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Journal Cover
Environment and Ecology Research
Number of Followers: 8  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2331-625X - ISSN (Online) 2331-6268
Published by Horizon Research Publishing Homepage  [54 journals]
  • Approach to Environmental Sustainability and Green Campus at Universiti
           Teknologi Malaysia: A Review

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jun 2018
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  6  Number  3  Parviz Ghojogh Najad   Anuar Ahmad   and Irina Safitri Zen   Environmental pollution is a complex and rapidly evolving challenge faced by urban environments. University campuses are susceptible to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions arising from energy use, particularly due to vehicular movement, solid waste generation and disposal, and electricity generation. The impact of GHG emissions, particularly carbon dioxide (CO2) on climate change, mainly global warming, which has emerged a contemporary concern. The recent increase in the number of proposals for regulatory legislations on emission control indicates the need for a clear methodology to address GHG emissions, as well as their environmental impacts. This paper deals with CO2 emission arising from energy used and solid waste within the campus of Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru. The objective of this study is only the environmental aspect, related to carbon emission from energy used in the study area under review. This emission sources on UTM campus include, transportation, electricity and waste generation. This work reviews the application of compliance plans and approaches for the monitoring and control of environmentally sustainable parameters and categories. The performance of each model which reflects the sustainability achievement goals was determined. Constraints to the practice of sustainability concepts are identified and measures to improve sustainability levels are suggested. It is concluded that by following the standard set by Universitas Indonesia (UI) ranking, sustainability coupled with, enabling environment will be enhanced for universities' dwellers.
      PubDate: Jun 2018
  • Not Only AUSTAL2000 is Not Validated

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jun 2018
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  6  Number  3  Rainer Schenk   On the basis of regulations and directives, since 2002 the particle model AUSTAL2000 has been mandatory in the Federal Republic of Germany for the calculation of the spread of air pollutants. In order to achieve harmonization, other model developments require that the physical basis of the AUSTAL be adopted. However, the author of this paper has variously proved that this dispersion model itself is not verified and therefore not suitable for carrying out propagation calculations. All reference solutions are faulty. Doubtful comparisons and test bills are carried out. So z. For example, 3D wind fields are compared with the rigid rotation of a solid and the position of sources is given in 200m, but their effects cannot be seen in the calculated concentration distributions. The authors of the AUSTAL address these objections with chimerical arguments and questionable definitions of deposition velocities and other dubious calculations of sedimentation and deposition currents. With each attempt to explain deepen the incomprehensibility, and you become entangled in other contradictions. This article describes that deposition currents are to be determined according to physically established laws and cannot be set arbitrarily according to amount and direction. It is shown that soil concentrations are calculated speculatively by the authors of AUSTAL. The definition of the deposition rate is substantiated physically. The author also analyzes by way of example that even further model developments are validated by the faulty reference solutions of the AUSTAL. Not only AUSTAL is not validated. In summary, further contradictions are described. AUSTAL is a further development of the dispersion model for air pollutants LASAT from the year 1984. LASAT is raised by the authors themselves and described as the mother model of pollutant spreading in Germany. For 34 years, faulty model developments have been extensively promoted.
      PubDate: Jun 2018
  • Probability Distribution Fitting of Rainfall Patterns in Philippine
           Regions for Effective Risk Management

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jun 2018
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  6  Number  3  Ma. Dely P. Esberto   This study aims to determine the best fit frequency distribution of rainfall patterns for event forecasting in order to address potential disasters. The monthly rainfall data were taken from the PAGASA which are analyzed using Chi-Square and K-S goodness-of-fit tests. Rainfall data for the past 26-30 years was used to determine the distribution pattern fitted into more than 60 Probability Distribution Functions (PDF). The best fitted PDF both in Kolmogorov-Smirnov and in Chi-square tests were used in statistical inferences. Findings showed that each site has specific theoretical probability distribution functions to infer rainfall events. Varying levels of rainfall events were measured using the CDF. Consequently, the statistical inferences found in this study are important for designing optimum flood control facilities. Moreover, it is also contributory for the effective management of irrigation system of the National Irrigation Administration for a more efficient water supply to the agricultural sector.
      PubDate: Jun 2018
  • Integrating Climate Change into the Environmental Assessment Process: What
           is the Situation in African Francophone Countries'

