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Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1412-5269 - ISSN (Online) 2354-6700
Published by Bogor Agricultural University Homepage  [24 journals]
  • The effectiveness of the use of filter on the tilapia growth performance,
           number of Nitrosomonas sp., and water quality in aquaponics systems

    • Authors: Yuli Andriani,; Zahidah, Yayat Dhahiyat, Ujang Subhan, Irfan Zidni, Rusky Intan Pratama, Nadia Purnamasari Gumay
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: ABSTRACT This study aims to determine the most effective type of living filter media for the bacteria Nitrosomonas sp. in order to improve water quality in aquaponics systems. The method used in this study was completely randomized design, consisting of five treatments and each was repeated three times. The treatments were: A (without addition of filter media), B (addition of palm fibers, silica sand, and activated carbon), C (addition of palm fibers, silica sand, gravel, and activated carbon), D (addition of palm fibers, silica sand, rocks, and activated carbon), and E (addition of palm fibers, silica sand, bioball, and activated carbon). Parameters measured were: 1) the number of Nitrosomonas bacteria, 2) water quality (ammonia, nitrate, and phosphate); and, 3) productivity of fish and Chinese spinach. Data were analyzed using a descriptive method. The findings show that the highest number of bacteria was found in treatment E, 9.29×105 CFU/mL on the bioball filter media and 4.43×105 CFU/mL in rearing tanks. The best water quality was in treatment B, with a concentration of ammonia of 0.17 mg/L, nitrate of 0.33 mg/L, and phosphate of 0.54 mg/L. Plant productivity was the best in treatment B in which the average length and weight reach 48.1 cm and 11.1 grams of plant/week, respectively. The best fish growth was seen in treatment C with an absolute growth rate of 4.4 grams and a specific growth rate of 1.9%/day. The recommended filter was made of Arenga pinnata fibers, silica sand, gravels, and active carbon of about 2 cm thick each.The results showed that the type of filter on the aquaponic system had an effect on the amount of Nitrosomonas sp. in water, water quality, and the productivity of Chinese spinach.Keywords: aquaponics, filter, water quality, Nitrosomonas sp.ABSTRAK
      Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan jenis filter yang paling efektif sebagai media hidup bakteri Nitrosomonas sp. sehingga menghasilkan kualitas air yang baik dalam sistem akuaponik. Rancangan percobaan yang digunakan adalah rancangan acak lengkap, yaitu lima perlakuan dengan tiga kali pengulangan. Perlakuan dalam penelitian ini meliputi: A (tanpa penambahan media filter), B (penambahan media filter ijuk, pasir silika, dan karbon aktif), C (penambahan media filter ijuk, pasir silika, kerikil, dan karbon aktif), D (penambahan media filter ijuk, pasir silika, batu, dan karbon aktif), dan E (penambahan media filter ijuk, pasir silika, bioball, dan karbon aktif). Parameter yang diamati adalah: 1) jumlah bakteri, 2) kualitas air (meliputi amonia, nitrat, dan fosfat), serta 3) produktivitas ikan dan kangkung air. Data hasil penelitian dianalisis secara deskriptif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa jumlah kelimpahan bakteri Nitrosomonas sp. tertinggi terdapat pada perlakuan E, yaitu 9,29×105 CFU/mL pada media filter bioball dan 4,43×105 CFU/mL pada media air pemeliharan. Adapun kualitas air terbaik yaitu pada perlakuan B dengan konsentrasi amonia 0,17 mg/L, nitrat 0,33 mg/L, dan fosfat 0,54 mg/L. Produktivitas kangkung terbaik yaitu pada perlakuan B dengan panjang rata-rata mencapai 48,1 cm dan bobot tanaman 11,1 gram/minggu. Pertumbuhan ikan terbaik terdapat pada perlakuan C, dengan nilai pertumbuhan ikan mutlak sebesar 4,4 gram dan pertumbuhan spesifik 1,9%/hari. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa jenis filter pada sistem akuaponik berpengaruh terhadap jumlah Nitrosomonas sp. dalam air, kualitas air, dan produktivitas tanaman kangkung. Filter yang disarankan dari hasil penelitian ini adalah yang tersusun atas ijuk, pasir silika, batukerikil, dan karbon aktif masing-masing setinggi ±2 cm.Kata kunci: akuaponik, filter, kualitas air, Nitrosomonas sp., produktivitas tanaman
      PubDate: 2018-01-29
      DOI: 10.19027/jai.17.1.1-8
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 1 (2018)
  • Utilization of biofloc meal as a feed ingredient for Nile tilapia and
           common carp

    • Authors: Julie Ekasari, Hilda Kemala Pasha, Nur Bambang Priyoutomo
      Pages: 9 - 15
