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Journal Cover
Sociology and Anthropology
Number of Followers: 5  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2331-6179 - ISSN (Online) 2331-6187
Published by Horizon Research Publishing Homepage  [54 journals]
  • Identity, Modernity, Communication: Contributions to Think Afro-Ecuadorian
           Cultural Identity

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2018
      Source:Sociology and Anthropology  Volume  6  Number  9  Bruno Santos N. Dias   and Pedro Fornaciari Grabois   The objective of this paper is to analyze the Afro-Ecuadorian identity and how it conforms a political and theoretical place of objection and claim of fundamental importance. The paper progresses through three methodological stages. The first of these is a conceptual analysis of the notion of identity within a discussion about essentialism and the role of discourse in the making of race, racism and racial identities. Second, we discuss some notions related to the question of modernity to understand the exclusionary condition of blacks in the construction of the Ecuadorian state and its subsequent organizational processes, as well as to pinpoint the problematic definition of "miscegenation" and its debate in relation to perceptions about the Afro-Ecuadorian identity. The third stage proposes a contemporary view of this issue, where communication plays a constitutive role. Communication and its technological changes have accompanied and paved the way for the "progress" of modern societies for a long time, such that modernity itself would not be possible without technological communication. To this effect, communication guides us to an understanding of the dynamics of inclusion and exclusion, domination and resistance that come together to make this a racist country, while allowing us to observe various processes related to affirming Afro-Ecuadorian identities.
      PubDate: Sep 2018
       
  • 'Almost within Cooee': The Implications, for Sole-parent Families Living
           beyond Melbourne's Suburban Edge, of Long-term Poverty and 'Duty'-based
           Interventions

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2018
      Source:Sociology and Anthropology  Volume  6  Number  9  Tass Holmes   Recognising and theorising poverty is a difficult task in Australia, which is among the world's wealthy nations. This paper describes incidental findings of contemporary Australian poverty experiences, mainly affecting sole parents, from a recent ethnographic research in 'Sephirah', a fictitious inner-rural Victorian community. The encompassing study investigated usage of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) by a group of low-income Australians, who were generally unable to afford to consult with professional non-biomedical health providers. Anthropological participative research methods enabled basic statistical representation of households in a poor area, and documentation of health practices and beliefs, while in-depth interview narratives described the participants' experiences of a 'poverty status'. In conjunction with financial hardship, perceived difficulties arose from structured forms of discrimination, primarily impacting sole parents and their children, as the poorest sub- group among those enmeshed in long-term poverty, and secondly, mentally ill persons. These impoverished community members, in rural towns beyond Melbourne's peripheral suburbs, had few employment and educational opportunities, and limited support services. They describe impacts of morally-informed policy and welfare enactments by government, churches, and the health system, based on an idealised discourse that attributes seemingly unnecessary and destructive interventions to a doctrine of 'duty-of-care'.
      PubDate: Sep 2018
       
  • Regeneration - A Pragmatic Approach to Informal Settlement Development of
           Abesan Lagos, Nigeria

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2018
      Source:Sociology and Anthropology  Volume  6  Number  9  Omolabi Abimbola Olufemi   and Adebayo Pauline W.   The paper observes that the ever increasing population demand new urban land for housing and that this phenomenon has resulted in unprecedented development challenge in Nigerian urban centres, Lagos inclusive. The paper notes that over the years, Lagos has witnessed rapid population growth that characterized its development and emergence into megacity with attendant pressure on land for the housing supply of low income group. The paper appraises the effects of the standard of housing quality in informal settlement on the well-being of residents of the study area. It conducted a survey of 200 households using a structured questionnaire as instrument of data collection. This is with a view to collecting information on household characteristics, housing condition and environmental quality conditions of the study area. The paper examines the relationship between the deteriorating environmental situation and quality of life of informal settlements inhabitants. The result indicated that 73.0% of respondents were low income earners, 53.5% of the respondents have lived in the area for more than 10 years and 45.6% of residents were satisfied with access to neighbourhood facilities. It asserts that despite the illegality, 'informal' process provides the means for low income earners to gain access to land and housing outside the legal framework and regulations that prescribe the way land ought to be acquired and developed. The paper uses the concepts of healthy city and habitability among others as theoretical underpinnings for achieving sustainable urban development contextually. Conclusively, the paper notes that the efforts of government to manage the housing need of the low income group through different approaches notwithstanding, the effort do not appear to match the housing need of the group. It therefore recommends regeneration option that is driven by community participation as a pragmatic approach towards a sustainable residential development of the settlement and enhanced quality of life for the inhabitants.
      PubDate: Sep 2018
       
  • The Status of Women in American Higher Education

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2018
      Source:Sociology and Anthropology  Volume  6  Number  9  Carol Frances   This is a comprehensive overview of the status of women using charts to document trends. The charts are divided into two parts. Part 1 charts in the demographic domain show the spectacular success of women beginning to outnumber men as early as 1980 in the college-going rate, college enrollments, and earned degrees. By 2010 women even earned more doctorate degrees than men. More women than men are employed in higher education in every position, including administration. Part 2 charts show a dismaying lack of continuing success of women in the economic domain of higher education. The number of bachelor degrees earned by women has fallen off from earlier peaks in all the STEM fields. Degrees earned by women continue to be predominantly in the lower paying social science fields. Women professors are paid less than men and the salary gap continues to grow. After huge gains in the number of professional degrees earned by women, the trends have plateaued in recent years. Finally, the number of women college presidents and the number of women serving on governing boards has hit low ceilings. The paper concludes with a search for explanations of these trends and recommendations for aggressive action to restore progress toward equality and equity for women in American higher education.
      PubDate: Sep 2018
       
  • Utado'! Bad Manners, Incivility, Impunity and the Legacy of Autocracy
           in Kenya

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2018
      Source:Sociology and Anthropology  Volume  6  Number  9  Dickson Ombaka   All over the world today many people are complaining of increasing displays of bad manners and incivility in society. It seems that good manners and civility are fast disappearing from social interaction not just in interpersonal relationships but in public affairs as well. Whether it is in the United States, the Philippines, or in Kenya, political leaders today are more likely to feature in the news not for the positive life-changing things they intend to do for their people but more likely for their invective against perceived foes. This paper argues that the bad manners and incivility that are being witnessed from Kenya's leadership today are a necessary precondition for the acts of impunity that are occurring with greater frequency. These acts of bad manners, incivility and impunity are best expressed in the Sheng word: utado'! This word not only describes an attitude but also defines a whole culture in the conduct of public affairs in Kenya. These sundry acts of bad manners and incivility far from being accidental are deliberate and are a precursor for the increasing acts of impunity. These acts of impunity demonstrate the dearth of civility whose ultimate outcome may be to turn away from a new-found democracy to authoritarian governance of the past.
      PubDate: Sep 2018
       
  • Globalization and the Question of African Identity

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2018
      Source:Sociology and Anthropology  Volume  6  Number  10  Damian Ilodigwe   A prominent feature of the contemporary society in the last couple of decades is the phenomenon of globalization. While globalization has brought immense benefits to Africa on the one hand, Africa's entrance into and participation in the global scene has also precipitated a crisis of confusion and identity for Africa–a situation which is analogous to the effect of her encounter with colonialism, so that unless the dialectic of identity and difference that inevitably arises from this situation is constructively managed, it will be difficult for Africa to make the best of the opportunities inherent in globalization. Given that no one can make the best of any opportunity for interaction with others unless one is clear about one's identity and priorities, a major challenge Africa has to address in the context of globalization is the need to assume personal responsibility in defining her priorities and interests such as to allow these to inform her engagement with the various participants in the global world. More often than not, the Achilles heel of Africa is lack of clear focus in respect of her priorities as well as failure to allow her interests to drive her engagement with other participants in the global system. To reverse the situation of dependency which this mode of operation fosters, we argue that, Africa not only needs to relocate her locus of control internally and put in place a strong regime of internal democracy based on rule of law to tackle the menace of corruption and mismanagement that have undermined development initiatives since independence, but more importantly Africa needs to be allowed to assert itself by ensuring certain equity, justice and balance in the inner workings of the International System so that the environment is enabling and not paralyzing as far as the operation of various stakeholders within the system is concerned especially African countries.
      PubDate: Oct 2018
       
  • Man or Machine' Liberalism Old and New: From Wilhelm von Humboldt to
           the Teachings of Ludwig von Mises and Friedrich August von Hayek

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2018
      Source:Sociology and Anthropology  Volume  6  Number  10  Nahyan Niazi   The attraction of the Austrian school's liberalism lies in its seemingly clear-cut guidelines in deciding what the limits of government activities should be – namely, to provide security and peace, and to uphold the laws, especially property laws, all in order to ensure the unhampered functioning of the market system. In this paper, I argue that the Austrian brand of liberalism as represented by Ludwig von Mises (LvM) and Friedrich August von Hayek (FAvH) is as much concerned with checking and curtailing government activities as it is with regulating the human mind. Deregulation of the market and regulation of the mind go hand in hand with the instrumental expansion of market competition resulting in a specific mode of production and way of thinking. From an ethical point of view, the supreme role of market competition has to be called into question as it not only narrows the choices of feasible ways of life, especially to those not endowed with capital, but also conditions the way we think (mind control). To highlight this critique of the Austrian brand of liberalism I compare it to the perfectionism of the classic liberal thinker Wilhelm von Humboldt (WvH), whose liberalism is wrongly believed to be in accordance with LvM and FAvH's liberalism. WvH avoided formulating a liberal vision of a polity without a rich perfectionist conception of human nature. This conception provides the normative backdrop of his entire political thinking. Without WvH's finespun understanding of human nature and care for self-realization the reign of competitive markets transforms liberalism into an alienating force regulating the human mind in accordance with consumerism and, as WvH would say, turning man into a machine.
      PubDate: Oct 2018
       
  • Opening the Black Box-Three Approaches to Interpretation in Participant
           Observation Studies

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2018
      Source:Sociology and Anthropology  Volume  6  Number  10  Elisabeth Scheibelhofer   Participant observation (PO) is one of the most important methods in qualitative data collection. Nevertheless, published scholarly work on how to analyze data gained from PO is limited. This article reviews the currently most commonly used forms of analysis involving PO data. It is suggested that we can differentiate three main ways in which PO analysis is done in practice. These three "ideal types" (that in practice are often combined with one another) are, first, anthropological approaches; second, Grounded Theory-oriented studies; and third, analytical work oriented towards social scientific hermeneutics. Each of these three main analytical strategies is embedded in specific research traditions and their epistemological contexts. The article provides an overview of these differing approaches and briefly sketches out their use in current qualitative research involving PO.
      PubDate: Oct 2018
       