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jun 2018
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  6  Number  3  Tchindjang Mesmin   Climate change (CC) in the form of planetary warming has many negative impacts on the development of many countries. Since the ratification of the United Nations Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), most African Francophone countries have recently incorporated climate change in their planning process done by environmental assessment (EA) or not. EA is a process of estimating and evaluating significant short-term and long-term effects of a program or project on the quality of its location's environment. It also includes identifying ways to minimize, mitigate, or eliminate these effects and compensate their impacts. The aims of this paper is to present the existing level of integration of situation of CC in EA. As part of a literature review, pertinent documents were assessed accompanied by fieldwork related to the COMDEKS (Community Development knowledge for Satoyama Initiative), studies of population vulnerability and resilience linked to climate change in the region and particularly in Cameroon, CAR, Gabon and Togo. Results show that in sub-Saharan Africa in particular, various strategies have employed environmental assessment techniques, including a participatory approach in developing policies, plans and programs. Climate change "proofings" developed by GIZ helped some countries to adopt appropriate practices. This approach consisted of a review of a particular system or entity vis-à-vis its ability to cope with the climate change to which it is likely to be confronted. Resulting measures have affected various sectors, including agriculture, forestry, and energy (i.e., the GHC emission sectors).
      PubDate: Jun 2018
  • Theory and Practice of Vulnerability to Disasters in Flood Prone Areas in
           Chikwawa, Malawi

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jun 2018
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  6  Number  3  J. Mtembenuzeni   and J. Kushe   Contrary to the nature of occurrence of floods in Malawi, for communities, floods have a social face and should be understood as a social disaster other than natural disasters. A study was carried out in Chikuse Traditional Authority area in Chikhwawa, Malawi, to understand why people are affected by floods despite the long history of their occurrence. Assessment of the vulnerabilities of people in the area was critically reviewed in relation to pressure and release model (PAR) and also the access model. Data was collected from the communities through interviews and focus group discussions and also the use of key informant's interviews. Cluster and circle approach was used to understand the interrelationships pressure conditions, access/release conditions, vulnerability and disaster situation. This approach help to find the relationship that exist between people normal life condition with inherent vulnerabilities and the way they react to, cope with and recover from hazardous situation and whether their condition will enable them avoid disasters or predispose them to disasters. An appraisal of the route to recovery or next disaster was made to explain the social causation of likelihood of recurrence of disasters in the study area. In this case an analysis common treats of the groups which ended into disaster situation were considered the causal factors of the disaster. The probability of the next disaster was considered as product of the social causation in presence of floods as pressure conditions. It was found out that the disaster in the study area varied between individual and families because of their vulnerability condition. Lack of access to land, wealth, natural and social resources and linkages was found to be the major cause of pressure condition. Those with low score of access to resources were more vulnerable and were likely to be driven into the disaster condition in presence of a flooding event. Ill health, poor nutrition, long duration of recovery was typical notable characteristics of the more vulnerable individuals than those with access to release condition. Families which had access to shelter, food, wealth natural resources and land recovered quickly from the hazard and some completely avoided the disaster unlike those who did have resources who ended up in waiting for relief from government and epistemic organizations. There was no or poor demarcation between normal life and disaster situation for the vulnerable groups and that was among the major obstacles to full recovery from a disaster situation. The research found a mismatch between what has been documented as the root causes of vulnerability in the study area and the actual situation. The research also founds out that apart from social, political and economic causes of vulnerability in flood areas, there were other factors that also make people vulnerable such as; attitude of people, cultural beliefs, poor social network, and not just the drainage density of the area. Uncoordinated and unplanned efforts in terms of mitigation strategies for reducing people's vulnerability compounded the disaster situation. The study concluded that during floods people will be pushed to a disaster situation because of their capacities the floods and their effects. The research suggested the need to build capacity for the people in this area which will help build resilience or ease relocation.
      PubDate: Jun 2018
  • Quality of Land Fertility on Post Cement Mine Areas in South Kalimantan,

