years, the country has recorded the lowest per capita income at $ 960 with weak purchasing power parity. This declares that all consumptions, investments and government spending are insignificant. In addition, approximately 75% of the population depends on under-developed smallholder primary agricultural production, small-scale mining and other micro economic sector. Under such a situation, about 51% of the Tanzanians are poor and roughly one-third of these people live in abject poverty. Similarly, despite of the recent discovery of 2.17 trillion cubic feet of natural gas deposit, more than 50% of households have no access to basic requirements such as electricity, medical care etc. The human development index = 0.521 (low) i.e. life expectancy has decreased to about 50 years, illiteracy rate is about 68%, high rates of malnutrition and poor access to safe water both in urban and rural areas are other acute problems to the Tanzanians. Food insecurity is about 41% of households due to poor yields. The major causes for all these misfortunes are poor governance, policy failure, interference of political interest in professionalism, inadequate technology and corruption just to mention a few. Despite of the efforts as stipulated in section 7 of this paper, it is further projected that competition over resources use is expected to elevate being from within and outside the country. This will exacerbate the level of poverty among the poor and increase their vulnerability. To address the problem, the government needs to undertake serious and sustainable measures over the control and use of natural resources.
      PubDate: Jan 2017
       
  • Ethnoecological Survey of Underutilized Plant Diversity of Hamirpur
           District, Himachal Pradesh, India: An Edibility Assessment

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2017
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  5  Number  1  Ram Chand   Anand Narain Singh   and C. Nirmala   The present study was conducted to explore diversity and status of underutilized wild edible plants of Hamirpur district, Himachal Pradesh, India. Total 85 plant species of 66 genera belonging to 39 families under various life forms and origins were recorded; in which, 30 species as trees (25 native and 5 exotic), 11 shrubs (6 native and 5 exotic), 28 herbs (10 native and 18 exotic) and remaining 16 were creepers (12 native and 4 exotic). Edibility index (EI) showed 100% score of edibility by two species, while 80% was shown by 11 species, 40% by 3 species and remaining 69 species showed 10 to 30% only. Across family, maximum utilization efficiency (10 score) was found only in 2 families (Apiaceae and Violaceae), while 5 families (Chenopodiaceae, Commelinaceae, Liliaceae, Oxalidaceae and Portulaceae) have shown 8 and one family (Amaranthaceae) exhibited 5.8 score followed by 31 other families. In this study, it was observed that consumption mode of various plant parts were either fresh or cooked. In conclusion, present study may help in alleviating food scarcity, malnutrition and can be employed further as commercial crop plants for the welfare of human in developing countries.
      PubDate: Jan 2017
       
  • A Chemical Mechanism for Self-ignition in a Peat Stack

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2017
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  5  Number  1  Kari I. Hänninen   Two lowest excited energy states of the ground state molecule, and , exist in troposphere. They are called as singlet oxygen molecules. The mechanism leading to their formation in the peat stack is indirect photolysis. Almost all chromophores which absorb UV/visible radiation are able to transfer the needed excitation energy to molecules. The decomposition process of organic material (OM) in the peat stack raises its temperature and produces volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and humified OM with conjugated double bond structures. This increases the efficiency of indirect photolysis. The residence time of 14 minutes allows to accumulate in sufficiently rich atmosphere inside the stack. Excess energies of and heat the system and creates from VOCs/OM hydroxyl and peroxyl radicals which further propagate exothermic reactions. These natural heating mechanisms may locally add enough to the overall stack temperature of 50 to 70℃ to trigger self-ignition of VOCs. Sporadic but frequent micro-fires may generate hot spots of carbonaceous char, which achieve and maintain temperatures of 170 to 220℃. This heat generates hot spots of smouldering fire, which may further develop to ember stage. Finally, if wind inflames, an open fire may eventually evolve in the peat stack.
      PubDate: Jan 2017
       
  • Assessment of River Bank Erosion and Vulnerability of Embankment to
           Breaching: A RS and GIS Based Study in Subansiri River in Assam, India

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2017
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  5  Number  1  Ranjit Das   and Bipul Talukdar   Temporal Satellite Remote Sensing data of a river system of highly unstable bank can be analyzed in GIS environment for identification of river bank erosion as well as patches of embankment vulnerable to breaching. A case study was carried out in the Subansiri River, a tributary of river Brahmaputra of Assam, in India to identify locations of bank erosion and corresponding patches of embankment vulnerable to breaching. Temporal dataset of cartosat-1 imagery for the year 2007 and 2009 were used for mapping the flow channel of river Subansiri. Embankments present in the river were mapped from the cartosat-1 data with the help of embankment index map collected from Assam State Water Resource Department. Based on the degree of convergence and narrowness between the flow channel and embankment, some patches of embankment identified as vulnerable to breaching and classified as very high, high and moderate vulnerable to breaching. Three patches of embankment were identified as very high vulnerable to breaching which came to be true in successive flood season of 2010. The method may be a good tool for predicting embankment vulnerability to breaching due to bank erosion and can be implemented for planning of river bank protection work and preparedness for flood season for a flood prone state like Assam.
      PubDate: Jan 2017
       
