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Publisher: Universitas Negeri Semarang   (Total: 76 journals)   [Sort by number of followers]

Showing 1 - 76 of 76 Journals sorted alphabetically
Accounting Analysis J.     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
ACTIVE : J. of Physical Education, Sport, Health and Recreation     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
BELIA : Early Childhood Education Papers     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Biosaintifika : J. of Biology & Biology Education     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Catharsis : J. of Arts Education     Open Access  
Chemistry in Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Chi'e : J. of Japanese Learning and Teaching     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Dinamika Pendidikan     Open Access  
Economic Education Analysis J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Economics Development Analysis J.     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Edu Elektrika J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Edukasi     Open Access  
ELT Forum : J. of English Language Teaching     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
English Education J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Forum Ilmu Sosial     Open Access  
Geo-Image     Open Access  
Harmonia     Open Access  
Imajinasi : Jurnal Seni     Open Access  
Indonesian J. of Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian J. of Conservation     Open Access  
Indonesian J. of Curriculum and Educational Technology Studies     Open Access  
Indonesian J. of Early Childhood Education Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian J. of Guidance and Counseling     Open Access  
Indonesian J. of History Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Innovative J. of Curriculum and Educational Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Active Learning     Open Access  
Intuisi : Jurnal Psikologi Ilmiah     Open Access  
J. of Economic Education     Open Access  
J. of Educational Development     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
J. of Educational Social Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
J. of Edugeography     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Indonesian History     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
J. of Innovative Science Education     Open Access  
J. of Nonformal Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Physical Education and Sports     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
J. of Physical Education Health and Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Primary Education     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
J. of Sport Sciences and Fitness     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
JEJAK : Jurnal Ekonomi dan Kebijakan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Joyful Learning J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Abdimas     Open Access  
Jurnal Bahan Alam Terbarukan     Open Access  
Jurnal Bimbingan Konseling     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Jurnal Dinamika Manajemen     Open Access  
Jurnal Fisika     Open Access  
Jurnal Geografi     Open Access  
Jurnal Inovasi Pendidikan Kimia     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Jurnal Komunitas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal MIPA     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Jurnal Pendidikan Bahasa dan Sastra Indonesia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Jurnal Pendidikan Fisika Indonesia (Indonesian J. of Physics Education)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Jurnal Pendidikan IPA Indonesia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.206, CiteScore: 1)
Jurnal Sastra Indonesia     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknik Elektro     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknik Sipil dan Perencanaan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Kreano, Jurnal Matematika Kreatif-Inovatif     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Language Circle : J. of Language and Literature     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Lisanul' Arab : J. of Arabic Learning and Teaching     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Management Analysis J.     Open Access  
Pandecta : Jurnal Penelitian Ilmu Hukum     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Public Health Perspective J.     Open Access  
Sainteknol : Jurnal Sains dan Teknologi     Open Access  
Scientific J. of Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Seloka : Jurnal Pendidikan Bahasa dan Sastra Indonesia     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Solidarity : J. of Education, Society and Culture     Open Access  
Unnes J. of Biology Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Unnes J. of Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Unnes J. of Mathematics Education     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Unnes J. of Mathematics Education Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Unnes J. of Public Health     Open Access  
Unnes Law J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Unnes Physics Education J.     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Unnes Physics J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Unnes Science Education J.     Open Access  
Wacana : Jurnal Sosial dan Humaniora     Open Access  
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Biosaintifika : Journal of Biology & Biology Education
Number of Followers: 7  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2085-191X - ISSN (Online) 2338-7610
Published by Universitas Negeri Semarang Homepage  [76 journals]
  • Selection of Cuculidae to the Hosts Based on the External Characteristics
           of the Eggs

    • Authors: Wahyu Widodo, Priyantini Widiyaningrum
      Abstract: Most of Cuculidae were known as parasitic birds, and they breed depend on their hosts. The obyective of the study was to know the external characteristics of the eggs of Cuculidae and their hosts which includes several components. e.i. shell color, shape, length, diameter and egg index. Those species of Cuculidae were Cacomantis merulinus lanceolatus, Cacomantis variolus sepulcralis, Surniculus lugubris lugubris and Eudynamys scolopaceus malayanus. There were 117 item of the bird egg reference’s collections in the Ornithology Laboratory, Zoology Division, Research Center for Biology, LIPI, in Cibinong, used as a research materials. Color and form the egg from every sample noted by pursuant to direct eyesight with the eye if possible and assisted with the magnifier, especially at flimsy spots egg’s color. The results shown that egg size of Cuculidae groups are bigger than their host eggs. Generally, the color variation of eggs of Cuculidae and their hosts are white or bluish white and their combination like as brown and greenish. The eggs shape of Cuculidae and host are similar, namely oval with IFO value about 73 - 75%.  The Cuculidae family pays attention to the color, spot pattern and shape of the host’s eggs in choosing the host for their own eggs. Though, there was also a tendency not to recognize the characteristic of the host’s egg. The studies represent an early stage in an attempt to strive the conservation of Cuculidae the bird hosts.
      PubDate: 2018-04-02
      DOI: 10.15294/biosaintifika.v10i1.9939
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2018)
  • Genetic Variability, Heritability, and Correlation of Some Agronomical
           Characters of Soybean Varieties