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2018
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  6  Number  1  Yudi Firmanul Arifin   Siti Hamidah   Gusti Muhammad Hatta   and Fachrur Razie   Cement mining activities PT. Indocement Tunggal Prakarsa (PT.ITP) in Tarjun Kotabaru has partly entered the post-operative stage and it is being prepared for revegetation. To restore the level of fertility of land according to the standards required to be revegetated with the species of plants belonging to fast-growing species. In order for successful planting activities it is necessary to know the level of fertility. The types of soil can be found in the study area included; clay, laterite, and lime-stone. This collecting of sample uses a purposive sampling method, in which sample points are placed on each soil type. The result showed that soil fertility level is relatively low with C-organic, P2O5, K2O, CEC, and basic saturation parameters under secondary natural forest condition so that fertilizer addition is needed in each type of land to increase fertility.
      PubDate: Feb 2018
  • The Role of Excited Oxygen Molecules in the Formation of the Secondary
           Ozone Layer at 87 to 97 km

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2018
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  6  Number  1  Kari Hänninen   The secondary ozone layer is located at elevations of 87 to 97 km in the upper mesosphere – lower thermosphere. It overlaps with the ionospheric D-layer. Daytime intensive UV radiation is dissociating O2 molecules to O atoms and photoexcitating O2 molecules up to 11.07eV level. Ozone photolysis between the wavelengths of 118.7–121.6 nm produces three oxygen atoms from one ozone molecule. Collision reactions of and with produce additional oxygen atoms. The number of oxygen atoms is maintained at such a high level that a small but significant ozone concentration survives. UV radiation weakens radically during the night. The number of O atoms shows no diurnal variation in the MLT. This leads to a ten-fold increase of ozone concentration over the course of the night. Dissociative recombination of O2+ (entered via diffusion from above) and reactions of O (3P) atoms with excited O2 molecules generate O(1S) atoms. The quenching of O(1S)→O(1D) emits the green nightglow. The reactions of O(1D) with ozone and O2 absorption of UV nightglow produce . When these molecules relax, they emit the O2 UV nightglows. The relaxations of and emit infrared nightglows.
      PubDate: Feb 2018
  • Strengthening of Traditional Knowledge for Sustainable Forest Management:
           Case in Seram Island, Mollucas, Indonesia

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2018
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  6  Number  1  Marthina Tjoa   Didik Suharjito   Hariadi Kartodihardjo   and Endriatmo Soetarto   Forest management systems of indigenous people have undergone many changes due to a variety of interests which is a form of adaptation. Various impacts of change can undermine custom values and rules. The purpose of this research is to facilitate the strengthening of custom system in forest resource management. This research used descriptive qualitative method with PAR (Participatory Action Research) approach. PAR is conducted by constructing meaning constructs together between researchers based on the concepts of experts and concepts of indigenous peoples on sustainable forest management and its issues. The results showed changes in the indigenous system implementation techniques, but basic values are preserved. These basic values serve as guidelines for action to achieve sustainable forest management and utilization.
      PubDate: Feb 2018
  • Isolation of Novel Acid Soil-tolerant Isolates of Rhizobium from "Pigeon
           Pea" and Proteomic Characterization by Utilizing MALDI-TOF/TOF and
           "Peptide Mass Fingerprinting" Approach to Identify Genes Associated with
           Acid-soil Tolerance

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2018
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  6  Number  1  Himanshu Dubey   D. L. N. Rao   Seemab Akhter   Gayatri Mehta   and D. K. Shahi   Biological processes account for approximately 60% of the biosphere's fixed nitrogen. As concerns mount to the growing input of reactive nitrogen into environment, as part of a 'nitrogen cascade', an increased need to understanding 'Biological Nitrogen Fixation (BNF)' has become of paramount importance. Rhizobium spp. survival in soil is influenced by a combination of many variable parameters, with soil-acidity being prominent ones. Using 16SrRNA Ribotyping analysis we have identified novel strains of Rhizobium (GenBank Accession Numbers KF309195, KF309203 and KF309204) from pigeon pea, which are tolerant to acidic soil pH regimes. 'Two-Dimensional GelElectrophoresis (2-DE)', followed by MALDI-TOF-TOF (Peptide-Mass Fingerprinting) was performed to characterize several important 'Unique' protein differences amongst acid tolerant / acid in-tolerant Rhizobium isolates. Analysis of 14 (Fourteen) 'Unique' protein spots identified the genes implicated in the acid-soil tolerance. These genes were found to encode a wide range of functions, which are implicated in modulation of the chemo-taxis system, required for virulence, enzymes that catalyze redox transformations, biosynthesis / intermediary metabolism / detoxification, export / import of a wide variety of substrate, receptors for osmotic solutes produced, movement of diverse solutes, catalysis of the transfer of a methyl group, transport large folded proteins / Na+ dependent unidirectional secondary transporters and cellular metabolism respectively. One of the important protein was identified as 'Chain A, Structure Of Periplasmic Binding Protein' (Accession Number: gi88192851, Molecular weight: 33,300Da and PI: 7.80). The periplasmic binding proteins serve as chemo-receptors, recognition constituents of transport systems, and initiators of signal transduction pathways. The existence of such unique proteins in the acid-tolerant isolates of Rhizobium is believed to explain the molecular basis of the factors responsible for imparting selective acid tolerance and better understanding of the molecular basis of leguminous plant nodules interaction, structure and function.
      PubDate: Feb 2018
  • Assessing Adaptation Strategies to the Impacts of Climate Change: A Case
           Study of Pungu - Upper East Region, Ghana

