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Journal Cover Cancer and Oncology Research
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   ISSN (Print) 2331-6128 - ISSN (Online) 2331-6136
   Published by Horizon Research Publishing Homepage  [54 journals]
  • Window-of-opportunity Study Testing the Antiproliferative Effect of
           Atorvastatin in Egyptian Patients with Operable Breast Cancer

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2017
      Source:Cancer and Oncology Research  Volume  5  Number  4  Bader A. Abdelmaksoud   Mohamed I. Abdelhamid   Salah Abd Elaal   and Hayam E. Rashed   Background and purpose: Cholesterol-lowering drugs (statins) appear to have pleiotropic effects independent of cholesterol level. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of pre-operative therapy with a statin (atorvastatin) on tumor proliferation in patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer. Methods: Thirty cases with histologically proven breast cancer were subjected to treatment by atorvastatin 80 mg /day for at least 14 days before the final surgical procedure (MRM or BCS). Immunohistochemical expression of Ki-67 staining of breast tumor cells was evaluated to assess tumor proliferation in biopsy tissues before treatment with atorvastatin then in final surgical tissues specimens. Results: The median age of the patients was 49.5 ranging from 29 to 61 years. The vast majority of the patients had invasive duct carcinoma (IDC) and was positive for estrogen and progesterone receptors. The mean pretreatment Ki67 index was high in the majority of patients and was significantly associated with both tumor grade and estrogen receptor status (P = 0.001 and P= 0.003, respectively). The Ki67 index had decreased in the post-treatment samples after final surgery in 19 cases, increased in 8 cases and unchanged in 3 cases compared to the pre-treatment specimens. Tumor grade is a significant predictor of treatment response (p=0,05). Conclusion: Atorvastatin decreased tumor proliferation in breast cancer especially in high grade tumors and its role should be considered in the future studies.
      PubDate: Nov 2017
  • Targeting the Seven Cancer Hallmarks by Modulation of Oxidative
           Stress-induced Inflammation and Immune Activation: A Radical Therapeutic

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jun 2017
      Source:Cancer and Oncology Research  Volume  5  Number  2  Mburu Samuel   Cancer killed approximately 8.8 million people in 2015 globally. Furthermore, more than 27,000 Kenyans die annually from cancers, making it number three killers after infectious and cardiovascular diseases. The current therapeutic strategies are limited in their approach, therefore not effective enough to achieve complete remission. A radical multifactorial approach targeting early events in carcinogenesis is required. The purpose of this descriptive study was to review existing studies for knowledge, research gaps in the role of oxidative stress, inflammation, immune activation in carcinogenesis and cancer hallmarks, to stimulate new research ideas which can accelerate future therapeutic target discoveries. PubMed, ScienceDirect and Google scholar databases were searched using the keywords: cancer, oxidative stress, inflammation, immune activation, carcinogenesis and cancer hallmarks. Although widely recognized, little research on oxidative stress, inflammation, immune activation, as cancer therapeutic targets has been done. In addition, studies relating oxidative stress, inflammation, immune activation with cancer hallmarks, especially replicative immortality, immune evasion, and evading growth suppression are inadequate. To highlight this, out of a total of 8,680,095 hits, only 139,694 hits related to oxidative stress, inflammation, immune activation as therapeutic targets making this area a fertile ground for future research. Similarly, out of 271, 194 hits, only 4,595 were relating oxidative stress, inflammation and immune activation with replicative immortality as a cancer hallmark. Subsequently, after pearling, 129 articles that were directly relevant to the study were selected. After critical appraisal, identified studies were analyzed, results compared and presented in form of summary tables. Despite enough documented evidence of the essential role oxidative stress, inflammation, immune activation, plays in carcinogenesis, specific role in induction of cancer hallmarks, whether causal or consequence is not clear. An understanding of the early changes that marks initiation, maintenance and progression of cancer will accelerate development of future novel therapeutic targets and prevention strategies. This will have a direct impact on prevention, early diagnosis, management and treatment of cancers in Africa, thereby helping in attainment of United Nations sustainable development goal (SDG) number three.
      PubDate: Jun 2017
  • Similarities in Asymptomatic HIV Infection and Cancer: A Common 'Driver'

