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Sakarya Üniversitesi İlahiyat Fakültesi Dergisi / Journal of Sakarya University Faculty of Theology
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 1304-6535
Published by Sakarya Üniversitesi Homepage  [5 journals]
  • A Research on The Institutinalization of Zakat in Turkey and Religious
           Staff’s Perspective (Kocaeli Example)

    • Authors: Günay TERZİ ; Mahmut BİLEN
      Abstract: When looked at the historical process of the concept of zakāt, it becomes obligatory in the Medinan period, collected by zakāt officers of the state during the Prophet Muhammad and the four Caliphs period, but the zakāt-state relationship has weakened gradually and it has been performed individually in the historical process. At the present time, it is known that there are various institutional developments in Islamic countries aiming to provide social justice in society. In some Islamic countries, it is seen that there are important developments to achieve a legal basis for the zakāt institution and establishing an institutional structure with different forms. In these countries, funds that piled up in zakāt institutions showed a significant upward trend over the years and became an important source of finance in fighting with poverty and income inequality. However, in our country, it cannot be said that zakāt has attained an institutional structure on legal grounds. In this study, by referring applications of Islamic countries to the concept of zakāt, a field study was conducted to identify the perspective of the staff working in the religious organization, which are responsible to provide religious services in our country, about the institutionalization of zakāt. In this research, while the necessity of bringing the zakāt into an institutional structure is revealed, suggestions are presented about the structure of the zakat institution which is likely to be established. [You may find an extended abstract of this article after the bibliography.] 
      PubDate: Mon, 15 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +030
       
  • The Place of Edirnevī’s Tabaqāt al-Mufassirīn in
           Tafsir Tabaqāt Literature

    • Authors: Mehmet ÇİÇEK ; Burhan YAZICI
      Abstract: The field, which has acquired the subject of scientific accumulation as a result of the activities on the Qur’an, is the history of tafsir, which is one of the sub-branches of tafsir. It is possible to divide the works related to the history of tafsir, which contains different types of writing, into two different categories in terms of content and method. In terms of content, history of tafsir studies can be divided into two parts as detached and non-detached works. In terms of method, they are binary based on tabaqat and echo centered works or a tripartite classification was created by adding one more title encyclopedic commentary in the form of historical works. In this article, Ahmed b. Muhammed al-Edirnevī (d. after 1095/1684) whose work was named Ṭabaqāt al-Mufassirīn which in terms of content detached, and in terms of method tabaqat kind of tafsir historical works have been subjected to examine. First of all, the concepts of tabaqat and tabaqāt almufassirīn and in general the pre-Edirnevî tabaqat literature will be touched. Then information about the author will be given; in the following, copies of the work, sources, method and its relationship with tafsir tabaqat literature will be examined. Finally, information was given about the works of Giritli Sirri Pasha (d. 1895), Bergamali Cevdet Bey (d. 1926) and Omer Nasuhi Bilmen (d. 1971), who continued the system of Edirnevī, and their relations with Edirnevī’s method. [You may find an extended abstract of this article after the bibliography.] 
      PubDate: Mon, 15 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +030
       
  • A Look at al-Husn-Qubh in the Context of Incomparability Discussion

    • Authors: Bahtiyar KADAYIF
      Abstract: The phenomenon of ‘’Husn-qubh’’ is one of the cases that evaluate the context of people’s actions and God’s laws (sharia law). In this study, the origins of the subject of al-husn-qubh and the views of kalam schools on the subject were evaluated in the context of acquit. From the early terms of Kalam to the ‘’Mutaahhirūn’’ (the late) Kalam, there are a lot of points of view about the case “al-husn-qubh”. In particular, it would be more accurate if this subject is analyzed with comperative analysis of ‘’Māturīdī’’,“Mu’tazilah“, and al-Ashʿarī” school views. In this research, references to the basic views and foundations of the “kalam” schools are used from their own sources. Kalam schools view of the issue of al-husn-qubh, generally, on the one hand take Ahl al-ḥadīth’s understanding that object can be known only by God’s knowledge, on the other hand, Ahl al-Ra’y,’s view that treats reason as a tool which is given by God to distinguish between good and evil. Yet, considering the possible consequences of making a distinction between the premises of reason on the good and evil and the premises of revalation, it can be thought that Ahl al-Ra’y is more consistent. [You may find an extended abstract of this article after the bibliography.] 
      PubDate: Mon, 15 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Muhammet Fatih Kılıç. Ebherî'de Tanrı-Âlem İlişkisi:
           İlliyet, İsbât-ı Vâcip, Sudûr, Hudûs-Kıdem