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2018
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  6  Number  1  Boateng Ampadu   Evans Frimpong Boateng   and Miriam Adjei Abassa   The research was undertaken at Pungu in the Kassena Nankana Municipal Assembly in the Upper East Region of Ghana, in order to assess the adaptation strategies of the impacts of climate change by indigenes with respect to the unpredictable change in climate at the area (Pungu). The study was based on climate change impact on health, water resources, agriculture and socio-economic statuses as questionnaire and interview were the scientific methods utilized in this findings. The results from the assessment showed that, indigenes sleep either outside or inside which is dependent on prevailing atmospheric temperature to prevent heat related illness such as cerebrospinal meningitis (CSM) among others. The study also found out that unpredictable climate change had detrimental impact on water resources and agriculture in the area which inevitably affected their social and economic works. So, adaptation strategies such as hand-dug wells and boreholes are resorted to cope with the impacts of climate change on the aforementioned statuses. Frequent seminars and public education on the awareness of climate change, impacts and adaptation strategies are recommended.
      PubDate: Feb 2018
  • Facilities Audit in Training Health Care Built Environment

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2018
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  6  Number  1  Ahmad Ezanee Hashim   Siti Aida Samikon   and Mohamad Sufian Hasim   Healthcare organisations have recognised the powerful impact of supply breakdowns and have exploited supply chain management for their quality program, especially regarding lean operations. There are many contributors to poor working environments in the healthcare sector. Some studies relate to inadequate equipment, such as patient lifts and facilities for safe disposal of syringes, needles, and medical waste. However, one area that has so far largely been overlooked relates to the built environment. This study aims to investigate strategic Facilities Management (FM) as a function to support the objectives of providing efficient services to healthcare sector through measuring user satisfaction focusing on public training hospital building. This research involved correlation analysis. The findings show that there is a strong significant relationship among the building performance criteria and the importance of post occupancy evaluation (POE) guidelines in functional and technical performance criteria. Based on the findings, this study proposed the establishment of facilities management and the implementation of systematic annual operation program to ensure that management and services are useful. Secondly, it is intended to establish certain policy instruments such as information tools and economic instruments for hospital management to meet the needs of patients in future hospital development.
      PubDate: Feb 2018
  • The Evolution of Consciousness

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug 2018
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  6  Number  4  Bradley Y. Bartholomew   This paper presents a new and positive theory of evolution, as distinct from instancing certain unique features of the phenotype of whatever species, and asking the question 'How could this come about by natural selection of random genetic mutations'. Essentially this paper starts with the premise that intelligence and consciousness comes from the DNA, and that therefore these particular features of life must actually be embedded in the DNA. Once this premise is accepted then not only does the orthodox Neo-Darwinism as 'natural selection through random genetic mutations' appear an over-simplified, if not facile, explanation for the immense complexity and diversity to be found in Nature (which contrary to popular belief actually incudes human civilization as well), but also opens up the possibility that there really could be Intelligent Design coming from within the DNA itself. Erwin Schrödinger's theory of quantum biology that genetic mutations occur as discreet jumps according to the principles of quantum mechanics is also presented and explained.
      PubDate: Aug 2018
  • Assessment of Microbial Quality of Vegetables Irrigated with Polluted
           Waters in Dar es Salaam City, Tanzania

