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Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy)
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2085-2916
Published by Bogor Agricultural University Homepage  [24 journals]
  • Analisis Genetik Arsitektur Malai Padi Menggunakan Dua Populasi F2

    • Authors: Fitrah Ramadhan, Willy Bayuardi Suwarno, Anggi Nindita, dan Hajrial Aswidinnoor
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Improvement of rice panicle architecture is one important objective in the development of improved new-plant-type rice varieties. Panicle architecture is directly related to yield components in rice. The aims of this study were to obtain information on inheritance pattern of panicle architecture on F2 generation and to obtain the best selected individuals. The experiment was conducted at Sawah Baru Experimental Farm Bogor, from May to October 2016. Two F2 populations derived from crosses of IPB 3S/IPB160-F-36, IPB160-F-36/IPB 5R and three genotypes of parents were used as experimental materials. A total of 208 and 204 plant samples were taken representing each of the two F2 populations and 20 plants representing the parents. Three panicles were taken randomly from each individual as observed samples. The results showed that additive gene action influenced number of primary branches in population of IPB 3S/IPB160-F-36, whereas in the population of IPB160-F-36/IPB 5R, most of the panicle architecture traits were controlled by additive gene action except for the length of primary branches. All of panicle architecture traits were controlled by relatively many genes except length of primary branches and number of grains on primary branches in the IPB 3S/IPB160-F-36 population. The panicle architecture of the two observed population was genetically varies. The heritability estimates were moderate to high. Selection could increase the mean of panicle architecture traits using either single or multiple traits simultaneously.

      Keywords: gene action, heritability, genetic variability, panicle traits


      PubDate: 2018-04-26
      DOI: 10.24831/jai.v46i1.17265
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Karakter Agronomi Galur Padi Dihaploid Asal Kultur Antera Hasil
           Persilangan Three Way Cross

    • Authors: Mohammad Syafii, Bambang Sapta Purwoko, Iswari Saraswati Dewi, dan Willy Bayuardi Suwarno
      Pages: 9 - 16
      Abstract: Anther culture is useful tool in rice breeding. The technique shortens the time to obtain full homozygous plant in just one generation. Information related to genetic variability among the regenerants is important for further analysis including selection activities. The objective of this study was to analyze agronomic character variability and yield potential among doubled-haploid lines (DH0) derived from anther culture. This study was carried out in Center for Agricultural Biotechnology and Genetic Resources Research and Development (BB Biogen) from October 2016 to February 2017. The experiment was arranged in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. Forty eight doubled haploid lines derived from anther culture and three check varieties were evaluated. The results showed high genetic variability as well as broad sense heritability (more than 90%) for all variables tested. Several lines showed superior agronomic characters compared to check (Ciherang, Inpari 18, Inpago 10). Anther culture could generate high genetic variability for further selection.

      Keywords: anther culture, broad sense heritability, haploid technology
      PubDate: 2018-04-27
      DOI: 10.24831/jai.v46i1.16187
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Pendugaan Kehilangan Hasil pada Tanaman Padi Rebah Akibat Terpaan Angin
           Kencang dan Curah Hujan Tinggi

    • Authors: Dulbari; , Edi Santosa, Yonny Koesmaryono, dan Eko Sulistyono
      Pages: 17 - 23
      Abstract: Rice lodging due to incident of extreme weather, i.e., combination of strong winds and high rainfall is eviden in Indonesia. However, yield loss in the area is rarely studied. In order to estimate yield loss on rice, a model for calculating the yield reduction was developed. The objective of present study was to analyze the effect of strong winds and high rainfall incidents on yield loss of rice in the field. The study was conducted at the Sawah Baru IPB, Bogor, Indonesia from February to April, 2016 on rice plots severe from natural incident of strong wind and high rainfall. The results showed that rice lodging from strong wind and high rainfall formed patterns and specific formations. We determined four major lodging formations,  five lodging degrees, and eleven different patterns due to wind direction. Overall, lodging occured on research area of 27.6% with production loss up to 11.89%. This research showed that estimation of yield loss due to incident of extreme weather could be conducted in the level of field based on area of coverage and degree of lodging. Application of the model on wider area needs further evaluation.