    • Authors: Heru Kuswantoro, Rina Artari, Wiwit Rahajeng, Erliana Ginting, Agus Supeno
      Abstract: Genetic diversity and inheritance of the traits determine the success of the breeding program. Analysis of genetic variability and heritability assist breeders to decide a strategy and appropriate selection criteria that will be used to repair the desired character. The purpose of this study was to obtain information about genetic diversity, heritability and correlation of nine agronomic characters of soybean varieties. The materials were 16 soybean varieties that arranged in a randomized block design with three replications. The results showed that days to flowering, number of branches per plant, number of reproductive nodes, number of unfilled pods per plant, weight of 100 seeds, and grain yield revealed broad CVG (Genetic Coeffiecient of Variance), whereas the days to maturity, plant height, number of pods per plant had a narrow CVG. CVP (Phenotypic Coeffiecient of Variance) value higher than the value of CVG on all the observed characters with a slight difference, except for grain yield. The broad sense heritability varied from low (seed yield), medium (the number of branches, number of reproductive nodes, number of pods and the number of unfilled pods), and high (days to flowering, days to maturity, plant height, and weight of 100 seeds). Characters of days to flowering and weight of 100 seeds are effectively used as selection criteria because they had a broad CVG and high heritability. Correlation of all yield components to the seed yield was not significant, and negatively correlated to weight of 100 seeds. Variety with higher plant height tended to have a higher number of branches, reproductive nodes and filled pod per plant.
      PubDate: 2018-04-02
      DOI: 10.15294/biosaintifika.v10i1.11014
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2018)
  • Ascaris suum Cuticle Ultrastructure Due to the In Vitro Application of
           Ethanol Extract to Ambon Banana Fruits (Musa paradisiaca var. sapientum)

    • Authors: Dwi Haryatmi, Tetri Widiyani, Okid Parama Astirin
      Abstract: Species of Musa have various activities, one of which is anthelmintic activity. Part of banana plants that can be used as anthelmintic is part of the fruit, because of the phytochemical content possessed. Tannin is able to inhibit the enzyme cholinesterase, damage the membrane of the worm and can precipitate the protein.  The purpose of this research is to know the content of tannin and also total tannin level on ethanol extract of Ambon banana(Musa paradisiaca var sapientum (L) and in vitro effect of the extract on Ascaris suum cuticle.  Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) showed of ethanol extract of Ambon banana containing tannin with a total test of tannin was 54.98% w/w. In vitro at negative control (NaCl 0.9%) worm death occurred at 289 hours, positive control (pyrantel pamoate 5 mg/ml) at 1 hour, extract concentration 200 mg/ml at hour 27 and concentration 400 mg/ml at 1 hour. Histopathological examination and scanning electron microscope showed a degenerative change in ultrastructures of the worm's cuticle. From the results of this study, it can be concluded that exposure of ethanol extract to Ambon banana give a damaging effect to cuticle ultrastructure in the form of crack/break, perforation and separation of muscular from cuticle and edema on A. suum worm. High tannin content in the raw/green ambon banana, can be developed to eradicate ascariasis including egg stage which until now cannot be done with synthetic drugs due to the thickness and strength of layers of worm eggs consisting of layers of protein and lipids.
      PubDate: 2018-04-02
      DOI: 10.15294/biosaintifika.v10i1.11918
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2018)
  • Mahameru Soybean (Glycine max ( L.) Merr.) Cultivar, High Salinity

    • Authors: Juwarno Juwarno, Tata Brata Suparjana, Muachiroh Abbas
      Abstract: Mahameru cultivar is high salinity tolerant cultivar. The previous study result showed Mahameru cultivar could tolerate 140mM NaCl, but Cilacap Coast salinity levels often reaching 200mM NaCl. A research of salinity stress on Mahameru cultivar at 200 mM NaCl have not conducted yet. Therefore to conduct the research of Mahameru at high salinity stress to obtained high salinity tolerant soybean cultivar.   The observed variables are anatomy (epidermis thickness, the density of stomata and trichomes, palisade thickness) physiology (the dry weight of roots and canopy, the content of chlorophyll a and b) Production (whole pod, total filled pod, total empty pod, weight per one-hundred beans). The salinity treatment was 0, 50,100, 150, 200 mM NaCl given at three days before planting and twenty-one days after planting. The data of anatomy and physiology was taken at forty-five days after planting. The production data was taken when soybean plants turned brown. The result indicates that salinity affects anatomy characteristic of leaf, higher the salinity increasing epidermis thickness and the density of stomata and trichomes. Salinity affected the content of chlorophyll a and b. Higher the salinity increased the content of chlorophyll a and b. Salinity did not affect soybean production. Based on this study Mahameru cultivar is resistant to salinity up to 200 mM NaCl. The benefit of this research help to enhance national soybean production with utilization coastal land for soybean planting Mahameru cultivar.         
      PubDate: 2018-04-02
      DOI: 10.15294/biosaintifika.v10i1.11870
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2018)
  • Sea Urchin (Echinoidea) Distribution and Abundance in the Intertidal Zone
           of Bengkayang Regency

    • Authors: Andi Ristanto, Ari Hepi Yanti, Tri Rima Setyawati
      Abstract: Sea urchins is the member of Echinoidea. This species can be found in tropical marine water to the poles. The study aimed to know the types, the abundance and spread of sea urchins in Bengkayang Regency. The research, used the transect method. Each station consisted of 3 transects with a length of 50 meters from the shore into the sea with the distance of 10 meters among the transects. This research obtained five species consisting of three species of the Diadema (genus) and two species of the Echinotrix (genus) i.e. Diadema antillarium, D. savignyi, D. setosum, Echinotrix calamaris and E. deadema. The density of sea urchins in Lemukutan Island ranges from 273 – 453 ind/Ha. The Density of sea urchins on Penata Kecil island ranges from 167 - 347 ind / Ha and on Penata Besar Island has a range from 307 - 387 ind/Ha. The highest diversity of sea urchins was found in Penata Kecil Island of (1.2355). The distribution of sea urchins in Lemukutan and Penata Besar Island was categorized into clumped and evenly distributed, while the distribution of sea urchin on Penata Kecil Island is included in the clustered and random categories. Distribution of sea urchins on the island is influenced by several factors such as sea water waves and food contained in the environment.
      PubDate: 2018-04-02
      DOI: 10.15294/biosaintifika.v10i1.9763
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2018)
  • High Connectivity Among Synedrella nodiflora (L.) Gaertn Populations in
           Java Island Based on Intergenic Spacer atpB-rbcL