  • Co-evolution of Forestry Policy Development and System-Social Community

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2017
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  5  Number  7  Marwoto   Hariadi Kartodihardjo   Dudung Darusman   and Soeryo Adiwibowo   Developing forests is synonymous with building communities around the forest. Forest destruction is related to the behavior of people living around the forest. Society will always adjust its life to the changes that occur around it in the process of adaptation to be able to live its life. The study found that the failure of forest management was caused by the failure of the process of adaptation of forest management policies with local communities' practice traditions and social systems. Forestry development policy often leads to exclusion of the state to the already living and resident communities in the areas established by the development of the forestry sector. This fact raises the issue of conflict of interest between the surrounding community and the forest manager. On the basis of the findings of this study I suggest; To prevent degradation and deforestation, a new paradigm of forest management systems is required which retains the ecological, economic and socio-cultural functions of local communities as subjects and uses local knowledge and culture as the basis for their governance, and involves other sector commodities to increase their economic value (incentives).
      PubDate: Dec 2017
       
  • Using the Cluster Approach to Waste Management - Blagoevgrad Region

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2017
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  5  Number  7  Nikolinka Atnasova   Clusters are a way to organize thinking on many policy areas beyond the usual needs of the economy as tsyalo. Klasterat is one of the tools of competitiveness and helps to clarify the priorities and direction of policy in science and technology, education and many other areas. Prevention of waste generation has the highest priority in the management hierarchy, while landfilling is in the group of the lowest. Given the financial situation of Bulgaria, which is in transition and is still in crisis, our country's national policy is aimed at reconciling the two priorities in the most appropriate way. The Ministry of Environment and Water has adopted an approach for building new landfills on a regional basis, with the maximum utilization of recyclable waste meeting the European requirements. Both on a global scale and in the European Union, the shortage of raw materials and energy resources is increasing. This has also re-evaluated the waste management policy in our country based on sustainability and regionality. Following the European model, the Ministry of Environment and Water adopted the approach for the construction of landfills for waste disposal from several neighboring municipalities and meeting the overriding regulatory requirements laid down in Decree №209 / 2009 - "To provide funding for the construction of regional systems Waste management, regional pre-treatment systems for municipal waste and the closure of municipal landfills ". For the purposes of the Decree, a "Regional Waste Management System" is a set of measures that municipalities jointly take to ensure that the total amount of waste generated on the territory of the region is collected separately, transported, stored, treated and disposed of in an environmentally sound manner. The report examines the practical steps in building a cluster policy related to environmentally sound waste management - Blagoevgrad Region, covering the municipalities of Blagoevgrad, Simitli, Kyustendil, Rila, Kocherinovo and Boboshevo. Future research aims at creating a cluster model "Resource recovery and mitigation Climate change, "which we hope will have a multiplier effect on future regional landfills for domestic waste disposal in Bulgaria.
      PubDate: Dec 2017
       
  • Heavy Metal Contamination in Agricultural Soil at DEPZA, Bangladesh

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2017
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  5  Number  7  Md Tanvir Hasnine   Md Emadul Huda   Rajada Khatun   A H M Saadat  Monjur Ahasan   Shirin Akter   Md Fakhar Uddin   Ashrafun Nahar Monika   M Ashikur Rahman   and Md Ohiduzzaman   Higher accumulation of toxic heavy metals in rice grown in agricultural soil may lead to health disorder. The present study was carried out to assess the levels of different heavy metals like potassium, calcium, titanium, vanadium, chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper and zinc in agricultural soil. The soil samples were collected by soil auger from the arable fields of Nolam near Dhaka Export Processing Zone Area (DEPZA), Savar, Dhaka of Bangladesh. The samples were irradiated using 3MV Van de Graaff Accelerator at the Atomic Energy Centre, Dhaka and Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique was employed for the analysis. The results indicated a substantial build-up of heavy metals in surface soil andsub-surface soil. Average metal concentrations were calculated and compared with reference values. The persistence of heavy metals in surface soil was higher than the sub-surface soil and it exceeded the standard safe limit. Uptake and translocation factor of heavy metal from surface soil to sub-surface soil were quite distinguished for almost all elements examined. In terms of health risk, the observed highest concentrations of these elements in soil could have an effect on human health which may pose public health hazards and for this pretreatment process of waste water is necessary for reducing the amount of heavy metals before using it to the agricultural soil. Wastewater from industries or other sources carries an appreciable amount of toxic heavy metals therefore their discharge into the environment must be minimized and carefully controlled.
      PubDate: Dec 2017
       
  • Trace Elements Concentration in Surface Water Used for Irrigation in
           Kosovo