      Keywords: Agronomic character, extreme weather adaptation, modelling, lodging, rice variety



      PubDate: 2018-04-27
      DOI: 10.24831/jai.v46i1.14376
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Potensi Abu Sekam Padi untuk Meningkatkan Ketahanan Oksidatif
           Non-enzimatik dan Produksi Padi Merah pada Cekaman Kekeringan

    • Authors: Diah Rachmawati, Ni Luh Gde Mona Monika, dan Ulfatul Masruroh
      Pages: 24 - 32
      Abstract: Drought inhibits several physiological process and induces oxidative stress due to the enhanced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) mainly in photosynthetic apparatus. Silicon (Si) is known to increase tolerance of rice against drought stress.  However, long period of intensive crop cultivation depleted the available soil Si by approximately 11-20%. Rice husk ash (RHA) is potential Si source. The objective of this research was to analyze the potency of RHA through pot experiment to observe: 1) internal water balanced; 2) integrity of cell membrane and  antioxidant content; and 3) production of tolerant cultivar ‘Segreng’ and sensitive one ‘Cempo merah’. Application of RHA was at level of 0, 4, and 8 tons ha-1. Drought stress was imposed by with holding water until soil water content reached 50% of field capacity (moderate stress) and 25% of field capacity (severe stress). Application of RHA significantly increased leaf relative water content and membrane stability index of rice ‘Segreng’ and ‘Cempo merah’. Tolerant cultivar ‘Segreng’ had better response than ‘Cempo merah’ as shown by greater leaf relative water content under moderate and severe stress. RHA application at level of 8 tons ha-1 increased index of membrane stability and level of antioxidant (AAred and α-tocopherol) which determine production of both rice ‘Segreng’ and ‘Cempo merah’ during drought.

      Keywords: antioxidant, field capacity, membrane stability, segreng cultivar, α-tocopherol
      PubDate: 2018-04-27
      DOI: 10.24831/jai.v46i1.13205
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Perubahan Komposisi Gulma pada Sistem Tumpangsari Padi Gogo dengan Kedelai
           di Lahan Pasir Pantai

    • Authors: Fajrin Pramana Putra, Prapto Yudono, dan Sriyanto Waluyo
      Pages: 33 - 39
      Abstract: Weeds can reduce upland rice yields in coastal sandy area. Density and growth of weeds can be controlled and reduced by an intercropping system between upland rice with soybeans. The study aimed to determine the weeds composition change and weeds biomass in various crop proportions of upland rice and soybean under intercropping. The research was conducted from December 2016 until March 2017, at coastal sandy soil of Samas, Bantul, Yogyakarta (8°00’03.5”S and 110°15’20.1”E). This study used a complete randomized block design (RCBD) with one factor and three replications. The treatments were crop proportions of upland rice and soybean under intercropping with 6 levels, such as 100:0 (upland rice monoculture), 80:20, 60:40, 40:60, 20:80, and 0: 100 (soybean monoculture). The results showed that there was weeds composition changes due to setting crop proportions of upland rice and soybean under intercropping at coastal sandy soil. Weed of sedges, grass, and broadleaf were found throughout the experimental plots, but varied in number and type of weeds among experimental plots. Weeds condition differed among the soybean proportion treatments < 40% and  ≥ 40%. The average community coefficient value was <75% which was dominated by Digitaria nuda and Eragrostis tenella under soybean proportion treatments < 40%, and Ludwigia parviflora and Amaranthus lividus under soybean proportion treatments ≥ 40%. The linear model was established between the increase of soybean proportion to a decrease in dry weight of weeds as Y = -0.6624X + 67.699; R2 = 0.7224).