  • Multicultural Modes of Immigrants' Integration into the Host Society:
           Exploring the Proposition

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2018
      Source:Sociology and Anthropology  Volume  6  Number  10  Ewa Morawska   In this essay, I argue that in addition to the acknowledged modes of immigrants' integration into receiver societies, such as straight-line or segmented assimilation, 'bumpy' incorporation, and ethnicization as the mixing and blending of home and host country ways of life, we should recognize the possibility of multicultural paths of newcomers' adaptation to the sociocultural environments of the host-country. I begin by defining what I mean by a multicultural trajectory of immigrants' integration as a pluri-dimensional process founded on the base-line orientation, which Lyn Lofland called 'civility towards diversity', emphasizing its inherently variegated forms and 'contents'. Next, I present some empirical illustrations of local settings where multicultural modes of immigrants' incorporation are likely to evolve. Finally, drawing from studies of inter-cultural encounters, I identify the main features of the surrounding society and the individuals involved, which contribute to the emergence of these modes of integration.
      PubDate: Oct 2018
       
  • Older People in a Long-term Regeneration Neighbourhood. An Exploratory
           Panel Study of Ageing in Place in Hoogvliet, Rotterdam

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2018
      Source:Sociology and Anthropology  Volume  6  Number  10  Reinout Kleinhans   Lex Veldboer   Maarten van Ham   and Sylvia Jansen   Ageing of the population in European cities creates fundamental challenges with regard to employment, pensions, health care and other age-related services. Many older people want to live independent lives as long as possible. This aspiration is currently strongly supported by many local governments. A precondition for 'ageing in place' is that older people perceive their neighbourhoods as familiar and safe places. In the Netherlands, many neighbourhoods with an ageing population have been subject to urban restructuring policies. An important question is to what extent such policies affect the housing situation, socioeconomic position and social support networks of older people, as these factors strongly assist their ability to 'age in place'. The paper answers this question through an exploratory analysis of a small but unique panel data set from Hoogvliet, a large urban restructuring area in the city of Rotterdam. The partly counter-intuitive results show that restructuring has enabled 'ageing in place'. Compared to stayers, movers within Hoogvliet often report improved housing quality and positive neighbourhood change. The exploratory analyses did not provide evidence of decreased social support or increased loneliness through restructuring-induced disruptions of social ties. Various 'buffer measures' have been effective in preventing negative restructuring impacts on older residents.
      PubDate: Oct 2018
       
  • Maus: Narrating Life through Archiving of Autotopographical Objects

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2018
      Source:Sociology and Anthropology  Volume  6  Number  5  Lakshani Willarachchi   Autotopographical objects play a pivotal role in life narratives, and the graphic novel Maus: A Survivor's Tale, by Art Spiegelman is no exception. Based on a close reading and textual analysis of the text, the present study analyses the autotopographical objects in the novel under four categories: photographs, masks, miscellaneous objects of everyday life, and lost autotopographical objects, with a view to expounding the nexus between life narration and autotopographical objects. It was found that autotopographical objects in Maus show how objects enable the life narratives to be constructed and viewed in varied lights, how the autotopographical objects become an embodiment of lives narrated, the significance of the artist's involvement in contextualizing these objects and providing supplementary details, metamorphosis of everyday objects into autotopographical objects in the course of life narration, and the significance and impact of absent autotopographical objects in creating gaps in life narratives while adding layers of meaning through the dynamics of absence and presence.
      PubDate: May 2018
       
  • From Customs to Fashion: Ideologies, Trends, Social Hierarchies

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2018
      Source:Sociology and Anthropology  Volume  6  Number  5  Giovanna Motta   Over the course of history what are the clothes that, in the societies of the Old Regime, differentiate individuals from each other' What styles and colors choose the hegemonic classes to represent and mark the status differences between them, the emerging classes and the common people' What are the signs and symbols that the sources testify as a political, ethical, aesthetic language' This essay tries to answer these and other questions, an essay conducted on the red thread of change in European countries, political, economic, social change that marks the rhythm through FASHION showing how this represents in a real and symbolic way the role of the dominant classes in power. In the course of history, clothing is transformed according to the new ideas that are affirmed and the different perception of which individuals are aware, so the representation of the self - social and individual - becomes an exclusive or additional language, confirming its expressive validity and the content necessary to decline human typologies, to express them, and even to impose them. Fashion contains history and society, art and harmony of forms, religious principles and moral rules, past present, continuity and discontinuity, in short, the life of human beings of yesterday and today, perhaps even of tomorrow.
      PubDate: May 2018
       
  • Effects of Economic Crisis on International Circulators to Hungary

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2018
      Source:Sociology and Anthropology  Volume  6  Number  5  Sándor Illés   and Áron Kincses   Circular mobilities have become frequent during the era of globalisation. This contribution provides empirical evidence relevant to the long-term international circular migrants admitted into Hungary in economic crisis period 2009-2012 in comparison with before decline of 2006-2008. The principal aim of this paper is to quantify some socio-demographic effects of economic crisis on the international circulators. Initially, we define the circulation within the conceptual framework between the continuum of transnationalism and translocalism. This is achieved by performing the critical literature review on definitions of circulation followed by the international migration and economic contexts. Then we analyse macro-scale data set on long-term international circular migrants based on an original statistical method. In the light of absolute and relative indicators we study changes in time series of circulators in comparison with first immigrants as reference group. We seek to gain insight into the change of socio-demographic composition of international circulators by gender, age and family status. We embed the empirical results into the recent migratory context and try to find possible explanations and interpretations of the effects measured. Lastly, we guess a new characteristic of multiple movers, namely international circulators are partially resistant to some negative effects of economic crisis.
      PubDate: May 2018
       
  • Employment of People with Disabilities in Private and Public Sectors

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2018
      Source:Sociology and Anthropology  Volume  6  Number  5  Ranka Perućica   Biljana Sladoje Bošnjak   and Ivana Zecevic   Employers often have prejudices and negative stereotypical attitudes regarding the employment of persons with disabilities (PwD). This is a part of the conclusion of D1.1 Report - Identify and analyze the needs of employers within School-to-Work Transition for Higher education students with disabilities in Serbia, Bosnia & Herzegovina and Montenegro (Trans2Work) project. We are interested in whether there is a difference in attitude between employers in the public and private sectors when it comes to hiring persons with disabilities. The aim of the research was to examine the attitudes of employers in the private and public sectors regarding the employment of persons with disabilities. We hypothesized that employers in the public sector had more positive attitude towards the employment of persons with disabilities in relation to employers in the private sector. The study sample consisted of companies from the private and public sectors in one of two entities in Bosnia and Herzegovina - Republic of Srpska (60 companies in the private sector and 60 companies in the public sector). In this research, we used the Questionnaire about employment of the people with disabilities, which examines the attitude of the employers about employment of the persons with disabilities. The Questionnaire consisted of 19 questions. Employers were asked questions related to the employment of persons with disabilities. The Questionnaire had good reliability and Cronbach alpha coefficient was 0,89. We used two methods in the study: the survey method and the method of theoretical analysis. We used the survey method to conduct data collecting through research instruments, data processing and analysis of the results, while the methods of theoretical analysis were necessary for collection and selection of relevant information from the former methodological and subject-related researches. Results confirmed the assumption that employers in the public sector had more positive attitude towards the employment of persons with disabilities compared with the employers in the private sector. Complete and thorough analysis would be shown in the paper. We hope that the results will contribute to the existing literature related to the employment of persons with disabilities and project Trans2Work in general.
      PubDate: May 2018
       
  • Representation and De-legitimation in Semi-democratic Regimes: The Case of
           the Arab Citizens in Israel

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2018
      Source:Sociology and Anthropology  Volume  6  Number  5  Salim Brake   In this article, I offer a brief examination of the political model in Israel and review Arab representation in the Knesset on the basis of the model I propose for describing Israel's political system—that of the semi-democratic regime. I do not believe that the models proposed by other scholars are applicable to the Israel case. My assumption is that the parliamentary representation of Arabs in Israel is blocked and ineffective; hence, Israel cannot be seen as a full democracy. I will review the evolution of Arab parliamentary representation in Israel, its function, and its outcomes as a test case for the claim of the manipulation of representation and exclusion from the political sphere. I cannot discuss all the aspects of the Israeli regime that lead to this proposed model, but will focus on the patterns and trends in Arab Knesset membership, until recently, as a blatant example of a semi-democracy. I will assert that the Arabs' exclusion from the centers of political power means that Israel cannot be a democratic and egalitarian regime, but only an ersatz democracy, whose goal is to paint Israel as a democracy for external consumption, but nothing more.
      PubDate: May 2018
       
  • Characteristics of Discussion in "Public Sphere" of Vietnam Electronic
           Newspaper through "News and Opinion" Column – Tuoi Tre Newspaper

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2018
      Source:Sociology and Anthropology  Volume  6  Number  3  Phan Van Kien   By analyzing the characteristics of the discussion process in the Vietnamese electronic newspaper's space through a survey of a column on Tuoi Tre Newspaper will illustrate four basic characteristics of the discussion on electronic newspapers: 1/ Characteristics of a "virtual sphere"; 2 / personal identity of the discussants; 3 / limits of discussion; 4 / leadership of Leader Opinion. From this analysis, the article will discuss more the levels of discussion, the limits of the discussion process in public sphere of electronic newspapers in Vietnam.
      PubDate: Mar 2018
       
  • No Moral Progress without an Objective Moral Ontology

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2018
      Source:Sociology and Anthropology  Volume  6  Number  3  Jaron Daniel Schoone   One of the definitions of philosophy is: the study of presuppositions. While many philosophers and scholars agree that human history exhibits moral progress, there seems to be confusion about the presupposed moral ontology that such a view entails. Moral ontology is the sub discipline of ethics which concerns questions such as whether moral facts exist objectively, where 'objective' means that such facts would exist independently from anyone's personal beliefs (mind-independent), or subjectively, where 'subjective' means that such facts depend on the beliefs and/or desires of persons (mind-dependent). This paper concludes that moral progress requires an objective moral ontology. Consecutively, this paper will raise considerable doubts concerning the idea that the objective ontological foundation of moral progress can be natural. On a natural ontological foundation (such as provided by evolutionary ethics) either moral progress appears to be non-objective or it seems to be altogether illusory.
      PubDate: Mar 2018
       
