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Bioengineering and Bioscience
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2332-001X - ISSN (Online) 2332-0028
Published by Horizon Research Publishing Homepage  [54 journals]
  • Reversal of Antibiotic Resistance by Phage Resistant Pseudomonas
           aeruginosa PA01

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2018
      Source:Bioengineering and Bioscience  Volume  6  Number  1  Sadhana Singh Sagar   Ram Narain   Rajesh Kumar   and Shilpa Deshpande Kaistha   Emergence of antibiotic resistance is a serious cause of concern worldwide. Limitation in the discovery of new antibiotics and emergence of resistant infectious microorganisms has directed the attention of researcher toward the phage therapy. Phages are obligate parasite of bacteria and they are highly specific for their host. Phage therapy is an ideal strategy for the control of such infectious pathogens. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01 is multiple drug resistant (MDR) bacteria, biofilm forming nosocomial pathogen. Phage therapy of PA01 was studied using bacteriophage φs1 isolated from Ganga water, India. During this study, we observed PA01 variants that had evolved resistant mechanism against phage φs1 infection. These phage resistance cells showed variation in their pigment production from green to brown and also showed reversion of antibiotic resistance for- erythromycin (ERT), norfloxacin (NRF), kanamycin (KAN), gentamicin (GEN), gatifloxacin (GAT), and imipenem (IMP) class of antibiotics. Biofilm forming ability of prPA01 also decreased by up to 90% and they became more susceptible for imipenem antibiotic as compare to PA01.
      PubDate: Feb 2018
  • Biosorption of Hexavalent Chromium by Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain ANSC:
           Equilibria Isothermic, Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2018
      Source:Bioengineering and Bioscience  Volume  6  Number  1  Ojiagu, Kingsley David   Odibo, Frederick John Chidi   Ojiagu, Nnenna Chinelo   Agu, Kingsley Chukwuebuka   and Okafor, Arthur Chinedu   Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain ANSC, a non-genetically modified bacterial strain isolated from soil was used to study and evaluate biosorption potentials for hexavalent chromium (Cr[VI]) from aqueous solution. Living, heat-killed, and permeabilised cells were all used and found to be capable of reducing and sorbing Cr(VI). The influences of initial Cr(VI) ion concentration (50-150 mg/L), contact time (2 h, 10 min intervals), pH (2-8), temperature (30-60℃) and biosorbent mass (1.0-5.0 g/l) were reported. Adsorption of Cr(VI) is highly pH- and temperature-dependent, and the results indicate that the optimum pH and temperature for removal were found to be 2 and 60℃ respectively. The hexavalent chromium biosorption equilibrium could be better described by Langmuir isotherm than it could by Freundlich isotherm. A comparison of kinetic models applied to the adsorption of Cr(VI) ions onto the biosorbents was evaluated for the pseudo first-order, pseudo second-order, and intra-particle diffusion kinetic models. Results show that the pseudo second-order kinetic model was evidenced to correlate better the experimental data. The rate of hexavalent chromium adsorption increased following permeabilisation of the outer and/or cytoplasmic membrane by surfactants such as Triton X100, Tween 80, toluene, sodium deoxycholate and sodium dodecyl sulphate. The adsorption process has been found endothermic, and thermodynamic parameters of Gibb's free energy (ΔG°), change in enthalpy (ΔH°) and change in entropy (ΔS°) were calculated. Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain ANSC evidenced an effective biosorbent for the removal of hexavalent chromium in aqueous form.
      PubDate: Feb 2018
  • Assessment of Vitamins, Protein Quality and Mineral Bioavailability of
           Matured Stems of Opuntia dillenii Grown in Nigeria