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug 2018
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  6  Number  4  Mary C. Kayombo   and Aloyce W. Mayo   This study was undertaken to assess microbial quality of fresh vegetables irrigated with polluted waters from Msimbazi River in Dar es Salaam City. Samples of river water were taken from seven sampling stations along Msimbazi River stretching 20.4 km from Pugu to Jangwani and its tributary (Ubungo River) at Mabibo. Vegetable samples of 5 different species were taken from two different vegetable gardens in different locations along Msimbazi river valley and its tributary (Ubungo river), and from six markets including one super market. The examination of samples was carried out in accordance with the standard methods. Results revealed that water from the Msimbazi River contains high concentration of salts and pathogenic organisms. Fecal coliforms were found in all river water samples with a maximum count of 2.1x106 cfu/100ml. Pollution of the river was increasing downstream and varies seasonally with wet season having poorer water quality than dry season. Vegetables from all the markets including super market were highly contaminated with fecal coliforms of up to 108 Cfu/kg-wet vegetables. Pathogenic organisms were detected on vegetables and all river water samples examined had Ascaris Lumbricoides except for the sample collected at Pugu station. Fresh vegetables were contaminated with pathogenic organisms such as Escherichia coli, Citrobacter ssp, Proteus ssp, Klebsiella ssp, Salmonella spp and Basillus spp. Vegetable samples collected from the markets were more contaminated than those collected from the gardens. High number of fecal coliforms in the markets was due to poor handling of these vegetable by contaminated hands and sprinkling of vegetables with polluted water to keep vegetables moist. It was concluded that water used for irrigating vegetables along river Msimbazi was highly polluted and vegetables from gardens and markets are not safe for consumption.
      PubDate: Aug 2018
  • Ecological Characteristics and Morphological Features of the Lubigi
           Wetland in Uganda

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug 2018
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  6  Number  4  John K. Kayima   Aloyce W. Mayo   and Joel Nobert   The Lubigi is one of the largest Lake Kyoga drainage basin wetlands located in the north-western part of Kampala, the capital city of Uganda. It receives stormwater and polluted water from Kampala city and discharges it into Mayanja River and finally Lake Kyoga. Unfortunately, there is lack of information and knowledge on the capacity of the Lubigi wetland to protect the downstream water bodies from pollution. In an effort to address this it was necessary to investigate ecological and morphological characteristics of the Lubigi wetland. Pertinent field investigations, surveys, data collection and field tests and analyses were carried out. The results revealed that the area of drainage basin feeding the wetland is about 40 km2. The width of wetland main study area varies from 250 m to 450 m and water depth varies up to a maximum of 2.5 m. The wetland study area has a total surface area and volume are 1.09 ha and 1,073,000 m3, respectively. The wetland soil is dominated by thick loose peat near the inlet, but thickness of loose peat decreased rapidly towards the downstream end. Nine plant species were dominant in Lubigi wetland, but the most dominant species are Echinochloa pyramidalis, Cyperus papyrus, Thelypteris acuminata and Paspalum crobiculatum.
      PubDate: Aug 2018
  • A Review of Issues on Water Quality Arising from a Florida Court Case on
           EPA's Proposed Water Quality Standards and Its Implications on Water
           Quality Guidelines Beyond the State of Florida

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug 2018
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  6  Number  4  Kenneth G. Oertel   In July 2008, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was sued by an environmental public interest group, Earthjustice, over the manner in which Florida regulated nutrients through its water quality regulatory program. The suit accused EPA of being lax in allowing Florida to apply a water quality standard to control the discharge of nutrients into waters of the United States which was ineffective to achieve an adequate control of nutrients. The suit demanded that EPA take action to adapt and impose its own rule to control the discharge of nutrients in Florida. EPA decided not to defend itself in this lawsuit. Instead it issued a finding that a stronger, more stringent and objective water standard should be adopted for Florida. EPA settled the case with Earthjustice in August 2009 and entered into a consent decree with the Plaintiff which committed EPA to adopt numeric nutrient criteria for the State of Florida. EPA then, through its plenary powers under the Clean Water Act (CWA), proposed to adopt a numerical nutrient discharge regulation to supersede Florida's existing regulations. EPA's regulations were published in the Federal Register as a predicate to final adoption. EPA's action stimulated a host of legal challenges from the State of Florida itself and a large array of municipal, utility, industrial, agricultural and other interested entities. The litigation was heard in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of Florida, and resulted in the bulk of EPA's proposed regulations being disallowed by that Court. The Court's decision was based upon a lack of a demonstrated relationship between EPA's proposed discharge concentrations and a negative response within the receiving waters. EPA failed to show its rule set the correct standards to prevent harm to the receiving waters. The Court's decision stands for the proposition that since the CWA stands for the protection of the "integrity" of the Nation's waters, limitations on discharges must be determined on what will actually cause harm to the receiving waters.
      PubDate: Aug 2018
  • Practical Use of Charcoal as a Remediation Material for Cadmium-polluted