  • "Why We Deliver Elsewhere": Women's Preferred Places of Delivery and Their
           Effects

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2018
      Source:Sociology and Anthropology  Volume  6  Number  3  Perpetual Nancy Baidoo Kodom   Michael Kodom   and Kojo Senah   Despite the crucial role hospital assisted delivery plays in reducing maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity rates in Ghana, there continue to exit a gap between women who fully utilize antenatal care service but deliver outside the hospital. This study was conducted in Assin Fosu in the Central Region of Ghana, where maternal mortality rate is higher than the national average. It was to examine why women prefer to deliver outside the hospital. A qualitative approach was adopted to gather data through an in-depth-interview from 45 respondents. The results revealed that the use of TBAs and home delivery were preferred by some women despite the availability of hospitals because a number of them believed that institutional delivery was only aimed at women who experience obstetric complications. Attitude of public health workers and financial constraints were the two major factors that prevented women from accessing and using institutional deliveries.
      PubDate: Mar 2018
       
  • Kink and Feminism – Breaking the Binaries

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2018
      Source:Sociology and Anthropology  Volume  6  Number  3  Pompi Banerjee   Raj Merchant   and Jaya Sharma   This paper seeks to share what Bondage-Domination-Sado-Masochism/Kink might offer to feminist understandings of sexuality, gender and power. It has been written by members of the Kinky Collective, a group that seeks to raise awareness about BDSM in India. The paper addresses four key themes. The first theme relates to the subversion of gender and sexual norms in kink from a feminist lens. It challenges popular notions of BDSM which seem to reflect heteropatriarchy, evoking images of, typically, a cisman dominating a ciswoman, making her submit to his desires. The paper argues that this assumption invisibilises male submissiveness with female dominants as well as queer/same sex kink. Even if a seemingly 'mainstream' submissive role is chosen by a woman, it has the capacity to be feminist as roles and dynamics are intentional, discussed, negotiated and consented to by all involved unlike in 'real life' where power dynamics are rarely acknowledged. Since kink is solidly in the area of playfulness and experimentation, it also makes for a safe space for gender transgressive persons. The second theme addressed by the paper related to Kink, Feminism and Desire. It argues that kink enables a paradigm shift from consent for harm reduction to consent for enabling pleasure and the exploration of desires. It offers another paradigm shift, away from false consciousness to one that brings to focus on the unconscious. In this third theme of the unconscious, the paper challenges the false binary of sexual fantasies being 'OK' vs. 'not OK'. The unconscious allows for a link between the personal and political such that our politics is less judgmental. Being in that space where our desires seem to collide with our politics might help challenge the overly rational framework of feminism and help us move perhaps from a politics of certainty to a politics of doubt. The fourth theme of the paper relates to the question of Power in Kink. It argues that kink challenges binary notions of powerful and powerfulness because submission is powerful and that it is precisely because the submissive submits that the Dominant can dominate. Using these four subthemes, we argue that kink can contribute to feminist thought and praxis in India.
      PubDate: Mar 2018
       
  • Blind to the Dignity of the Other: Obergefell v Hodges, Identity
           Oppression and the Deconstruction of Textualism and Originalism

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2018
      Source:Sociology and Anthropology  Volume  6  Number  3  Carter A. Wilson   While analyzing Obergefell (same sex marriage) and other select court decisions related to identity oppression (the oppression of groups identifiable by race, gender or sexual orientation), I demonstrate the limits of a traditional textualist and originalist approach and the advantages of a critical theory approach to legal analysis. Although I define both of these approaches, I focus on the application of critical theory to an analysis of Supreme Court decisions that sustain identity oppression. Critical theory focuses on the manner in which the dominant culture biases the decisions of Supreme Court judges against racial, gender and sexual orientation minorities. I illustrate that in Obergefell, both the dissenting and majority opinions applied a traditional textualist approach. However, the difference between the two opinions arose not from textualism but from the manner in which the dominant culture biased the judgment of the dissenters, distorted their concept of liberty and rights, and left them blind to the dignity of members of the identity group. Although I applaud the "new textualism," I argue that it does not go far enough. While focusing on methods of analysis, it pays too little attention to identity biases in the dominant culture. I argue that the dominant culture contains images, stories, ideas and assumptions about identity groups that diminish the dignity and humanity of their members. This culture operates to legitimize and normalize patterns of identity oppression. Although, there has been much progress in civil rights policies, this problem of the dominant culture persists in constitutional law today.
      PubDate: Mar 2018
       
  • Women's Farming Collectives: An Inquiry into the Resource Sharing Patterns
           across 3 Districts of Maharashtra to Provide Evidence for Sustainable
           Environmental Collective Action

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2018
      Source:Sociology and Anthropology  Volume  6  Number  3  Roshan Rathod   India is an agrarian country where, 80% of its agricultural labour is performed by women. Yet, she is not recognized as a farmer as being a farmer is synonymous to owning agricultural land. The land ownership statistics are obscure for women with only 12% of the operational land holding in India and 15% in the state of Maharashtra in particular. This study through its in depth understanding of women's farming collectives in the 3 districts of Ratnagiri, Sindhudurg and Beed in the state of Maharashtra provides insights in the functioning, resource sharing patterns with respect to land, labour, seeds and water, and puts forward a case for collective action and its benefits in terms of accessing resources where absence of land holding for women farmers exists. The study in the larger context highlights the interesting experiments that women themselves are engaging in and growing organic produce while creating a collective space which is an economic as well as a social space. Ecological sustainability, economic democracy and social well-being are manifested in the nature of these collectives themselves. The main aim of this work is to ensure recognition of women as farmers and provide a platform for them to access land rights collectively.
      PubDate: Mar 2018
       
  • Techniques of Educational Broadcasting in Distance Mode and Its Social
           Implication

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jun 2018
      Source:Sociology and Anthropology  Volume  6  Number  6  KM Tajbiul Hasan   Education in distance mode by broadcasting media is still most convenient and cost effective to expand and ensure education for all. To impart education in distance mode through the broadcasting media have some basic fundamentals. A success of educational broadcasting fully depends on the appropriate selection of script for accurate people. Thus, it is an essential component of teaching-learning strategies to achieve various national goals—socioeconomic and cultural. The fundamentals of script writing for educational Television and Radio are same. That is-To whom (Listeners/ Viewers), what (Contests) and what for (Educational goal). Writing for radio and television is very different due the technical and imagination perspective. Both media has its own style and mode of presentation. Education through radio should be very distinct, direct and define. Complex topic, sentences & words, which create confusion to the listeners, should try to avoid in all concern. On the other hand, like educational radio programs, television programs have the same formats with some extra benefits to add dances, animation, and computer graphics etc. Television has lot of scope to describe the topic in various ways due to its visual support that's why it seems to be flexible than radio. Today these two electronic media stands for development and cooperation. New forms of communication media like –Internet, multimedia or mobile phone are considered to the very effective media for distance education. These most advanced technologies may not be applicable for all countries like Bangladesh due to the social-economic condition. So, in Bangladesh considering the social economic reality government has been using radio and television broadcasting for distance education broadly since the last two decades. A significant result has already been achieved in the field of mass education of Bangladesh.
      PubDate: Jun 2018
       
  • Notes on the Established-outsiders Figuration: A Psychoanalytical Approach

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jun 2018
      Source:Sociology and Anthropology  Volume  6  Number  6  André Oliveira Costa   The influence of psychoanalysis in the work of Norbert Elias is notorious and recognized by the sociologist himself. The established and the outsider figuration show how individuals are in relationships of interdependence with each other, allowing the dissolution of the antithesis between individual and society. In this paper, we propose to consider how the concept of figuration can contribute as an operator for the field of psychoanalytic practice. So, we will seek to articulate psychoanalysis and Norbert Elias's sociology through the concept of figuration as a methodological operator that helps us understand the subjective processes in psychoanalytic practice.
      PubDate: Jun 2018
       
  • Women's/ Gender Studies: Missing Link to Restructure Social Institutions

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jun 2018
      Source:Sociology and Anthropology  Volume  6  Number  6  Astha Priyadarshini   Women's Studies as a discipline, has helped in producing knowledge from the perspective of women. The worldview developed by women has gained much interest in India today. This is due to the continuous efforts of women producing knowledge in every field be it arts, science or technology. But the visibility of women and Women's Studies is still a pertinent question asked in the universities teaching women's/ gender studies. Feminists have made several attempts to challenge the patriarchal institutions. Both scholars and activists have tried to break this chain of hierarchical structure. Feminist epistemologies and methodology have also been limited to scholars in Women's Studies. As pointed out by many research scholars, the NGO-isation of the discipline has contributed to this limitation. This marginality in university settings has restricted Women's Studies from becoming the tool it had initially intended to be. The teachings and understandings have also evolved from personal to political and now to individual level. Therefore, as a student of gender studies, one is informed of both the women's movements and Women's Studies. But the experience also tells that the larger part of the society is unaware of these struggles. Also, very essential is to note that one was not aware of both movement and discipline before beginning as a learner of this discipline. This paper is an attempt to underline the marginal preference shown towards Women's Studies by other institutions like universities which have led to limited reach of Women's Studies to NGOs and few other institutions. Policy making and implementation bodies have long been gender insensitive. Educational institutions also need gender sensitive individuals for analyzing and structuring course materials that are apt for a gender aware new generation. Such institutions can potentially answer the question of employability and training of Women's Studies practitioners.
      PubDate: Jun 2018
       
  • Interdisciplinary Planning and Scientific Support to Rehabilitate and
           Preserve the Values of the Holy Aedicule of the Holy Sepulchre in
           Interrelation with Social Accessibility

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jun 2018
      Source:Sociology and Anthropology  Volume  6  Number  6  Antonia Moropoulou   Calliope Maria Farmakidi   Kyriakos Lampropoulos   and Maria Apostolopoulou   The need for the immediate rehabilitation of the Holy Aedicule of the Holy Sepulchre involved the collaborative efforts done by the religious communities, scientific experts, and policy makers with the aim to secure the structural integrity and sustainable rehabilitation of the monument, which stands as a par excellence landmark of spiritual renewal and worshiping for the generations to come. Using best practices and integrating specific disciplinary expertise knowledge, the rehabilitation project has been throughout relevant and extrovert to the society, engaging the public in order to share problematic as well as scientific findings, to understand and promote its cultural resources. In order to achieve this, an innovative scientific method was developed by the National Technical University of Athens Interdisciplinary Team involving methods and perspectives from different disciplines, namely, from the scientific fields of architecture, civil engineering, surveying engineering, materials science and engineering, information technology, archaeometry and archaeology in dialogue with the religious communities. Reference is made to the cultural policy, highlighting the benefit of the interaction between ideas, institutions, and the common interest for the protection of monuments. The aforementioned, along with the organization programming, the integrated governance of the project, based on management functions, such as planning, budgeting, fundraising, evaluation and quality control, designed a prolific interdisciplinary agenda. This paper presents practical and theoretical work in heritage protection management, communicates the tools involved in master scientific issues, while it seeks to engage the interest of the public in order to interact actively, participate in its protection and add constructively on its future life.
      PubDate: Jun 2018
       