      Keywords: crops proportion, intercropping, weeds community


      PubDate: 2018-04-27
      DOI: 10.24831/jai.v46i1.17093
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Kesesuaian Galur-Galur Harapan Kedelai untuk Tumpangsari Jagung + Kedelai

    • Authors: Titik Sundari, dan Siti Mutmaidah
      Pages: 40 - 47
      Abstract: Intercropping is one way of increasing land productivity. The research was aimed to determine the suitability of soybean promising lines for maize + soybean intercropping based on land productivity assessed by land equivalent ratio (LER). The research was conducted at Kendalpayak Station Research, Malang, in February to May 2016, using factorial randomized block design, repeated three times. The first factor was cropping system (monoculture and intercropping), the second factor was 55 soybean genotypes. Spacing for maize in the intercropping system was 2.2 m x 0.5 m x 0.2 m, and for soybean was 0.35 m x 0.10 m. In monoculture, spacing for maize was 0.75 m x 0.25 m and for soybean was 0.35 m x 0.10 m. The results showed there was five genotypes suitable for intercropping of maize + soybean based LER value, ie G//IT7-3, M0706//MI196-3, M0706//MI197-4, M0706//MI199-1, and M0706//MI199-2, with LER value of more than 1. Intercropping of maize with these soybean lines, gives a higher land productivity than monoculture.

      Keywords: Glycine max (L.) Merrill genotype, monoculture, land equivalent ratio, Zea mays


      PubDate: 2018-04-27
      DOI: 10.24831/jai.v46i1.14880
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Respon Morfo-Fisiologi Genotipe Kedelai terhadap Naungan Jagung dan
           Ubikayu

    • Authors: Herdina Pratiwi, dan Rina Artari
      Pages: 48 - 56
      Abstract: Study on soybeans morpho-physiological responses in artificial or natural shade are beneficial to determine the effects of shade on morpho-physiology and yield of soybean. This research was aimed to study the morpho-physiological responses of soybean varieties under shading of maize and cassava compared to arficial shading. The research was conducted in Kendalpayak Research Station, ILETRI, from February to May 2016 used split plot design with three replications. The main plot was three shade sources: N1:black paranet 50%, N2: maize shade, and N3: cassava shade, while the sub plot was five soybean varieties: Dena 1, Dena 2, Argopuro, Panderman, and Grobogan. Soybean varieties showed morpho-physiology differences depending on the shade source. Soybean grown under shading of cassava had plant height, leaf area ratio, and leaf area lower than under shading of paranet and maize. Cassava shade also caused soybean had higher growth rate, net assimilation rate, and yield than those under paranet and maize shade. Shade-tolerant varieties (Dena 1 and Dena 2) had high yield on all kind of shade. Less tolerant varieties (Panderman and Grobogan) had higher yield under cassava shade and lower yield under paranet and maize shade. Maize crop had similar shade effects with 50% paranet shade.

      Keywords: Glycine max (L) Merr., intercropping, Manihot esculenta Crantz, paranet, Zea mays L.


      PubDate: 2018-04-27
      DOI: 10.24831/jai.v46i1.15441
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Pertumbuhan dan Hasil Tiga Varietas Kedelai dengan Berbagai Interval
           Pemberian Air Irigasi di Lahan Sawah Beriklim Kering

    • Authors: Nani Herawati, Munif Ghulamahdi, dan Eko Sulistyono
      Pages: 57 - 63
      Abstract: Soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) is an essential commodity due to its protein content and it is also as  functional  food which contains isoflavon as an antioxidants. Import policy is handled when there is a high demand of soybean in local market but lack of local production. This research aimed to study growth and yield of three  soybean varieties with differens watering intervals in paddy field under dry climate. This research was conducted in Sesela Village, Gunung Sari Sub District, District of West Lombok, Nusa Tenggara Barat Province from July to October 2015. This research used split plot design with three replications. The main plot was irrigation intervals every (2, 9, 16, 23, 30 days) and the sub plot was soybean varieties (Anjasmoro, Burangrang, and Tanggamus). The results showed that interaction between irrigation interval and varieties influenced plant growth and yield, such as plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, 100 seeds weight  and number of productive pod. Tanggamus variety has the highest number of pods of 146.33 and yield (4.2 ton ha-1) in paddy field.

