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Advances in Zoology and Botany
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2331-5083 - ISSN (Online) 2331-5091
Published by Horizon Research Publishing Homepage  [54 journals]
  • Comparative Efficacy of Advanced Surgical Hemostats in Canine Hepatotomy

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2018
      Source:Advances in Zoology and Botany  Volume  6  Number  2  Syed Wasim Abbas   Hamid Akbar   Muhammad Arif Khan   Muhammad NaveedAli   Ghulam Abbas   and Muhammad Asif   In the present study Hemostatic effects of Surgicel Snow and Surgicel Fibrillar in 12 cases in dogs were observed. The dogs were divided into three groups via group A, B and C with four dogs in each group. All three groups were anesthetized by the combination of xylazine (1.1mg/kg) and ketamine (5.5mg/kg) administered intravenous. Group A received Surgical Gauze, Surgicel Snow was employed in Group B and Surgicel Fibrillar was used in Group C. Hemostasis time, Liver function test (LFT), Complete blood count (CBC), Temperature, Pulse rate and Respiratory rate (TPR), Ultrasonography were evaluated. Hemostasis time was significantly less in animals who had received a Surgicel Snow compared to Surgicel Fibrillar and Surgical Gauze. LFT values were significantly different among all three groups. CBC values also differ among all groups. In TPR there were no significant differences in all groups. All groups showed no changes during Ultrasonography of liver. Surgicel Snow is better hemostat than Surgicel Fibrillar with minimum blood loss and least effects on liver function.
      PubDate: Mar 2018
  • Comparison of Different Internal Implants for Repair of Hind Limb Fracture

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2018
      Source:Advances in Zoology and Botany  Volume  6  Number  2  Farah Ijaz   Shehla Gull Bukhari   Muhammad Faiz Qamar   Iahtasham Khan   M. Bilal Haider   Muhammad Asif   Ghulam Abbas   Muhammad Arshad Javed   Hira Anjum   Hafiz Kashif Shezad   and Aun Muhammad   Bone fracture is termed as any discontinuity in the integrity of bone structure. Basic principal of treatment of fracture include reduction and retention. Modern age has developed number of methods to treat fracture; one of them is usage of Compression plate that are held in place with the help of screws. Limited Contact Dynamic Compression Plate (LC-DCP) is the new version of Dynamic Compression Plate (DCP) and is better than DCP in terms of providing aid in early healing, playing its role as providing low degree of plate-bone contact and decreased incidence of porosity and better vascularization, which reduces healing time and optimizes callus formation, leading to early healing and return of limb function.
      PubDate: Mar 2018
  • Future of Ostrich Farming in Pakistan

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2018
      Source:Advances in Zoology and Botany  Volume  6  Number  2  Ghulam Abbas   Osama Zahid   Muhammad Shahzad Ahmad Khan   Muhammad Sajid   and Hira Saeed   Ostrich farming is a new emergent in avian production throughout the globe from the last few years which can open new vistas for development for its delicious meat, feathers and the hide. Pakistan being independent in cheap labor and cheap feed can easily set up ostrich farms of high production potential in the country. Ostrich is gaining popularity in Pakistan and there are many farmers who are rearing ostrich at small scale in various parts of the country. Demand for meat (healthy meat), fat/oil, hide, eggs, feathers and other products is increasing day by day in Pakistan. However, ostrich producers are only meeting 10% of the customers demand. Therefore, it is high time to capture our share in the local and international market. Major clients for meat are Super Stores, Meat Markets, Restaurants and hotels. Academia [Riphah College of Veterinary Sciences (RCVetS), university of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Lahore (UVAS), Pir mehar Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi (PMAS-AAUR)] and Livestock and Dairy Development Department (L&DD) are playing their considerable efforts to promote ostrich farming in the country and very soon Pakistan can be the world leader in ostrich farming. To promote ostrich farming on large commercial scale research is needed for different welfare considerations of ostriches in climatic conditions in Pakistan.
      PubDate: Mar 2018
  • Effect of Different Inoculum Levels of Ascochyta lentis on Growth and
           Yield Attributes of Lentil Plant