      Abstract: ABSTRACTThis study was aimed to evaluate the utilisation of biofloc meal collected from biofloc-based catfish intensive culture as a mix ingredient for Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus and common carp Cyprinus carpio diet. A control diet containing 29.03% crude protein was used in this experiment. Experimental diet was made by mixing 30% biofloc waste meal with the control diet and repelleted after the addition of 2% of binder. To determine the experimental feed digestibility, 0.5% of Cr2O3 was added as a marker for digestibility. The feed was offered to satiation at a frequency of 3 times a day for 28 days of experimentation. Nile tilapia and common carp juveniles with an initial average body weight of 11.72±0.04 g and 8.81±0.04 g, respectively, were used as the experimental animals. Each fish species were randomly stocked with a density of 10 fish/aquarium (30´45´30 cm3). The results showed that dry matter digestibility of diets with 30 % biofloc waste meal in both fish species were significantly lower than those of the controls (P<0.05). However, protein, lipid and phosphorus digestibilities of diets containing biofloc waste meal were significantly higher than those of the controls (P<0.05). Feeding with biofloc waste meal mixed feed to tilapia resulted in lower growth rate compared to that to fed control feed. On the other hand, similar treatment to common carp resulted in comparable growth rate to the control treatment.Keywords: biofloc meal, digestibility, growth performance, tilapia, common carp ABSTRAK                                                                                      Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi pemanfaatan tepung bioflok yang dikumpulkan dari limbah pemeliharaan ikan lele intensif berbasis teknologi bioflok sebagai campuran pakan untuk ikan nila Oreochromis niloticus dan ikan mas Cyprinus carpio. Pakan kontrol yang digunakan adalah pakan komersial dengan kadar protein 29,03%. Pembuatan pakan uji dilakukan dengan mencampurkan tepung limbah bioflok (30%) dengan pakan kontrol (67,5%) dan dibentuk pelet kembali setelah dilakukan penambahan binder sebanyak 2% dan Cr2O3 sebanyak 0,5% sebagai penanda untuk menganalisis kecernaan pakan dengan tepung limbah bioflok. Pakan diberikan secara at satiation dengan frekuensi pemberian pakan 3 kali/hari selama 28 hari pemeliharaan. Bobot rata-rata ikan awal adalah 11,72±0,04 g untuk ikan nila, dan 8,81±0,04 g untuk ikan mas dengan kepadatan awal masing-masing 10 ekor/akuarium (30´45´30 cm3). Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa nilai kecernaan total pakan dengan tepung limbah bioflok baik pada ikan nila maupun ikan mas lebih rendah daripada pakan kontrol (P<0,05). Namun demikian, kecernaan protein, lemak, dan fosfor pakan dengan campuran tepung limbah bioflok lebih tinggi daripada kontrol (P<0,05). Pemberian tepung limbah bioflok sebanyak 30% sebagai campuran pakan menghasilkan laju pertumbuhan spesifik ikan nila yang lebih rendah (P<0,05), sedangkan perlakuan yang sama pada ikan mas memberikan laju pertumbuhan spesifik yang tidak berbeda nyata dengan kontrol (P>0,05). Kata kunci: tepung limbah bioflok, kecernaan, kinerja pertumbuhan, ikan nila, ikan mas
      PubDate: 2018-03-29
      DOI: 10.19027/jai.17.1.9-15
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 1 (2018)
  • Stress responses of transportation on red tilapia which given feed
           containing chromium

    • Authors: Rakhmawati; Rakhmawati, Muhammad Agus Suprayudi, Mia Setiawati, Widanarni, Widanarni, Muhammad Zairin Junior, Dedi Jusadi
      Pages: 16 - 25
      Abstract: ABSTRACTThis study was conducted to evaluate stress responses of transportation on red tilapia Oreochromis sp. which given feed containing chromium. Three isonitrogenous and isocaloric experimental feeds were prepared, these diets were control (without chromium), CrPic 1 mg/kg, and CrYst 2 mg/kg supplementation in feed, all group were arranged triplicate. Satiation feeding was done three times a day. After a 60-day feeding experiment, the experimental fishes were fasted and distributed in polyethylene bags (N=60 fish/bag) containing 3 L of water, subjected to condition of transport simulation for 13 hours. Survival rate, levels of plasma cortisol, blood glucose, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malondialdehyde (MDA) enzyme were observed at before transportation, after transportation, one day, and two days after transportation. The result showed that chromium supplementation reduced the levels of plasma cortisol before and after transportation, one day, and two days after transportation. Also, it decreased blood glucose compared with control significantly before transportation and one day after transportation. The SOD enzyme concentration increased significantly after fish was fed with feed containing chromium for 30 days, while the MDA enzyme concentration increased significantly after two days of transportation. However, there was no significant difference in the survival of red tilapia between treatments. The best result was obtained in the treatment of fish which fed with feed containing chromium. CrPic supplementation 1 mg/kg and CrYst 2 mg/kg increased the body resistance in red tilapia by decreasing the negative effect of stress while transportation. Keywords: stress, transportation, red tilapia, chromium  ABSTRAKPenelitian dilakukan untuk mengevaluasi respons stres transportasi ikan nila merah Oreochromis sp. yang diberikan pakan yang mengandung kromium. Pada penelitian ini digunakan tiga jenis pakan, terdiri atas pakan tanpa suplementasi kromium (kontrol), pakan bersuplementasi kromium pikolinat (CrPic 1 mg/kg), dan kromium yeast (CrYst 2 mg/kg), semua perlakuan diulang sebanyak tiga ulangan. Pemberian pakan sebanyak tiga kali sehari dan dilakukan secara at satiation. Setelah 