  • Socio-economic Impact of Women Entrepreneurship in Bangladesh

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jun 2018
      Source:Sociology and Anthropology  Volume  6  Number  6  Neaz Ahmed   This paper aims at understanding about the socio-economic impact of women entrepreneurship in Bangladesh. Though Bangladeshi women are entering into business sector, they continue to remain vulnerable and marginalized. One of the indications of their marginalization is lack of information and statistics about the situation of women entrepreneurs. This study was therefore carried out focusing on socio-economic impact on entrepreneurship over women lives. For this, exploratory and qualitative research approaches were adopted. All female entrepreneurs of handloom industry in Sylhet City Corporation of Bangladesh were considered as population and data were collected from the purposive sampling method from the population using in-depth interview schedule. Results indicate that their values and reputations have gained betterment along with their business. Nonetheless, these women had to face a number of difficulties while trying to set up their work such as finding a place to open a shop in the market. Market authorities do not believe in women's efficiency, so do the banks. It is difficult for the women entrepreneurs to manage loans from the banks. Most of the respondents had said that they do not face any complications performing their roles as spouse, parents, or homemaker while running the business. Most of the time, their husbands, or other family members encourage them to start and continue a business. After starting the business, most women feel that their status has risen not only within the family but also within the society. Now they enjoy freedom and also contribute economically and to family decision making.
      PubDate: Jun 2018
       
  • Media VS Political Leaders: Contribution in Democratic System

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jun 2018
      Source:Sociology and Anthropology  Volume  6  Number  6  Ghulam Safdar   Ayysha Abbasi   and Riaz Ahmad   Media and political leaders are two edges of river that work parallel for the promotion of democracy. On one hand, free and fair media is considered as a sign of good democracy, on the other hand, political leaders are considered as flowers of democratic garden. The basic objectives of the research rely to analyze the media's and political leader's contribution to the promotion of democracy. The research concluded that media and political leaders both have major contribution to the promotion of democracy but the majority of people is still impressed by the political leaders rather than media. The popularity of political leaders refers to direct communication, Baradariism and personality impacts. On the other hand less popularity of media causes low literacy rate, lake of readership, less access to media and non-analytical capabilities of media contents.
      PubDate: Jun 2018
       
  • Is It Possible to Improve Efficiency of BiH Decentralisation Model:
           Comparative Analysis of Decentralisation Solutions and Relevance for BiH
           Context

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2018
      Source:Sociology and Anthropology  Volume  6  Number  7  Aida Soko   Dayton Peace Agreement (DPA) has resulted in asymmetric decentralization in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) in all aspects: political, administrative and fiscal. Decentralization driven by non-economic reasons is rather usual concept, and often the main reasons are political, ethnical or overall country stability. Decentralization model implemented in BiH became huge obstacle not only in reaching efficiency in provision of public services, but also to further economic development. While the purpose of DPA was to stop armed conflict, and while valuable back in time, there is no excuse to keep these solutions for more than 20 years. This paper aims to provide deep insight into experience of selected comparative countries where non-economic reasons initiated decentralization. In addition, it aims to identify patterns and features of administrative, fiscal and political arrangements that perform better in the environment similar to BiH. Analysis of the experience in developed countries identified different models in organizing ethnically divided societies and establishing different forms of cooperation between sub-national government units to increase efficiency. Transitional countries experience shows mixed results in terms of positive effects of decentralization on overall efficiency and citizens' well-being, but there is valuable experience and number of features, which may improve municipal efficiency in BiH as well. Having in mind very limited literature focused on specific BiH context as well as the need to improve efficiency at local community level, this paper takes an important first step in this direction by providing a systematic review of decentralization design in countries that had similar challenges as BiH. The focus of comparative analysis is on the administrative decentralization (territorial organization and responsibility designation), political decentralization (addressing democratic principles) and fiscal independency. Paper has identified certain mechanisms that do not require any or require minor changes in core legislation introduced by DPA. These primarily include activation of cooperation mechanisms already allowed by law as well as improving system of revenue and grant allocation. Democratization still did not reached proper level as mechanisms introduced by DPA do not address rights of minorities, and this has to be changed. Improving municipal efficiency in BiH by applying experience of developed and transitional countries therefore may range from better cooperation according to the existing laws, to substantive changes of legislation.
      PubDate: Jul 2018
       
  • Pragmatic Markers of Voices in Femi Osofisan's Esu and the Vagabond
           Minstrels

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2018
      Source:Sociology and Anthropology  Volume  6  Number  7  Ade Adeniji   and Sade Olagunju   Pragmatic markers of voices are significant given the roles they play in the building and construction of utterances in culture-based texts. They reveal owners of voices thus enabling us to determine authorial preoccupations in literary texts. However, as significant as they are to the determination of voices and authorial perspectives, they have received little attention in linguistic scholarship. Employing the literary pragmatic theory therefore, this study sets out to examine how to detect voice ownership as indicated by pragmatic markers of voices such as references, deixis, pronouns, tenses and related authorial perspectives in Osofisan's Esu and the Vagabond Minstrels (EATVM), so selected, given that it is rich in data. The study reveals that Osofisan employs the pragmatic markers of voices such as references, deixis, personal pronouns, tenses and so on through his and his characters' voices, voice mash, voice trash, and voice crash, relative to issues of social power, moral and religious deviances, and religious beliefs, in EATVM. The study concludes that a study of pragmatic markers of voices enhances an understanding of voice ownership in literary texts towards determining authorial perspectives in post-colonial African conjured textual universes.
      PubDate: Jul 2018
       
  • Modernization and Popular Culture: Views from Turkey

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2018
      Source:Sociology and Anthropology  Volume  6  Number  7  Ozlem Aydogmus Ordem   Studies on modernization and popular culture have been on the rise in recent decades since modernization has brought about popular culture and its elements. This study aims to focus on the relationship between modernization-popular culture and nine elements composed of critical theory, consumer culture, gender, cinema, media, high/low culture, power, art and image. The study involved 49 undergraduates at a Turkish university majoring in Communication Sciences. In addition, some participants (N= 10) were interviewed regarding the relationship between modernization-popular culture and nine elements. An inductive content analysis was conducted to obtain the results. The study took 14 weeks and contained two questions to search for the relationship between modernization-popular culture and nine elements. The results show that the strongest relationships were composed of the elements of media, cinema and consumer culture, while the weakest relationships were between power, gender and popular culture.
      PubDate: Jul 2018
       
  • Survival Patterns of Deserted Women in Bangladesh

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2018
      Source:Sociology and Anthropology  Volume  6  Number  7  Neaz Ahmed   This paper focuses on survival patterns of deserted women in Sylhet City of Bangladesh. It is based on a study with 10(ten) deserted women by using an in-depth interview guide and tape recorder. Even more than other women in Bangladesh, deserted women are an extremely disadvantaged group. They have to play roles as mothers and simultaneously as wage earners to support themselves and their children. They are vulnerable, not only socially but also economically, in comparison to other categories of women. They experience multiple serious, financial problems which compel them to lead a vulnerable livelihood. This paper is based on an empirical study conducted in Sylhet city. The findings of the study, in all likelihood, affect the real picture of survival patterns of deserted women and will provide a platform for developing recommendations for policy reform or adopting new policies. It may also help government and other human development organizations to adopt effective strategies to meet the growing challenges and urgent needs of this vulnerable segment of women and their overall development.
      PubDate: Jul 2018
       
  • Institutions of Coordination in Mixed Market Economies: The Gatekeeper
           Role of the State in Labour Relations

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2018
      Source:Sociology and Anthropology  Volume  6  Number  7  Francesco Galletti   According to the Varieties of Capitalism (VoC) approach, the gatekeeper role of the state is a key feature in the Mixed Market Economies (MMEs) coordination channel. Relying upon the ICTWSS dataset, the article investigates how this role was concretely deployed in the labour relations dimension. Special consideration is given to ground how this role took place before the path towards the EMU was set as well as to sketch out the dynamics of change that followed afterwards. A close inspection of the coordination channel allows, indeed, completing the picture about the juxtaposition between Mixed and Coordinated Market Economies that the distributive costs stemming from the Euro-crisis has made extremely salient.
      PubDate: Jul 2018
       
  • Architectural Cognition Sociology

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2018
      Source:Sociology and Anthropology  Volume  6  Number  7  Tarkko Oksala   Susanna Toivanen   and Aino Oksala   The aim of this paper is to promote Architectural Sociology keeping cognition in focus. Firstly architecture, cognition and society are considered in their relationships. Secondly associations promoting cognition, its study and extensions of architectural cognition are discussed. This all is made in order to form a clear conceptual basis to understand architectural action in socio-psychological reality. This is tested by using architectural goal setting as example. Application of the frame in solving recent challenges is commented.
      PubDate: Jul 2018
       
  • Safety Threats, Impunity and Professionalism: Journalists' Dilemma in
           Pakistan

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2018
      Source:Sociology and Anthropology  Volume  6  Number  7  Sadia Jamil   This study primarily aims to examine the impact of contextual factors on journalists' safety in Pakistan. The study also analyses the ways safety risks and Pakistan's climate of impunity affect professional journalism in the country. Data have been gathered using the quantitative method of survey and the qualitative method of in-depth interviews. Findings reveal that all surveyed male and female journalists (100%) view the factors of government's and military's threats and pressure; impunity; the country's socio-political situation and laws, religious extremism and social conservatism as most crucial in affecting their safety. On the other hand, 76% and 91% journalists consider a lack of safety training and ineffectiveness of measures as important aspects causing safety risks to them respectively. Drawing on the social responsibility theory, this study suggests that the Pakistani journalists are considerably unable to do 'objective and investigative reporting' freely, truthfully and accurately because of diverse safety threats emerging from internal political and ethnic conflicts; government's, military's and media owners' pressure; law and order situation; religious extremism; conservatism and impunity. Hence, the study questions the notion of media as watch dog and media as the mirror of society in the prevalence of news culture that lacks truthfulness and accuracy. The study invokes for creating professionalism and fostering safe and free journalism necessary for truthful, accurate and impartial reporting in the sake of public's interest and their right to know in Pakistan.
      PubDate: Jul 2018
       