    • Authors: Agus Hery Susanto, Budi Setiadi Daryono, Agus Nuryanto
      Abstract: Synedrella nodiflora (L.) Gaertn has taxonomically been the only species of genus Synedrella, which spreads over many tropical countries. In spite of its wide range of distribution, the genus remains monospecific. This leads to assumption of the very low genetic diversity among S. nodiflora populations worldwide. It may also be the case in Java Island, though rapid changes in ecosystem condition occurs. Here we report our study on S. nodiflora population genetics in Java Island using intergenic spacer (IGS) atpB –  rbcL as a molecular marker, since it has been well known as one of the most variable chloroplast genome regions in a wide range of plant species so far. As many as 58 individuals were collected randomly from ten different locations in the island. Based on IGS atpB – rbcL sequences of 860 bp length, only two haplotypes were observed. Both show only one polymorphic site (0.12%) and one transversion, where T is substituted by G at position 790, indicating that high connectivity among populations of S. nodiflora in Java Island is observed. This results in a low genetic differences among the populations, which at the same time provides a fact of nearly no variation among the IGS atpB – rbcL sequences.
      PubDate: 2018-04-02
      DOI: 10.15294/biosaintifika.v10i1.12038
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2018)
  • Diversity of Species and Conservation Priority of Butterfly at Suranadi
           Natural Park of West Lombok, Indonesia

    • Authors: Mohammad Liwa Ilhamdi, Agil Al Idrus, Didik Santoso
      Abstract: Butterflies play an important role in the ecosystem of Suranadi Natural Park in West Lombok. Butterflies help preserving the existence and diversity of flora by facilitating the process of pollination so it is crucial for flowering plants. The present study aimed at analyzing the diversity and determining the priority of butterfly conservation at Suranadi Natural Park of West Lombok. This exploration is a descriptive study. Data were observed in four-time repetition in the morning and in the afternoon for two months. The sweeping net technique following observation path was employed in this research (line left, line right,  line central and line waterway). The data analysis used the Shannon-Wiener diversity index and priority for conservation determined by Ministry of Forestry Regulation Number: P.57 / Menhut-II / 2008. Fourty (40) species of butterflies belonging to 5 families identified. The diversity index (H ') of butterflies ranges from 2.63 to 3.43 (medium-high). The two species of the Papilionidae family found at TWA Suranadi, namely, Troides helena and Papilio memnon were the priority of conservation. This research would be helpful to consider conservation strategy and ecotourism.
      PubDate: 2018-04-02
      DOI: 10.15294/biosaintifika.v9i3.10695
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2018)
  • Effect of Manure and Inorganic Fertilizers on Vegetative, Generative
           Characteristics, Nutrient, and Secondary Metabolite Contents on Mungbean

    • Authors: Sutrisno Sutrisno, Eriyanto Yusnawan
      Abstract: A field experiment was conducted during the first dry season (April – June 2015) to study the effect of manure and inorganic fertilizers on vegetative, generative growth, nutrient, and secondary metabolite contents on mungbean (Vigna radiata L.). Five treatments consisted of (1) control, (2) combination of 50 kg ha-1 ZA + 50 kg ha-1 SP36 + 100 kg ha-1KCl, (3) 150 kg ha-1of Phonska (15:15:15 precentages of NPK), (4) 5000 kg ha-1 manure, and (5) combination of 75 kg ha-1 Phonska and 2500 kg ha-1 manure. These treatments were arranged in a randomized completely block design with three replications. Application of manure, inorganic fertilizer, and its combination significantly stimulated several vegetative characters especially number of nodes, number of clusters, fresh weight of biomass, and number of nodules. At the generative characters, application of manure and inorganic fertilizers also significantly increased pod dry weight and grain dry weight. Among all treatments, NPK Phonska inorganic fertilizer gave the highest vegetative and generative growth which was shown on biomass fresh weight, pod dry weight and grain dry weight per plant. NPK fertilizer and manure applications increased total flavonoid and phenolic contents as well as antioxidant activity. This combination treatment therefore, could be suggested in mungbean cultivation to increase seed quality.
      PubDate: 2018-04-02
      DOI: 10.15294/biosaintifika.v10i1.12716
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2018)
  • The Role of Acetylcholine Esterase in Resistance Mechanism of
           Plutellaxylostella (L.) to Emamektin Benzoate

    • Authors: Udi Tarwotjo, Rully Rahadian
      Abstract: One of the resistance mechanism of P. xylostellato emamektin benzoate is target insensitivity which is acetylcholine esterase that responsible for resistance occurrence. The objective of this study was to determine the role of acetylcholinesterase in the resistance mechanism of P. xylostella population to emamektin benzoate. For enzyme activity analysis, larvae homogenate of the third instar of P. xylostella was prepared. The number of insects required for each scour is 1 for each field population. The protein content in P. xylostella homogenate was measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu test. Non-specific esterase activity with an absorption rate was read using ELISA reader tool with λ = 450 nm. The inhibition level of acetylcholinesterase activity by emamectin benzoate in the tested population was 36.84%. The highest inhibition occurs in Puasan (Ngablak) population.  The result shows that a α-naphthyl acetate substrate was used so that it was recorded as non-specific esterase activity and did not exhibit esterase activity which specifically describes emamectin benzoate. Non-specific esterase enzyme activity of either α or β-naphthyl acetate substances to benzoic emamectin in the tested population most of the population was still susceptible. On α-naphthyl acetate substrate, the highest absorbance value found in susceptible population to benzoate emamectin (0.773), while the lowest found in Babrik (Ngablak) population  (0.083).
      PubDate: 2018-04-02
      DOI: 10.15294/biosaintifika.v10i1.13955
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2018)
  • Taxonomic Approach for Species Diversity of Yeasts and Yeasts-like Fungi
           through D1/D2 Region of Large Subunit Ribosomal DNA Sequences