30 hari pemeliharaan, ikan uji dipuasakan dan didistribusikan dalam plastik polietilen (N=60 ekor ikan/kantong plastik) yang berisi 3 L air, dilakukan dengan simulasi transportasi selama 13 jam. Parameter yang diamati pada penelitian ini adalah kelangsungan hidup, kortisol, glukosa darah, enzim superoksida dismustase (SOD), dan malondialdehida (MDA) saat sebelum transportasi, sesaat setelah transportasi, sehari, dan dua hari setelah transportasi. Hasil yang didapatkan adalah suplementasi kromium menurunkan konsentrasi kortisol secara signifikan sebelum transportasi, sesaat, sehari, dan dua hari setelah transportasi. Suplementasi kromium menurunkan glukosa darah secara signifikan pada saat sebelum transportasi dan sehari setelah transportasi. Konsentrasi enzim SOD meningkat secara signifikan setelah pemberian pakan bersuplementasi kromium selama 30 hari, sedangkan konsentrasi enzim MDA meningkat secara signifikan setelah dua hari transportasi pada ikan yang diberi pakan bersuplementasi kromium. Namun, tidak ada perbedaan yang signifikan pada kelangsungan hidup ikan nila merah antarperlakuan. Hasil terbaik diperoleh pada perlakuan ikan dengan suplementasi kromium. Suplementasi 1 mg/kg CrPic dan 2 mg/kg CrYst dapat meningkatkan daya tahan tubuh pada budidaya ikan nila merah dengan menurunkan pengaruh negatif stres akibat transportasi. Kata kunci: stres, transportasi, nila merah, kromium
      PubDate: 2018-03-26
      DOI: 10.19027/jai.17.1.16-25
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 1 (2018)
  • The Effectiveness of pen‒culture construction for cultivation of sea

    • Authors: Pitjont Tomatala, Petrus Paulus Letsoin, Evangelin Martha Yulia Kadmaer
      Pages: 26 - 33
      Abstract: Sea cucumber Holothuria sp. is a marine biota that has economic value. The rearing activity of sea cucumbers is still limited to the have bay or strait areas with relatively calm coastal. This research aimed to determine the effectiveness of two types of pen‒culture system for sea cucumber rearing to the influence of ocean waves and currents. This research was done from February to July 2017 in the coastal of Rat village, Southeast Maluku Regency. The two of cultivated containers tested were a conventional pen‒culture (treatment A) and engineered pen‒culture (treatment B). A total of 30 individuals sea cucumber seeds sized 4‒6 cm were released at each pen‒culture. Survival rate and water quality were also calculated as supporting data. Observation of endurance and clearance of pen‒culture was done every two weeks. The result of visual observation showed that conventional pen‒culture treatment A was more quickly damaged and it was more damaged compared to engineered pen-culture treatment B.Through t‒test we got T count (1.065) < Ttable (6.313) for survival and T count (0.084) < Ttable (1.782) for growth. The result means that treatment A and treatment B have the same effect onsurvival rate and growth of sea cucumber. The results showed that treatment B was better applied to more open waters than treatment A. Keyword: endurance, pen‒culture, sea cucumber, survival, growth  AbstrakTeripang Holothuria sp. merupakan biota laut yang memiliki nilai ekonomis. Kegiatan budidaya teripang masih terbatas pada daerah‒daerah yang berteluk atau berselat dengan perairan yang relatif tenang. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membandingkan efektivitas dua sistem budidaya teripang dalam kurungan tancap terhadap pengaruh gelombang laut dan arus. Penelitian ini berlangsung dari bulan Februari hingga Juni 2017 di perairan Desa Rat, Kabupaten Maluku Tenggara. Dua tipe wadah budidaya yang diujicobakan adalah kurungan tancap konvensional (perlakuan A) dan kurungan tancap yang direkayasa (perlakuan B). Pada setiap kurungan tancap, dimasukkan teripang pasir berukuran 4‒6 cm sebanyak 30 ekor. Sebagai data pendukung, dihitung persentase kelangsungan hidup dan pengukuran kualitas air. Pengamatan ketahanan dan kebersihan kurungan tancap dilakukan setiap dua minggu sekali. Hasil pengamatan visual diketahui bahwa kurungan tancap perlakuan A lebih cepat rusak dan mengalami kerusakan yang lebih besar dibandingkan perlakuan B. Melalui uji-tdiperoleh hasil Thitung (1,065) < Ttabel (6,313) untuk kelangsungan hidup, dan Thitung (0,084) < T tabel (1,782) untuk pertumbuhan.  Hasil uji‒t bermakna bahwa perlakuan A dan perlakuan B memiliki pengaruh yang sama terhadap kelangsungan hidup dan pertumbuhan teripang. Hasil pengamatan menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan B lebih baik diaplikasikan pada perairan yang lebih terbuka dibandingkan perlakuan A. Kata kunci: ketahanan, kurungan tancap, teripang, kelangsungan hidup, pertumbuhan 
      PubDate: 2018-03-29
      DOI: 10.19027/jai.17.1.26-33
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 1 (2018)
  • The application of phytoremediation Lemna perpusilla to increase the
           production performance of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus in a
           recirculation system

    • Authors: Rina Hesti Utami, Kukuh Nirmala, Iman Rusmana, Daniel Djokosetiyanto, Yuni Puji Hastuti
      Pages: 34 - 42