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jun 2017
      Source:Cancer and Oncology Research  Volume  5  Number  2  Mburu Samuel   Cancer and Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) are associated with chronic oxidative stress, inflammation and immune activation either as a consequence or a cause. Despite well documented characteristic similarities in the two diseases, this has not been exploited for better understanding of carcinogenesis. The purpose of this descriptive study was to review existing studies for knowledge, research gaps in the role of oxidative stress, inflammation, immune activation in cancer and asymptomatic HIV infection; identify similarities, differences to stimulate new research ideas which can accelerate future therapeutic target discoveries. PubMed, ScienceDirect and Google scholar databases were searched using the keywords: oxidative stress, inflammation, immune activation, cancer and asymptomatic HIV infection. Little research has been done on immune evasion, tolerance and oxidative stress-induced inflammation and immune activation as therapeutic targets in both diseases. Senescence and the role of respiratory burst in HIV infection have not been exhaustively studied. Out of a total of 15,788,387 hits, 15, 284,572 hits related to similarities with only 503, 815 relating to the differences between the two diseases. Consequently and after pearling, 89 articles that were directly relevant to the study were selected. After critical appraisal, the identified studies were analyzed, results compared and presented in form of summary tables. Results indicated that chronic oxidative stress, inflammation and immune activation were common drivers of progression in the two diseases. Therefore, better understanding of these drivers might provide new mechanistic insights in carcinogenesis and provide future novel therapeutic targets. This will support the United Nations sustainable development goal (SDG) number 3 on ensuring health lives and promoting well-being for all at all ages.
      PubDate: Jun 2017
  • The Measurement of Delay in Diagnosis and Treatment among Moroccan Women
           with Cervical Cancer

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2017
      Source:Cancer and Oncology Research  Volume  5  Number  1  Fatima Ouasmani   Zaki Hanchi   Bouchra Haddou Rahou   Rachid Bekkali   Bouchra Benazzouz   and Abdelhalem Mesfioui   In Morocco, most of the cervical cancer patients have been reported diagnosed at advanced stage indicating delay in seeking diagnosis and treatment. The main purpose of this investigation was to measure the delay from the first symptom to treatment among Moroccan women with cervical cancer. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study at the National Institute of Oncology Sidi Mohammed Ben Abdellah in Rabat, Morocco. A consecutive series of patients with locally advanced cervical cancer or metastasic [stage II-IV] were recruited. We calculated delay by using two events dates of two periods in patient's pathway. Multivariate binary logistic regression analysis was performed to measure the association between all categories of delay and magnitude of total delay. Results: Four hundred and one patients were reached in this study. The median total delay was 183 days, the median patient delay was 120 days, the median diagnosis delay was 110 days, and the median Treatment delay was 57 days. Bivariate analysis showed that patients who did not have respectively patient and diagnosis delay were less likely to have total delay (p
      PubDate: Feb 2017
  • Self-reported Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine among Moroccan
           Women with Breast Cancer

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2017
      Source:Cancer and Oncology Research  Volume  5  Number  1  Bouchra Haddou Rahou   Karima El Rhazi   Zaki Hanchi   Fatima Ouasmani   Bouchra Benazzouz   and Abdelhalem Mesfioui   The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence, types, sociodemographic and clinical-related factors of complementary and alternative medicine use among Moroccan women with breast cancer. A cross-sectional study was carried out at the National Institute of Oncology in Rabat. 400 patients with breast cancer were recruited for face-to-face interviews. Data were collected using a questionnaire addressing personal/medical characteristics and the use of CAM therapies. 88.5% of women used at least one CAM therapy, 73.2% of them reported began to use CAM at the onset of breast cancer symptoms. Type of CAM commonly used were prayers, listening and/or reading the Koran and use of naturel products like honey or fenugreek. High education level was independent factors related to CAM use. Interventions should be focused on open communication and further researches are needed to explore the safety and the outcome of CAM use.
      PubDate: Feb 2017
  • Towards a Personalized Cancer Gene Therapy: A Case of Clear Cell Renal
           Cell Carcinoma

