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Masyarakat : Jurnal Sosiologi
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0852-8489 - ISSN (Online) 2460-8165
Published by Universitas Indonesia Homepage  [20 journals]
  • A Symbolic Participation of the Local Community in the Implementation of A
           PROPER-Based CSR Program

    • Authors: Yosef Hilarius Timu Pera, Yusup Ridwansyah
      Abstract: Praktik CSR terus berkembang secara kuantitas sebagai salah satu alternatif sumber daya pembangunan yang menjanjikan, namun secara kualitas pengelolaannya masih dominan bersifat karitatif sehingga belum optimal dalam pemberdayaan komunitas. Oleh karena itu, perkembangan studi dan kebijakan di tingkat nasional maupun global terus mencari format terbaik dalam mengoptimalkan peran program CSR pada pemberdayaan komunitas. Sejumlah literatur menunjukkan bahwa partisipasi aktif dan peningkatan kapasitas komunitas akan kurang optimal apabila program diinisiasi dengan pendekatan direktif, top-down, dan kurang memberikan ruang partisipatif berbasis potensi komunitas. Dengan menggunakan metode kualitatif dan teknik wawancara mendalam, tulisan ini menemukan bahwa partisipasi komunitas lokal dalam implementasi CSR PLTU bersifat partisipasi simbolik yang berciri sekadarnya, hanya mobilisasi memenuhi prosedur, peran aktor elite yang lebih dominan pada, sehingga tidak mampu memberdayakan dan meningkatkan kapasitas komunitas secara luas. Tingkat partisipasi komunitas lokal ini hanya sampai pada tingkat penentraman (placation) dan belum sejalan dengan semangat panduan Proper yang bertujuan mencapai tingkat kemitraan (partnership).CSR practices continue to grow as a promising alternative development resource, yet still predominantly charitable in nature, preventing them from optimal community empowerment. Therefore, studies and policies at the national and global levels remain in search of the best format to optimize CSR programs’ role in community empowerment. A number of literature show less than optimal active participation and capacity-building of the community if a program is initiated by a directive, top-down approach, providing only a minimal participatory space based on the community’s potentials. Using qualitative method and in-depth interview techniques, this paper finds that the local community participation in PLTU’s CSR implementation is symbolic and characterized by artificiality, mobilization to meet procedures, and more dominant role of elite actors that hampers empowerment and capacity-building of the community at large. The local community’s participation only reaches the level of placation and is not in line with the spirit of the Proper guidelines aimed at achieving the level of partnership. It is due to the company’s approach that tends to be procedural in fulfilling the Proper parameters without providing sufficient space and time to accommodate the community’s aspirations and potentials, the limited program assistances, and the pragmatic society that has lost its communal characters
      PubDate: 2020-06-10
      Issue No: Vol. 25 (2020)
       
  • Climbing the Stratification Ladder and the Decreasing of Small
           Entrepreneurs Number in the Field of Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining
           (ASGM) in North Minahasa, North Sulawesi