      Abstract: ABSTRACTThis study aimed to evaluate the production performance and physiological of Nile tilapia using Lemna perpusilla as a phytoremediator in a recirculation system.  A completely randomized design with two treatments and three replications was applied. The treatments were Nile tilapia cultured with L. perpusilla (TL) and without L. perpusilla (L). The experimental fish in this study was the juvenile of Nile tilapia with a body length of 9.98 ± 0.08 cm and an average weight of 36.27 ± 1.07 g. The stocking density was 46 fish/pond and the container size was 275×100×60 cm3 and was separated in two areas using a fiber separator screen of 55.9% area for fish culture and 44.1% for L. perpusilla.  The Nile tilapias were reared for 60 days, fed with commercial diet and fresh L. Perpusilla with amount 2% and 1% of biomass, respectively. They were fed three times a day with fresh L. perpusilla  at noon and commercial diet in the morning and afternoon. The results showed that the Nile tilapia reared with L. perpusilla phytoremediation had normal physiological condition and production performance. The predominances of this system were lower feed conversion ratio value, more optimal values of feeding efficiency, and higher coefficient of weight uniformity. Keywords: Lemna perpusilla, physiological condition, phytoremediation, production performance.  ABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan mengevaluasi kinerja produksi dan fisiologi ikan nila dengan penggunaan Lemna perpusilla sebagai fitoremediator pada sistem resirkulasi. Rancangan penelitian yang digunakan adalah acak lengkap dengan dua perlakuan dan tiga ulangan. Ikan nila dipelihara pada kolam tanpa L. perpusilla (TL) dan ikan nila dipelihara pada kolam dengan L. perpusilla (L). Ikan yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah benih ikan nila dengan panjang baku 9,98 ± 0,08 cm dan bobot rata-rata 36,27 ± 1,07 g. Padat tebar ikan tiap kolam pemeliharaan 46 ekor/kolamdengan ukuran kolam 275×100×60 cm3. Setiap kolam diberi sekat dengan luasan 44,1% L. perpusilla dari luasan kolam. Ikan nila dipelihara selama 60 hari pemeliharaan dengan pakan berupa pakan komersial dan L. perpusilla dengan jumlah pakan masing-masing 2% dan 1% dari biomassa. Pada pagi dan sore hari diberi pakan komersial, dan siang hari ikan diberi pakan L. perpusilla. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa ikan nila yang dipelihara dengan fitoremediasi L. perpusilla menghasilkan kinerja produksi dan kondisi fisiologis yang normal. Keunggulan sistem ini adalah menghasilkan nilai konversi pakan yang lebih rendah, nilai efisiensi pemberian pakan, dan koefisien keseragaman bobot yang lebih tinggi. Kata kunci : fitoremediasi, Lemna perpusilla, kondisi fisiologis, kinerja produksi. 
      PubDate: 2018-03-29
      DOI: 10.19027/jai.17.1.34-42
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 1 (2018)
  • The effectiveness of methanol extract and fractinations fromleaves of
           mangroveSonneratia albaand Bruguiera gymnorrhizafor the prevention of
           white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection in black tiger shrimp Penaeus

    • Authors: Muliani; Muliani, Endang Susianingsih
      Pages: 43 - 52
      Abstract: ABSTRACT The experiment aimed to determine the effectiveness of mangrove leaves (Sonneratia alba and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza) extracts for prevention of WSSV infection in black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon. Mangrove leaves (S.alba and B. gymnorrhiza) were taken from Maros and Pangkep Regency, respectively. Mangrove leaves dried approximately for two weeks, made into flour, extracted using 80% methanol, and then evaporated. The yield partitioned using two types of solvents, theywere butanol and dietyleter. Anti WSSV activity test was done by injection method with the ratio of mangrove extract and WSSV was 2:1 as much as 100 µL/ind.  The treatment were; A). Water fraction of S. alba + WSSV suspention; B). Butanol fraction of S. alba + WSSV suspention; C). Dietyleter fraction of S. alba+ WSSV suspention; D). Methanol extract of S. alba + WSSV suspention; E). Water fraction of B. gymnorrhiza + WSSV suspention; F). Butanol fraction of B. gymnorrhiza + WSSV suspention; G). Dietyleter fraction of B. gymnorrhiza + WSSV suspention; H). Methanol extract of B. gymnorrhiza + WSSV suspention; I). Positive control (WSSV suspention without mangrove extract). Each treatment was repeated three times with 10 days of rearing period. The results showed that the highest activity of anti-WSSV from S. alba was in dietyleter fraction and the methanol extract, while the highest activity of anti-WSSV from B. gymnorrhiza was in butanol fraction. The dietyleter fraction and the methanol extract of S. alba and the butanol fraction of B. gymnorrhiza were capable to stimulate immune response of shrimp and were effective in deactivating WSSV furthermore it increased the black tiger shrimp survival rateto 100%. Keywords: antiviral, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), mangrove herbs, S. alba, B. gymnorrhiza, Penaeus monodon  ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui efektivitas ekstrak dari daun mangroveSonneratia. alba dan Bruguiera gymnorrhizauntuk pencegahan infeksi WSSV pada udang windu, Penaeus