  • Empowerment Dynamics and Socio-economic Development: "Relevance to Women
           in Developing Societies"

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2018
      Source:Sociology and Anthropology  Volume  6  Number  7  Joseph Kwasi Brenyah   Socio-economic vulnerability has gradually gained roots within societies due to inequalities. Most individuals are not able to defend their rights, particularly the poor. Many people with potential have not been able to take up opportunities in life due to a lack of empowerment. Empowering vulnerable groups such as women may be the best way to overcome circumstances such as poverty, poor educational opportunities and social exclusion tendencies. This study identified the various approaches to empowerment, ascertained the association between empowerment and some socio-economic aspects of human life. This study was a systematic review, underpinned by the Middle Range Theory of Community Empowerment. The study noted that, empowerment is not the power granted to an individual or group but rather the measures taken for a person to acquire knowledge, power and skills leading to change in a phenomena. The study revealed that, despite efforts in empowering individuals particularly, women, factors such as educational status, cultural and social factors, health systems and ineffective social protection intervention programmes inhibit the various empowerment processes. The study recommended the need to create fiscal space to fund social protection interventions, give up some outmoded social and cultural practices, and provide education especially for young women.
      PubDate: Jul 2018
       
  • Perceptions of the Radiation Disaster from H-bomb Testing: Subsistence
           Economy, Knowledge and Network among the People of Rongelap in the
           Marshall Islands

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2018
      Source:Sociology and Anthropology  Volume  6  Number  1  Satoe Nakahara   This paper considers the various perceptions of victims of radiation and the suffering they experience from the radiation disaster. Many studies have been conducted on the adverse impacts of radiation. However, the discomfort and anxieties experienced by people were often ignored or dismissed as anecdotal evidence or emotionalism with no policy relevance. In this paper, findings are described from long-term work with the Rongelap community documenting the impact of radiation exposure from US nuclear testing as measured by changes in behavior and language. This paper shows that ecosystem changes from H-bomb radiation rendered traditional forms of knowledge about the natural environment meaningless; this is not to be confused with a loss of explicit knowledge, but it means that the knowledge is no longer applicable to the current situation. 'The people of Rongelap, Rongerik, and Ailinginae, like other Marshallese, had a keen understanding of local environmental conditions, resources, and ecosystemic dynamics. Ecosystem knowledge was essential to survival. Atoll resources provided water, food building materials, tools, transportation, medicine, toys, and ceremonial items.' In other words, nuclear testing resulted in the loss of some kinds of cultural knowledge. This is important to understand, because subsistence societies require more than uncontaminated natural resources to thrive. They also require knowledge of the natural environment. Simply transplanting a living culture to another location of similar size and geographic position does not work.
      PubDate: Jan 2018
       
  • The Africanization of Democracy - Elections and Conflict Prevention in
           Sub-Saharan Africa

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2018
      Source:Sociology and Anthropology  Volume  6  Number  1  Jose Pascal da Rocha   and Ratha Khuon   This paper explores the lessons learned from the nexus between elections and conflict prevention. It underscores that electoral processes are linked to democratic control by the citizens and, thus, paramount to good governance and accountability of political actors. These factors contribute legitimacy to the governments and, ultimately, promote conflict prevention, conflict transformation, and peace infrastructures. Drawing on the cases of Benin and Uganda, this study will examine the conditions and variables of the contexts that either support or hinder leaders to relinquish power according to constitutional term limits, explore the role of political parties and non-governmental organizations as intermediaries of civic dialogue between the governments and their citizens, and elaborate on the prospects of project democracy and its linkages to peace infrastructures and conflict prevention.
      PubDate: Jan 2018
       
  • Wellbeing in Labor Market: A False Illusion

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2018
      Source:Sociology and Anthropology  Volume  6  Number  1  Capuzzo Fiorella Maria Bernadette   Wellbeing at work is a basic goal of active labor market policies to reach a better productivity all over the world. The legislative decree n. 150/2009 has introduced in Italy a system of annual verification of the level of health and well-being of workers and employees in organizations of all sizes, of the evaluation system adopted and of the judgment expressed by the boss. It aims to know employees' opinions about the standard of health, wellness, relationship, evaluation system and management. This paper focuses on the perception concerning wellbeing at work in a public administration. According to the law a questionnaire with 82 items about self-confidence, health stress, discrimination, evaluation system and boss appraisal was distributed and employees should fill it up in an anonymous way. The search involved about 300 employees in a length of 2 years and it was considered a great opportunity to encourage a positive mood, to reinforce the institutional vision and mission of the public administration and to contrast corruption. The results were interesting as less than half of employees returned the filled form and all tested groups but the managers expressed a totally negative estimation. The author tries to investigate the reason why wellness is a false illusion in the Regional Council of Lombardy and to underline a possible solution.
      PubDate: Jan 2018
       
  • What Elements Are Needed to Design a Comprehensive Youth Development
           Programme

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2018
      Source:Sociology and Anthropology  Volume  6  Number  1  H. Pharaoh   M. Smith   and J. Frantz   Interventions to combat engagement in health risk behaviours (HRB) amongst youth produces mixed results. Engagement in HRBs continues to increase with adverse effects on health and well-being. This manuscript reports on a study that attempted to demonstrate the usefulness of Intervention Mapping (IM) in developing contextually relevant programmes with increased buy-in from stakeholders, and the potential to effect behavioural change. The present study used a modified Intervention Mapping (IM) framework that included the first five IM operational steps: 1) Needs assessment (Survey), 2) Identifying performance objectives (Concept Mapping), 3) Methods and strategies (Systematic review), 4) Programme development (Triangulation of all the components in the preceding steps) and 5) Feasibility of the designed programme (Delphi Study). The manuscript demonstrated how the framework enabled the use of multiple methodologies to develop a programme that was methodologically rigorous and empirically grounded. The focus is not on the results of the various steps, but on demonstrating how the steps were applied to facilitate programme development. Ethics clearance was obtained from the UWC Senate Research Committee and all ethics principles observed. The results demonstrate that IM is an appropriate conceptual framework for collaboration that enhances the resultant programme at various levels: theoretical/ conceptual; methodological and practical application/ intervention.
      PubDate: Jan 2018
       
  • Student Beliefs: Thought as a Mean to Improve Human Coexistence

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2018
      Source:Sociology and Anthropology  Volume  6  Number  1  Miguel Monroy Farías   and Mónica Díaz Pontones   Based on the complexity theory, it is possible to understand the diversity of elements and connections involved in human coexistence. From the systemic point of view, the development of thought processes which are strategic, creative, critical or argumentative, is an element of dignified coexistence, because it favors dialogue, debate or consensus. But attitudes of respect, tolerance and support for human plurality in terms of ways of thinking, feeling and living are also essential. The research assumption is that teaching thinking skills and attitudes could lead to intelligent and respectful behavior in human coexistence. Specifically, college students' beliefs about the need to promote different ways of thinking were analyzed. This is a qualitative phenomenological research. Students from the National Autonomous University of Mexico (Group A) and the Autonomous University of Mexico City (Group B) were investigated about their beliefs on how the development of thought contributes to social coexistence, specifically about creative thinking, strategic thinking, critical thinking and argumentative thinking. Results: the beliefs of students who think creatively lead to a problem solving social interaction, or a thinking about a better world. Thinking in a convenient way allows you to combat violence or improve human communication. Thinking critically helps analyze whether actions are suitable for human coexistence and among others, if we reflect to analyze whether we act in a relevant way or on the importance of the benefits of the rest of the thinking skills and abandonment of mediocrity.
      PubDate: Jan 2018
       
  • Animal-assisted Therapy for the Emotional Well-being of Children with
           Intellectual Disabilities and Behavioral Disorders

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2018
      Source:Sociology and Anthropology  Volume  6  Number  1  Maylos Rodrigo-Claverol   Belén Malla-Clua   Esther Rodrigo-Claverol   Júlia Jové-Naval   Jèssica Bergadà-Bell-lloc   and Josep Ramon Marsal-Mora   Studies conducted in educational settings show that animals attract and maintain the attention of children. The calming effects of animals are especially valuable in children with attention deficit, hyperactivity and behavioral disorders. The primary goal was to improve the emotional well-being, in a special education school, of children with intellectual disabilities, attention problems and/or hyperactivity and behavioral disorders. A Longitudinal, Observational Study was designed, which consisted of a community intervention based on animal-assisted therapy (AAT), and performed at a Primary Care Center (PCC). Twelve weekly group sessions were held with therapy dogs; a nurse and a doctor from the PCC participated with training in AAT as well as teachers. The intervention was carried out in two classrooms at the school. The sample size was 12 children with an average age of 12.7 (SD±4.4) years. Variables studied: attention, happiness, relaxed, respect of turn. The overall improvement of the four variables was statistically significant (p
      PubDate: Jan 2018
       
  • Sauvons Calais, a Nationalist Vigilante Group

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2018
      Source:Sociology and Anthropology  Volume  6  Number  1  Matthijs Gardenier   This article focuses on a French anti-refugee vigilante group: Sauvons Calais. Linked to the radical far-right, it aims to mobilize the population against the presence of migrants in Calais. The goals of this nationalist group are the establishment of self-defense groups against refugees and the expulsion of all migrants. Its activities also take the form of vigilantism: calls for self-justice, patrols, direct action. We will also dwell on the cloudy links between the group and law enforcement agencies. Studying the emergence of this type of collective group is particularly interesting: given the situation in Europe, it is likely that these types of groups will start multiplying across the continent.
      PubDate: Jan 2018
       
  • Respondent's Perception on Demographic and Socio-economic Characteristics
           of Ikogosi Warm Spring for Environmental Sustainability