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2018
      Source:Advances in Zoology and Botany  Volume  6  Number  2  Shahbaz Talib Sahi   Muhammad Atiq   Talfoor-ul-Hassan   Muhammad Shafiq   Yasir Ali   Shafqat Ali   Tanvir Ahmad   Ahmad Subhani   Aiman Zulfiqar   and Komal Mazhar   Effect of different inoculums levels (103, 5x103, 104, 5x104 spores/ml) of A. lentis was studied on growth and yield parameters of four lines of lentil. Results showed that among these lines one (ILL-358) showed microsperma resistant, one (ILL-4605) macrosperma resistant, one (ILL-5580) microsperma susceptible and the remaining one (ILL-6002) macrosperma susceptible response over control. Plant height was the minimum in case of all the four lentil lines are at 5spores/ml. Similarly no. of leaflets, no. of pods/ plant, no. of grains/pod and 100 grain weight were reduced with increased level of spores concentration from 103 spore/ml to 5x104 spore/ml. Size and frequency of lesions/pods showed positive correlation with increasing spore concentrations.
      PubDate: Mar 2018
  • Screening of Urdbean (Vigna mungo (L) Hepper) Genotypes against ULCV in
           Relation to Epidemiological Factors

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2018
      Source:Advances in Zoology and Botany  Volume  6  Number  1  Khaleeq-ur-Rehman   Yasir Iftikhar   Yasir Ali   Owais Yasin   Usman Arshad   Waqas Ahmed Khan   Arslan Hafeez   Muhammad Jafir   and Shafqat Ali   Urdbean or mashbean is one of the most valuable leguminous crops all over the world. It is under the attack of numerous diseases caused by different pathogens. Among these urdbean leaf crinkle virus (ULCV) is one of the most devastating and widely distributed. It is naturally transmitted through whitefly (Bemisia tabaci). To combat this problem, eight urdbean genotypes (Arooj, 6065-3, 6036-21, 4em-716, ES-I, M-95, ARRIM-08 and ARRIM-16) were screened out against urdbean leaf crinkle virus and correlated with epidemiological factors (temperature, relative humidity). The overall results revealed that, among all these lines, one genotype (M-95) was susceptible, three genotypes (6065-3, 4em-716, ES-I) were moderately susceptible, three genotypes (6036-21, ARRIM-08, ARRIM-16) moderately resistant and only one genotype showed resistance response to urdbean crinkle virus. A positive correlation was observed between disease prevalence and all environmental factors.
      PubDate: Jan 2018
  • Impact of Environmental and Pathogenic Variability on Breaking of Host
           Rust Resistance in Wheat Cultivars under Changing Climatic Conditions

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2018
      Source:Advances in Zoology and Botany  Volume  6  Number  1  Muhammad Makky Javaid   Muhammad Zulkiffal   Yasir Ali   Arshad Mehmood   Javed Ahmed   Muhammad Hussain   Faqir Muhammad   Waseem Sabir   Muhammad Hammad Tanveer   and Owais Yasin   The rust fungi especially emergence of new rust races has serious threat to global wheat production. This is mainly due to the widespread use of race-specific seedling resistance genes and evolution of new virulence races like Yr9, Yr27, and Sr31. Several quantitative disease resistance (QDR) or durable resistance genes i.e. Lr34/Yr18/Pm38/Sr57, Lr46/Yr29/Pm39/Sr58, Lr67/Yr46, Lr68 providing resistance to rust diseases at either high or low temperatures have been identified. But, changing climatic conditions affect the level of resistance in cultivars, as at high temperature Lr34/Yr18 genes which confer durable resistance in wheat become less effective and at low temperature it provides high resistance. While in contrast, yellow rust resistance genes; Yr36 and Yr39 confer resistance at high temperature and later growth stages. This review provides a detailed discussion on, the different aspects of climate change that how it affect host resistance and pathogenic variability and its sustainable control by developing cultivars with high level durable resistance.
      PubDate: Jan 2018
  • Induction of Resistance against Citrus Canker through Chemicals and Plant