    • Authors: I Nyoman Sumerta, Atit Kanti
      Abstract: The identification of yeasts or yeasts-like fungi and verify their diversity are principal aspect for bioindustry and ecosystem sustainability. Taxonomic approach provides identification tool to ensure the taxonomic position of yeasts and yeasts-like fungi which definitely set to utilization concerns. The aim of this study is to understanding the taxonomic position of yeasts and yeasts-like fungi from the distinctive of its sequences relationship. Yeasts and yeasts-like fungi strains were isolated through various culture dependent methods from natural resources samples of Karimun Besar Island, Province of Riau Islands, Indonesia. The identification process was performed through amplifying the accurate DNA-based in D1/D2 region of large subunit (26S) ribosomal DNA. As the result, a total of 85 isolates of yeasts and yeasts-like fungi were obtained with 16 closest related taxa through phylogenetic tree construction. Ascomycetous was the predominating group representing 91% of the total isolates sequences followed by Basidiomycetous (8%) and Zygomycetous (1%). The black yeasts (yeasts-like) known as Aureobasidium melanogenum was predominant species with represent to 54% of total isolates and present in particular habitat. Taxonomically, there are six isolates are represent to be novel taxa candidates which pretend to enhance genetic resources of yeasts and yeasts-like fungi especially from Indonesia. In addition, this information provides specific technique to reach specific yeasts or yeasts-like fungi species in nature by managing the sample collection and culture methods.
      PubDate: 2018-04-02
      DOI: 10.15294/biosaintifika.v10i1.11588
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2018)
  • Assessing Students’ Ethnicities and Critical Thinking Skill to Develop
           PBL Based-Biology Learning Tools

    • Authors: Didimus Tanah Boleng, Sonja V.T. Lumowa, Evie Pelenewen
      Abstract: A survey has been conducted in grade XI natural science of senior high school, at odd semester, academic year 2016/2017 in Samarinda, Indonesia. The focus of this research are to determine the students’ ethnicities, and the responses of biology teachers about students' critical thinking skills, and Problem-Based Learning. Sampling technique was total sampling. The research instrument was a questionnaire. Data was analysed by techniques used descriptive. The results of the data analysis show that the compositions of students’ ethnics are: Java (12.7%), Bugis (6.9%), Kutai (13.3%), Banjar (13.3%), and other ethnics (28.5%). Most of the teachers (86.0%) who already understood about the learning approaches, said that they already understood, while the remaining 14% did not understand the patterns of Problem-Based Learning. In addition, 23.3% teachers said that students were less able to explain, express opinions, and make conclusions; 76.7% said that students are sufficiently able to explain, express opinions, and make conclusions. Future research related to biology learning in multiethnic students needs to be conducted to get more information. The design of learning tools needs to consider the ethnic  of the students in strengthening critical thinking skills. Similar research needs to be done to obtain more information.The findings of this research are the students’ ethnicities of the XI class of Natural Sciences, as well as the responses of high school biology teachers about students' critical thinking skills in Biology.
      PubDate: 2018-04-02
      DOI: 10.15294/biosaintifika.v10i1.10554
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2018)
  • Antioxidant Potential of Ethanol and Ethyl Acetat Extract of Ganoderma sp.

    • Authors: Nuniek Ina Ratnaningtyas, Purnomowati Purnomowati, Endang Sri Purwati, Aisyah Tri Septiana, Adi Supriyadi
      Abstract: Ganoderma sp. Banyumas 1 isolate that reffered as Ganoderma sp. is a new discovered isolate from Banyumas, Central Java, Indonesia expected to have a potential properties of antioxidant of medicinal mushroom. This study aimed to determine the antioxidant potential and the appropriate solvent for it’s extracting from Ganoderma sp. This research result showed that ethyl acetate was able to extract as many as 15.57%, while etanol was only able to extract 3.87% active compounds from dried 28 days old Ganoderma sp. mycelium cultivated in the Mushroom Complete Medium (MCM). Extract of ethyl acetate (non-polar) extraction of mycelium of Ganoderma sp. had a potential character as an antioxidant source and performed a better result than from ethanolic (polar) extraction as shown in the IC50 value. Extract from ethyl acetate extraction had an average IC50 value smaller than  from ethanolic extract (581.80 < 1285.67). Extract from ethyl acetate extraction resulted in a higher amount of phenol than that ethanolic extract 29.23 < 57.67. Inhibition percentage of both extracts at 65% was known to occur at concentration of 1000 ppm for ethyl acetate extract and 2000 ppm for ethanolic extract. An important finding was that ethyl acetate can be used as appropriate solvent for extracting antioxidant compound better than ethanolic. In conclusion, the mycelium extract of Ganoderma sp. extracted with ethyl acetate and ethanol as solvent is potential to be used as a source of natural antioxidants. This research result has benefit in developing potency of local resources as herbal resources.
      PubDate: 2018-04-02
      DOI: 10.15294/biosaintifika.v10i1.11512
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2018)
  • Screening Endophytes of Neem Leaf that Potential Anti-Anthrax through
           Tests of Anti Staphylococcus Aureus