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2018
      Source:Sociology and Anthropology  Volume  6  Number  1  Olowookere-Ayodele   Olusayo Oluwakemi   Ayeni Ayodele Olaiya   and Imole Patrick Olaniyi   Perception is an agent's subjective experiential evaluation of the phenomenal which surrounds man, revealing his consciousness of it and his intentionality towards the object which constitute it. Primary data were collected with the aid of structured questionnaire from the host community with 300 respondents' sample size. Information was sought pertaining to the demographic characteristics of the respondents and the impacts of the tourist attraction on the host community both the positive and the negative aspects respectively. Questionnaire were distributed through random sampling based on availability by rating their level of agreement with each of the statement on a five-point Likert's scale from strongly agree (SA), agree (A), undecided (U), Disagree (D) and strongly disagree (SD). Data were analyzed and tested using descriptive and inferential statistical techniques, independent sample t- test and one-way ANOVA test at p
      PubDate: Jan 2018
       
  • Culture and Birthing: Experiences from a Rural Community in Western Kenya

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2018
      Source:Sociology and Anthropology  Volume  6  Number  1  Abraham Rono   Harisson Maithya   and Benard Sorre   Despite numerous campaigns to increase uptake of hospital delivery services in Kenya, skilled birth attendance is still low. The situation is particularly worse for marginalized rural communities, including the Marakwet of western Kenya. Marakwet County ranks far below the national health survey indicators, with only 28% of the women delivering in hospitals compared to the average national index, which is at 62% [1]. Different reasons are cited for the low health facility use by women during delivery. Drawing from a study on determinants of birthing sites conducted among the Marakwet of western Kenya, this paper discusses the socio-cultural factors that influence women's choice of the site of birthing. The study employed both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection and analysis and it reports the qualitative findings. A total of 186 mothers, selected using multistage cluster sampling, were interviewed. Three focus group discussions with participants ranging from 8-12 were conducted, one with mothers below 20 years of age, another with mothers above 45 years of age and the third one with married men. A total of 29 participants participated in the FGDs. The FGDs participants were separately selected and were outside the 186 sampled informants. The study found that traditional birth attendants, rituals performed in the birthing process, and disposal of the placenta were the critical socio-cultural factors influencing the Marakwet women choice of birthing site. The paper concludes that understanding and addressing these factors is the key to any intervention programs designed to improve the reproductive health of women through the utilization of hospital as a birthing site.
      PubDate: Jan 2018
       
  • The Accessible Tourism in Lisbon, as a Challenge for the "Art" of Tourist
           Guiding

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2018
      Source:Sociology and Anthropology  Volume  6  Number  1  Ilídia Carvalho   People with special needs are travelling all over the world, thanks to the last developments at technological level and mainly because of the changing of mentalities about impairment. Tourism destinations have to be prepared to receive this new kind of tourism and the required adaptations must concern the physical barriers and the human barriers as well. Tourism professionals in general should be informed and trained to deal with the human diversity. Tourist guides are some of the most important professionals on dealing with accessible tourism and their performance can be of extreme importance for the success of a travel experience. To be able to guide a group when there is someone travelling in a wheelchair, can be a challenge and requires some sensitivity and knowledge, not only about special needs of the visitors but also about the real accessibility conditions of the places. Based on the professional experience of the author and a mixed method research using questionnaires, interviews to tourists and day visitors as well as the results of a focus group with tour guides, this paper intends to give some answers about what visitors in a wheelchair expect from a tour guide and how these are supposed to behave in such a situation. The findings show how accessibility is a fundamental concept in tourism and the important role a guide can play.
      PubDate: Jan 2018
       
  • Cognitive Perception of Chinese Audience on Media Image of Foreign Media

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2018
      Source:Sociology and Anthropology  Volume  6  Number  1  Ke Zhang   and Ronald Ding   This study tries to conduct a second-order CFA model of audience perception and evaluation on media image of foreign media. Communication capacity, popularity and credibility are the three factors tested in this study through utilizing online questionnaire survey. The results show that besides the frequency of media exposure that could affect the perception and evaluation of audience on media image, the three factors of communication capacity, popularity and credibility all have significant influence in contributing to the media image build. The significance of research on media image lies in that it is the most intuitive cognitive outcomes of audience as well as the most direct means in highlighting the inherent quality of media in the competitive market, and also the most intuitive signs to highlight differences with other media.
      PubDate: Jan 2018
       
  • Functional Differentiation and Religious Organizations in Modernity: A
           Theoretical Analysis Based on Pentecostalism in Brazil

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2018
      Source:Sociology and Anthropology  Volume  6  Number  1  Roberto Dutra   and João Ricardo Boechat Pires de Almeida Sales   In this paper, we discuss the role of religious organizations based on Niklas Luhmann's theory of functional differentiation. Starting from a reflection on functional differentiation as the defining form of modern society and the relation between religion and other social spheres, we argue that the multiplicity of functional orientations, due to the non-convergence between the perspectives of the different social subsystems, should be the point of departure from empirical analyzes of religious organizations in modernity. We demonstrate the theoretical argument through an analysis of religious organizations that are guided by Pentecostal structures and semantics in the search for the conversion of believers in the Brazilian religious field.
      PubDate: Jan 2018
       
  • The Inclusion of Students with Visual Impairment at Addis Ababa
           University, Ethiopia: Challenges and Prospects

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2018
      Source:Sociology and Anthropology  Volume  6  Number  1  Teferi Adnew Zelelew   Following the introduction of Special Needs Education Program Strategy that Ethiopian government developed in 2006, all public HEIs have been required to implement inclusive education as a mandatory approach when educating students with impairment, including those who are visually impaired. However, the actual implementation of an inclusive approach is being challenged by the social, political and physical circumstances of higher education institutions. Therefore, this study aimed at examining the existing challenges and prospects towards the inclusion of students with Visual Impairment (VI) in the particular context of Addis Ababa University (AAU). The study adopted an interpretive paradigm for deeper understanding of the inclusion of students with VI at AAU and informing the detailed judgments made by experts of a suggested action plan to progressively provide support for students with VI at AAU. The study also applied the critical disability paradigm as a complementary philosophical base in order to examine critically the challenges that students with VI face and to suggest ways to transform the inclusive policies and practices of AAU in favor of the students. The researcher undertook the qualitative case study and a Delphi design to address the main aim of this research (i.e., to determine how best to implement an action plan that progressively increases support for students with VI at AAU over a period of time). The action plan that comprises various support measures and the necessary resources was developed using the empirical results of this study as well as the existing findings and best practices found in the literature study. It was scrutinized and approved by a number of experts to be implemented over the next five years at AAU in order to improve the support provided to students with VI.
      PubDate: Jan 2018
       
  • Free Market and Democracy

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2018
      Source:Sociology and Anthropology  Volume  6  Number  2  Domenico Fracchiolla   
      PubDate: Feb 2018
       
  • Ural-European Parallels in the Eneolithic and the Bronze Age:
           Identification of Migrations (Methodological Approach)

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2018
      Source:Sociology and Anthropology  Volume  6  Number  2  S. A. Grigoriev   The article is devoted to two episodes that allow us to speak about the presence of long-distance connections and contacts (or migrations) between the Urals and Europe during the Eneolithic and Bronze Age. The earlier Eneolithic contacts are represented by the Ural megaliths, which have parallels in Northwestern Europe. Later contacts are reflected in Bronze artifacts of the Seima-Turbino type and in tin alloys penetrating to Central and Western Europe from the east in the Late Bronze Age.
      PubDate: Feb 2018
       
  • Possible Socioeconomic Consequences of the Hydropower Dams on the
           Downstream Communities: Case Study Hatgyi Dam

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2018
      Source:Sociology and Anthropology  Volume  6  Number  2  Kyaw Thu Han   This research paper examines the possible effects of hydropower dams on downstream communities through a case study of the proposed Hat Gyi dam on Salween River in Kayin State, Southern Part of Myanmar. The purpose of this paper is to find out how local people's livelihoods and ownership of land have been affected by the proposed dam and in what way men and women voice their concerns at the time of the project were being planned and finally to find out the engagement of government authorities or civil societies to the downstream communities of Hat Gyi Dam. I do qualitative method to know the situation properly. The local people believe that the consequences of building the Hat Gyi dam will have effect on their livelihoods and income of the local communities seriously. The dam will have effect on the agriculture production in the region and consequently the regular income of the local people. The local people do not have any chance to raise their concerns, especially women. This paper concludes that although both men and women have lost their livelihood and farmland, women have suffered more due to struggles for daily life. Voice of women cannot be raised during or after the dam has been built due to existing gender discrimination in the society. By analyzing the data I collected from in depth interviews, I conclude that the consequences of hydropower dams would be very bad on local people, especially on women. This socioeconomic impact analysis of a large infrastructure development project provides insight into the unequal relationship among government, construction companies and the local people, the local economy; it determines the portion of the population that benefits and the portion of the population that suffers the cost. By using that insight, I hope policy makers can help to reduce the cost of suffering while without damaging the benefits.
      PubDate: Feb 2018
       
  • Art and Resilience: The Artist's Survival in the Spanish Art Market -
           Analysis from a Global Survey

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2018
      Source:Sociology and Anthropology  Volume  6  Number  2  Marta Pérez-Ibáñez   and Isidro López-Aparicio   This article aims to diagnose certain characteristics of the resilient personality in the Spanish artists who developed their artistic careers in the years before the economic crisis that began in 2008 and who have suffered the resulting loss in their activity and their economy. Along with sources of positive psychology that analyze resilience as an individual's personal and social ability to effectively overcome situations of crisis, this paper is based on the research developed by the authors in recent years from data provided by more than 1,100 visual and plastic artists in Spain, a wide survey about the economic situation of this sector nowadays and the evolution since the beginning of the economic crisis. It also seeks to determine whether there is a resilient artist profile, which through personal, social and professional tools, has reoriented his career and maintains his artistic activity as the main source of income. The methodology used, both analytic and descriptive, allows determining not only what characteristics of the resilient personality may be detected in this group of artists, but also which tools they use to survive the crisis in the current art market.
      PubDate: Feb 2018
       
  • Higher Education in Prison Contexts: The Prison Situation as Limit
           Experience