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2018
      Source:Advances in Zoology and Botany  Volume  6  Number  1  Waqas Ahmed Khan   Muhammad Atiq   Shahbaz Talib Sahi   Awais Ahmed Khan   Shafqat Ali   Muhammad Younas   Yasir Ali   Muhammad Rizwan Bashir   and Muhammad Sajid   The objective of present study was to evaluate the effect of copper hydroxide and flare at three concentrations (0.1, 0.2 and 1%) and naphthalene acetic acid, salicylic acid, copper hydroxide alone and in combination (Flare + salicylic acid) at 0.75, 1 and 1.5% concentration against Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri in lab and greenhouse conditions respectively. Results showed that in lab condition maximum inhibition of bacterial growth was expressed by combination of flare and copper hydroxide, followed by Flare, copper hydroxide over control while in case of greenhouse experiment minimum disease incidence was expressed by combination of Flare + salicylic acid after 5, 10 and 15 days interval followed by flare, salicylic acid, naphthalene acetic acid and Cu(OH)2 as compared to control.
      PubDate: Jan 2018
  • Comparative Effect of Replacement of Canola Meal with Moringa oleifera
           Leaf Meal (MOLM) on Hemato-chemical Profile in Broilers

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2018
      Source:Advances in Zoology and Botany  Volume  6  Number  1  Hafeez Ur Rehman   Sultan Mahmood   Fawwad Ahmad   Mirza Muhammad Aslam   Ghulam Abbas   Aisha Mahmood   and Muhammad Sajid   The present research was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing canola meal with Moringa oleifera leaf meal on hemato-chemical properties in broilers. For this purpose, one hundred fifty, chicks were randomly distributed into five equal groups of 30 chicks each. These chicks were further sub-divided into three replicates in such a way that each replicate contained ten chicks. These chicks were randomly allotted to five treatment rations. Five isoproteinious (CP 21%) and isocaloric (2900 Kcal/Kg) rations (A, B, C, D, and E) were formulated. Ration A contained 8% canola meal but without Moringa oleifera leaf meal and served as a control, whereas in rations B, C, D and E the canola meal was replaced by Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM) @ 25, 50, 75 and 100% (w/w) of its total concentration (8%). These rations were fed ad libitum from 8 to 42 days of age. At the end of trial, blood samples (5ml each) from 3 birds/replicate were collected in sterilized disposable syringes. The serum was analyzed for the determination of blood glucose, cholesterol and liver function tests i.e. AST, ALT and ALP. The data collected were analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) technique under Completely Randomized Design (CRD). Results revealed that the values of blood glucose, total cholesterol, ALT, AST and ALP were lowest in group E while these values were the highest in control group A. However, all these values were found within the normal range. It was concluded that replacement of canola meal with MOLM in broiler ration exhibited a significant (P
      PubDate: Jan 2018
  • Response of Citrus Slow Decline Causing Nematode (T. semipenetrans)
           against Different Cultivars (Kinnow, Musambi, Shakri, Feutrel Early, Red
           Blood) of Citrus