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2017
      Source:Bioengineering and Bioscience  Volume  5  Number  3  Amadi, B. A.   Njoku, U. C.   Agumuo, E. N.   Amadi, P. U.   Ezendiokwere, O. E.   and Nwauche, K. T.   The vitamin composition, protein quality and mineral bioavailability of matured stems of Opuntia dillenii were investigated. The sample was analyzed using an automatic amino acid analyzer (JEOL (JLC 500/V) for the assessment of amino acids, and an atomic absorption spectrophotometer for the mineral composition analysis while the vitamin composition was evaluated using spectrophotometric methods. The amino acid composition ranged between 1.31g - 20.08g/100g. Arginine and leucine had the highest concentration of essential amino acids while glutamate and aspartate were the most abundant non-essential amino acid in the studied plant. The percentage Total essential amino acids (with Histidine), Total non-essential amino acids, Total aromatic amino acids, and Total sulphur amino acids were 41.8%, 56.1%, 8.1% and 5.3% respectively. The results for the protein quality indices: - the predicted protein efficiency ratios (P-PERs I, II, and III) were 2.45, 2.59 and 3.49 respectively. The amino acid scoring pattern showed valine and lysine as the limiting essential amino acids considering the requirements of pre-school children. The vitamin analysis showed that vitamin B12 and vitamin A were the most occurring vitamins. The mineral analysis results revealed magnesium, calcium and phosphorus as the most concentrated while the [phytate]/ [calcium] ratio and [phytate]/ [zinc] ratio in the sample were below the critical levels. The study has shown that matured stems of Opuntia dillenii can contribute greatly towards meeting human nutritional requirement and the high vitamin B12 content could be of important value in patients with severe sickle cell disease.
      PubDate: Oct 2017
  • Microbiological Assessment of Some Liquid Herbal Medications Sold in Awka
           Metropolis, Anambra State

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2017
      Source:Bioengineering and Bioscience  Volume  5  Number  3  Archibong, Etim Joseph   Igboeli, Chinechendo Ngozi   Okoro, Nnenna Catherine   and Obika, Ifeanyi   The aim of this study is to microbiologically assess some liquid herbal medications sold in Awka, Anambra state, Nigeria. Sixty liquid herbal preparations (twenty NAFDAC registered and forty unregistered) were purchased from different vendors in Awka and analyzed for their microbiological quality by determining the levels of bacteria and fungi in them. Aliquots of the various serially diluted herbal products were cultured on various media plates; NA, SDA, MCA, EMB agar and XLD agar. Total bacterial count of 1.0 x 103 -2.1 x 106cfu/ml, total coliform count of 1 x 103 - 7.8 x 104cfu/ml; E.coli count of 1.0 x 102-2.0 x 102cfu/ml and total fungal count of 1.0 x 102 -1.4 x 105cfu/ml were obtained from NAFDAC registered ones while the unregistered ones had a total bacterial count of 3.6 x 103 - 1.11 x 107cfu/ml; total coliform count of 2.0 x 102 to 4.4 x 105cfu/ml; E. coli count of 1.0 x 102 - 7.0 x 104cfu/ml and a total fungal count of 2.0 x 102 to 2.0 x 106cfu/ml. The result showed that seventy percent of the registered drugs met the WHO standard for liquid herbal drugs while twenty-eight percent of the unregistered ones met the standard. There was a significant difference (P < 0.05) between the total heterotrophic bacterial count and total coliform of registered and unregistered drugs and insignificant differences (P> 0.05) between their total fungal count and E. coli count. Isolates gotten from both samples includes Escherichia coli (21.6%), Enterobacter asburiae (25%), Providencia rettgeri (13.3%), Acinetobacter baumannii (11.6%), Staphylococcus sp (16.6%), Bacillus sp (10%), Scedosporium aurantiacum (5%), Candida albicans (28.3%) and Candida krusei (13.3%). The antibiotic susceptibility test showed that E. coli was resistant to most of the antibacterial drugs used and Acinetobacter baumannii was the most susceptible while Penicillium marneffei was the most resistant to the antifungal drugs used and Phialophora parasiticum was the most susceptible. The research work showed that the microbial quality of these herbal drugs is low compared to standard of World Health Organization and could pose a great health risk to the society.
      PubDate: Oct 2017
  • Screening of Alternaria Pathogens Associated with Parthenium hysterophorus
           for the Production of Lignocellulolytic Enzymes