      Keywords: number of leaves, productive pod, variety, yield
      PubDate: 2018-05-03
      DOI: 10.24831/jai.v46i1.12070
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Evaluasi Hasil dan Kandungan Pati Mutan Ubi Kayu Hasil Iradiasi Sinar
           Gamma Generasi M1V4

    • Authors: Isnani Subekti, Nurul Khumaida, Sintho Wahyuning Ardie, dan Muhamad Syukur
      Pages: 64 - 70
      Abstract: Cassava is one of the important starch producer crops. Although Indonesia ranks as the third largest cassava producer country, Indonesia still imports cassava starch to meet the domestic demand in food and non-food industries. Gamma ray irradiation has been implemented to generate cassava mutants in order to support development of superior cassava variety, especially high yield and high starch content, especially high yield and high starch content. The objectives of this research were to evaluate the yield potential and the starch content of gamma irradiated 40 putative cassava mutants at M1V4 generation. This research was arranged in randomized complete block design with three replications and conducted at Cikabayan Experimental Field, IPB, Bogor, from May 2016 to March 2017. The starch content was measured using gravimetric methods. The results showed that five mutants, G2142, G3151, G2141, G1143, and G3111, had higher tuber weight per plant (6-7 kg per plant) compared to the background ‘Gajah’ genotype (4.7 kg per plant). ‘G2112’ mutant genotype showed higher starch content (23.86%) compared to the background ‘Gajah’ genotype (17.65%). The specific gravity (SG) was positively correlated with starch content (r = 0.905), indicated that the higher the SG, the higher the starch content of cassava.

      Keywords: gravimetric, mutant, specific gravity (SG), yield
      PubDate: 2018-04-27
      DOI: 10.24831/jai.v46i1.17610
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Hasil, Kualitas Fisik Polong dan Biji Beberapa Genotipe Kacang Tanah
           menurut Ragam Lengas Tanah pada Fase Generatif

    • Authors: Agustina Asri Rahmianna, dan Joko Purnomo
      Pages: 71 - 80
      Abstract: Drought stress during generative stage affected pod yield, yield components, seed and pod qualities of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.). The reseach was carried out to assess the effect of drought stress at various soil water availabilities during generative stage on pod yield, pod and seed physical qualities. The experiment was conducted at Muneng Experimental Farm, Probolinggo District during July-October 2012. Five genotypes were arranged in a RCB design, with 3 replicates. The replications were nested into four treatments of soil water availability (0-100, 0-85, 0-70,0-55 days after sowing/DAS). The pods were harvested at 102 days after sowing. The result showed that the shorter the water availability, the lower the leaf relative water content, pod and seed water contents, number of mature pods, seed size, and intact seeds weight. Pod yield reduced when water was available upto 55 DAS only. Turangga variety had the highest pod yield (1.626 ton ha-1) with low pod and seed physical qualities. GH-51 yielded in 1.076 ton ha-1 with superior pod and seed physical qualities. Despite of its lowest pod yield (0.964 ton ha-1), J-11 produced the same pod and seed physical qualities as GH 51 did. ICGV 86590 was superior on its pod yield (1.338 ton ha-1) with low pod and seed physical qualities. Kancil variety did not perform any superiority.