    • Authors: Khuzyia Rizqi Triavi Ananda, Sunarno Sunarno, Muhamad Fikri Zulfikar, Hafsah Avisha, Muhamad Nastain, Ridwan Abdullah
      Abstract: Anthrax is a deadly disease caused by Bacillus antracis that damages the lymphatic and vascular systems of animals and humans. Anthrax prevention in Indonesia has been done but has many shortcomings among them is a lot of dead animal raises after vaccination and relatively expensive. The azadirachtin bioactive compound produced by neem endophytic microbes is known to inhibit the growth of B. anthracis bacteria, thus potentially as an anti-anthrax agent. Other bacteria that have the same pathogens as B. antrachis are Methycillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) so that it is used as a research object. The aim of this research is to obtain the active biomaterials from selected neem leaf endophytes to be tested in S. aureus MRSA as bacteria with Anthrax pathogens. The method used in this research is the isolation, selection, and extraction of Neem  endophytes. The process of isolation is done by growing on the general media and the selection process on special media. The bioactive extraction process uses 1000 rpm centrifuge and screening on MRSA culture medium. Inhibitory zone tests were used to determine the effect of endophytic biopsy in inhibiting MRSA growth. The result of the research is that the bioactive endophytes of neem are able to inhibit MRSA growth which is characterized by the formation of drag zone around the endophytic bioactive. Thus it can be concluded that the use of neem endophytes can be a new solution to eradicate the presence of anthrax disease in the livestock and people in Indonesia with safe research methods, relatively inexpensive and ineffective vaccine replacements.
      PubDate: 2018-04-02
      DOI: 10.15294/biosaintifika.v10i1.13956
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2018)
  • Nutrient Limiting Factor for Enabling Algae Growth of Rawapening Lake,

    • Authors: Agatha Sih Piranti, Diana Retna Utarini Suci Rahayu, Gentur Waluyo
      Abstract: Two important issues for establishment of nutrient criteria are identifying which nutrient limits algal growth and determining the concentration of that nutrient enabling nuisance growths. The purposes of this research were: 1) to examine the nutrient (TN, TP, ratio of TN/TP) dynamic in Rawapening Lake spatially and temporally, 2) to identify Nutrient Limiting of Algal Growth in Rawapening Lake, and 2) to determine the nutrient criteria for enabling algae growth in Rawapening Lake. The research was conducted using a survey method in 7 sites from February to August 2016. The result showed that spatially Total Nitrogen (TN) and Total Phosphor (TP) in the lake were not evenly distributed and temporally influenced by the inflow. The development of algae biomass in Rawapening Lake determined ratio of TN/TP. Nutrient criteria as follow: oligotrophic was 5.96 - 14.39, mesotrophic was 14.39 - 42.15, eutrophic 42.15 - 51.65, and hyper-eutrophic > 51.65. These criteria could be used in designing controlling eutrophication problem by arranging nutrient input from both external and internal sources in order to meet those limit. The benefits of research contributes to the development of environmental monitoring methods to assess the trophic status using more appropriate in accordance with the conditions of the tropics region. It also could be used for consideration in policy direction and orientation of land use in catchment areas in relation to water quality of the lake.
      PubDate: 2018-04-02
      DOI: 10.15294/biosaintifika.v10i1.12500
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2018)
  • Application of Snakehead Fish to Increase Liver Function of Rats after
           Experiencing Physiological Stress

    • Authors: Sunarno Sunarno, Siti Muflichatun Mardiati, Rully Rahadian
      Abstract: Physiological stress due to nutritional deficiency accompanied by excessive activity can cause problems of energy deficiency required by the body. Energy shortage can affect the body weight, as well as the weight and histology of the liver. This study was conducted to examine and analyze the effect of snakehead fish meat supplementation in feed toward body weight, weight and hepatic histology in animals experiencing physiological stress. This study used 20 male Wistar rats consisting of 5 treatments with 4 replications. The treatment in this study consisted of control (P0) and treatment (P1: 5%, P2: 10%, P3: 15%, P4: 20%) groups. This research used Completely Randomized Design (RAL). The variables measured in this study were body weight, hepatic weight, central venous diameter and hepatocytes in the test animals. The data obtained were analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) at 5% significance level and continued with Duncan test with 5% significance. The result of data analysis showed that fish snakehead fish supplementation in feed gave a significant effect to body weight, weight and histology of animal liver. Concentrations of snakehead fish supplements can increase the body weight, hepatic weight, and hepatic histology which was indicated by higher central venous and hepatocyte diameter values compared to other controls and treatments. The conclusion of this research is the provision of snakehead fish supplement (Channia striata) can increase the body weight, hepatic weight, central venous and hepatocytes diameter of Wistar rats with the most influential concentration of 20%. This evidence is useful in studying the mechanism of liver repair due to stress
      PubDate: 2018-04-02
      DOI: 10.15294/biosaintifika.v10i1.13957
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2018)
  • Antibacterial Activity of Streptomyces SAE4034 Isolated from Segara Anakan
           Mangrove Rhizosphere against Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria

    • Authors: Dini Ryandini, Hendro Pramono, Sukanto Sukanto
      Abstract: Actinomycetes SAE4034 isolates was isolated from Rhizophora apiculata rhizosphere mud showed some antibacterial properties. The antibacterial ability of this isolate has not been tested on antibiotic resistant bacterial pathogens. Therefore, it is important to investigate its capability against antibiotics resistant bacteria or multi drug resistant bacteria (MDR bacteria). The research aimed to know the ability of actinomycetes SAE4034 in inhibit MDR bacteria and to identify the species profiles. The research methods included isolate characterization involving morphology, physiology/enzymatic and molecular properties. MDR bacterial inhibition assay, antibacterial compound extraction and antibacterial compound test using thin layer chromatography (TLC) method, observation of morphological and biochemical properties, DNA isolation, amplification and analysis of 16SrRNA sequence, and phylogeny tree analysis. The methods of this study included MDR anti-bacterial assay and antibacterial compound test. Subsequent step was isolate characterization including observation of morphological and physiological / enzymatic properties, and 16S rRNA gene sequence. The results showed that culture extract was able to inhibit the growth of MDR bacteria i.e. Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus sp., but no inhibition to Enterobacter cloacae. The bioactive compound showed 4 spots with Rf values of 0.36; 0.45; 0.54; and 0.6. Based on morphology, physiology / enzymatic and 16S rRNA gene sequences characteristics, actinomycetes SAE4034 isolate is Streptomyces sp. This research showed new Streptomyces strain that serves as a source of MDR antibacterial compounds and useful in development of antibiotic for combating infectious diseases caused by MDR bacteria.
      PubDate: 2018-04-02
      DOI: 10.15294/biosaintifika.v10i1.12896
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2018)
  • The Effect of Red Fruit oil (Pandanus Conoideus L) to the Histophysiology
           of Rat (Rattus Norvegicus) Liver Exposed to Cigarette Smoke