    • Authors: Mehmet DEMİR
      Abstract: Esîrüddin el-Ebherî kendi döneminin şârih filozof şahsiyetlerindendir. O içinde bulunduğu VII. asırda, felsefesinin ilgi odağı olan İbn Sînâ felsefesini tahkik ve tenkit etmiştir. Kaleme aldığı on iki eserde genellikle İbn Sînâcı bir bakış açısının hâkim olduğu iddia edilebilir. Fakat, Fahreddin er-Râzî (ö. 606/1210) ve Sühreverdî (ö. 587/1191) gibi filozofların görüşlerini de dikkate aldığı, İbn Sînâ ile bu filozofların görüşleri arasında mukayeseler yaptığı da görülür. Bununla birlikte onu, şârihliği yanında filozof kılan şey, sadece tekrar ve açıklamalar yapmaktan ziyade, eleştiri ve kritik yapması, nihayetinde de kendi görüşlerini ortaya koymasındandır. Bu durum onu kendinden önceki bir filozofun sıkı bir takipçisi olmaktan kurtararak kendi görüşlerini beyan eden bağımsız bir düşünür yapar. Ele alınan bu eserde de Ebherî'nin hayatı boyunca kâleme aldığı on iki eser çerçevesinde, felsefesinin konusunun da temel ağırlığını oluşturan ‘Tanrı-Âlem İlişkisi’ üst başlığı altında; illiyet, isbât-ı vâcip, sudûr ve hudûs-kıdem bahisleri irdelenir.
      PubDate: Mon, 15 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Louis Gardet, Georges Anawati. İslam Teolojisine Giriş
           Karşılaştırmalı Teoloji Denemesi. Çev. Ahmet Arslan. İstanbul:
           Ayrıntı Yayınları, 2017, 744 s.

    • Authors: Furkan Ramazan ÖĞE
      Abstract: Introduction à la Théologie musulmane, Essai de théologie comparée adıyla Louis Gardet ve Georges Anawati tarafından kaleme alınan ve 1981 yılında yayımlanan bu kitap, Ahmet Arslan tarafından İslam Teolojisine Giriş Karşılaştırmalı Teoloji Denemesi başlığıyla Türkçeye çevrilmiş ve ilki 2015 ikincisi 2017 yılında gerçekleşen baskısıyla Ayrıntı yayınları üzerinden okuyucularla buluşturulmuştur. Kitap karşılaştırmalı bir teoloji denemesidir. Yazarlar, metin boyunca kelâmın Hıristiyan teolojisiyle uyuşup uyuşmadığını göstermeyi amaçlamaktadır.
      PubDate: Mon, 15 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Reinterpreted Civilization: Mordecai M. Kaplan and Judaism

    • Authors: Yunus KAYMAZ
      Abstract: Mordecai M. Kaplan born in Lithuania in 1881. His family immigrated to the United States when he was a child, so completed his education there largely. Although Kaplan was attend some of the congregations of the American Orthodox Jewish sect occasionally, he grew up mostly in the Conservative community and worked as an educator in the institutions affiliated with this community for many years. Unlike the traditional definition, Kaplan's description of Judaism as a civilization and his idea of this civilization must be reinterpreted in every age constituted the core of his ideas. This basic presupposition shaped Kaplan's many ideas from Jewish identity to the idea of God, from Halaka to his ideas about Torah. Kaplan's association of Jewish identity with the civilization determined his positive attitude towards the modern State of Israel, likewise, in contrast to Rabbani Judaism's understanding of transcendental God, Kaplan believe in God as a force that provided salvation. Jewish heritage is the memory of civilization, but it must be reconstructed according to the current period and made meaningful to the people of that age. In this research, we will examine these ideas of Kaplan and then we will look at how these radical ideas turned into a sect called Recontructionist Judaism. [You may find an extended abstract of this article after the bibliography.]
      PubDate: Mon, 15 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Ernst H. Kantorowicz. Kralın İki Bedeni. Çev. Ümit Hüsrev Yolsal
           (Ankara: BilgeSu Yayıncılık, 2018), 696 s.