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug 2017
      Source:Cancer and Oncology Research  Volume  5  Number  3  Dumitru Andrei Iacobas   and Sanda Iacobas   An ideal cancer gene therapy would selectively destroy the cancer nodules with negligible effects on the surrounding not yet compromised tissue. This would be possible if the targeted genes are in command positions in the cancer but not in the normal cells. Logic dictates that, while being strongly protected by the homeostatic mechanisms, expression of a commander gene governs most major functional pathways by regulating the expression of numerous other genes. Owing to the cancer dependence on race, sex, age, genetic heritage, medical history, environmental and lifestyle associated risk factors each patient has most likely a distinct, dynamic and never repeatable set of commander genes. Here we introduce the "gene commanding height" as a measure of gene rank in the cell hierarchy and test our procedure on a surgically removed metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Results indicate that each histopathologically distinct region has a unique set of commander genes and that cancer cell commanders are in low positions in normal cells. We believe that the genomic oncology should identify the cancer cell commander genes of the individual patient instead of testing for the biomarkers selected from most frequently altered genes in large populations.
      PubDate: Aug 2017
  • Evaluation of Gold, Silver and Silver–Gold (Bimetallic) Nanoparticles as
           Radiosensitizers for Radiation Therapy in Cancer Treatment

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2016
      Source:Cancer and Oncology Research  Volume  4  Number  3  B. Shameer Ahmed   Anil G. Rao   B M Sankarshan   C.S. Vicas   K. Namratha   T.K. Umesh   R. Somashekar   and K. Byrappa   One of the most recognized and widely used treatment modality in cancer is radiation therapy which depends on the radiosensitivity of tumour tissue. Over the past few years there has been lot of interest in the use of formulations to enhance radiotherapeutic effects, especially using metallic (mainly gold) based nanoparticles. Our goal here is to fabricate nanoparticles (NPs) that can be delivered to tumor tissue to increase its radiosensitivity. This would increase efficiency of radiation absorption by the tumor tissue and reduce radiation doses delivered during radiotherapy. This could potentially decrease radiation exposure related side effects to patients. We have achieved this by synthesizing nanoparticles of high Z elements such as gold, silver and a more efficient bimetallic silver-gold size ranging from 3nm to 72nm using chemical reduction and hydrothermal method. The synthesized metallic nanoparticles were characterised using Ultraviolet (UV)-Visible Spectroscopy, Fluorescence spectroscopy and Dynamic Light Scattering. The metallic nanoparticles showed radiosensitizing activity in colloidal form by absorbing radiations when irradiated by 60Co source which emits two gamma rays of energy 1173keV and 1332keV Based on our results, we are of the opinion that such radio-sensitizing agent if injected into the tumour tissue would increase radiation absorption and enhance treatment effect with lower therapeutic radiation dosage.
      PubDate: Sep 2016
  • Evaluation of the Potential Anticancer Activity of Zamzam Water in Human
           Colon Cancer Cell Line

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2016
      Source:Cancer and Oncology Research  Volume  4  Number  3  Huda A. Al Doghaither   Ayat B. Al-Ghafari   Sawsan A. Rahimulddin   Shiekhah M. Al Zahrani   Abdulkader M. Shaikh Omar   and Ulfat M. Omar   Zamzam water (ZW) is a naturally hard alkaline type of water with unique physical and chemical properties that are different from any other water. The aim of the current work is to evaluate the potential anticancer activity of ZW against colon cancer. Human colon cancer HCT-116 and human skin fibroblast HSF cell lines were treated with two treatment conditions of ZW, Z1 with adjusted pH to 7.4 and Z2 without pH adjustment (pH 8). Cell viability was assessed using MTT and trypan blue dye exclusion assays. Cell cycle alterations and the type of cell death were investigated using flow cytometry technique. Cellular and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were quantified by H2DCFDA and MitoSOX assays, respectively. The results of the current study showed that both ZW treatments reduced cell viability of cancer cells. MTT assay showed a significant reduction in cell viability to 87% and 66%, respectively, after treatment with Z1 and Z2 (p≤0.0001). Cell death has occurred via apoptotic pathway under the two treatment conditions. The percentage of early apoptosis was 3%, 3.5% and 2.8% in control, Z1 and Z2 respectively. In the late apoptotic stage, there was a significant increase (4.2%) only for Z2 treatment in comparison to the control (p≤0.001). The cells were arrested in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle, and decreased in G1 phase after 24 hours of treatment with ZW. Only Z2 treatment, showed an increase in the production of both cytoplasmic and mitochondrial ROS. In conclusion, our results indicate, for the first time, that ZW induces apoptosis of human colon cancer HCT-116 cells, suggesting the potential anticancer effect of ZW against colon cancer.
      PubDate: Sep 2016
  • Crosstalk in Tri-positive Cancer: Predictor and Diagnostic Mirnas in Focus