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2017
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  5  Number  7  Smajl Rizani   and Perparim Laze   The aim of this study is to assess the quality of the surface water used for irrigation purposes by examining the presence of trace elements in the main irrigation sources in Kosovo. Samples were taken from several of these sources (rivers, some reservoirs, pump stations and canals) and were then analyzed for trace elements content such as zinc, iron, copper, manganese, lead, nickel, cobalt, cadmium, chromium, and molybdenum, by Microwave Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (MP-AES 4100). The findings revealed no significant differences in terms of trace elements content in the samples coming from the various sources. Copper, manganese, nickel, cobalt, lead and chromium were found in normal concentrations in all the water sources, whereas zinc and iron were found to be in deficient concentrations. Cadmium was at recommended maximum concentrations. Molybdenum is found in high concentrations especially in the water samples taken from pump stations and irrigation reservoirs. In the future it is necessary to closely and continuously monitor the concentrations of molybdenum in the irrigation waters of this area. Furthermore, it is essential to identify the causes of the high molybdenum levels in these waters. However, these sources can be used for irrigation purposes without posing a threat to the soil and plants.
      PubDate: Dec 2017
       
  • Building a Network of Biological Resource Centers for Research Purposes in
           the Caribbean: Excellent Potential for Research into Public Health
           Diseases

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2017
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  5  Number  7  S. Gaete   and J. Deloumeaux   Biological Resource Centers (BRCs) and their associated molecular biology platforms are the keys to the development of clinical research, by enabling the utilization and sharing of dedicated collections of human biological samples. Whether in the aim of identifying biomarkers for existing diseases, or improving knowledge of the pathophysiology of emerging diseases, these collections have the ultimate goal of improving patient care. The BRC of the University Hospital of Guadeloupe calls for the implementation of a Caribbean network between BRCs and Biobank-type structures across the Caribbean, in the following areas: cancer, infectious and emerging diseases, hematological, and cardio-metabolic diseases. This Caribbean Network of Biological Resource Centers (CNBRC) aims to become a key player in proposing specific ad hoc research topics, bringing together biological materials from Caribbean populations with similar health problems. A network of this type would facilitate academic and/or industrial partnerships, promote exchange of know-how through dedicated platforms, and link research teams through communication tools. Furthermore, collaboration between plant and animal BRCs could enable preclinical studies on Caribbean flora and fauna, and their impact on human health. Sharing expertise and processes, and ensuring a reliable delivery system for quality biological samples, would be at the core of the network's functioning. Therefore, setting up a CNBRC represents a unique opportunity to expand the scale and quality of clinical research in the Caribbean in two ways, namely:-firstly, by bringing together data from populations who share geographic, environmental and genetic similarities, but which may not have sufficient sample sizes to yield the required statistical power when studied separately; -secondly, by giving local scientists the tools to develop the expertise within their own communities.
      PubDate: Dec 2017
       
  • Potential of Vetiver Grass for Wastewater Treatment

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2017
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  5  Number  7  Alina Maharjan   and Sadhana Pradhanang   Vetiver (Chrysopogonzizanioides) is a perennial bunch grass of the Poaceae family which is popularly known as Kush, and which are suitable for the disposal of leachate and effluents generated from landfill and wastewater treatment with super absorbent characteristics. This experimental study was carried out to assess the efficiency of Vetiver plants in the water of Bagmati River, close to Kirtipur's Laboratory School. Data for design parameters- pH, Temperature, Conductivity, BOD5, Chloride, Nitrate, Phosphate, Hardness and Alkalinity- were collected regularly for a month. Vetiver plants were planted in three buckets with 7.5 liters of sampled water, while another bucket was kept as a control. In each of the three buckets, nine Vetiver plants were planted and physico-chemical parameters analyzed for one month at ten-day intervals. The result showed that on the one month, the overall concentration of BOD5, Chloride, Nitrate, Phosphate, Hardness and Alkalinity reduced by 71.03%, 42.90%, 93.93%, 88.4%, 46.4% and 22.2% respectively. pH and temperature of wastewater showed slight change while electronic conductivity lowered to normal levels after treatment in the bucket. Vetiver plant seems very effective in treating polluted water having high phosphate and nitrate levels.
      PubDate: Dec 2017
       
  • Effective Removal of Hazardous Dyes from Aqueous Solutions Using Starch
           Based Hydrogel and Gamma Radiation

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2017
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  5  Number  7  Ghada Adel Mahmoud   Samia E. Abdel-Aal   Nabil A. El-kelesh   and E. A. Alshafei   The adsorption performance of acrylamide/ starch hydrogel (AAm/starch) prepared by gamma radiation for removal of direct congo red (DCR) and direct blue (DB) dyes has been investigated. The physico-chemical parameters such as dye concentration, solution pH and temperature have been studied. Favorable adsorption occurred at pH 3 for DCR and pH 10 for DB. The adsorption of dyes onto AAm/starch hydrogels was endothermic process. Experimental data have been modeled by the Freundlich isotherm. Degradation test of DCR and DB dyes using gamma irradiation in aqueous solution under various radiation doses and pH was investigated and G-value was calculated. Destruction of 70% and 75% of the dye colour solutions was succeeded at radiation dose 40 and 30 kGy for DCR and DB, respectively. Comparing the removal percent of DCR and DB dyes by radiation degradation with that done by AAm/starch hydrogel adsorption was investigated. It was found that preferring removal of DCR and DB dyes by gamma radiation degradation. The remaining concentration of dyes was followed by adsorption onto the hydrogel. Complete removal of DCR and DB was performed by gamma radiation degradation followed by AAm/starch hydrogel adsorption.
      PubDate: Dec 2017
       