    • Authors: Ensar KIVRAK
      Abstract: Siyasi İlahiyat kavramını ilk kez ortaya atan ve bu alanın en önemli isimlerinden biri olan Carl Schmitt'in (1888-1985) ilk olarak 1922’de yayımlanan ve 2002’de Türkçe’ye kazandırılan Siyasi İlahiyat adlı eserinin üçüncü bölümü, “Modern devlet kuramının bütün önemli kavramları, dünyevileştirilmiş ilahiyat kavramlarıdır.” cümlesiyle başlar. Örneğin, Tanrı’nın kadir-i mutlak olma özelliği, devletin kanun koyucu olma özelliğine dönüşmüştür. Hukuk için olağanüstü hâlin taşıdığı anlam, ilahiyat için mucizenin taşıdığı anlama benzemektedir. Bu örneklerden de anlaşılacağı üzere Siyasi İlahiyat ya da diğer bir ifadeyle Politik Teoloji, modern-seküler kurum ve kavramların arka planındaki teolojik kökenleri konu edinen disiplinler arası bir alandır. Bu çalışmanın konusunu oluşturan Siyasi İlahiyat alanındaki çalışmalarıyla bilinen Alman asıllı Amerikalı yazar Ernst H. Kantorowicz'in (1895-1963) ilk kez 1957’de yayımlanan eseri, Orta Çağ boyunca İngiltere özelinde -fakat daha genel olarak diğer bazı Avrupa devletlerindeki dönüşüme de değinerek- kralın iki bedeni kurgusunun, Hristiyan teolojisinden etkilenerek nasıl ortaya çıktığını ve dönüştüğünü aktarmayı amaçlamaktadır. Bu haliyle eserde yapılan şeyin tam manasıyla bir kavram arkeolojisi olduğu söylenebilir. Dolayısıyla bu eserin gerçek anlamda bir Siyasi İlahiyat eseri4 olduğu görülmektedir. Bu yönüyle de eser, literatürde özgün bir önemi haizdir. 
      PubDate: Mon, 15 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Muhammed Coşkun. Tefsirin İlk Çağları Kur’an Yorumunun Hazırlık
           ve Oluşum Dönemleri. İstanbul: İFAV Yayınları, 2019, 528 s.

    • Authors: Ömer DİNÇ
      Abstract: Çağdaş dönem akademik tefsir çalışmalarında dikkate alınan zaman dilimlerinden birisi erken dönemdir. Kur’an’ın nüzul süreciyle birlikte tefsir faaliyetinin başlangıç ve gelişim aşamalarının takip edildiği bu dönem, son yıllarda önemsenen bir çalışma alanı haline gelmiştir. Özellikle Batı’daki Kur’an ve tefsir araştırmalarının dikkate aldığı erken dönem tefsir tarihi, son zamanlarda ülkemizdeki akademik tefsir çalışmalarının üzerinde durduğu bir süreç olarak karşımızda durmaktadır. Değerlendirmesini yapacağımız Tefsirin İlk Çağları-Kur’an Yorumunun Hazırlık ve Oluşum Dönemleri isimli eser, ilk dönem tefsir tarihine dair detaylı bir çalışma olarak görünmektedir. Özellikle erken dönem tefsirin başlangıç ve gelişim aşamalarına dair farklı bir perspektifi ortaya koymaya çalışan bu eser, alanda yeni yaklaşım ve tartışmaların açığa çıkmasına katkı sağlayacağını düşünmekteyiz. Ayrıca çalışmanın müellifi, kaleme aldığı eserin, erken dönem tefsir tarihi hakkındaki ilk aşamayı temsil ettiğini ve bu durumun ileride yayınlamayı planladığı ikinci kitap çalışmasına bir zemin oluşturduğunu da ifade etmektedir
      PubDate: Mon, 15 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +030
       
  • The Reflection of the Tanzimat Law on Druze Identity in Mount Lebanon in
           the Light of a Murder Case

    • Authors: Tuba YILDIZ
      Abstract: The proclamation of the Tanzimat by the Ottoman administration represented not only a fundamental centralization but also an attempt to transform into a modern state. Therefore, the edict issued in November 1839, was a call to put taxation and military into order, ensure security, put an end to corruption with new regulations after the weakness of the internal and external control of the state has become prominent in the 18th century. In this sense, the most important part of the revolution of the Empire in the political, military and administrative area was the legal system. It was not easy to settle the new legal framework created by the Tanzimat regime in a region such as Mount Lebanon where sectarian law was influential. At this point, the efforts of the Shiite Druzes, one of the most important sect groups of the region, to redefine themselves in the context of the relationship with the state between law and identity as well as the conflicts with Maronites, the other important sectarian group in the region, have emerged. The transforming of the legal status of the Druze, which is one of the important actors of the power struggle in Mount Lebanon, reveals the dimension of the state-society relations and leads us to the question that what is the meaning of “Ottoman identity” the Tanzimat reforms emphasized in Mount Lebanon. [You may find an extended abstract of this article after the bibliography.] 
      PubDate: Mon, 15 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Attempts to Introduce Religion Courses in Schools of Kyrgyzstan in the
           Years of Independence and Latest Developments