monodon. Daun mangroveS.alba dan B. gymnorrhiza masing-masing diambil dari Kabupaten Maros dan Kabupaten Pangkep. Daun mangrove dikering anginkan selama dua minggu, dibuat tepung, diekstraksi dengan metanol 80%, dan dievaporasi. Rendemen yang diperoleh dipartisi menggunakan dua jenis pelarut yaitu butanol dan dietileter. Uji aktivitas anti WSSV dilakukan metode penyuntikan dengan perbandingan ekstrak mangrove dengan WSSV 2:1sebanyak 100 µL/ekor. Perlakuan yang diujikan adalah; A). Fraksi air S. alba + suspensi WSSV;  B). Fraksi butanol S. alba + suspensi WSSV; C). Fraksi dietileter S. alba+ suspensi WSSV; D). Ekstrak metanol S. alba+ suspensi WSSV; E). Fraksi air B. gymnorrhiza + suspensi WSSV; F). Fraksi butanol B. gymnorrhiza + suspensi WSSV; G). Fraksi dietileter B. gymnorrhiza + suspensi WSSV; H). Ekstrak metanol B. gymnorrhiza + suspensi WSSV; I). Kontrol positif (suspensi WSSV tanpa ekstrak mangrove). Masing-masing perlakuan diulang tiga kali dengan lama pemeliharaan 10 hari.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa aktivitas anti WSSV S. alba tertinggi pada fraksi dietileter dan ekstrak metanol, sedangkan aktivitas anti WSSV B. gymnorrhiza tertinggi pada fraksi butanol. Fraksi dietileter dan ekstrak metanol S. albaserta fraksi butanol B. gymnorrhiza mampu menstimulasi respons immun udang dan efektif dalam menonaktifkan WSSV sehingga meningkatkan sintasan udang windu hingga 100%. Kata Kunci:   anti viral, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), herbal mangrove, S alba, B. gymnorrhiza, udang windu 
      PubDate: 2018-05-21
      DOI: 10.19027/jai.17.1.43-52
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 1 (2018)
  • Grow-out of spiny lobster Panulirus sp. with high stocking density in
           controlled tanks

    • Authors: Rio Yusufi Subhan, Eddy Supriyono, Widanarni; Widanarni, Daniel Djokosetiyanto
      Pages: 53 - 60
      Abstract: ABSTRACTThe aim of this research was to determine optimum stocking density for growing-out of spiny lobster Panulirus sp. in controlled tanks that conducted for 30 days. The experimental spiny lobsters have the initial average weight of 130.39 ± 0.32 g and initial average total length of 140.70 ± 0.06 mm. This study used completely randomized design with three different stocking densities (KT10: 10 ind/m3; KT18: 18 ind/m3; and KT26: 26 ind/m3) and two replications. The parameters observed in this study included water quality (temperature, pH, salinity, dissolved oxygen, and total ammonia nitrogen), physiological responses (total haemocyte count, haemolymph glucose, and frequency of molt), and production performances, such as growth, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio, and survival rate. The results showed that the spiny lobster could be reared in high stocking density in controlled tanks. Water quality during the study in each treatment was; temperature 26.56–28.65oC, salinity 29.7–33.6 g/L, pH 7.5–8.5, dissolved oxygen 6.15–6.58 mg/L, and total ammonia nitrogen 0.11–0.34 mg/L. The best stocking densities for spiny lobster was 18 ind/m3 (KT18) with 2.5‒3.5×106cells/mL total haemocyte counts, 24.6‒28.3 mg/dL haemolymph glucose, and 38.37 ± 3.20% frequency of molt. The final average body weight and length were 145.06 ± 0.42 g and 142.77 ± 0.19 mm, respectively. The survival rate reached 86.11 ± 3.92% with a specific growth rate 0.35 ± 0.01%/day, and feed conversion ratio 7.87 ± 0.31.Keywords: high stocking density, Panulirus sp., physiological responses, productivity.  ABSTRAKTujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menentukan kepadatan terbaik dalam pembesaran lobster laut Panulirus sp. yang dipelihara dalam bak terkontrol selama 30 hari. Lobster laut yang digunakan pada awal penelitian memiliki bobot 130,39 ± 0,32 g dan panjang total 140,70 ± 0,06 mm. Penelitian dilakukan menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap dengan tiga perlakuan kepadatan berbeda, yaitu: 10 ekor/m3(KT10), 18 ekor/m3(KT18), dan 26 ekor/m3(KT26) dan dua ulangan. Parameter uji yang diamati dalam penelitian ini meliputi kualitas air (suhu, salinitas, pH, DO, dan TAN), respons fisiologis (total hemosit/THC, glukosa hemolim, dan frekuensi pergantian kulit), dan kinerja produksi meliputi pertumbuhan, laju pertumbuhan spesifik, rasio konversi pakan, dan tingkat kelangsungan hidup. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa lobster laut dapat dibesarkan dengan kepadatan tinggi dalam bak terkontrol. Pengukuran nilai kualitas air pada setiap perlakuan selama pemeliharaan adalah suhu berkisar 26,56–28,65oC, salinitas 29,7–33,6 g/L, pH 7,5–8,5, DO antara 6,15–6,58 mg/L dan TAN antara 0,11–034 mg/L. Perlakuan terbaik selama penelitian adalah dengan kepadatan 18 ekor/m3 (KT18) dengan nilai THC berkisar antara 2,5–3,5×106  sel/mL, glukosa hemolim 24,6–28,3 mg/dL,dan frekuensi pergantian kulit 38,37±3,20%. Bobot dan panjang lobster akhir rata-rata pada perlakuan tersebut masing-masing mencapai 145,06 ± 0,42 g, dan 142,77 ± 0,19 mm. Tingkat kelangsungan hidup mencapai 86,11 ± 3,92% dengan laju pertumbuhan spesifik 0,35 ± 0,01%/hari dan rasio konversi pakan selama penelitian adalah 7,87 ± 0,31.Kata kunci: padat pemeliharaan, Panulirus sp., produktivitas, respons fisiologis.  