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2017
      Source:Bioengineering and Bioscience  Volume  5  Number  1  Manpreet Kaur   and Neeraj Kumar Aggarwal   In the present investigation five pathogenic fungal isolates such as Alternaria alternata, Alternaria macrospora MKP2, Alternaria macrospora MKP4 Alternaria sp. PMK1 and Alternaria sp. PMK2, were isolated from diseased leaves of parthenium plant and found to be pathogenic to this weed. Isolated pathogens were screened qualitatively and quantitatively for lignocellulolytic activities. All the fungal pathogens were preliminary screened by qualitative assay and showed positive results by zone formation on respective agar plates. In quantitative assay all the isolates of Alternaria showed the production of one or the other lignocellulolytic enzymes. Enzymes of the pathogenic fungi are degraders of the polysaccharides available in the host plants and the strong enzymatic activities indicating the importance of the cell wall degrading enzymes in pathogenesis and potential of these pathogenic fungi to be used as biocontrol agent against parthenium weed.
      PubDate: Feb 2017
  • Isolation and Screening of Cellulose Hydrolyzing Bacteria from Different
           Ecological Niches

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2017
      Source:Bioengineering and Bioscience  Volume  5  Number  1  Anita Saini   Neeraj K Aggarwal   and Anita Yadav   371 bacteria were isolated from different ecological niches. Cellulolytic potential of the isolates was evaluated by qualitative as well as quantitative screening methods. 124 bacterial cultures showed production of zone of hydrolysis in the plate assay method. The hydrolytic potential of the isolates measured in terms of cellulolytic index indicated that 84 isolates showed cellulolytic index (CI) values between 1 and 4, 22 isolates between 4 to 6 and 18 isolates in the range of 6 to 13. The positive isolates with CI values ≥4.0 were screened quantitatively for the production of cellulases, determined as carboxy methyl cellulase (CMCase) activity and filter paper activity (FPase). Comparison of the activities shown by the isolates with that recorded in the standard isolate of Cellulomonas fimi indicated that large number of bacteria produced considerably high amounts of cellulases. The isolate NAB37 showed highest levels of CMCase (0.948±0.011 U/ml) as well as FPase (0.125±0.005 FPU/ml) activities. The cellulolytic potential of the bacteria can be exploited in various cellulases based applications including detergents, textile, paper and pulp, food and bioethanol industries.
      PubDate: Feb 2017
  • Extracellular Production of Amylase and Protease by Penicillium
           Purpurogenum BKS9

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2017
      Source:Bioengineering and Bioscience  Volume  5  Number  1  Bijay Kumar Sethi   Brahmananda Dikshit   Santi Lata Sahoo   Chinmay Pradhan   Sangeeta Sena   and Bikash Chandra Behera   In the present study, Penicillium purpurogenum BKS9 was used with different agro waste substrates i.e. starch, wheat bran, soya powder, boiled rice, unboiled rice and milk powder for the production of both amylase and protease by liquid static surface fermentation (LSSF). Among the various substrates tested, wheat bran (WB) was found to be the best substrate for maximum (112.64 U/ml) amylase production whereas soya powder (121.23 U/ml) for production of protease. Immobilization study also revealed that the highest amylase was observed (137.6 U/ml) when wheat bran was used as substrate whereas maximum protease production (130.73 U/ml) with soya seed powder. Maximum biomass production was observed (4.4 ± 0.2 g/50ml) when unboiled rice was taken as a substrate in comparison to other substrate.
      PubDate: Feb 2017
  • Isolation and Characterization of Halotolerant Bacteria from Ezzu River
           Amansea, Awka, Anambra State

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2017
      Source:Bioengineering and Bioscience  Volume  5  Number  4  Agu K. C.   Nmecha C. O.   Nwaiwu M. O.   Ikedinma J. C.   Awah N. S.   Eneite, H. C.   Victor-Aduloju A. T.   Umeoduagu N.   and Onwuatuegwu, J. T. C.   Halotolerant bacteria are microorganisms that can grow over a large variety of salt concentrations but thrive better in low salinities. This group of bacteria is known to be diverse in nature and can be isolated from the soil, water, and even some rocks. Their compatible solutes serve as survival mechanism when the organisms are exposed to high salinities. Halotolerant bacteria have been applied in the production of antimicrobial substances, in food biotechnology, in biological waste treatment, and in the use of Biosurfactants for bioremediation purposes. Halotolerant bacteria are made up of both Gram-positive bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria in different genera like Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, Bacillus, and Pseudomonas. This research emphasized on the isolation of halotolerant bacteria from Ezzu River, Amansea, Awka, Anambra state using nutrient medium supplemented with different salt (sodium chloride) concentrations and Marine Agar. Pour plate method was used for the isolation of the bacterial strains. The isolates which were yellow and creamy white in color were labeled A, B, and C and their morphological characteristics, noted. They were further Gram stained. The three isolates were Gram-positive cocci and appeared in clusters. They were non-motile. Further characterization was done using biochemical test: catalase test, coagulase test, citrate, and urease and carbohydrate fermentation of different sugars. After the analyses carried out on the three isolates, the halotolerant bacteria suspected to be present in Ezzu River, Anambra state were Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus lentus, and Micrococcus luteus.
      PubDate: Dec 2017
  • Implication of Acute, Sub-chronic and Chronic Exposure to Different
           Pesticides via Inhalation on Male Wistar Rats