    • Authors: Albertina Dhiu Kio, Tyas Rini Saraswati, Enny Yusuf Wachidah Yuniwarti
      Abstract: Free radicals in cigarette smoke may interfere the balanced of body molecules and cause the damage of hepatic cells. This issues may be prevented by using red fruit oil (Pandanus conoideus L) due to its antioxidant content. This study aimed to evaluate the structure and physiological conditions of liver when the red fruit oil given to the rat that exposed by cigarette smoke. This study carried out for 35 days with female white rats as the sample. The samples were 20 female white rats divided into four groups: P0 (negative control), P1 (positive control), P2 (exposed by cigarette smoke with administration of red fruit oil 0,1 ml/BB), P3 (exposed by cigarette smoke with administration of red fruit oil 0,2 ml/weight). The data of ALT, AST, cell diameter, and hepatic weight were analyzed by using analysis of variants (ANOVA). The results showed that administration of red fruit oil containing antioxidants can reduce levels of ALT, AST, hepatocyte diameter, and increase liver weight, although the difference is not significant compared to the control group and does not affect the eating and drinking behavior so as not to affect the body's metabolism. The conclusion of red fruit oil can reduce ALT, AST, hepatocyte diameter and increase hepatic weight due to exposure to cigarette smoke, although the difference is not significant to the control group, and does not affect the eating and drinking behavior, so good for consumption because it gives a beneficial effect on health liver organ.
      PubDate: 2018-04-02
      DOI: 10.15294/biosaintifika.v10i1.12822
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2018)
  • The Structural Resistance’s Anatomy of Sweet Potato Leaves to Fungal
           Pathogen Sphaceloma batatas

    • Authors: Siti Samiyarsih, Juwarno Juwarno, Juni Safitri Muljowati
      Abstract: Anatomical characters can be used as instructions to the structural resistance of plants to pathogen attack. Various pathogens attack sweet potato plants, such as the Sphaceloma batatas fungus that causes scurvy disease (scab). The aims of this research t test the structural resistance of sweet potato plants based on leaf anatomical character and intensity of disease attack due to the inoculated of S. batatas. The research was conducted from June to November 2016, using the Completely Randomized Design Experimental (RAL) method with a factorial pattern. The first factor was ten sweet potato cultivars and the second factor was the inoculum of S. batatas fungus each treatment with five replications. The character of leaf anatomy observed was thick of cuticle, thick of mesophyll, size and number of stomata and number of trichomes per 1 mm2 leaf area. Based on the research result, it was concluded that the inoculation of the fungus of S. batatas caused the decrease of stomata length and width on ten sweet potato cultivars. The highest intensity of disease attack was 14.33% and correlated with stomata length (r = 0.49). The anatomical structural resistance to scurvy can be used as a basis for determining crosses for obtaining superior sweet potato cultivars. The benefit of the research is to advise the community to cultivate sweet potatoes that have structural resistance to scurvy, such as cuticle and thick mesophyll, high trichomata density.
      PubDate: 2018-04-02
      DOI: 10.15294/biosaintifika.v10i1.12116
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2018)
  • Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Activity of Daemonorops draco Resin

    • Authors: Wulan Tri Wahyuni, Sri Purwanti, Irmanida Batubara
      Abstract: Daemonorops draco has been reported for its antibacterial activity and empirically used for wound healing by Anak Dalam ethnic at Jambi Province, Sumatera-Indonesia. This study was performed to evaluate antibacterial and antibiofilm activity of D. draco resin collected from Jambi. D. draco resin was extracted using n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol, respectively. Antibacterial activity of the extracts was evaluated using agar diffusion method against Staphylococcus aureus and Eschericia coli, whereas the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bacteriacidal concentration (MBC) was determined by microdilution method. In addition, antibiofilm activity was evaluated by violet crystal method. The result showed that extraction yield of ethyl acetate was higher than methanol and n-hexane. Ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of D. draco exhibited stronger antimicrobial activity against S. aureus compare to n-hexane extract. MIC and MBC of methanol extract and chromatographic fraction (F5.1) of ethyl acetate extract were 0.5 and 1.0 mg/mL, respectively. In addition, antibiofilm assay revealed that all extracts were inhibit initial attachment of bacteria cell in biofilm formation. This result revealed a novel information that  D. draco extracts was potential as inhibitor of biofilm formation. TLC bioautography of D. draco extracts indicated that constituent with Rf of 0.71 performed antimicrobial activity against S. aureus. This finding expected to strengthen the scientific backup for utilization of D. draco by society.
      PubDate: 2018-04-02
      DOI: 10.15294/biosaintifika.v10i1.13554
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2018)
  • Genetic Variation of Hampala Fish (Hampala macrolepidota) Population in
           PB. Soedirman Reservoir and Serayu River