      PubDate: 2018-05-21
      DOI: 10.19027/jai.17.1.53-60
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 1 (2018)
  • Reproduction performance of climbing perch Anabas testudineus F1 and F2
           broodstock with different dietary supplementation

    • Authors: Helmizuryani; Helmizuryani, Boby Muslimin, Khusnul Khotimah
      Pages: 61 - 67
      Abstract: ABSTRACTReproduction enhancement of climbing perch from reared inland water in the controlled environment has done successfully to generate its broodstocks and offsprings. This species is potential to create the sustainability production in the future because they offer a promising price, so it needs a further study for optimizing the quality of broodstock and its offsprings. This study aimed to analyze the reproduction of female broodstocks from various family F1 and F2 by adding multiple dietary supplements in the different dose. The research was conducted on Fish Hatchery Unit Mulia Plaju, Palembang for three months and biology laboratory in Agriculture Faculty, University of Muhammadiyah Palembang. The research method used completely randomized design with three replications, began by rearing the female broodstock (F1 and F2) with adding dietary supplement for three treatments, they were P1: vitamin E (250 mg/kg dietary weight), P2: vitamin C (125 mg/kg dietary weight), and P3: Spirulina sp. (10% / dietary weight). Then, for each female broodstock from F1 and F2 of every treatment was selected for breeding with ratio two females (♀) (F1 & F2) : male F1 (♂). The research showed that reproduction performance of F2 was better than F1 in broodstock growth, fecundity, egg diameter, and larvae growth parameter, but it had low fertility than F1. Adding supplement of vitamin E to female broodstock resulted in a better productivity performance than the vitamin C and Spirulina sp..  Keywords: climbing perch, family, dietary supplement, reproduction  ABSTRAKRekayasa reproduksi ikan betok dari perairan umum telah berhasil dilakukan di lingkungan budidaya secara terkontrol untuk menghasilkan calon induk dan keturunannya. Ikan ini berpotensi untuk diproduksi lebih lanjut di masa yang akan datang karena memiliki harga yang cukup menjanjikan sehingga butuh kajian optimasi kualitas induk dan keturunannya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui performa reproduksi induk betina ikan betok dari keturunan famili yang berbeda (F1 dan F2) yang diberikan suplemen berupa vitamin E, vitamin C dan Spirulina dengan dosis yang berbeda. Penelitian ini dilakukan di Unit Pembenihan Ikan Mulia Plaju Palembang selama 3 bulan dan di Laboratorium Biologi Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Muhammadiyah Palembang. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode rancangan acak lengkap tiga perlakuan dan tiga kali ulangan, yang diawali dengan pemeliharaan induk betina F1 dan F2 dengan menggunakan suplemen pakan berbeda pada setiap perlakuan, yaitu P1: vitamin E (250 mg/kg pakan), P2: vitamin C (125 mg/kg pakan), dan P3: Spirulina sp. (10% per berat pakan). Penelitian dilanjutkan dengan perkawinan induk betina (♀) F1 dan F2 dengan induk jantan (♂) F1 rasio perkawinan 2:1 pada masing-masing perlakuan. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa performa reproduksi Induk keturunan F2 lebih baik dari pada F1 dengan parameter reproduksi berupa pertumbuhan induk, fekunditas, diameter telur, dan pertumbuhan larva, namun fertilisasi lebih rendah dibandingkan F1. Penambahan suplemen vitamin E pada pakan induk betina ikan betok memiliki produktivitas reproduksi yang lebih baik dibandingkan dengan vitamin C dan Spirulina.Kata kunci: ikan betok, famili, suplemen pakan, reproduksi 
      PubDate: 2018-05-22
      DOI: 10.19027/jai.17.1.%p
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 1 (2018)
  • Selection of lactic acid bacteria as a probiotic and evaluated its
           performance on gnotobiotic catfish Clarias sp.