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2017
      Source:Bioengineering and Bioscience  Volume  5  Number  4  Oluwatoyin Taiwo Adeoti   Donatus Chuka Belonwu   Mathew Owhonda Wegwu   and Justice Obinna Osuoha   This study was carried out to investigate the combined toxicological effects of ten pesticides: Paraquat, Termicot (Chlorpyrifos), Sniper (Dichlorvos (Ddvp), Best (Cypermethrin), Delta Force (Deltamethrin), Vitoate 40 EC (Dimethoate), Force Up (Glyphosate), Attacke and Karto (Lambda Cyhalothrin) on some selected hematological and biochemical profile of male Wistar rats. Thirty six male Wistar rats weighing 152-198g were divided into three groups on weight basis. Groups' 1 and 2 containing 12 rats each were exposed to the pesticides by inhalation for 8 hours daily while the rats in group 3 received normal feed and water and constituted the male control for comparison. The Wistar rats were used to simulate the interminate exposure of farmers and retailers who use and sell these pesticides regularly. In comparison to male control animals alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels of the male rats exposed to these pesticides fumes increased significantly (p
      PubDate: Dec 2017
  • Distribution and Health Risk Assessment of Selected Endocrine Disrupting
           Chemicals in Two Fish Species Obtained from Choba River in Rivers State,

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2017
      Source:Bioengineering and Bioscience  Volume  5  Number  4  Idongesit E. Archibong   Chinedu J. Okonkwo   Matthew O. Wegwu   and Chioma J.A. Okonkwo   The concentration of selected endocrine disrupting chemicals in tissues of Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus (catfish) and Liza falcipinnis (mullet) obtained from Choba river in Rivers State, Nigeria was analyzed to determine their levels and possible hazard for human consumption. Pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls were assessed using gas chromatography coupled with electron capture detector. Heavy metals analysis was carried out using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The concentration of pesticides ranged from 0.0013±0.0002 to 0.0130±0.0002 µg/l and 0.0077±0.0000 to 0.0390±0.0001µg/g in water and sediments, respectively. Similarly, pesticides concentration ranged from 0.0001±0.0000 to 0.0171±0.0002µg/g and 0.0002±0.0001 to 0.0385±0.0002µg/g respectively. The concentration of PCBs in analyzed fish ranged from 0.2439±0.0001 to 0.2683±0.0003µg/g in the muscle and liver, respectively. Heavy metal concentration ranged from 0.004±0.001 to 0.460±0.002µg/g for cadmium and mercury, respectively. Risk hazard estimates of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes, Chlordanes, hexachlorobenzene, and heavy metals (Cd, Cr) in the studied fishes showed no potential adverse effect to human consumption at the observed concentrations. Mercury was high in all fish analyzed with a quotient value greater than unity indicating potential mercury poisoning. The cancer risk was also evaluated according to USEPA, (2005) and was within acceptable risk range of 10-4. Thus exposed populations are not at cancer risk through consumption of fish.
      PubDate: Dec 2017
  • A Review on Phytochemical Studies and Biological Potential of Citrullus
           colocynthis (L.) Schrad. (Cucurbitaceae)