    • Authors: Suhestri Suryaningsih, Sorta Basar Ida Simanjuntak, Sri Sukmaningrum
      Abstract: Panglima Besar Soedirman waters reservoir and the Serayu River in Banjarnegara Regency, Central Java is one of the habitats of hampala fish . Hampala fish is a member of the Cyprinidae family, which has economic value but is fully captured from the wild. The study on the genetic diversity using approaches of isozyme analysis needed to support conservation and domestication of the fish in this area. This study was aimed at the genetic variation of the hampala fish population in PB. Soedirman water reservoir and the Serayu River in Banjarnegara Regency based on esterase (EST), acid phosphatase (ACP), peroxidase (PER), and aspartate aminotransferase (AAT). Visualization of the isozyme was carried out employing horizontal electrophoretic technique with potato starch. From the results of this study it can be concluded that the hampala fish from the reservoir of PB. Soedirman, Serayu River area before reservoir and after reservoir, all of which are in Banjarnegara Regency, can visualized isozymes EST, ACP, and AAT well, except PER isozyme. This finding can be used as based information on population genetics and finally can be used for conservation of this fish. The results of this study are expected to be utilized to evaluate the potential genetic condition of hampala fish, which is the basis for conservation strategy and domestication.
      PubDate: 2018-04-02
      DOI: 10.15294/biosaintifika.v10i1.12092
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2018)
  • Analysis of The Open Reading Frame (ORF) 29-TrnC (GCA) Sequence to Detect
           Indica and Japonica Sub Species on Upland Rice of Situ Bagendit and Inbred
           Rice of Ciherang

    • Authors: Rohma Istiana, Hermin Pancasakti Kusumaningrum, Rejeki Siti Ferniah
      Abstract: The identification and the characterization of genetic diversity of rice was the first step in the rice plant breeding program. This study aimed to detect indica or japonica sub-species on upland rice Situ Bagendit and inbred rice Ciherang using molecular markers ORF 29-TrnC (GCA) on the chloroplast genome. Rice was included to the indica sub-species if the 32 bp insertion on ORF 29-TrnC (GCA) sequence was found, on the contrary, if the deletion 32 bp on ORF 29-TrnC (GCA) was found then it was included to the japonica sub-species. DNA isolation was examined from the leaves of the rice plants, and then it tested quantitatively to determine the transparency and DNA concentration from the isolation results. PCR amplification was performed using a pair of primers CP2 and it was followed by agarose gel electrophoresis. The visualization of the DNA bands used the gel documentation. Sequencing of PCR products produced a long base 390 bp in Situ Bagendit rice and 390 bp in Ciherang rice. Analysis of the sequences showed that the insertions occurred throughout the 32 bp in Situ Bagendit rice and the insertions occurred throughout the 32 bp in Ciherang rice. The results showed that upland rice Situ Bagendit and inbred rice Ciherang were included in the indica sub-species. The knowledge of variety of genetics of rice can be used as bio-information in the plant breeding program. Further, the knowledge can be used to protect in genetic power source, the selection and the composing of superior varieties of rice which is tolerant with kinds of biotic and abiotic factor.
      PubDate: 2018-04-02
      DOI: 10.15294/biosaintifika.v10i1.12626
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2018)
  • Utilization of Oocytes Collected from Preserved Ovarian for In Vitro
           Production of Cat Embryos

    • Authors: Kartini Eriani, Arief Boediono, Sony Heru Sumarsono, Al Azhar
      Abstract: Preservation of ovarian tissue from severely injured or dead valuable animals has the potential to preserve female germ cells of animals. The ability to mature and fertilize of oocytes from preserved ovary of endangered species will allow us to sustain genetic and global biodiversities. The aims of this study were to investigate the viability of oocytes collected from the preserved ovary and its potential utilization for the production of cat embryos followed by in vitro maturation and fertilization. Ovary was preserved immediately in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) at 4 °C for 24 or 48 hours. The quality and viability of oocytes after the maturation process were identified microscopically using aceto-orcein staining. Biological function of the oocytes was evaluated by using in vitro culture technique for the maturation and fertilization rate in CR1aa medium culture. The results showed that the percentage of oocytes collected from preserved ovary for 24 and 48 hours that remained at the stage of metaphase-II were 29.4% and 21.9% respectively. Fertilization rates produced in the IVF using oocytes collected from ovary preserved for 24 or 48 hours were significantly lower (30%) than that of unpreserved control (36.7%). In conclusion, female germ cells of cat ovary preserved at 4 °C in PBS for 2 days were still viable for in vitro fertilization and thus can be utilized for in vitro production of cat embryos. Information obtained can be used as a basis of knowledge of using a combination of physiological reagent and cold-based preservation technique in modern reproductive technology for animals.
      PubDate: 2018-04-02
      DOI: 10.15294/biosaintifika.v10i1.13958
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2018)
  • Antioxidant Effect of Clorella vulgaris on Wistar Rat Kidney Induced by
           CCl4: A Histopathological Review

    • Authors: Priyo Susatyo, Achmad Akbar Rifanda, Sorta Basar Ida Simanjuntak, Titi Chasanah
      Abstract: Kidney is very susceptible to damage by toxicological compounds such as carbon tetrachloride (CCl­4). CCl4 produce free radicals, which cause lipid peroxidation and kidney damage and free radical release, which can be prevented by the administration of exogenous antioxidants, such as Chlorella vulgaris.The aim of study was to determine an effect of antioxidant of C. vulgaris on the histopathological features of Wistar rat  kidney which is induced by CCl4. Experimental study with completely randomized design. The variable was histopathology features of the kidneys. The doses of C. vulgaris extract were 3 mg, 4 mg, and 5 mg per 100 grams of rat body weight (BW). The administration of C. vulgaris extract was performed within 30 days, while the CCl4 induction (0.25 ml / 100 g BW) was administered orally on the day 9, 12, 16, 19, 23, and 26. Parameters were histopathology features of renal damage, proportion of tubular cell damage, and Bowman's space diameter. The results showed the administration of C. vulgaris extract was able to reduce the impact of damage caused by CCl4 (p<0.05). This was supported by histologic observations, which was showing a decrease of picnotic and vacuolated cells, normal brush border, and decrease of Bowman's space. In conclusion, 5 mg / 100 g BW of C. vulgaris extract can effectively protect the kidney from damage        caused  by        CCl4. The results of this study strongly support further research on immunostimulant content test C. vulgaris and determine the efficient dose for representative animals mammals also in humans.
      PubDate: 2018-04-02
      DOI: 10.15294/biosaintifika.v10i1.13398
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2018)
  • Biodiversity of Termites and Damage Building in Semarang, Indonesia