    • Authors: Enita Romasni Turnip, Widanarni; Widanarni, Anja Meryandini
      Pages: 68 - 80
      Abstract: ABSTRACT This study aimed to select lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as a potential probiotic that producing anti‒microbial compounds in order to treat motile aeromonads septicemia diseases caused by Aeromonas hydrophila on catfish Clarias sp. and evaluated its performance on gnotobiotic catfish. The in vitro assay was done to select several LAB isolates based on antagonistic activity against pathogenic bacteria. The selected isolate was tested in vivo to observe their ability to improve growth performances of catfish. The study was conducted with five treatments consists of K‒ (normal catfish without addition probiotic, without challenge test), K+ (normal catfish without addition of probiotic, with challenge test), Np (normal catfish with addition of probiotic and challenge test), G (gnoto catfish without addition of probiotic, with challenge test), and Gp (gnoto catfish with addition of probiotic and challenge test). The results showed that the addition of Pediococcus pentosaceus E2211 as selected probiotic could increase survival rate, specific growth rate, and immune response towards infection of A. hydrophila. The best survival rate after challenge test was obtained in Np and Gp treatments (88.46%), followed by G treatment (65.38%), while the K+ was only 53.84%. The conclusion of this study was P. pentosaceus E2211 potentially used as a probiotic candidate for normal and gnotobiotic catfish. The presence of normal microflora with P. pentosaceus E2211 in Np treatment showed the best probiotic performance with daily growth rate 3.28%, feed conversion ratio 1.79, and total intestinal bacteria reached 108 CFU/mL significantly different from other treatments (P<0.05).Keywords: Aeromonas hydrophila, catfish, LAB, probiotic, screening  ABSTRAKTujuan penelitian ini adalah menyeleksi bakteri asam laktat (BAL) sebagai probiotik potensial penghasil senyawa antimikrob guna menanggulangi penyakit motile aeromonad septicemia akibat Aeromonas hydrophila pada ikan lele Clarias sp. dan evaluasi kinerjanya pada ikan lele gnotobiotik. Pengujian in vitro dilakukan untuk menyeleksi beberapa isolat BAL sebagai kandidat probiotik berdasarkan aktivitas antagonis terhadap bakteri patogen. Isolat terpilih kemudian diuji in vivo untuk mengetahui kemampuannya dalam meningkatkan performa tumbuh ikan lele. Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap dengan lima perlakuan, yaitu: K‒ (lele normal tanpa probiotik dan tanpa tanpa diuji tantang), K+ (lele normal tanpa probiotik dan diuji tantang), Np (lele normal diberi probiotik dan diuji tantang), G (lele gnoto tanpa probiotik dan diuji tantang), dan Gp (lele gnoto diberi probiotik dan diuji tantang). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan pemberian probiotik terpilih BAL Pediococcus pentosaceus E2211 mampu meningkatkan sintasan, laju pertumbuhan, dan respons imun ikan lele terhadap infeksi A. hydrophila. Sintasan terbaik pascauji tantang diperoleh pada perlakuan Np dan Gp yaitu sebesar 88,46%, diikuti perlakuan G sebesar 65,38%, sementara pada K+ hanya mencapai 53,84%. Kesimpulan dari penelitian ini ialah isolat BAL terpilih P. pentosaceus E2211 berpotensi sebagai kandidat probiotik untuk ikan lele normal dan lele gnotobiotik Clarias sp. Keberadaan mikroflora normal yang berasosiasi dengan P. pentosaceus E2211 pada perlakuan Np menunjukkan kinerja probiotik terbaik dengan nilai laju pertubuhan harian 3,28%, rasio konversi pakan 1,79 dan total bakteri usus mencapai 108 CFU/mL yang berbeda signifikan dibanding perlakuan lainnya (P<0,05).Kata kunci: A. hydrophila, BAL, ikan lele, probiotik, seleksi 
      PubDate: 2018-05-22
      DOI: 10.19027/jai.17.1.68-80
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 1 (2018)
  • Effectivity of prebiotic mannan oligosaccharides as the immunity enhancer
           and growth response on whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei against white
           spot disease

    • Authors: Linuwih Aluh Prastiti, Munti Yuhana, Widanarni; Widanarni
      Pages: 81 - 86
      Abstract: ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the immune response and growth performance of white shrimp administered with prebiotic mannan oligosaccharides (MOS) with dosages of (0%, 0.2%, 0.4%, and 0.8% in diet) and used in the feeding trial. Shrimps (Litopenaeus vannamei) (the initial average weight was 3.416±0.064 g) were fed at satiation, three times a day. A completely randomized design was used  in the study. Shrimps were cultured at the stock density of 15 shrimps 40/L for each treatment in triplicates. After 30 days of the feeding trial, shrimp were challenged with white spot syndrome virus filtrate by intramuscular injection. The total gut bacteria, total haemocyte count (THC), phenoloxydase (PO), and respiratory burst (RB) activity were observed 4 times, before the experiment, day 30th before