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2018
      Source:Sociology and Anthropology  Volume  6  Number  2  Mónica Díaz Pontones   and Miguel Monroy Farías   The prison experience is not exclusive to those, for whom the State has removed their freedom. According to Heidegger, humans can live in a prison for our entire existence. The family of origin, the one you build, school, among others, may be true prisons from which it is incredibly difficult to separate. However, the actual experience of being enclosed by walls has peculiar qualities; therefore, the central concern of this research work is on the limit situation occurred within prison and the return home from it. One can say that certain events that occur inside the prison come to be, for some inmates, a limit situation. However, one must ask: What kinds of events are we talking about' What is it that occurs and how do these events reveal a threshold, a limit' How is this type of situation made to happen through speech' And how do you return home after a limit situation' Moreover, we assume that the return home is not merely a biographical accident, we do not only speak of the customs and 'prison practices' learned during confinement or of the punishment, penalties or multiple activities, tasks and encounters the newly freed have to undertake on their return. Above all, it tells us about the suffering that comes from failing to reach what is desired; of those appropriator events that occurred during imprisonment, those certain processes of subjectivation that have to do with the relationship that is established with oneself and with others, with the different and complex ways of relating and becoming a subject of one's own existence; it tells us of the 'vision of oneself' and notices how the 'narrative identity' is formed through the 'given speech'.
      PubDate: Feb 2018
       
  • Albanian Cultural Heritage in Digital Area

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2018
      Source:Sociology and Anthropology  Volume  6  Number  2  Dr. Etleva Domi   Living in the new era of "Bridging the Digital Divide: making the world's cultural and scientific heritage accessible to all", the article aims to present the mission of Albanian librarian community as a "builder" of "virtual cultural bridges" between the past and present, - by focusing mainly to the National Library of Albania. Such article provides a shortly background information on the technological revolution development in Albania and increased clients/users attention to digital information and/or digital content in the rich cultural environment where we are leaving. The author pays attention to Albanian National Library Strategy as the keeper of National Memory, its role in the knowledge age of Internet, its initiatives/projects in the national or international level, its achievements in building the Albanological Digital Library (e-Albanica), as well as its impact on the broader librarian community. Focusing on Albanian librarians' efforts to make available on-line at anytime and anywhere the cultural resources for all users,- even for the generations to come,- the study provides the promotion of Albanian richness cultural heritage in the world portals of present time, as well as the preserving of the cultural and scientific treasure. As a conclusion, the "Albanian Cultural Heritage by a click of mouse" is a "new channel" in the universe of knowledge breaking the concept of "physical boundaries", "building bridges" and "connecting cultures across the world".
      PubDate: Feb 2018
       
  • A Civilisation without Toilets' Ibadan and Her Environment in the
           Post-colonial Era

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2018
      Source:Sociology and Anthropology  Volume  6  Number  2  Soji Oyeranmi   It is incontestable that Ibadan presents a despicable environmental picture. In fact, Francis, Egbhokare's revised Standard version of Professor J.P Clark's Ibadan: 'Ibadan/oozing blob of rot and mold squashed and splattered among human wastes/ like Bodija market in the rain' vividly captured the filthy nature of 21st century Ibadan. Indeed, like most of the Nigeria urban areas, there is little evidence of any realistic physical planning. Visits to major streets and residential areas especially the core city centers show a prevalence of uncontrolled heap of refuse in open spaces and all pervasive repulsive odour of open sewers. There is also infrastructural decay: deplorable roads, pitifully inadequate water supply, erratic electricity supply and acute shelter shortage. The picture is generally that of urban disarray. At the heart of problem is the ubiquitousness of non-industrial and industrial pollutants. Individual and corporate bodies are reckless in waste storage and disposal often resulting in environmental hazards inimical to animal and human health. Despite the above environmental challenges, little attention is currently given to the problems. Indeed, many have concluded that filthiness in Ibadan is cultural in origin as the people are dirty by nature. This is why this paper is set to: establish the interdependence of nature and culture on one hand and sanitation and the environment on the other; investigate the root of sanitation crisis in Ibadan; identify stakeholders and their roles in environmental management in Ibadan; examine the efficacy of the governmental strategies in environmental management in Ibadan; assess peoples' attitude and perception to personal hygiene, environmental management and the implications of on their health; suggest some ways out of the crisis.
      PubDate: Feb 2018
       
  • The Urgent Need for Queer and Feminist Hindu Theology

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug 2018
      Source:Sociology and Anthropology  Volume  6  Number  8  Brandon Graham   and Vikram Sundarraman   This paper addresses the topic of feminism as it relates to India and Hindu theology. The connection between specifically Hindu theology and Indian culture is first established. There it can be seen that Indian culture has caused changes in Hinduism, often meant to suit the needs of those who changed it. We hypothesise that there is correlation between a lack of feminist narratives seen in contemporary Hinduism and the intentional shifting in religious practices particularly by British colonialists and Indian nationalists in the 19th century to suit their own needs. This raised the question of if there were more examples of shifting in religious practices toward the Brahmin-, cisgender-, and masculine-dominated form we see today. For this we looked into the iconography of Hinduism and found that paintings in particular showed much more diversity in narrative and sometimes even contradicted narratives found in Hindu texts. We make recommendations for better inclusivity in India today based on these findings.
      PubDate: Aug 2018
       
  • The Nigerian Entertainment Industry (Nollywood) Culture and Society Being

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug 2018
      Source:Sociology and Anthropology  Volume  6  Number  8  Yosi Apollos Maton   The fight for independence was carried out with a lot of zeal, which the populace embraced with high hopes that these ideologies and promises of our great nationalists would come to fruition within the shortest time possible. Yet, times, opportunities and years have come and gone, still we have nothing or little to show, especially, in the 21st century scenario, where Africa dreams and hopes have been shattered. These ideologies seem unrealistic and the promises are not forth coming. It has little to show except bad governance, crisis, violence, poverty, oppression, marginalization and the moral decay of our rich cultural values and societal structures. One is left with the vexing questions: Where have our great nationalists gone wrong' If indeed their ideologies and promises were realistic, why have the people not grasped their vision and mission, especially the case of the Nigerian entertainment Industry (Nollywood)' Why is it that their creativity promoting very little of these ideologies' Why do they still portray the mentality that they are still puppets in the hands of the colonial master since most of their creativity promotes little of our rich positive cultures and values' Are they not aware that they have tools in their hands that can go a long way to promote those ideologies and fulfill these promises and fan the flame of nation building and promotes its cultural heritage and values until we are there' Why must this great and powerful tool be used as agent of destruction of the Nigerian society and its rich cultural values' Can't they think of lasting legacies that posterity can tell' The paper looks at the brief historical and geographical background of Nigerian society , its ethnic groups and its cultures, then went on to discuss Nollywood and her role in consolidating the development of the Nigerian society and its Cultures. It then went on to look at factors that militated against the effectiveness of Nollywood in promoting national development and cultures. The paper then profers ways forward and round up with a conclusion.
      PubDate: Aug 2018
       
  • Restrictive Labour Migration Policy on Nepalese Women and Consequences

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug 2018
      Source:Sociology and Anthropology  Volume  6  Number  8  Uddhab Pd. Pyakurel   This study seeks to understand the governance system of women labour migration as practiced by the Nepali state through various institutions on the basis of rules, regulations and laws, and explores the interface between the regulations introduced against women migration abroad, existing popular practices, and consequences experienced by women migrants and their families. After a review of the Nepal government's rules and regulations introduced in the recent past, the paper concludes that Nepal still follow restrictive migration policy for women even if it is facilitating male out-migration in the job market abroad by introducing various schemes, rules/regulations and institutions. The often cited positive aspects of migration helped increase the aspiration of women to go abroad even women migration has become more costly, complicated and vulnerable due to the continued restrictive policy by the government of Nepal.
      PubDate: Aug 2018
       
  • Pre-retirees' Plan Prior to Retirement of the Local Government Employees
           in the Province of Palawan

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug 2018
      Source:Sociology and Anthropology  Volume  6  Number  8  Edison C. Gabileo   The main objective of this study was to determine the pre-retirees' plan prior to retirement of the local government employees in the province of Palawan with the following specific objectives: identify the financial; health; social; financial, social, family and spiritual plans of pre-retirees prior to retirement; and suggestions of officials that can help meet the needs of pre-retirees in the LGU. On pre-retirement financial plan: plan the type of GSIS retirement option which will be more advantageous to them by asking advice from GSIS as to which of these retirement options to choose and plan to use expertise to continue earning even when retired; on the pre-retirement health plan was to practice healthy habits and recreational activities that are found in community; the family plan was to consider the spouse and immediate family members during pre-retirement planning and consult legal experts before executing wills and probate to inheritors before retirement; while on social plan: help the needy by joining community and civic organizations; the psychological plan was searching for a life-long learning by vicariously living the lives of people who have survived life's battles and traveling to sacred places (such as the Holy Land in Israel, grottos, Micah, Vatican in Rome and local churches) for spiritual plan; the conclusions was the pre-retirees' plan were all "well-planned" in selected well-being elements of pre-retirement, specifically in the areas of financial and health; but only "planned" in social, family and psychological; and the recommendations was provide a complete pre-retirement on financial, health, social, psychological, family and spiritual program in the local government units.
      PubDate: Aug 2018
       
  • Ameliorating Adversity: Supporting Resilience in Low-income Lone Mothers

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug 2018
      Source:Sociology and Anthropology  Volume  6  Number  8  Lea Caragata   Sara J. Cumming   and Elizabeth C. Watters   Many lone mothers experience significant hardship in their lives, yet some appear resilient in the face of adversity. Understandings of lone mothers' resilience are necessary to develop effective policies and programs; however, research in this area is lacking, including understanding factors that both create hardship, and protect against it. Grounded in a feminist, participatory methodology this study addresses these gaps by engaging 38 Canadian lone mothers' in interviews and focus groups to explore their understandings and experience of resilience. Lone mothers identify a breadth of risk and protective factors organized here into a social exclusion framework so that their compounding and intersecting nature may be more readily identified. The findings shed light on important risk and protective factors in the lives of low income lone mothers and such improved understanding perhaps contests the negative and too readily made judgments about these families.
      PubDate: Aug 2018
       
  • Archaeological and Iconographic Analysis of the Use of Funerary Personal
           Adornments in the Middle Kingdom of Ancient Egypt

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2018
      Source:Sociology and Anthropology  Volume  6  Number  4  Seria Yamazaki   In the Middle Kingdom of Egypt (c. 2000-1650 BCE), various personal adornments were used as grave goods. This paper concentrates on the regional variability of those adornments by analyzing hundreds of tombs located in Egypt. In addition, 'ideal' assemblages and colors of personal adornments for funerary rituals will be examined through iconography such as frise d'objets, mummy masks, and anthropoid coffins. The results show that during the late Middle Kingdom, broad collars were buried with the deceased exclusively in the Memphis-Faiyum region, while single-string adornments were used everywhere. Moreover, while royal broad collars resembled images seen on the body containers, non-royal broad collars were quite different. It is apparent that the ideal personal adornments were exclusive to royalty while other personal adornments were used generally, regardless of the region, for those with either royal or non-royal status.
      PubDate: Apr 2018
       