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jun 2016
      Source:Cancer and Oncology Research  Volume  4  Number  2  Jude Ogechukwu Okoye   and Anthony Ajuluchukwu Ngokere   Cancer is a complex multifaceted disease caused by alterations at the genetic or epigenetic level in cells. Cancers in females majorly consist of ovarian, breast and cervical cancers, all of which, occurring concurrently, are referred to as 'Tri-positive cancer (TPC)'. Genetic and epigenetic mechanisms in TPC involve microRNAs; which are a class of endogenous, small, non-coding RNAs of 22 to 24 nucleotides that control gene expression. In TPC, upregulated oncogenic miRNAs includes: miR-21, miR-146a, miR-155, miR-182 and miR-200c while the downregulated tumour suppressor miRNAs includes: let-7b, miR-125b, miR-143 and miR-145. Cross-talk in TPC, which is the interaction between miRNAs and pathways, is an upshot of a complex network engaging the interplay of target genes such as PTEN, Muc-1, ERRB2/3, ZEB1/2, RAS, Bcl-2 and c-Myc among others, and occurring mostly through the P13k/Akt signaling pathway. Furthermore, an inverse relationship between miR-146a and miR-182, and BRCA gene with a direct relationship between miR-125b and BRCA gene was observed in the emergence of TPC. This review also showed that there are variations in the expression of let-7, miR-21, miR-125b and miR-200c between Tumour Initiating Cells (T-ICs) and TPC. Thus, since some of these miRNAs are dysregulated in chronic inflammations which play a critical role in tumourigenesis, proper investigation of these miRNAs and target genes in high risk individuals may aid prediction and early diagnosis of cancer and effective therapy with high reduction in mortality.
      PubDate: Jun 2016
  • Updates in Genetic Molecular Targeted Therapy for Glioblastoma

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2016
      Source:Cancer and Oncology Research  Volume  4  Number  1  Bader A. Abdelmaksoud   Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and devastating primary brain tumor in adults. Current standard treatment after maximal safe surgical resection with concurrent chemoradiotherapy by temozolomide and radiation therapy has a modest improvement in progression free and overall survival with frequent recurrences. With advancement in molecular biology and gene technology a novel treatment strategies with promising outcome have been provided. In this review, the most commonly studied molecular targets in the treatment of glioblastoma will be discussed. EGFR and its variant EGFRvIII have an important role in GBM cellular proliferation. VEGF and its receptor are active factors in tumor angiogenesis. Ras pathway, its regulators and others as protein kinase C and integrin contribute to tumorigenesis and resistance to conventional therapy. With inhibition of the aforementioned pathways more direct and targeted method of GBM treatment will be provided. Also combination of these treatment modalities may create an innovative therapeutic approach for GBM management.
      PubDate: Feb 2016
  • Cancer Education in Nigeria: Findings from a Community-based Intervention
           by a Physicians' Association