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2018
      Source:Advances in Zoology and Botany  Volume  6  Number  1  Yasir Ali   Ghulam Abbas   Muhammad Sajid   and Muhammad Imran   The intent of the present study was to investigate the effect of citrus slow decline causing nematode (T. semipenetrans) against different cultivars (kinnow, musambi, shakri, feutrel early and red blood) of citrus in earthen pots (kinnow, musambi, shakri, feutrel and red blood) were filled with formalin sterilized soil. The sterilization of sandy loam soil (72% sand, 17% silt and 8% clay) was accomplished by applying formalin. Diluted formalin (1:320) was poured on the small heap of soil and covered with polythene sheet to stop the fumes completely. Soil treated with water was kept as control. Each treatment was replicated 3 times. Varieties (kinnow, musambi, shakri, feutrel and red blood) were transplanted into these pots. The pots were completely randomized, kept in the glass house and watering was done to avoid drying of soil. After fifteen days, 2000 ± 25 freshly hatched juveniles in 15ml of water were added around the stem of plant of each pot by making holes and then filled with soil to prevent drying. Then they were watered carefully. Over irrigation of the pots was avoided. Experiment was harvested after ninety days. Experiment was repeated twice to confirm the results. The association of inoculated pathogens was confirmed by re-isolation. Survey results showed that maximum T. semipenetrans occurrence was in tehsil Sargodha (90%), Kot Momin (80%), Bhalwal (60%) and minimum prevalence was in sillan wali (50%).
      PubDate: Jan 2018
  • Wheat Breeding for Durable Rust Resistance and High Yield Potential in
           Historical Prospective and Current Status

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2017
      Source:Advances in Zoology and Botany  Volume  5  Number  4  Muhammad Hussain   Muhammad Aslam Khan   Yasir Ali   Muhammad Makky Javaid   Babar Iqbal   Muhammad Nasir   Waseem Sabir   and Faqir Muhammad   Epidemics of leaf, stripe and stem rusts on wheat have induced significant losses in the past during the early nineteenth century and have destroying role in reducing product yield bringing about socio-economic variability worldwide. The old tall varieties with qualitative resistance couldn't continue for longer period because of the advancement of new virulent pathogen races. But varieties like Yaqui-50, Lyalpur-73, and Lerma Rojo-64 were released during early period of green revolution, still linked with durable resistance to stripe, leaf and stem rust. Advancement of new rust races like virulence's Yr27 and Yr9 followed by the appearance of Ug99 and its mutants lead the breeders to review their breeding plan. Breeders are presently relying upon to gather minor genes and their use in grouping with major genes to develop rust resistance in wheat varieties. The minor genes, Lr46/Yr29, Lr34/Yr18, Sr2/Yr30, are being broken in wheat breeding at CIMMYT and different region. The germplasm with this kind of resistance have shown existence stability over space and time. At Ayub Agriculture Research Institute, Faisalabad the home of green revolution in Pakistan, this approach has been established since1994-95. The durable resistance assortments were crossed in a top cross/back cross technique and the segregating populations were improved by adopting mass strategy, which brought about the advancement of material having preferred yield and rust resistance over the pre-exiting assortments (e.g., Inqlab-91, MH-97). Five varieties, Shafaq-06, Lasani-08, AARI-11, Millat-11 and Galaxy-13 from these crosses have been approved for general cultivation. Essentially, the material developed and circulated by CIMMYT, Mexico having this sort of resistance is being worldwide adopted. The simple sequence repeat markers (SSR) for above mentioned durable genes are accessible and can be used in early selection of superior varieties.
      PubDate: Oct 2017
  • Comparative Screening of Phytochemical Compounds in Scent Leaf Ocimum
           gratissimum Linn. (Family: Lamiaceae) and Bitter Leaf Vernonia amygdalina
           Del. (Family: Asteraceae) Extracts

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2017
      Source:Advances in Zoology and Botany  Volume  5  Number  4  R.N. Oladosu-Ajayi   H.E. Dienye   C.T. Ajayi   and O.D. Erinle   The study on Phytochemical screening of the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum and Vernonia amygdalina was carried out to determine the compounds present. The result revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, steroid, tannins, and carotenoid. The best solvent of extraction for both plants recorded was the hot water followed by the cold water even though they were unable to liberate flavonoids from bitter leaf extracts. The washed bitter leaf extracts contained more alkaloids than the extracts made from the unwashed leaf though the differences were not significant (washed bitter leaf- 7.32% from hot water and 6.83% from cold water, unwashed bitter leaf- 6.12% from hot water and 5.32% from cold water). The ethanolic extracts of bitter leaf liberated the flavonoids while the hot water was also able to liberate it from the scent leaf. Carotenoids were liberated from the extracts of both plants though the quantities were not significantly different. The study showed that bitter leaf and scent leaf contain similar antimicrobial compounds but former contains more quantity. It can be concluded that the different solvents of extraction have varying abilities to liberate these compounds and the quantities that each liberated has been ascertained.
      PubDate: Oct 2017
  • Angular Effects of Z-Plasty Technique on Extent of Relaxation of
           Contracted Scar, Cosmetic Appearance and Tip Necrosis in Dogs