    • Authors: Antonius Purwanto
      Abstract: Tulisan ini merupakan hasil penelitian tentang pertambangan emas skala kecil di Desa Tatelu yang berada di tanah milik masyarakat. Tambang ini sering didatangi tamu yang melakukan studi banding dan aktivis LSM yang membantu mengatasi masalah pencemaran. Hasil kegiatan penambangan telah meningkatkan kesejahteraan masyarakat. Indikator peningkatan kesejahteraan ekonomi masyarakat di Tatelu adalah pasar desa yang buka setiap hari, bank, kantor pegadaian, dan mini market. Stabilitas dan regularitas kegiatan tambang muncul setelah konflik memperebutkan lubang tambang berhasil diatasi. Semakin mahalnya biaya penambangan, karena lubang tambang semakin dalam, menyebabkan munculnya stratifikasi sosial-ekonomi di antara para penambang dan pengusaha tambang. Jumlah pengusaha dengan modal kecil semakin berkurang dan pengusaha dengan modal besar semakin menguasai pertambangan. Pertambangan ini bisa bertahan karena terjadinya pelanggaran terhadap peraturan pemerintah mengenai batas maksimum dalamnya lubang tmbang. Ada kesepakatan diam-diam diantara para pengusaha tambang, pemerintah desa, aparat yang berwenang di bidang pertambangan, dan polisi. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan menggunakan metode penelitian kualitatif pada bulan September-Oktober 2017.   This paper is the result of research on small-scale gold mining in Tatelu village located in the community-owned land. The mine is often visited by guests who are conducting comparative studies and NGO activists who help overcome pollution problems. The results of mining activities have improved the welfare of society. Indicators of increasing community economic well-being at Tatelu is a village market that is open daily, banks, pawnshop offices, and mini-markets.The stability and regularity of mine activities arose after the conflict for mine holes was successfully overcome. The more expensive mining costs, because the mine holes are getting deeper, leading to the emergence of socio-economic stratification among miners and mining entrepreneurs. The number of entrepreneurs with small capital is increasingly reduced and entrepreneurs with large capital increasingly control the mining. This mining can survive due to violations of government regulations regarding the maximum depth of the hole. There is a tacit agreement among mine entrepreneurs, village governments, authorities in the field of mining, and police officers. This research was conducted using qualitative research methods in September-October 2017.
      PubDate: 2020-06-10
      Issue No: Vol. 25 (2020)
       
  • The Duality of Community Development and Community Relations Functions of
           Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Program: A Case Study of Oil and Gas
           Company in Subang, West Java

    • Authors: Putri Yuliasari
      Abstract: Setelah reformasi, berbagai perusahaan melaksanakan program CSR dengan beragam tujuan, ciri dan bentuk. Studi-studi sebelumnya lebih dominan dalam menyoroti evaluasi fungsi community development program CSR, dibanding fungsi community relation. Sementara itu, risiko konflik dengan komunitas dan stakeholder lokal cenderung tinggi dan perlu dimitigasi dengan program CSR yang tepat oleh perusahaan Migas. Artikel ini membahas fungsi laten program BROERI PT Pertamina EP Asset 3 Subang Field sebagai instrumen untuk membangun relasi perusahaan dengan stakeholder-nya (Community Relation), selain fungsi manifesnya dalam pengembangan kapasitas dan kemandirian komunitas (Community Development). Penulis berargumen bahwa dibalik desainnya yang secara eksplisit diarahkan untuk fungsi manifes (community development), program CSR juga memiliki fungsi laten yang sangat penting sebagai media komunikasi dan negosiasi dengan stakeholder perusahaan (community relation). Dengan menggunakan metode kualitatif, artikel ini menunjukkan bahwa Program BROERI PT Pertamina EP Asset 3 Subang Field kurang mampu memandirikan dan meningkatkan kapasitas masyarakat. Selain itu, program tersebut juga tidak berfungsi optimal sebagai “Forum Komunikasi” dalam menjaga relasi perusahaan dengan stakeholder lokalnya. Secara konseptual, dalam menilai kinerja program CSR perusahaan Migas, fungsi community relation harus menjadi dimensi dengan bobot yang berimbang dengan fungsi community development. After the Reformation, various companies implement CSR programs with various goals, features, and forms. This article discusses the latent function of the BROERI Program of PT Pertamina EP Asset 3 Subang Field as an instrument to build corporate relations with its stakeholder (Community Relation), besides its manifest function in capacity building and community independence (Community Development). The previous studies have been more dominant in highlighting and focusing on the evaluation of community development functions of the CSR programs, rather than their community relation function. Whereas for oil and gas companies, the risk of conflict with communities and other local stakeholders tends to be high and needs to be mitigated with appropriate CSR programs. The author argues that behind the design that is explicitly directed to manifest functions (Community Development), the CSR programs also have a crucial latent function as a medium of communication and negotiation with community stakeholders (Community Relations). The result of this research with the qualitative method shows that the BROERI Program of PT Pertamina EP Asset 3 Subang Field is less able to establish and increase the capacity of the community. Besides, the program also does not function optimally as a "Communication Forum" in maintaining corporate relations with its local stakeholders. Conceptually, in assessing the performance of the CSR program of the oil and gas company, the function of community relations must be a dimension with a balanced weight to the function of community development.
      PubDate: 2020-06-10
      Issue No: Vol. 25 (2020)
       