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2016
      Source:Cancer and Oncology Research  Volume  4  Number  4  Uwemedimbuk Ekanem   Kelechi Eguzo   Christie Akwaowo   Megan Kremzier   Catherine Eyo   and Emem Abraham   Objectives: Cancer causes significant morbidity and mortality in Nigeria, but the country lacks an organized cancer control system. Low awareness of cancers among health professionals in the country contributes to weak cancer control capabilities and poor patient outcomes in Nigeria. This study describes findings from a community-based education intervention by Medical Women's Association of Nigeria and American Society of Clinical Oncology in Akwa Ibom State. Methods: Intervention was the Cancer Control in Primary Care Course. It featured didactic lectures with multimedia components (n=11), demonstrations and simulations (n=4), as well as plenary sessions (n=7). Topics covered included cancer epidemiology (breast/cervical), patient navigation, cancer management, inter-professional collaboration and discussions on Akwa Ibom cancer control framework. Participants (n=124) included physicians, nurses and health policymakers in the state. Mixed methods evaluation of the course formed the basis for data collection and analysis. Results: Ninety-two percent of participants (114/124) completed the evaluation. Majority (51%, 58/114) were general nurses, and the average number of years in practice was 20 (±12.3) years. Evaluation of knowledge showed a median knowledge score of 21 (maximum = 25) points. "I have been able to [learn] about cancer in a more detailed way for the first time" (#7). Ninety-seven percent (111/114) planned to improve their practice patterns, especially regarding patient/public education on cancer prevention and advocacy for early detection. Identified barriers to knowledge implementation were lack of support from administration, colleagues and inadequate manpower. Conclusions: This workshop achieved its objectives of improving the cancer management competence of participants, while promoting inter-professional collaboration.
      PubDate: Dec 2016
  • Gemcitabine Single Agent for Recurrent Post Bladder Preservation Therapy
           and in Metastatic Transitional Cell Carcinoma of Urinary Bladder in
           Elderly Patients with Renal Impairment

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2016
      Source:Cancer and Oncology Research  Volume  4  Number  4  Haider Y. Shukur   Purpose : The objectives of the study are to evaluate efficacy (ORR, PFS, & OS) and toxicity of single-agent gemcitabine in recurrent post conservative therapy and in the metastatic transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder in elderly patients with a renal impairment. Patients and Methods: Between March 2014 and September 2016 , Fourteen patients have recurrent post conservative therapy & in metastatic transitional cell cancer of the urinary bladder in elderly patients with renal impairment were included to receive single-agent gemcitabine (1,000 mg/m2) administered weekly times three on a 4-week cycle. The median age was 74.5 years. The majority of patients (57.2%) have metastatic disease at diagnosis also a majority of patients (57.2%) have a solitary metastatic disease. The median overall treatment period was 14 weeks (range: 4-24 weeks). Results: Overall response rate was 35.7% (CR 7.1% + PR 28.6%). Median-Progression Free Survival was 20 weeks (95% CI: 95% CI: 8.313- 31.687). Median Overall survival rates were 40 weeks (95% CI: 28.313-51.687). 50% of patients experienced at least one grade 1 or 2 neutropenia and 71.5% of patients developed thrombocytopenia and no patient (0%) required hospitalization during therapy for neutropenic fever or dehydration . 50% patients required treatment delayed at least one week due to treatment toxicity. Conclusion: The single agent Gemcitabine had significant improvement in response rate, progression-free survival and overall survival with good tolerance and manageable toxicity.
      PubDate: Dec 2016
  • Cancer Progression Related with Tumor-associated Macrophages

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2016
      Source:Cancer and Oncology Research  Volume  4  Number  4  Ethiraj Purushoth   Loganathan Tholcopiyan   and Arul Santhosh   Tumor-associated macrophages are one of the main populations of inflammatory cells in cancers that favor tumor cell growth and survival. Tumor-derived factors such as VEGF-A and CSF-1 recruit the macrophages in tumor micro environment and alter their phenotype in M1 to M2 or tumor-associated macrophages by secretion of several cytokines including IL-4, IL-13 and VEGF-A. In return tumor-associated macrophages released growth factors and cytokine that helps in cancer cell proliferation and metastasis. Tumor-associated macrophage secreted cytokines promotes the angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis that assist tumor cell to metastasize in distant organs. Importantly, tumor-associated macrophages promote an immunosuppressive environment with the help of other immune cells in the tumor-bearing host that helps tumor to grow unchecked and unchallenged. In addition, tumor-associated macrophages induce resistance against cancer therapy and boost tumor regrowth after therapy. In this review, we discuss the role of tumor-associated macrophages in the pathobiology of cancer. Understanding of the crucial role of tumor-associated macrophages in cancer progression may help to assess potential therapeutic strategies.
      PubDate: Dec 2016
  • Place in the Craniospinal Radiotherapy