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2017
      Source:Bioengineering and Bioscience  Volume  5  Number  4  Prashant Kumar Dhakad   Pramod Kumar Sharma   and Sokindra Kumar   Cucurbits are edible crops found in the Cucurbitaceae family. Interest in plant-based biological compounds has now awakened throughout the world and hence the literature data in this area is significant. The Cucurbitaceae family is distributed in the tropical and subtropical countries. The plants of this family are superb fruit crops rich in vitamins, nutrients, and minerals that very good for health. A number of plants belonging to this family have been reported so far and one among them is Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad. All the parts of this plant (root, stem, leaf, fruits, and seeds) are utilized in the traditional system of medicine. A plethora of research is going on this plant species to discover new active moiety and to establish their medicinal importance. The present review gives updated information about the phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad. established so far. As per the research so far among different cucurbitacins, cucurbitacin E is known to be found profoundly in Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad. Some of the biological activities reported for this plant include antioxidant activity, antimicrobial activity, anti-diabetic activity, anti-hyperlipidemic activity, analgesic activity, anti-ulcer activity, anticonvulsant activity and insecticidal activity.
      PubDate: Dec 2017
  • Potentials of Chemical and Biological Hydrolysis of Agricultural Wastes in
           the Production of Ethanol, Single Cell Protein (SCP) and Vinegar

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug 2017
      Source:Bioengineering and Bioscience  Volume  5  Number  2  C.U. Ogunka-Nnoka   and B.W. Abbey   The potentials of Chemical (acid) and Biological (Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae) hydrolysis on some agricultural wastes, namely: peels from ripe plantain (RPP), unripe plantain (UPP), red cocoyam (RCP), white cocoyam (WCP), yam (YP), cassava (CP) and garri processing chaff (GPC) into beneficial by products (Ethanol, Single Cell Protein and Vinegar) were investigated using standard methods. Glucose yield ranged from 4.68-17.24mg/g, 2.41-13.84mg/g and 1.28-5.22mg/g for A. niger R. oryzae and Acid hydrolysis of the various wastes. Inoculating the hydrolysates with Saccharomyces cerevisiae yielded significant (p < 0.05) amount of ethanol after 120hrs, with significant (p < 0.05) reduction in glucose contents. Ethanol contents ranged from 3.82-6.89%, 3.74-6.44% and 3.28-6.25%, while the amount of single cell protein (SCP) obtained from the biomass after ethanol fermentation ranged from 9.10-15.80%, 7.50-13.11% and 6.00-10.20% for A. niger, R. oryzae and Acid hydrolysates respectively. The vinegar obtained after seven days fermentation of the alcoholic product had acetic acid concentrations ranging from 0.14-1.10%, 0.13-0.99% and 0.11-0.95% for A. niger, R. oryzae and acid treatments respectively. This study has shown usefulness of microbial methods of hydrolysis over the chemical treatment method, for improved yield of fermentation by products.
      PubDate: Aug 2017
  • Antibacterial Activities of the Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts of the Male
           and Female Carica papaya Leaves on Some Pathogenic Bacteria

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug 2017
      Source:Bioengineering and Bioscience  Volume  5  Number  2  Awah, N.S.   Agu, K.C.   IIkedinma, J.C.   Uzoechi, A.N.   Eneite, H.C.   Victor-Aduloju A.T.   Umeoduagu, N.D.   Onwuatuegwu, J.T.C.   and Ilikannu S.O.   The antibacterial activity of water and ethanol extracts of male and female Carica papaya leaves was carried out on pathogenic isolates. The leaf extracts were prepared by suspending the finely blended leaves separately in distilled water and ethanol. The mixtures were then agitated, decanted, filtered and finally, evaporated to dryness. The antibacterial activity was carried out using the disc diffusion method. The test organisms were Gram negative and Gram positive pathogenic bacteria organisms viz; Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhi and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The water extracts yielded no significant antibacterial activity against the test isolates. The ethanol extracts of both male and female papaya leaves demonstrated higher activities against all the Gram negative bacteria than Gram positive bacteria tested. The highest activities (18mm zone of inhibition) were demonstrated against Pseudomonas aeruginosa for the female leaf extract and (17mm zone of inhibition) for the male leaf extract. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration ranged between 6.25-50μg/ml and Minimum Bacteriocidal Concentration ranged between 25μg/ml-50μg/ml for both male and female ethanol extracts. Demonstration of antimicrobial activity against the test isolates is an indication that there is possibility of sourcing alternative antibiotic substances in this plant for the development of newer antibacterial agents.
      PubDate: Aug 2017
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