      Keywords: intact seeds, leaf relative water content, pod moisture content, seed moisture content
      PubDate: 2018-04-27
      DOI: 10.24831/jai.v46i1.11402
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Kemiripan dan Potensi Produksi Aksesi Pohpohan (Pilea trinervia Wight.)
           dari Beberapa Daerah di Jawa Barat

    • Authors: Sopiana; , Anas Dinurrohman Susila, dan Muhamad Syukur
      Pages: 81 - 88
      Abstract: Pohpohan (Pilea trinervia Wight.) is potential indigenous vegetable to be developed as a commercial vegetables. The objectives of this research were to observe similarity and production potential of pohpohan landraces from several areas in West Java. Result based on cluster analysis at nine similarity scale, thirteen exploration pohpohan landraces were grouped into three clusters. Clusters I consisted of Warung Loa, Tugu Selatan, Palasari, Langensari, Kayu Ambon, Lebak Muncang, Situsari, Sukalilah and Lebaksiuh. Clusters II consisted of Curug Rendeng, Argalingga and Linggarjati and clusters III was Bobojong. Result from further test using Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT), Warung Loa is a leading landrace because showed the best result on plant height, primary branches number, leaf width, yield per plot and plant productivity.

      Keywords: Cluster analysis, exploration, indigenous vegetable
      PubDate: 2018-04-27
      DOI: 10.24831/jai.v46i1.17314
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Pertumbuhan dan Produksi Jintan Hitam pada Beberapa Komposisi Media Tanam
           dan Interval Penyiraman

    • Authors: Ririh Sekar Mardisiwi, Ani Kurniawati, Eko Sulistyono, dan Didah Nur Fardidah
      Pages: 89 - 94
      Abstract: Black cumin plant ‘Habatussaudah’ (Nigella sativa L.) is a new introduced plant in Indonesia, therefore it is necessary to study cultivation method in order to produce high yield of good quality. This study was aimed to evaluate the growth of black cumin on different composition of media and watering intervals. The experiment was conducted at Sarongge Experimental Station, Cipanas, West Java (1,117 m asl) from June to October 2016. The experiment used a randomized block design with three replications. The treatment consisted of two factors, namely the composition of the planting media and the watering interval. The composition of planting medium consisted of  soil only (M0), soil: manure (1:1, v/v) (M1), soil: manure: rice-hull charcoal (1: 1: 1) (M2), soil: manure: rice-hull charcoal (2: 1: 1) (M3). The watering interval consisted of 4 levels, i.e., watering every 4, 7, 10 and 13 days. The results showed that soil with manure and or rice-hull charcoal increased the growth of vegetative, generative and production of black cumin 1.5 g per plant. Watering at intervals of 4 and 7 days produced better plant growth than those of  watering with longer intervals.
       
      Keywords: Habbatusauda, high altitude, introduced plant, medicinal plant, tropical area
      PubDate: 2018-04-27
      DOI: 10.24831/jai.v46i1.16723
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Pembentukan Buah dan Perkecambahan Tanaman Jarak Pagar pada Transformasi
           Langsung Melalui Jalur Tabung Polen

    • Authors: Agus Zainudin, Bambang Sapta Purwoko, Tri Joko Santoso, Sintho Wahyuning Ardie, dan Trikoesoemaningtyas
      Pages: 95 - 102
      Abstract: The genetic transformation via pollen-tube pathway in jatropha is the first alternative method that was applied in this plant. The objective of the research was to study fruit set and germination of three genotypes of jatropha following direct transformations via pollen-tube pathways. The research was conducted during April 2014 until January 2015 at jatropa’s experimental field, Pasuruan, and at green house of ICABIOGRAD, Bogor. Three genotypes of jatropha i.e., IP3A, IP3P and JcUMM18 were used. In the first experiment, split plot design was used where 3 levels of DNA plasmid concentration as a main plot and 5 levels of stigma-drip time of DNA plasmid as a subplot. In the second experiment randomized block design was used with single factor consisting of 15 combinations of concentration and stigma-drip time of DNA plasmid as treatments and control. The results demonstrated that interaction between concentration and application time of DNA plasmid did not significantly affect fruit and seeds formation of three Jatropha genotypes. Combination of DNA plasmid concentration with time of stigma-drip had significant effect on seed germination rate of IP3A genotype, but not significant on the other variables. The concentration of 0.05-0.5 µg µL-1 and application time of DNA plasmid at 1-10 hours after pollination could be applied on jatropha genetic transformation via pollen-tube pathways.