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2015
      Source:Cancer and Oncology Research  Volume  3  Number  4  Mehmet Faik Cetindag   and Yasemin Benderli Cihan   Gliosarcoma (GS) is a rare form of glioblastoma which express simultaneous gliomatous and sarcomatous transformation. Here, we reported a spinal cord gliosarcoma metastatic to spinal cord in a 3 years old boy, and discussed literature.
      PubDate: Nov 2015
  • Lytic Bone Metastasis in a Case with Primary Breast Lymphoma

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Nov 2015
      Source:Cancer and Oncology Research  Volume  3  Number  4  Yasemin Benderli Cihan   Alaettin Arslan   and Mehmet Faik Cetindag   Bone metastasis alone without involvement of bone marrow is rarely seen in primary breast lymphoma (PBL). It has a poor prognosis. A 64-years old woman was diagnosed as high-grade PBL T type. The patient received 6 sessions of chemotherapy with a diagnosis of stage IIAE PBL. The patient achieved remission and was followed for 12 years. She underwent surgery due to fracture at lower half of right femur. Palliative radiotherapy (30 Gy) was given to right femur. Here, we presented a patient with high-grade PBL T type developed lytic bone metastasis without bone marrow involvement.
      PubDate: Nov 2015
  • Application Ultrasound Ablation (HIFU) in the Treatment of Benign Tumors
           of the Mammary Glands

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2015
      Source:Cancer and Oncology Research  Volume  3  Number  2  S. Imankulov   K. Rustemova   Z. Seidagaliyeva   and N. Aykumbekov   The main method of treatment of breast fibroadenomas, until recently, was considered a surgical. However, there is research the authors of a new non-invasive method of treatment HIFU. The paper describes the mechanism of action and clinical features of the effect of treatment of fibroadenomas of the mammary glands by HIFU. Morрhocytology effects confirmation of the method HIFU ablation breast fibroadenoma.
      PubDate: May 2015
  • Treating Hodgkin's Lymphoma in a Resource Poor Setting: Challenges and

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2015
      Source:Cancer and Oncology Research  Volume  3  Number  2  Nishant Verma. MD.   and Archana Kumar MD.   Objectives: To assess the problems encountered in managing children with Hodgkin's Lymphoma (HL) in a resource poor Indian setting and to describe the clinical profile and outcome of these children. Materials and Methods: Case records of 184 previously untreated children (age 0-18yr) diagnosed to have HL at our centre between 1994 and 2012 were reviewed. The clinical characteristics, treatments offered and outcomes of these children were analyzed. Results: There were 162 boys and 22 girls with a median age of 8yrs. Sixty two percent children came from rural areas and 60% children were malnourished. Median duration of symptoms prior to treatment was 12 months (range 1-96 months). Eighty two percent children had advanced disease (Stage IIB-IV) at presentation. Abandonment rates were high (20%) and 12% children died during treatment. Treatment related complications were seen in a large number of patients and there was a high incidence of acquiring Hepatitis B and C during the treatment course. The 5-year overall survival and event-free survival rates were 79.4% and 53.1%, respectively. Conclusions: Children with HL coming to our centre tend to have a delayed presentation with advanced disease. Abandonment rates are high and a large proportion of patients experience complications during treatment. But despite these challenges, reasonably good outcomes were attained using simple chemotherapy protocols.
      PubDate: May 2015
  • Combined Immunotherapy Against Cancer: Limited Efficacy of Transcutaneous
           Immunization and Low-dose Cyclophosphamide