  • Assessment of Fertility Status of Irrigated Lowland Rice Growing Soils of
           Ebonyi South-East Nigeria

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2017
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  5  Number  7  Ekpe I. I.   B. U. Uzoho   Ahukaemere, C. M   and S. E. Okere   A study to assess soil fertility status was conducted in the lowland rice growing soils of Ebonyi South-East Nigeria situated within latitude 60 41, N and longitude 80 51 E, and 104.40 m above sea level. The assessment covered all the villages that produce rice in the three major rice producing zones of Ebonyi state with Ebiaunuhu, Ogboji and Akaeze representing Ebonyi North, Central and South zones respectively. Soil samples were collected from the rice growing lowland zones at 0-30cm depth using soil auger attached to a core sampler. A total of 250 soil samples were collected from each of the 100 hectare lowland soils of the zones and analyzed for chemical fertility indicators. The data was analyzed for means and percentages and the results were ranked using fertility standard according to Landon. The results revealed that total nitrogen, organic matter and cation exchange capacity were in low in all the zones while P was adequate in all the zones and K was high for the soils studied. Calcium concentration was high in the north but low in the central and southern zones. The soils require good input of N-fertilizer and organic matter to boost CEC and therefore increase the yield of rice in these lowland soils of Ebonyi State.
      PubDate: Dec 2017
       
  • A Survey on Present Tourism in Nepal and Its Ripple Effects on Other
           Industries

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2017
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  5  Number  7  Takumi Arai   and Masayuki Goto   Tourism is one of the most important industries in Nepal. Based on trends, various positive impacts are realized through tourism development. The local people can also receive benefits from infrastructure development and sanitation improvement. On the other hand, there are various benefits that only people working in the tourism industry can receive. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the difference of the benefits in order to expand the ripple effects on other industries, for the further promotion of tourism development. In this research, the consciousness and opinions of local people in Nepal are investigated through a field survey, using a questionnaire. To identify the difference of consciousness across the spectrum of business activities in Nepal, the survey targeted Nepalese respondents having a variety of occupations, including those directly and indirectly connected to the tourism sector. Through the results of the field survey, the differences of the effects and the benefits by occupation are identified, and the problems of the differences and the ripple effect from tourism development on other industries are also pointed out. In conclusion, we propose the way forward for people working in various industries to receive benefits from tourism development in Nepal.
      PubDate: Dec 2017
       
  • Drinking Water Disinfection by Solar Radiation

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug 2017
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  5  Number  5  Arzu Teksoy   and Sevil Çalışkan Eleren   A primary concern of developing countries throughout the world is that of obtaining safe drinking water. Waterborne diseases are still common in developing countries since drinking water sources are contaminated and the conventional rural water treatment plants are often inefficient to produce safe drinking water. This situation in developing countries is a major problem in terms of preventing public health. It is estimated that diarrhea accounted for 99% of the 69 million deaths among children before the age of five. Inadequate operation and maintenance after installations caused by a lack of trained operators, by a treacherous supply of chemicals and spare parts, and by financial problems lead to produce unhealthy drinking water. Since major urban water supplies are also not always capable of maintaining a regular supply of qualitatively good water, the distributed water is often considered unsafe for direct consumption. Treatment of water at the household level (etc. boiling) or purchasing of mineral water for consumption is more real than an exception in urban areas of developing countries. Recently, another small-scale approach using the lethal effect of sunlight has gained importance to sanitary contaminated water. Solar disinfection (SODIS) is one of the simplest methods for providing acceptable quality drinking water and consists of filling transparent containers (plastic bags, plastic bottles or glass bottles) with water and exposing the containers to sunlight for approximately 6 hours. Because of the low cost and easy usage, solar disinfection is commonly used in developing countries in Asia, Africa and South America. The aim of this literature review is to give information about solar disinfection mechanism, to compare the efficiency of solar disinfection on different microorganisms based on the past studies, and to discuss the several applications of solar disinfection in the world.
      PubDate: Aug 2017
       
  • Citizen Action for the Conservation of the Indiana Dunes National
           Lakeshore in Northwest Indiana

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug 2017
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  5  Number  5  Stephanie Smith   and Steve Mark   The present article discusses citizen action strategies employed to preserve the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore in the United States. Ecological pioneers Henry Chandler Cowles and Victor Shelford deemed this region to be of scientific importance, and the region played a role in the formation of the Ecological Society of America and The Nature Conservancy. Citizen action strategies included creating grassroots nonpartisan voluntary organizations, soliciting signatures on petitions, organizing letter-writing campaigns, soliciting media coverage, legal action, and persuading politicians to support preservation efforts. The struggle between heavy industry, residents, and conservationists resulted in the eventual parceling of the Northwest Indiana shoreline between steel mills, public lands, and residential areas. In one of the longest journeys to the passage of a national park bill in the history of the United States, the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore was established by an act of Congress in 1966. Several tracts of land have been added to it, and today the Indiana National Lakeshore consists of 15,000 non-contiguous acres along 15 miles of the south shore of Lake Michigan, with almost two million annual visitors.
      PubDate: Aug 2017
       