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2018
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  6  Number  2  Asa Miura   and Eisaku Shiratani   The purpose of this study is to examine the practical usage of charcoal as a biomass remediation material for cadmium (Cd) polluted soil in the environment. In the field application of this material, it is necessary to consider handling methods and the environmental impact of the used materials. The following types of experiments were conducted in this study: (1) heavy metals competitive removal in solution, (2) condition of Cd re-elution from Cd-adsorbed charcoal in solution, and (3) Cd re-elution from Cd-adsorbed charcoal left in columns of soil and charcoal for long periods. The competitive removals depended on the concentrations of heavy metals. All heavy metals included in the low-level concentration were removed by charcoal efficiently. Although 65-100% of the Cd adsorbed by the charcoal was desorbed by strongly acidic water (pH 1.5), 0.8-1.6% was desorbed by water with a pH of 4.5, equivalent to the pH of acidic rain. The Cd re-elution rates from columns by both acidic and distilled water were low immediately after beginning the experiments and were not detected after two and three months. Therefore, these three experiments demonstrated the possibility of simultaneously removing two or more heavy metals by using the charcoal, processing the contaminated charcoal by using strong acids, and allowing the contaminated charcoal to stay in the environment safely for long periods.
      PubDate: Apr 2018
  • New Approach to Municipal Grey Water Footprint Estimation: A Case Study
           for Aegean Region Cities in Turkey

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2018
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  6  Number  2  Hülya Boyacıoğlu   This study aimed to develop an approach to investigate grey water footprint-GWF of municipalities in the Aegean Region in Turkey. In this scope 8 out of 81 cities were analyzed in terms of their waste water production (volume), waste water treatment (type of treatment, waste water receiving media etc.) in the country. Data was handled, within the series of waste water official surveys at a municipal level published annually/ bi-annually by the National Institute of Statistics (TUIK) since 2001. "Total Nitrogen TN" has been selected as a reference variable for GWF calculations. The required additional data/information for the calculations was natural/background nitrogen concentrations, maximum allowable nitrogen concentrations for water bodies. Grey water footprint was calculated for each single city and then spatial differences were determined. Study results revealed that GWF was changeable from one city to another (450-1150 m3/ca.yr). Higher GWF (treated) amount compared to the GWF (un-treated) in some regions was explained by higher volume of treated wastewater. Observation of relatively high values for GWF (treated) in some places was due to type of water treatment processes. Availability of N removal process at treatment plants was major impact on low GWF value. It can be concluded that GWF could be indicator to investigate effectiveness of wastewater management strategies, and determine its environmental effects.
      PubDate: Apr 2018
  • Environmental Determinants of Surface Water Quality Based on Environmetric

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2018
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  6  Number  2  Boyacioglu Hayal   and Boyacioglu Hülya   A multivariate statistical technique, exploratory factor analysis-FA, has been used to assess the natural and anthropogenic impacts on surface water quality in two river basins in Western part of Turkey (Büyük Menderes and Küçük Menderes River Basins). The method attempted to explain the correlations between the observations in terms of the underlying factors, which were not directly observable and to reduce a great number of the water quality variables to a smaller number of attributes, grouped in common factors. Furthermore, by using the Confirmatory Factor Analysis-CFA method, the reliability of separated factors and the dimensionality have been determined. Then the path diagram was designed to investigate the structural model. Results revealed that ionic composition and water oxygenation of waters were factors controlling overall water quality in the region. Since components of first factors were observed in higher levels in Büyük Menderes Basin, it can be concluded that this region was affected from anthropogenic activities severely, compared to the Kücük Menderes Basin. Overall results revealed that FA confirmed by CFA can be used to identify probable pollution sources of surface waters.
      PubDate: Apr 2018
  • Green Growth and Business Opportunity in India