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2015
      Source:Cancer and Oncology Research  Volume  3  Number  1  Julia Umansky   Michael Weber   Hansjörg Schild   Markus P. Radsak   and Pamela Stein   Transcutaneous immunization (TCI) is a novel vaccination strategy with a promising potential for combating tumors or persistent infectious diseases. However, imiquimod-based TCI, we have previously developed, shows only limited effectiveness in terms of tumor protection, partly due to suppression by regulatory T (Treg) cells. To improve the vaccination potency we combined TCI with the cytotoxic drug cyclophosphamide (Cy) that is used for the treatment of tumors and described to mediate inactivation of Treg cells at low doses. Cy only slightly reduced Treg cell numbers in a concentration dependent manner under the chosen conditions, but also enhanced DC activation. Therefore, we used Cy-TCI in a therapeutic tumor assay where E.G7 lymphomas were subcutaneously transplanted and allowed to grow until palpable before the treatments started. Interestingly, the rates of tumor protection in TCI or Cy-TCI treated groups were identical. Towards the underlying mechanisms of the failure of Cy-TCI to provide enhanced tumor protection, we observed increased numbers of monocytic and granulocytic immature myeloid cells after Cy-TCI, partly suppressing TCI-induced immune responses. Taken together, we suggest that Cy-TCI induces inhibitory mechanisms counterregulating TCI enhancing effects, therefore suppressing vaccination-induced immune responses.
      PubDate: Feb 2015
  • Validation of Educational Tools for Use in a Human Papillomavirus
           Intervention Study

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug 2015
      Source:Cancer and Oncology Research  Volume  3  Number  3  Charlotte S. Hurst   Michael E. Hagensee   Syed Adeel Ahmed   and Jennifer S. Smith   Purpose: The aim of this study is to report the process used to validate an educational Human Papillomavirus (HPV) pamphlet and a HPV video to use in a HPV intervention study for women of color to increase HPV knowledge, health beliefs, health behaviors and intention to use the HPV vaccine for themselves or members of the family. Methods: Fifteen women enrolled in a two part, two hour methodological pilot study to validate the appearance, content and readability of the educational pamphlet and video. Quantitative data was determined women completing two 4-pont Likert type questionnaires consisting of 10 items each. The qualitative data was retrieved with the use of a semi-structure interview. Results: Greater than 86% of the participants indicated that both educational tools were acceptable in appearance, content and readability/ understanding. Participants' responses suggested a change in the pamphlet color and use of more colored illustrations as well as condensing the video narrative with bulleted summary pages after each scene. Conclusion: The tools were well received by the participants. Next steps were identified toward revision. A HPV pamphlet and an HPV video were validated for use in a future intervention study. Future considerations: More educational pamphlets identifying validation process for use in intervention studies for targeted high risk populations.
      PubDate: Aug 2015
  • Impact of Tumor-shrinking Decoction (TSD) and Its Disassembled
           Prescriptions in Blood Serum on Gene Expression in Uterine Fibroid Cells

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug 2015
      Source:Cancer and Oncology Research  Volume  3  Number  3  Wei Meng   Xiaohua Li   Wai Ling Lin   Lei Tan   and Li Dong   Objective: To study the differences in vitro gene expression of uterine fibroid cells under the effect of Tumor-shrinking Decoction (TSD) and its disassembled prescriptions in blood serum, so as to investigate the target genes of TSD in uterine fibroids. Methods: TSD and its disassembled prescriptions containing blood serums were prepared. BiostarH140s microarray was used to compare the differences in gene expression of uterine fibroid cells before and after 5-day medication of TSD and its disassembled prescriptions. The calculation was based on the ratios of signal intensity of those samples, and the up and down-regulated genes were screened. Result: TSD and its disassembled prescriptions containing blood serum obviously changed the genes expression of uterine fibroid cells. There were 17 down-regulated genes and 20 up-regulated genes in tonifyingqi group (TSD-a), 26 down-regulated genes and 41 up-regulated genes in softening hardness and dissipate binds group (TSD-b), 40 down-regulated genes and 46 up-regulated genes in resolving blood stasis group (TSD-c), as well as 15 down-regulated genes and 44 up-regulated genes in TSD group. Conclusion: It is concluded that the treatment with TSD and its disassembled prescriptions can induce a variety of gene expression in uterine fibroid cells. Various genes such as p62, Mnk2, Os9, PSAP, EEF2, DCN, REL, ADAMTS1, DKK1, KLF6 and OP18 played an important role in the process. The differences in genes expression are mainly associated with the cellular signal transduction and transcription, the cell cycle, and the genes encoding protein kinase activity.
      PubDate: Aug 2015
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