  • United Nations Regional Centre for Space Science and Technology Education
           in Africa: Achievements, Opportunities, Challenges, and the Future

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug 2017
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  5  Number  5  Ganiyu I. Agbaje   Capacity building in Space Science and Technology as well as enhancement and retention of existing capacity, are critical for developing competencies to efficiently respond to societal challenges and addressing sustainable development. Following the UN General Assembly resolutions 37/90 of 10th December 1982 (UNISPACE), and 45/72 of 11 December, 1990 (UN-COPUOS), the UN-OOSA established the Regional Centers for Space Science and Technology Education in 1995. To date six (6) Regional Centers have been established with the main aim to build a high quality capacity and critical mass of indigenous Space Scientists/Educators in developing countries for the development and application of Space Science & Technology for Sustainable National & Regional Development. African Regional Centre for Space Science and Technology Education has been established in Africa since 1998. This paper describes the achievements of the Centre since inception through their Postgraduate and Outreach programs. It is, however, observed that Member States have not optimally worked together to maximally utilize the opportunities that this Regional Centre present. By highlighting the capabilities of the Centre, the future plans for harnessing the human potential available for the next generation in Africa are discussed. Argument was made for the need for integrated space technology and applications to be domesticated at the UN regional Centers for ease of access to best practice and fast-track sustainable developments and regional collaborations. In conclusion, the challenges of the Centre, which in turn impact on the local space workforce, are mentioned and recommendations are made to this effect.
      PubDate: Aug 2017
       
  • Forest Management: Forest Fragmentation and Biodiversity Corridor Function
           of Riparian Forest in Lesser Antilles

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug 2017
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  5  Number  5  L. Rolle   This case study is a part of a thesis we lead a botanical and ecological synthesis of Lesser-Antilles riparian forests by studying the forest connectivity in riparian area. The study employed geographic information system processing methods for assessing the integrity of riparian forest and the importance of this corridor function on the rainforest. The corridor function analysis is based on the structural fragmentation and the potential connectivity of the watershed patch forest. The principle of potential connectivity is constructed on the probability of a direct dispersion of floral and animal species between forest patch which is life habitat. This method allowed connectivity indices based on distance calculation between forest patches. The results order habitat patches by their significant weight in the connectivity graph. The question arises as to whether the riparian forest patch is a key habitat to maintain the connectivity quality of the watershed. Do they play their biological function of the corridor in the Lesser Antilles of Guadeloupe and Martinique'
      PubDate: Aug 2017
       
  • Perceptions and Response Actions of Smallholder Coffee Farmers to Climate
           Variability in Montane Ecosystems

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug 2017
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  5  Number  5  Frank Mugagga   The study investigated the perceived impacts of climate variability, response actions, as well as the physical and socio-economic factors influencing adaptation to climate variability by smallholder coffee farmers in Kaato sub-county, Manafwa District, Eastern Uganda. Data was collected from 157 proportionately sampled households, using Open Data Kit (ODK) Software installed on handheld Samsung Galaxy Note 7 Tablets and analysed by using the SPSS (version 18) software to derive descriptive statistics, notably, frequencies and percentages as well chi square tests to establish relationships between variables. A severity scale (1-5) was used to establish farmers' perceptions about variations in selected weather elements (specifically rainfall, temperature, wind and droughts) over the last ten years; with responses triangulated with meteorological data from Buginyanya Zonal Agricultural Research and Development Institute. Farmers generally perceive rainfall and temperature to have moderately increased, while, winds and droughts were noted to have significantly increased over the period. Available meteorological data (2007-2009) depicted decreasing trends in annual rainfall receipts while temperature minimally varied. Such variations significantly affected coffee production (p=0.003) with early rainfall onsets perceived to cause early ripening of coffee berries, while short rainy seasons resulted into reduced yields. Longer dry seasons led to drying of coffee berries and ultimately reduced crop yield. The common response actions included agronomic practices such as, planting shade trees, pruning, replacement, planting drought-resistant varieties and application of organic fertilizers. Several socio-economic factors influence response actions with the most significant being access to climate change information (p= 0.029), level of education (p= 0.029), access to credit (p= 0.019). The study recommends enhancement of adaptive capacity of the coffee farmers through provision of timely and accurate weather forecasts. Smallholder coffee farmers also need to organize themselves into farmer groups/cooperatives that will uplift their marketing and negotiation power to access credit. However, this will require concerted and collective efforts by all stakeholders including the technical personnel, local political leadership as well as the farmers themselves.
      PubDate: Aug 2017
       
  • Regeneration Pattern in Subtropical and Moist Temperate Forest Stands of
           Kashmir Himalayas