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2018
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  6  Number  2  Amar Nath Bhadra   and Subhendu Podder   India is one of the fastest growing economies in the world and is moving ahead with developmental path, and process. The Sustaining a fast-paced growth rate and driving a comprehensive development requires addition of major infrastructures like Power, Road, Communication, and Transportation. To ensure inclusive growth infrastructure should also grow side by side but to ensure the sustainability that growth shall be in the form of Green way. The rapid industrialisation and anthropogenic activities have vitiated the atmosphere and ailments like Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), Cancer, and other vector-borne diseases have increased. Green House Gases (GHGs) that emits from coal-based combustions, vehicle exhaust, and irresponsible use of pesticides is causing a significant damage in the quality of atmosphere. The "Right to inhale fresh air" and the "Right for safe living on the Earth" shall be new demand of humanity. As a responsible leadership, The Government of India not only has become a signatory of Conference of Parties (COP-21) but also quickly and simultaneously implementing the eight points of India's Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDC). India recognises the need for sourcing the additional energy requirement mostly from the renewable sources like Solar, Wind, while balancing the gap through Advanced Ultra Super Critical Technology (AUSCT) to ensure the Green Growth. The obvious fall-out of the above will increase the business opportunity in renewables in one hand and obsolescence of existing coal based thermal power generating plants on the other hand.
      Authors intend to indicate that innovation is going to convert the apparent challenges into new business opportunities through "Decommissioning", "Disposal" and "Logistics" while absorption of advanced technologies and compliance to stringer environmental norms will also open up new vistas of business, driving the growth wheel in a green way.
      PubDate: Apr 2018
  • Global World Wide Rating Systems Development and Implementation Guidelines

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2018
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  6  Number  2  Ahmed Gomaa   As world population continues to expand, implementation of resource-efficient measures in all areas of human activity is imperative. The purpose of this research is to examine the history of Sustainable Building, main factors and categories and to provide a guideline for countries, parties and/or foundation interested in developing a Green Building rating systems. Various Green Building rating systems, their components, scoring system and main categories were discussed. It was found that, factors related to the economic dimension pillar was considered most followed by factors related to social dimension and the environmental dimension had the least intension from developers. The main goal of the study is not to rectify this action in rating system but to encourage rating system developers to choose the convenient to their specific cases and local conditions and to proceed with establishing a sustainable rating system. The research also invites the developers to balance the three sustainability pillars (Environmental, Economic and social) in their proposed systems.
      PubDate: Apr 2018
  • Biological Water Quality Assessment of Shallow Urban Streams Based on
           Abundance and Diversity of Benthic Macroinvertebrate Communities: The Case
           of Nima Creek in Ghana

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2018
      Source:Environment and Ecology Research  Volume  6  Number  2  L. A. Nuamah   J. Huang   and H. R. Dankwa   The phenomenon of water pollution constitutes a massive threat to the very existence of freshwater bodies and can potentially eliminate vital benefits otherwise associated with these resources. In several countries such as Ghana, initial steps to salvage existing freshwater bodies have given rise to the need for effective water quality assessment and biological monitoring. This study was conducted with the aim of assessing the abundance, composition, and diversity of benthic macroinvertebrate fauna in the Nima Creek, situated in Accra, Ghana. On the basis of findings in relation to identified macroinvertebrate types, we further determine the quality of water in the creek. Samples were collected at 8 different riffles with a Surber sampler. The benthic macroinvertebrates sampled consisted of 6 taxa and 5891 individuals belonging to Nematoda, Oligochaeta, Gastropoda, and Insecta classes. Chironomini were the predominant group with 99.04% on the average, followed by Psychoda sp (0.44%), Rhabitidae (0.26%), and Tubifex (0.26%) at the upstream stretch of the creek. The downstream was dominated by Chironomini forming 97.30% on the average, followed by Tubifex (1.52%), Rhabitidae (1.08%), and Psychoda sp (0.05%). The estimated diversity of the sampling area for both upstream and downstream was assessed by using the Simpson Diversity Index and was found to be 0.53, indicative of a fairly diversified community structure. Family Biotic Index (FBI) was used to determine the water quality of the creek and found to be 9.92, which indicates severely polluted water. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed no significant differences between upstream and downstream abundances at both 95% and 99% confidence levels. However, Melanoides tuberculata was found only at the downstream reach due to low current, the formation of rocky substratum, and the absence of riparian vegetation making it a suitable habitat.
      PubDate: Apr 2018
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
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