challenge test, day 32nd after challenge test, and day 36th the end of the experiment. The shrimp survival was observed at day 36th to evaluate the immune responses. The results showed that THC, PO activity, RB activity, growth performance, and shrimp survival administered with prebiotic 0.8% were significantly higher (P<0.05) than control. The administration of prebiotic with dose 0.8% was the best result and could effectively improve the immune responses and growth performance of whiteleg shrimp. Keywords: prebiotic, whiteleg shrimp, white spot disease  ABSTRAK Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengevaluasi respons imun dan performa pertumbuhan pada udang vaname yang diberi prebiotik mannan-oligosaccharides (MOS) dengan dosis berbeda (0%, 0,2%, 0,4%, dan 0,8%) pada pakan. Udang vaname (Litopenaeus vannamei) (dengan rata-rata bobot 3,41 ± 0,06 g) diberi pakan tiga kali sehari secara at satiation. Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap. Udang dipelihara dengan kepadatan 15 ekor per 40/L pada setiap perlakuan dengan tiga kali pengulangan. Setelah 30 hari pemberian pakan, udang diuji tantang menggunakan white spot syndrome virus dengan diinjeksi secara intramuskular. Total bakteri usus, total haemocyte count (THC), aktivitas phenoloxydase (PO), dan aktivitas respiratory burst (RB) diamati 4 kali, yaitu sebelum perlakuan hari ke-30 sebelum uji tantang, hari ke-32 setelah uji tantang, dan hari ke-36 pada akhir penelitian. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa THC, aktivitas RB, aktivitas PO, performa pertumbuhan, dan kelangsungan hidup yang diberi prebiotik dengan dosis 0,8% lebih tinggi (P<0,05) jika dibandingkan dengan kontrol (dosis 0%). Pemberian prebiotik dengan dosis 0,8% merupakan hasil terbaik dan secara efektif mampu meningkatkan respons imun dan performa pertumbuhan pada udang vaname. Kata kunci: prebiotik, udang vaname, white spot disease
      PubDate: 2018-05-22
      DOI: 10.19027/jai.17.1.81-86
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 1 (2018)
  • Utilization of cinnamon Cinnamomum burmannii leaves and shrimp head in the
           feed on growth performance of catfish Pangasianodon hypopthalmus

    • Authors: Suclyadi Dairun, Mia Setiawati, Muhammad Agus Suprayudi, Nur Bambang Priyo Utomo
      Pages: 87 - 93
      Abstract: ABSTRACTCatfish farming has confronted with the problem of slow growth to reach the fillet size and less tender of fish fillets. This study aimed to investigate the effect of cinnamon leaf flour and shrimp head flour in formulated diets on growth of catfish Pangasianodon hypopthalamus. Catfish with an initial weight of 207.04 ± 2.70 g/fish reared in 12 cages with a dimension of  2×1×1.5 m3 (L×W×H)  and its fish density was 15 fishes for 60 days. Fish were fed with following experimental diets: (1) Control; (2) cinnamon leaf (1%) (CL); (3) 45% of protein source from shrimp head (SH); (4) CL+SH mix.  The fishes fed twice a day with feeding rate 3.5% of fish biomass. The study found that the use of cinnamon leaf and shrimp head increased the specific growth rate 1.67-1.70%, the feed efficiency 57.55-57.67%, and protein retention 55.61% compared to its control (P<0.05). Triglyceride level, cholesterol, and blood HDL were 416.00-524.05 mg/dL, 139.65-156.68 mg/dL, 73.18-103.70 mg/dL (P>0.05), respectively. HSI value ranged between 0.3-1.9% compared to its control (P<0.05).Keywords: Cinnamomum burmannii, feed, growth, Pangasianodon hypopthalmus, shrimp head.  ABSTRAKBudidaya ikan patin dihadapkan pada permasalahan pertumbuhan dan kualitas daging yaitu pertumbuhan yang lambat untuk mencapai ukuran fillet serta tekstur daging kurang kompak. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menguji pengaruh penggunaan tepung daun kayu manis dan tepung kepala udang dalam pakan terhadap pertumbuhan ikan patin Pangasianodon hypopthalmus. Ikan patin dengan bobot 207,04 ± 2,70 g/ekordipelihara selama 60 hari di hapa sebanyak 12 buah (berukuran 2×1×1,5 m3)dengan padat tebar 15 ekor/jaring. Ikan diberi pakan perlakuan yang terdiri dari: (1) Kontrol; (2) daun kayu manis 1% (DKM); (3) 45% sumber protein dari kepala udang (TKU); dan (4) campuran DKM+TKU. Pemberian pakan sebanyak 2 kali sehari dengan feeding rate 3,5% dari biomassa ikan. Hasil dari penelitian penggunaan daun kayu manis dan kepala udang meningkatkan nilai laju pertumbuhan harian 1,67-1,70%, efisiensi pakan 57,55-57,67% dan retensi protein 55,61% dibanding kontrol (P<0,05). Kadar trigliserida, kolesterol, dan HDL darah berturut-turut adalah 416,00-524,05 mg/dL, 139,65-156,68 mg/dL, 73,18-103,70 mg/dL (P>0,05). Nilai HSI ikan patin berkisar antara 0,3-1,9% dibanding kontrol (P<0,05).Kata kunci: Cinnamomum burmannii, kepala udang, pakan, Pangasianodon hypopthalmus, pertumbuhan. 
      PubDate: 2018-06-04
      DOI: 10.19027/jai.17.1.87-93
      Issue No: Vol. 17, No. 1 (2018)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
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