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug 2017
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  5  Number  5  Hamayun Shaheen   Sidra Nasar   Shamshad Aziz   Nosheen Mumtaz   and Sadia Aziz   Forest regeneration is a thrust area of vegetation studies having important implications and contributions for sustainable forest management. Regeneration pattern was investigated in western Himalayan moist temperate and subtropical forest sites in Bagh district, Azad Jammu and Kashmir. The anthropogenic pressure in terms of grazing and tree felling intensity was investigated. A very low regeneration values of 121 seedlings/ha was recorded for the whole area. Subtropical forests showed relatively higher regeneration value of 211 seedlings/ha. The seedling count for moist temperate forest sites was calculated as 119/ha. Stem/stump value of 1.62 was recorded for the forest stands showing immense tree felling intensity. Available grazing area per grazing unit was calculated as 0.16ha/grazing unit whereas average herd size was 3. Persistent grazing activity was recorded at all of the investigated forest sites. Multivariate statistical analyses revealed that anthropogenic disturbance stimuli were significantly correlated with retarded forest regeneration patterns. A gradual decline in tree felling and grazing intensity was observed with increasing altitude and distance from settlements; followed with an increase in seedling count.
      PubDate: Aug 2017
       
  • Effect of Climate Change on Apple Productivity

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug 2017
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  5  Number  5  K.K. Pramanick   K.K. Jindal   Girish Sharma   and A.K. Shukla   India with its unique agro climate conditions favours cultivation of number of fruits. For decades together typical temperate fruits like apple, pear, stone and nut fruits were grown with adequate production and productivity. However, during the past 10-15 years on account of global warming many of the sites which were potential hub for temperate fruit cultivation have been rendering unfit for their cultivation. The productivity of temperate fruits especially apple in Himachal Pradesh is declining at a faster rate. Average yield of apple in India has been estimated at about 7.0 t/ha which is far below the level of 30 t/ha in most of advanced countries. The productivity has also not kept pace with the expansion in area under temperate fruits due to various biotic and abiotic problems faced by the farmers in the Himalayas. This has caused a serious concern not only to the hill farmer community but also to researchers, development agencies and policy planners. With the global warming, the decline in productivity is being mainly attributed to changing climatic scenario. It is clearly reflected that standard apple cultivar 'Starking Delicious' and 'Red Delicious' would not flower and fruit when chilling units are not adequately fulfil. Hence there is an urgent need to select appropriate low chill cultivars for plantation at low elevation location so that consistent yields are obtained and crop failures avoided. Results obtained revealed that cultivar 'Tropical Beauty' was the best genotype for the characters like plant height (6.60m), plant spread (5.67m), trunk girth (64.50cm), tree volume (111.20m3), leaf area (60.67cm2), number of fruit set per unit shoot length (15.25%), yield per plant (15.82Kg), fruit weight (129.80g), total sugar (8.48%) and non-reducing sugar (1.92%). Cultivar 'Parlin's Beauty' was the best genotype for characters like fruit breadth, reducing sugar and was recorded as promising next to 'Tropical Beauty' for many desirable traits. Cultivar 'Chahla' was superior for high number of flowers per unit shoot length, shoot length, fruit length and long duration of flowering. Earliest flowering was observed in cultivars 'Anna'. Maximum phenotypic coefficient of variability was observed for fruit yield per plant. High heritability and high genetic advance indicated presence of additive gene action for these traits. To meet the bulk requirements of the processing units and horticultural diversification, apple cultivation can be extended to mid hills by planting suitable low chilling cultivars. The low productivity of apple has become a serious concern for the farmers, research workers and development agencies at national and state level for the last two decades. Several factors can be attributed to the declining trend in productivity like expansion of apple cultivation to marginal areas, monoculture of Delicious varieties, declining standards of orchard management, improper chilling requirements and the fluctuating abnormal climatic conditions.
      PubDate: Aug 2017
       
  • The Influence of Chemically Pre-treated Chestnut Waste and Pinecone Filler
           Content on the Properties of Polyester Composites

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2017
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  5  Number  3  Alev Akpinar Borazan   Duygu Gokdai   Caglayan Acikgoz   and Gunce Alp Adiguzel   There is critical concern about meeting future global demand for materials because of the depletion of natural resources. In particular, the balance between future demand and sustainable supply will require a great deal of attention in years to come. The interest in the long term sustainability of material resources has led to advancements in bio-composite or polymer composite materials that are made from natural fibers and resin. Pinecones and chestnut waste are most often used as the biomass/biochar source. Nature proposes, and man disposes; we have to find or create new forms of pinecone and chestnut waste to increase their value and for environmental reasons. That is why the current waste was processed and transformed to filler in an up-graded state. In this study, composites were manufactured using chestnut waste and pinecone powder as filler and polyester as the polymer matrix. In addition, methyl ethyl ketone peroxide as hardener and cobalt naphthenate as accelerator were used to produce polyester composite. Raw materials of the fillers were treated with sodium hydroxide solution. The polyester amount was kept constant while the filler ratio was increased from 3% to 12% by weight. The similarities and differences between composites with different fillers and chemical pre-treatments were assessed by evaluating certain mechanical properties such as flexural strength, elastic modulus and hardness and various physical features such as density, open porosity percentage and water absorption. According to the experimental results, increasing the ratio of both chestnut and pinecone powder led to a decrease in the bending strength and an increase in the elastic modulus. Higher properties were associated with the chestnut waste/polyester composite than the pinecone powder/polyester composite.
      PubDate: Apr 2017
       