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2017
      Source:Advances in Zoology and Botany  Volume  5  Number  4  Muhammad Asif   Muhammad Arif Khan   Shehla Gul Bokhari   Ghulam Abbas   Muhammad Sajid   Muhammad Ijaz   and Aisha Mahmood   Z-plasty is a plastic surgery technique which is used to improve the functional and cosmetic appearance of a scar by redirecting it into better alignment and allowing the closure of a large wound by increasing circumference of its orifices. This experimental study was executed to evaluate the extent of relaxation of contracted scar, cosmetic appearance and tip necrosis in dogs by using Z-plasty technique at different angles, i.e. 45°, 60° and 75°, respectively. 18 mongrel dogs were randomly selected and divided in three groups (A, B and C) comprising six dogs each; after induction of scar tissue, Z-plasty was applied at 45° in Group A, 60° in Group B and 75° in Group C, respectively. % Gain in length was superior for the 60° group (P
      PubDate: Oct 2017
  • Management of Leaf Rust of Wheat through Different Levels of NPK and
           Sowing Times

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2017
      Source:Advances in Zoology and Botany  Volume  5  Number  4  Muhammad Atiq   Nazir Javed   Sidra Urooj   Aftab Ali Bukhari   Yasir Ali   Ahmad Zeeshan   Amna Shahid   Shafqat Ali   Abdul Jabbar   and Wasi-ud-Din   Leaf rust (Puccinia triticina f. sp. tritici) is universal threat for wheat production. In present study, effect of sowing dates (30th Oct; 10th, 20th and 30th Nov) and NPK levels (N1-80Kg, N2- 100Kg, N3-60Kg, P1-58 Kg, P2-70Kg, P3-50Kg, K1-63Kg, K2-75, K3-55Kg) against leaf rust and their impact on 1000 grain were evaluated under Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) at Plant Pathology research area in University of Agriculture Faisalabad during 2009. Results showed that among 3 fertilizers, K exhibited significant result as compared to N, P and control for management of leaf rust and produced maximum 1000 grain weight. Among sowing dates, rust severity was minimum in early sown (30th Oct) and maximum in late sown (30th Nov). Thus early sowing with different levels of NPK has paramount importance to combat leaf rust severity effectively.
      PubDate: Oct 2017
  • Evaluation of Reference Genes for Differential Gene Expression Study of
           Bovine Tuberculosis

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2017
      Source:Advances in Zoology and Botany  Volume  5  Number  2  Ailam Lim   and Steven Bolin   Relative quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assays serve as important tools for validating differential gene expression data. A reference gene that is stably expressed across sample types and experimental treatments is crucial for accuracy in interpretation of relative qPCR data. Twelve previously validated reference genes were evaluated in this study to identify a most suitable reference gene that can be used for gene expression study of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) infected and bTB test-false positive cattle, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells after a 4 hour or after an overnight stimulation with bovine tuberculin antigen. Stability of the candidate reference genes were evaluated using the BestKeeper, geNorm and NormFinder programs. The SDHA was found to be the most stably expressed reference gene, regardless of infection status and varying length (4 hours or overnight) of antigen stimulation, while expression of many widely used reference genes are not stable under the studied experimental conditions. We also confirmed that the geNorm and NormFinder programs yielded similar findings in determining the stability of reference genes, which differ largely from the BestKeeper program. This finding stresses the importance of validating the reference gene(s) chosen for each experimental study, and the need for using multiple programs for the evaluation.
      PubDate: May 2017
  • Characterization of Environmental Factors for the Prediction of Leaf Rust
           of Wheat in Sargodha