  • The Paradox of Informal Economy in Urban Area Indonesia: A Case Study
           Street Vendors in Jalan Salemba Raya, Jakarta, and Jalan Raya Sawangan,
           Depok

    • Authors: Rusydan Fathy, Dicky Rachmawan
      Abstract: Ekonomi informal memiliki proporsi besar yang menyerap 58% tenaga kerja Indonesia. Pada daerah perkotaan, kemiskinan mudah terlihat dari banyaknya masyarakat yang bekerja dan terlibat pada ekonomi sektor informal seperti pedagang kaki lima (PKL). Artikel ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan kegiatan ekonomi informal khususnya PKL dan potensinya di perkotaan. Artikel ini menggunakan metode studi literature dan observasi di Jalan Salemba Raya (Kota Jakarta) dan Jalan Raya Sawangan (Kota Depok). Hasil dari studi ini menunjukan bahwa kecenderungan komoditas yang dijual PKL adalah makanan yang bersumber dari bahan baku sektor pertanian (tipe bisnis) dan sektor industri (tipe perdagangan). Sehingga terjaminnya ketersediaan pangan adalah hal yang esensial tidak hanya untuk masyarakat umum, tetapi lebih spesifik untuk melestarikan usaha PKL di masyarakat Indonesia. Pemerintah harus mulai merubah pandangan lama mereka tentang pedagang kaki lima dan lebih baik menerima keberadaan mereka serta mengelolanya untuk mendapatkan lebih banyak manfaat pada pendapatan daerah. Terdapat beberapa langkah yang dapat dilakukan pemerintah untuk mengelola PKL yaitu menjalin hubungan baik dan mengumpulkan data yang komprehensif, menarik retribusi ringan dari pada penggusuran, dan mempromosikan jajanan terekomendasi dari PKL untuk menarik turis. Informal economic has big proportion which absorb 58% of workforce in Indonesia. In urban area poverty easily can be seen through many people who involve and work in informal economic like street vendors (PKL). This article purpose to describe informal economic activities especially street vendors (PKL) and its potency in urban area. Literature review and observation methods are used in this article particularly at Jalan Salemba Raya (Jakarta City) and Jalan Raya Sawangan (Depok City). The result show selling food as main commodity of street vendors from agriculture (business type) and industry (trading type). So guarantee availability of food is an essential aspect not only for people in general, but specifically to sustain food street vendors in our society. The government should start to change their old mindset about street vendors and better start to accept then managing street vendors to gain more revenue for government income. There are few step the government can do to manage street vendors, that are establish good relation with street vendors and gathering data, gathering light retribution than eviction street vendors, and promotion of recommended street food street vendors/food festival for pulling tourist.  
      PubDate: 2020-06-10
      Issue No: Vol. 25 (2020)
       
  • Social Development in the Urban Informal Sector: A Case Study of Street
           Vendors in Pasar Minggu, Jakarta

    • Authors: Cucu Nurhayati
      Abstract: This article seeks to provide an alternative solutions for development for the informal street vendors in South Jakarta, with special focus on markets in the district of Pasar Minggu . Street vendors (PKL) often deal directly with government policies such as the arrest and confiscations, but on the other hand street vendors are able to safeguard and contribute to the economy of the urban poor. The social development framework with structural, cultural and process elements emphasizes the inclusiveness of development to improve the quality of life of the community as a whole. Social development offers the concept of a social process that is more flexible in establishing dialogue between policy holders and the community so that it can result in to a new culture (internalization) and new regulations (institutionalization). This article combines qualitative and quantitative methods to explore the meaning of street vendors in dealing with structuring and measuring the levels or achievements obtained from the existing dynamics of the structure, culture and social processes. This study reveals that both political and social structures in the case of street vendors have not been provided. T
      PubDate: 2020-06-10
      Issue No: Vol. 25 (2020)
       
 
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