  • The Seasonal Variability and Sedimentation Rate of Suspended Matter in
           Photic Layer of the Black Sea

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2017
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  5  Number  3  E.Z. Samyshev   and N.I. Minkina   Monitoring of the annual cycle of main components of ecosystem of the Black Sea was carried out in the economic area of the ex-USSR during 1992 – 1993. As a part of the programme, suspended matter content, organic fractions and sedimentation rates in photic zone of the sea were investigated with the involvement of research vessels of the Ukrainian Research Centre of Ecology of Sea (UkrRCME). The investigation has shown that at known prevailing of particulate organic matter over abundance of structural elements of seston, seasonal changes in its content in the open sea agreed with seasonal changes in the abundance of plankton organisms; sedimentation rate of organic particles in photic zone was high and is driven by the hydrodynamic activity.
      PubDate: Apr 2017
       
  • Effect of Raw Sewage on Surface Water Quality in Opobo Town, Nigeria

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2017
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  5  Number  3  Eunice MacPepple   Ngozikaa Okereke   Celestine Egwuonwu   and Asinyetogha H. Igoni   This study investigated the effect of raw sewage on the quality of surface water in Opobo town, Rivers State, Nigeria. The investigation was occasioned by the predominance of direct disposal of raw sewage into surface water bodies in the study area. Opobo town is a coastal community in the Niger Delta area of Nigeria; and in coastal communities, surface water contamination by fecal and organic matter is a primary water quality issue, especially in inland rivers. In the study, samples of surface water were collected with 500ml bottles at seven different points, ranging from the upstream to the downstream of the river. The samples were analyzed for twenty-two different water quality parameters, including turbidity, suspended solids, pH, alkalinity, ammonia nitrogen, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD), with the following mean values respectively obtained: 5.6 NTU, 359.3mg/l, 5.8, 164.1mg/l, 146.3mg/l, 204.7mg/l and 262.7mg/l. There were also substantial doses of total coliform (172.3cfu/100ml), E. coli (110.5cfu/100ml), Enterobacter (106.0cfu/100ml) and salmonella spp. (162.7cfu/100ml). These results were compared with standard criteria for coastal waters designated for aquatic life, recreation, navigation, and industrial water supply. It was found that the discharge of raw sewage into the surrounding surface waters in the area presented water quality that is injurious to both human and aquatic life. The practice is strongly discouraged and treatment of the sewage before disposal also strongly recommended.
      PubDate: Apr 2017
       
  • Epiphytic Microalgal Species Composition and Dynamics on Host Green
           Seaweeds (Ulvaphyceae) on the Northern Coast of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2017
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  5  Number  3  Salim Marzoog Al-Harbi   Epiphytic microalgae on seaweeds are sessile microscopic plants grown with attached or associated to seaweeds hosts and seaweeds are multicellular and macroscopic macro-algae, which are abundant in intertidal zones of coastal environments. Study on epiphytic microalgae is rare at Jeddah coast of the Red Sea. Thus, an investigation on epiphytic microalgae species composition and dynamics on seaweeds of Ulvaphyceae was carried out at northern coast of Jeddah, the Red Sea. The Red Sea is narrow oceanic basin which is lying between the African and the Asian continental shelves. During the study, 3 species of seaweeds were recorded in Ulvaphyceae which were Chaetomorpha linum, Enteromorpha intestinalis and Ulva lactuca. A total of 70 epiphytic microalgae were identified, including 63 belong to Bacillariophyceae, 5 belong to Cyanophyceae and 2 belong to Dinophyceae. Among the identified epiphytic microalgae of the host seaweeds of Ulvaphyceae, the percent contribution of epiphytic Bacillariophyceae, Cyanophyceae and Dinophyceae were 91.53, 6.55 and 2.61%, respectively. The cell abundance of epiphytes on host seaweeds of Ulvaphyceae varied from 8.00 to 93.00 cells/ cells/100 g of Ulvaphyceae seaweeds. The highest cell abundance was in spring and the lowest was in summer. On host seaweeds of Ulvaphyceae, the epiphytes of Licmophora abbreviata, Gyrosigma fasciola, Leptocylindrus danicus, Navicula distans, Navicula transitans, Pleurosigma angulatum and Pleurosigma normanii, Thalassionema frauenfeldii and Nitzschia hungarica were above 10% among epiphytic microalgae though Amphora spp., and Cocconeis spp., were found throughout the year. This finding could be the important source for future explanation of marine epiphytes and their host seaweed eco-biogeographical phenomena in the Red Sea.
      PubDate: Apr 2017
       