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2017
      Source:Advances in Zoology and Botany  Volume  5  Number  2  Yasir Ali   Shahid Iqbal   Zafar Iqbal   Ghulam Abbas   Salman Ahmad   Muhammad Sajid   and Waseem Sabir   Wheat leaf rust (Puccinia recondite f. sp. tritici) is amongst major wheat diseases occurring in all wheat growing areas of Pakistan. Losses due to the infection by P. recondite f. sp. Tritici have lowered the wheat production potentially in previous years in Pakistan. This problem can be avoided by incorporating resistance against disease in wheat. In the present study eight genotypes/lines were screened and correlated with epidemiological factors i.e. temperature, relative humidity, rainfall and wind speed. The overall results revealed that among all these lines, four genotypes/lines i.e. A-24, A-20, K-11 and A-25 were susceptible to leaf rust of wheat, while the rest of four lines/genotypes i.e. A-09, A-17, A-08 and A-29 were moderately susceptible to this disease. No line/genotype showed resistant, moderately resistant or immune response to leaf rust of wheat. Correlation showed clear response of disease development to environmental factors. Maximum temperature of the disease severity was 23.8-27.15℃. Similarly, the range of minimum temperature at which disease severity recorded maximum was 16-18℃. The ranges of relative humidity, rainfall and wind speed on which disease severity was maximum were 60-64%, 8-22.50 mm and 11.8-12.98 Km/h, respectively. The study showed that environmental conditions of Sargodha significantly affected disease development of leaf rust of wheat.
      PubDate: May 2017
  • Comparative Study on the Epidermal Features of Seven Varieties of Vigna
           Unguiculata (L.) Walp Cultivated in Anambra State South Eastern Nigeria

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2017
      Source:Advances in Zoology and Botany  Volume  5  Number  1  Aziagba Bibian O.   Okeke C.U.   Ilodibia Chinyere V.   Ezeabara Chinelo A.   Izundu Alexander I.   and Uka Chiedozie J.   A study was carried out on the leaf epidermal of seven varieties of Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, family Fabaceae cultivated in Awka, Anambra State Nigeria. Leaves of the plants were assessed for their phylogenetic relatedness through diagnostic epidermal studying of the cell shapes, anticlinal wall types and stomatal characteristics at the abaxial and adaxial surfaces. The cell shapes, anticlinal wall types and the stomatal characteristics revealed some correlations among the studied taxa. All the seven varieties possess stomata on both the abaxial and adaxial surfaces signifying amphiostomatic. The distribution of the stomata varies and no variations were observed in the cell wall, contours and thickness. Stomata distribution was more on the abaxial layer than the adaxial layer and was mainly paracytic. Features of the quantitative morphology as the stomatal index (SI) were detailed in this study. Result of the epidermal features of the studied taxa revealed their intraspecific relationship and some diagnostic characteristics that could be used for taxonomic decision.
      PubDate: Feb 2017
  • Varietal Reaction of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Germplasm for
           Management of Fusarium Wilt of Cucumber (FWC)

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2017
      Source:Advances in Zoology and Botany  Volume  5  Number  1  Ghulam Fareed   Muhammad Atiq   Manzar Abbas   Muhammad Usman   Ghulam Abbas   Zulnoon Haidar   and Sajid Hussain Qamar   Twelve cucumber varieties/lines (Cuc-30, Cuc-05, Local, Rocky, Hcu-163A, Hashim, Guard HC1, Qasim, Durga, Shaheen, Happy and Green cucumber) were cultivated to find out their genetic potential against Fusarium wilt disease of cucumber in research area of the Department of Plant Pathology University of Agriculture Faisalabad under randomized complete block design (RCBD). None of them was immune and resistant against fusarium wilt of cucumber. Among twelve varieties nine varieties (Green cucumber, Hashim, Rocky, Cu-05, Happy, Durga, Guard HC-1, Cu-30 and Qasim) exhibited moderately susceptible response with 38.0%, 37.78%, 36.0%, 34.0%, 31.12%, 28.0%, 26.0%, 26.0% and 44.45% disease incidence respectively. Shaheen (20.0%) and Hcu-163A (22.50%) expressed moderately resistant response while only one variety (Local) gave highly susceptible reaction with a disease incidence of 55.0%.
      PubDate: Feb 2017
  • Ostrich Farming: A New Turn in Poultry Industry of Pakistan