    • Authors: Cazgül COLALİYEVA
      Abstract: Kyrgyzstan is a Central Asian country that became independent on August 31, 1991. From this date, religion-state relations in the country have entered into a phase of restructuring. With independence, there has been an awareness of historical identity, religious beliefs, customs and traditions among Kyrgyz people. On the one hand, new concepts such as secularism and freedom of religion and conscience have begun to be used actively in the country, and on the other hand, the legitimacy of religious education in formal education institutions have begun to be discussed frequently by academics and politicians. Today we can see some developments in formal religious education in Kyrgyzstan. Especially, there have been several attempts of teaching religion courses at public schools of Kyrgyzstan. So in this article, religion courses in public schools of Kyrgyzstan are examined. In particular, the “Iyman” course, which was taught during the first years of independence and the “Adep” course which was introduced as a compulsory subject in public schools in 2004, were analyzed in terms of purpose and content. In addition, the "History of Religious Culture" course, which has been taught as a pilot project since the 2016-2017 academic year, is analyzed in terms of purpose, content, course teacher and time allocated to the course. [You may find an extended abstract of this article after the bibliography.]
      PubDate: Mon, 15 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +030
       
  • A Review on a Historical Novel: Ibn Khaldūn According to Bensālem
           Ḥimmich’s al-ʿAllāma (The Polymath)

    • Authors: Semra KAYA AİTAOURİ
      Abstract: A historical novel is a literary genre based on a fiction that refers to history as a source. Bensālem Ḥimmich, who is a poet and a philosopher, is one of the most important Moroccan writers who produced works in this genre. He is especially famous for his historical novels, and he has received many awards in this field. Ḥimmich continued to publish his works in two languages; Arabic and French, and he covered the life of Ibn Khaldūn as one of the important names of Islamic history in his novel called “al-ʿAllāma (The Polymath)”. In some parts of the novel, Ḥimmich remains mostly loyal to historical reality, while in some other parts it should be emphasized that he prefers more fiction. Thus, he had tried to complete the unknown aspects in the life of Ibn Khaldūn by using fiction and gave a new perspective to his life. In this article, we will present historical facts and comparison to examine an interpretation of the portrait of Ibn Khaldūn in the novel “alʿAllāma (The Polymath)” by Ḥimmich between historical facts and fiction. [You may find an extended abstract of this article after the bibliography.]
      PubDate: Mon, 15 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Testimonia Collections as the Bible’s Testimonial Texts: An
           Introduction and Survey

    • Authors: Zeynep YÜCEDOĞRU
      Abstract: The Old Testament is certainly the first sacred text for early Christians. Jewish Holy Book influenced the Gospel writers and early Christian authors thereby affecting the early Christian theological literature. The studies investigating the scale of this influence analysed how the Old Testament passages were quoted in the New Testament. As a result of these investigations, the nineteenth-century biblical scholars argued that in the first centuries of Christianity, the lists which were composed of the selected quotations from the Old Testament were used as a sacred text independently of the Bible. According to this, the first Christians quoted biblical passages specifically to support a belief and argument with the testimony of the Bible and attributed a forensic status to these quotations. In modern studies, these lists are called testimonia collections to underline the authoritative status of these collections and, even some of the researches argued that these collections existed before the Gospels. According to this claim, known as testimonia hypothesis, testimonia collections are the first sacred texts of Christianity. In this paper, we will explain the nature of the testimonia collections, related theories, and how these collections have been studied in Western biblical literature. In this study, we aim to present the history of the testimonia hypothesis and to provide a background for future studies. [You may find an extended abstract of this article after the bibliography.] 
      PubDate: Mon, 15 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +030
       
  • The Quality of Tashkīk of the Concept of Being in Ibn Sīnā and Mullā
           Ṣadrā

    • Authors: Fevzi YİĞİT
      Abstract: The problem of calling the things in the scope of existence which is the main topic of metaphysics is the most important theme of ontology in Islamic philosophy. In other words, is existence called equally or gradually' Calling it gradually is tashkīk (gradation). Tashkīk and dichotomies such as existence-essence, necessary-possible are also come out to solve this problem. Mind is subject to divide the beings like God-universe or subject-object. Afterwards, tries to overcome these divisions by the idea of tashkīk. In the case of not grasping the idea of tashkīk thoroughly -as in the case of Aristotle- gets the idea that there are ontological contradictions and disunities between God and universe. The goals of this study are as follows: The quality of tashkīk of the existence is based upon the idea that it is simple. If not, it will be decomposed and will become a different thing in each being. In addition, existence has a gradual structure such as strength-weakness, posteriority-anteriority, cause-effect. Thus, the gradual quality of the existence can be formalized as follows: “Existence is the essence that ensures unity and disunity of beings.” [You may find an extended abstract of this article after the bibliography.] 
      PubDate: Mon, 15 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +030
       
 
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