      Keywords: DNA plasmid, Jatropha curcas, pCAMBIA1301, pollen-tube, stigma-drip


      PubDate: 2018-04-27
      DOI: 10.24831/jai.v46i1.12897
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Toleransi Berbagai Varietas Tebu terhadap Penggenangan pada Fase Bibit
           Berdasarkan Karakter Morfologi dan Anatomi

    • Authors: Sholeh Avivi, Anang Syamsunihar, Sigit Soeparjono, dan Muhammad Chozin
      Pages: 103 - 110
      Abstract: Identification of Indonesia sugarcane varieties tolerant to waterlogging has not been done extensively. Information on varieties tolerant to waterlogging is required for seedling establishment in waterlogged areas. The purpose of this research was to identify the sugarcane varieties responses to several duration levels of waterlogging at seedling stage. The planting materials used were collection of Sugar Factory Semboro including VMC 76-16, BL, PS 862, PS 864, and PS 881. This research was arranged in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with two factors and three replications. The first factor was 5 varieties; the second factor was waterlogging treatment with four levels, i.e. without waterlogging, 2, 4, and 6 weeks of waterlogging in the bucket. The results showed different level of tolerance to water logging among the varities. PS 881 and VMC 76-16 varieties were the most tolerant to waterlogging supported by its ability to maintain plant height, root volume, root and shoot dry weight after been waterlogged for 6 weeks. These varieties were also able to establish aerenchyme tissue and increased the stomatal density. PS 862 was the least tolerant variety to waterlogging.

      Keywords: aerenchyme, morphology, stomatal density, waterlogging, water stress
      PubDate: 2018-05-03
      DOI: 10.24831/jai.v46i1.14081
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Tree-based Water Footprint Assessment on Established Oil Palm Plantation
           in North Sumatera, Indonesia

    • Authors: Edi Santosa, Indra Mario Stefano, Abdul Gani Gani Tarigan, Ade Wachjar, Sofyan Zaman, and Herdhata Agusta
      Pages: 111 - 118
      Abstract: ABSTRACTIn a long life cycle of oil palm plantation, sustainable water management is mandatory because irrigation is rarely applied. In order to develop water management for sustainable palm oil production, tree-based water footprint of well-established oil palm plantation was assessed. Field data were collected from February to June 2016 in Dolok Ilir managed by PTPN IV, North Sumatera, Indonesia. Additional data were obtained from interviews on the site and the surrounding estates, reports and references. Results showed that water footprint (WF) for production of fresh fruit bunch (FFB) was 510.69 m3 tonne-1 and crude palm oil (CPO) was 517.79 m3 tonne-1. Green, blue and grey water contributed 94.78%, 0.71% and 4.50% in FFB, and 93.48%, 1.66% and 4.85% in CPO productions, respectively. All green WF was calculated basen on actual value of tree evapotranspiration, therefore, the value was mostly lower than other researchs. Low amount of blue water indicates that the oil palm tree in North Sumatera extracts low amount of ground water. On the other hand, grey water for pollution dilution of fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides were high, i.e., 15.15 m3, 4.77 m3, 3.07 m3 tonne-1 FFB, respectively. It implies that reduction of grey water should be implemented in the near future through precission farming.

      Keywords: CPO, Elaeis guineensis, precission farming, sustainable production, water footprint



      PubDate: 2018-04-27
      DOI: 10.24831/jai.v46i1.13665
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 1 (2018)
       
 
 
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