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug 2017
      Source:Advances in Zoology and Botany  Volume  5  Number  3  Ghulam Abbas   Sultan Mahmood   Muhammad Sajid   and Yasir Ali   Ostriches are the biggest ratite in the world. Their wild changing behaviour helps us to consider them as domestic birds. Ostriches can reach adult height 6-10 feet tall in between 1.5 to 2 years of age and their head may reach 1.8-2.75m above the ground due to large legs. These largest vertebrate only run in case of any danger and can run at a speed of 65-70 kilometer per hour. Presently there are four subspecies of ostriches which are limited to Africa. Ostriches can be reared on short grass plains and semi-arid desert areas. Meat of ostriches is very healthy for humans' consumption. Ostrich birds produce red meat that is similar to deer meat or beef and the hide makes fine leather products. Frequency of mating may be low in confined environment. Mostly breeders are kept in group of trio (1:2); one male for two females. Ostriches can live on any cattle fodder; however during early six months of life they need special feeds for better growth. Ostriches may gain 1Kg body weight with only 3Kg food, unlike cattle which gain 1Kg body mass with 20kg fodder. Ostrich may reach sexual maturity at about two to three years of age and lay 100eggs per season. Ostrich farming is now being done in the globe. Ostrich in Pakistan are now announced as a farm bird of commercial interest which is new turn in poultry industry of Pakistan.
      PubDate: Aug 2017
  • Development of the Captive Breeding Programme for the Re-introduction of

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug 2017
      Source:Advances in Zoology and Botany  Volume  5  Number  3  Dot Eaton   and Martin Hicks   In 1981 the lead author wished to instigate a breeding programme for an indigenous and endangered British mammal species that was known to have suffered a significant decline in numbers. Captive breeding to provide individuals for potential re-introductions was considered the most appropriate approach to helping the re-establishment of wild populations from where they had previously been lost or declined. The selected species needed to be harmless to the environment and small so that expensive techniques were not required. The intention was to generate a sufficiently large and genetically diverse captive population which would supply a formal re-introduction programme into appropriate sites. Having addressed the reasons for previous declines of local extinction, released dormice would provide the basis for new populations. Given the resources available, the Common or Hazel dormouse, Muscardinus avellanarius was considered to be a suitable species for this programme. Successful captive breeding had not been achieved previously. The Mammal Society Dormouse Survey 1975–79 demonstrated it had been lost from seven counties in the UK during the previous 100 years [1]. A nocturnal and secretive species little was known about the detailed dietary requirements or behaviour of the common dormouse. The establishment and development of the breeding colony enabled observations of their nocturnal activity in captivity. This was observed at very close quarters and behaviour related to feeding, mating, juvenile development and other seasonal changes in activity was noted. Initially there were numerous juvenile deaths within the colony, usually in spring and autumn but with changes to the temperature regime immediately prior to and post hibernation, this mortality reduced. By 1992 the numbers in the captive breeding colony grew to 33 individuals, sufficient for the first trial re-introduction of 11 individuals to take place in Hertfordshire following the IUCN guidelines [4]. Following further breeding and survival success, further re-introductions were supported and by 1995 the colony had risen to 97 individuals. In that year the Common Dormouse Captive Breeders Group was formed and currently six dormouse breeders in the group donate individuals each year to re-introduction projects, supervised by The People's Trust for Endangered Species.
      PubDate: Aug 2017
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