  • The Study of Species Richness in Coral Communities of Vietnam

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2017
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  5  Number  3  Yuri Ya. Latypov   Dynamics of biodiversity research traced reef-building scleractinian on the reefs of Vietnam for more than 35 years. Found 376 corals species, pertaining to 80 genera (including nine ahermatypic corals), of which 153 species, belonging to 28 genera, were not previously known for that region, and 16 species from six genera were described for the first time. As in most Indo-Pacific reefs, the species diversity of Vietnam's reefs consists mainly of the members of five families: Acroporidae (98 species), Faviidae (42 species), Fungiidae (32 species), Poritidae (31 species), and Dendrophylliidae (26 species), making up altogether 64.48% of the total scleractinian species composition. The species composition and high diversity of Vietnam's coral fauna, as well as its close similarity to the Southwest Pacific coral fauna, allow one to refer it to the Indonesia-Polynesian center of origin of the coral faunas of the tropical Indo-Pacific. The whole Vietnam coast, from the Gulf of Tonkin to the Gulf of Siam, is a biogeographically single whole and is part of the Indo-Polynesian Province of the Indo-Pacific Area.
      PubDate: Apr 2017
       
  • Critical Considerations for an Urban Deer Collaring Program

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2017
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  5  Number  3  Erin C. McCance   and Richard K. Baydack   Capture, handling, and collaring of wildlife in urban environments pose unique challenges compared to similar programs conducted in more remote locations. With urban white-tailed deer (WTD) (Odocoileus virginianus) populations generally increasing across North America, the need to gain a better understanding of urban deer behavior and ecology is essential for effective management. Global Positioning System (GPS) telemetry collars can efficiently track animal movements, and therefore urban deer capture is likely to be increasingly used. This research note offers critical considerations for wildlife managers embarking on an urban deer-collaring program, specifically in northern latitudes, including suggestions for selection of tracking collar, cage trap specifications, and other aspects for capturing and physically immobilizing deer within metropolitan landscapes.
      PubDate: Apr 2017
       
  • Price Setting in Markets for Egyptian Farmed Fish

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2017
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  5  Number  3  Ahmed Mohamed Nasr-Allah   and Malcolm William Dickson   This article investigates the relation between fish supply volumes and sales values in El-Obour wholesale market. The study also examines market cointegration between farmed tilapia and imported wild frozen fish (tilapia, mackerel, Mediterranean horse mackerel, sardine and lizardfish). Regression and Johansen cointegration analysis was used for market data analysis. Market data includes fish sales volume and prices in El-Obour wholesale market in 2012. The results indicate that there is a negative relationship between the volume of farmed tilapia supplied to the market and sales values. Cointegration analysis shows that tilapia grade 1 and 2 prices compete together in market while catfish does not compete with farmed tilapia. Frozen lizardfish and sardines prices are cointegrated with tilapia grades 1 and 2 while tilapia grade 3 competes with lizardfish and Mediterranean horse mackerel, but there was no evidence of market cointegration between catfish and frozen wild fish. The implications are important as increased tilapia supplies to the market leads to declining sales prices. In addition, there is market competition between wild frozen fish and farmed tilapia, however they are not fully integrated. Increasing imports of frozen fish could reduce the selling price of farmed tilapia and negatively influence investment in fish farms.
      PubDate: Apr 2017
       
  • Evaluation of the Use of Activated Carbon Powder for Removal of Emerging
           Micropollutants from Sewage Wastewater

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2017
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  5  Number  3  Juliano César Rego Ferreira   Daniela Neuffer   and Karen Juliana do Amaral   In order to remove micropollutants from wastewater, it is necessary to adopt advanced treatment technologies, one of which is adsorption with activated carbon powder (ACP). This study evaluated the process of ACP adsorption to remove 18 emerging micropollutants from secondary wastewater effluent in the wastewater treatment plant in Büsnau, Stuttgart, Germany. Norit ACP was selected for this study. The contact time was 30 minutes. In this configuration, removal efficiency of pharmaceuticals was higher than 77% with 10mg/L of ACP, and with 30 mg/L it was higher than 90%. For PCPs, removal efficiency with 10 mg/L of ACP varied from 50% for triethyl citrate and up to 88% for tonalide (AHTN), while 20mg/L removed more than 83% of each PCP analyzed. For the FROPs, removal rates with 10mg/L of ACP varied from 49% for N,N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide (TCEP) and 91% for tris-(1,3-dichloroisopropyl)-phosphate (TDCP), and 20mg/L attained removal rates of 86% for TCEP and 99% for TDCP. Finally, MTBT and BT obtained removal levels equal to or higher than 60% with initial doses of 5mg/L of ACP. It was confirmed that treatment with ACP is an efficient solution for the removal of examined emerging micropollutants.
      PubDate: Apr 2017
       
  • Tools for Urban Planners to Improve the Wellness during Urban Spaces
           Renovation

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2017
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  5  Number  3  Teodoro Georgiadis   Marianna Nardino   and Letizia Cremonini   Architectural modification of existing urban morphology sometimes result as improvements of aesthetic characteristics of open spaces but could produce detriment of pre-existing wellness for residential population. An example of ex-ante/ex-post study allows assessing a methodology devoted to planners for the maximization of physiological wellbeing.
      PubDate: Apr 2017
       
 
 
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