  • Once a Slave..., Not Always a Slave: Acquiring Freedom on São
           Tomé Island

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2018
      Source:Sociology and Anthropology  Volume  6  Number  4  Robert Garfield   The island of São Tomé, located off the west-central coast of Africa, became a template for slave-based sugar islands elsewhere in Africa and in the West Indies. The common assumption is that slaves, taken to the island from the nearby African mainland, remained so forever, as did their descendants. In fact, many slaves won their freedom, through manumission, purchase, royal proclamation and, especially, rebellion. By the mid-16th Century, ex-slaves and their descendants actually ruled the island, both economically and politically, even though slavery still remained the basis of the island's economy and social structure. This paper looks at the origins and evolution of São Toméan society, noting the ways in which enslavement could be overcome or ended, and what the practical effects of this were for the island's social, economic, and political future. It reviews the many violent rebellions produced by the slave system and how these altered the lives of those who still remained enslaved.
      PubDate: Apr 2018
       
  • The Future of Internet Governance: Dystopia, Utopia, or Realpolitik'

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2018
      Source:Sociology and Anthropology  Volume  6  Number  4  Richard Hill   The first discussions regarding issues that are now included under the rubric "Internet governance" date back to the 1990s. Discussions were formally brought into the arena of intergovernmental discussions in 1998, at the Plenipotentiary Conference of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) and continued in particular at the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) in 2005. Discussions have tended to be difficult, and little consensus has been reached, regarding a number of issues. The factors that make discussions difficult are financial, geopolitical, but also ideological. Some of the ideological approaches are idealistic and propose governance models that are new and innovative; other approaches are conservative and propose either to continue unchanged the current Internet governance arrangements, or to apply traditional intergovernmental mechanisms to at least some aspects of Internet governance. This paper concludes that an agreed international framework is needed in order to ensure that Internet governance can evolve to meet the interests of all concerned parties.
      PubDate: Apr 2018
       
  • Divorce Status and Its Major Reasons in Pakistan

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2018
      Source:Sociology and Anthropology  Volume  6  Number  4  Shazia Ramzan   Saira Akhtar   Shabbir Ahmad   Muhammad Umar Zafar   and Haroon Yousaf   The family is the fundamental unit of society. It creates tribes, clans, communities, societies and nations. Moreover, family is responsible for the wellbeing, personality development, and progress of the individual. Divorce, on the other hand, produces chaos in the family life and instead of achieving the above cited objective vitally damages the social life of the conjugal partners along with the children and the families of both partners. Divorce is not a desirable act in any religion of the world. Islam is the major religion of the world and dislike divorce that is why there is a considerable difference in the divorce rate in Islam as compared to the other religions of the world. Present study was conducted in Pakistan. Punjab province was selected randomly. Three districts were selected from the Punjab province by simple random sampling technique. A total of two hundred affected persons/informants (130 males and 70 females), and 100 unaffected informants/ persons (50 males and 50 females) (300 in total), were interviewed including. The informants were selected randomly, and no appointment was made prior to the visits. Informant Consensus Factor (ICF), The Fidelity Level (FL), Direct Matrix Ranking, and Preference Ranking (PR) were employed during the data analysis process. As far as the results of this research study are concerned we came to know 9.66 % respondents were of the view that financial problems, 14.83% blamed unemployment, 5.62% pointed out lack of trust, 6. 74% said higher education, 5.17% informed religious conflict, and 5.62 said misunderstanding were the major reasons of their respective divorces. The study concluded that divorce rate in Pakistan is increasing gradually which will be a devastating thing for the survival of family life.
      PubDate: Apr 2018
       
  • Are Voters Myopic' An Empirical Analysis

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2018
      Source:Sociology and Anthropology  Volume  6  Number  4  Richard Jankowski   There is abundant evidence that voters are relatively uninformed about government. But, economic retrospective voting, via the "miracle of aggregation", overcomes this problem in democracies. However, there is also evidence that voters are myopic. Hence, voters can be manipulated by an adept administration. I review past empirical studies of myopic voting. I argue that they are characterized by two limitations: one, they assume a unidimensional issue space; and two, they rely on ecological inference, because they use aggregate economic performance and election results to infer myopic voting. Achen and Bartels [1] update previous empirical studies by including an increased number of elections and using a control for the multidimensionality of the issue space, i.e., voters' choice is based on issues other than the economy. But their analysis, based on aggregate data, still requires an ecological inference. By contrast, Hellwig and Marinova [2] present a unique micro-level study, designed by them that measure the time-horizon of individuals and thus avoid the ecological inference problem. However, their study still assumes a unidimensional issue space. I address both the multidimensionality and ecological inference problems by retesting both the Achen and Bartels' and Hellwig and Marinova studies. I find the preponderance of evidence rejects the myopia hypothesis.
      PubDate: Apr 2018
       
  • Synchronous Examination of Diaspora Communities: Slovenian Canadians in
           Ontario

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2018
      Source:Sociology and Anthropology  Volume  6  Number  4  Alenka Čuš   This article presents a model for studying diaspora communities as independent structures applied to the Slovenian-Canadian case and where the synchronous examination of diaspora communities and the literary system is the central subject of study. This paper presents an established research model, which does not examine diaspora communities as a bridge between the country of origin and the country of acceptance, but as a third autonomous, equivalent space. The model enables extra and intratextual analysis of literature, treatment of written and spoken language use and examination of formal and informal institutional situations of the diaspora community. This methodology is especially effective in the analysis of the diaspora community under contemporary conditions, where we find only the remnants of a once powerful system that have managed to be maintained over many decades up to the present, which is not possible from a distance (e.g. from Slovenia). Using the researcher's two years of fieldwork as well as the intra-community status of the researcher, the community was observed with the taxonomy of variables proposed by Howard Giles et al. (1971) that determines the empirical reality of minority communities. Due to the shortcomings of this approach in the analysis, we have established a more appropriate model, which not only enables the monitoring and assessment of the community, but on the basis of the theory of realization of national interpellation proposed by Marcello Potocco (2012), we are able to increase the actual vitality and strengthen the (Slovenian) national identity. The model allows participation in the activity, not only for observing, but for implementation of additional activity as well, according to the existing situations and needs of the community. The vitality of the community was re-assessed and the results compared with the pilot assessment. The comparison demonstrated that the proposed approach is effective. In the Slovenian community, in Ontario, the material factors of national interpellation are: socio-institutional context (interconnection of institutions), education, media, literary system (extra and intratextual), publishing market, the use of language (written, spoken) and other (religion, economy, music, sport and gastronomy).
      PubDate: Apr 2018
       
  • The Women of Njal's Saga: An Ethics of Ambiguity'

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2018
      Source:Sociology and Anthropology  Volume  6  Number  4  Jørgen Veisland   The article applies Simone de Beauvoir's reflections on authentic being in her work The Ethics of Ambiguity (1947) and Julia Kristeva's concept of marginal womanhood as developed in Powers of Horror (1982) to central women characters in Njal's Saga and to the character of Njal himself. The woman Hallgerd, wife of Gunnar, asserts her power and independence by refusing to give Gunnar two locks of her hair to make bowstrings out of. The gift denied brings about the death of Gunnar. Hallgerd's refusal constitutes the culmination of a dialectic preconditioned upon de Beauvoir's concept of authentic being as a lack of being precipitating a continuous revolt and an on-going creativity, the subjective creation of being in opposition to an objective, imposed condition. The women of the saga, Hallgerd, Bergthora (wife of Njal), and Queen Gunnhild, possess a fury described by Kristeva as a marginal otherness that cannot be sublimated. Fury propels freedom and independence. The struggle for freedom is continuous as it is predicated upon the insight that the genuinely ethical task of women and men consists in seeking freedom while realizing the ambiguity of their situation: the freedom of the subject is created in opposition to an oppressive objective condition. The women of the saga engage in actions whose violence is designed to be an overt parody on the actions perpetrated by the men in the family feud. Some of the men are also aware of this ambiguity and manifestly display an ironic and self-ironic attitude to fate, i.e. the objective condition, understanding that it is a construction and a projection from within and that it is within their power to change it. This becomes apparent in Njal whose gender is indeterminate as he combines feminine and masculine features and as he accepts his death (by burning) not as the outcome of an incontrovertible fate but as a free choice.
      PubDate: Apr 2018
       
  • Globalisation, Land Alienation and its Impact on the Right to Livelihood
           of the Tribal Communities in Kerala

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2018
      Source:Sociology and Anthropology  Volume  6  Number  4  Aditya V. Nair   and Vishnu V. S   India has the second largest tribal population in the world. According to the 2011 Census, tribes constitute 2% of the total population. India has around 461 ethnic groups and they constitute India's indigenous population. India has provided the tribal communities with several protections through laws and constitutional provisions. Despite this they are suffering from many problems. Globalisation ushers in mammoth changes which influence the social, economic, political and even cultural scenario of a country. In India, the mainstream globalisation model has neglected the inclusive growth of economy and has largely concentrated on promotion of gross domestic product, thus creating unhealthy consequences. Its impact has been drastic on the tribal who have been displaced in large numbers by developmental projects which have ignored effective rehabilitation. The neo-liberal movement has not only deprived them of their identity but also their livelihood rights pushing them into abject poverty. The impact of globalisation on the tribal life is also evident in the State of Kerala. The 2011 census report records the overall tribal population in the state as 4,84,839. There are 36 tribal communities across Kerala and 'Paniya' tribes are the biggest tribes among them. The highest concentration of Scheduled Tribes in Kerala is in Wayanad followed by Idukki. The rapid technological advancement and interplay of market forces and the rising power of neo liberalism has led to eviction of the tribal from their land, denying them a right to live with human dignity. Examples of such invasions are ample in the State of Kerala. The paper discusses the impact of globalisation on the Tribal community in Kerala. It seeks to find answers and give suggestions as to how globalisation must be managed in a sustainable manner, respecting the rights of tribal people particularly their right to livelihood. The paper concludes by making suggestions as to how globalisation must be made more sustainable, keeping in view the rights of Tribal communities in Kerala. Strong steps to be taken by the Government to mobilise more assistance to these communities. Any growth model that is adopted must give due respect to the rights of subsistence and cultural identity of these communities. The impact of globalisation should be such that it makes those who already have a comfortable existence more comfortable and plunge the others into a more dilapidated state.
      PubDate: Apr 2018
       
 
 
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