    • Authors: Niken Subekti, Bambang Priyono, Afrin Nur Aisyah
      Abstract: Termites cause a lot of damage and big losses for building components, especially those made of wood. High population growth and rapid infrastructure development in Semarang city affect the natural habitats of termites. This phenomenon changes the termites' behavior of foraging in buildings. Semarang city has humidity, temperature, and altitude that allows termites to live and breed well. The purpose of this study was to determine the types of termites living in housing in Semarang city as well as the level of attacks on housing. This research was conducted in nine housing in Semarang City. The research was carried out with two methods: building inspection and wood-feeding method by using Pinus mercusii wood measures 2 cm x 2 cm x 46 cm. The results found four types of termites that attack wood feeds namely Macrotermes gilvus, Microtermes inspiratus, Odontotermes javanicus, Coptotermes curvignathus and Cryptotermes sp.. Based on interviews and building inspection, it was known that the condition of the building in the category of "moderate" was occupying the most position (74.44%), good (17.78%) and lightly damaged (7.78%). From the causes of damage to building components, it can be concluded that the level of termite attack against damage to recidential buildings in Semarang city 44.58%. Cross-tabulation analysis of Chi-Square shows that there is a correlation between age and treatment with damage to the building. Futher, the finding can be used as baseline information for further scientific investigation for effective termites control on residential building components.
      PubDate: 2018-04-02
      DOI: 10.15294/biosaintifika.v10i1.12832
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2018)
  • Species Richness and Habitat Suitability of Myrmecophytes in Bengkulu :
           Host Tree, Coexist Epiphytes and Animals

    • Authors: Safniyeti Safniyeti, Sulistijorini Sulistijorini, Tatik Chikmawati
      Abstract: Myrmecophytes or locally known as simbagh utak are common medicinal plants used by locals in Bengkulu, especially in South Bengkulu, for treating various diseases. Despite their potential as medicines, there is no report on biotic factors can be used to indicate of Myrmecophytes species’ richness and habitat suitability. The objectives of this research were to analyze the Myrmecophytes’ species richness and habitat suitability. This study used the purposive sampling method by exploring the area where Myrmecophytes were commonly found. The biotic factors of Myrmecophytes were analyzed by identifying the tree host, the other epiphyte plant grew around them, and animal occupants on the tuber of the Myrmecophytes. The Myrmecophytes distribution was analyzed by using ArcGIS10.1. The results showed that there were two species of Myrmecophytes, namely Hydnophytum formicarum and Myrmecodia tuberosa in the study area. The Myrmecophytes attached and hung in 9 species of host trees. The characteristics of host trees are high trees with large diameter, mostly rough-barked; some were cracked and mossy. The highest frequency of host trees included Hevea brasiliensis and Durio zibethinus. Myrmecophytes coexisted with 12 species of epiphytes. Epiphyte plants like Dendrobium sp. and Drymoglossum piloselloides can be used to indicate the presence of Myrmecophytes. Ants made up the most predominantly animal found living inside the tubers of Myrmecophytes, with some cockroaches and termites found at the tuber of Hydnophytum. Information on species' richness and habitat suitability of Myrmecophytes can serve as supporting data for conservation efforts in Bengkulu to prevent the extinction of this species.
      PubDate: 2018-04-02
      DOI: 10.15294/biosaintifika.v10i1.13025
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2018)
  • Mealworm Powder as Culture Media of Local Isolate Semarang
           Entomopathogenic Nematodes

    • Authors: Priyantini Widiyaningrum, Minnathul Khasanah, Dyah Rini Indriyanti
      Abstract: Many researchers confirmed that entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) of the genera Heterorhabditis and Steinernema can be cultivated in vitro using artificial media that containing animal nutrition. However, artificial media with insect component hasn’t been widely studied. This research aims to analyze the population of EPNs isolate of Semarang cultivated in mealworm powder media. Five doses of mealworm powder (Tenebrio molitor) were tested in this research, i.e: 0.5; 1.0; 1.5; 2.0 g.  Culture media using 1 g of mealworm larvae was used as control. The best treatment was further tested for its pathogenicity on Macrotermes sp. at seven levels of invective juveniles (IJs) : 0; 50; 100; 150; 200; 250; 300 IJs/mL. Each treatment was repeated five times. The EPNs population and termites mortality were analyzed using ANAVA, whereas pathogenic value was calculated using Probit analysis. The result showed EPNs population were significantly (LSD test; α> 0.05), likewise on termites mortality. The EPNs isolate of Semarang optimally at 0.5 g mealworm powder and  pathogenicity against termites based on LD50 and LD90 values at 220 JI/mL and 410 JI/mL doses, respectively. In conclusion, this result  can be an alternative to mass cultivation of EPNs, in effort of development of local bioinsecticides. The findings of this study also inform farmers that EPNs can be easily cultivated using the simple and available materials.
      PubDate: 2018-04-02
      DOI: 10.15294/biosaintifika.v10i1.13874
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2018)
  • In Vitro Propagation of Bambusa balcooa as Alternative Material of Wood

    • Authors: Siti Nurhayani, Rita Megia, Ragapadmi Purnamaningsih
      Abstract: A diversion of raw material from wood to bamboo is necessary. In vitro culture of bamboo can be used to provide a high number of seedling. The aim of this study was to increase the multiplication of a high quality Bambusa balcooa as a wood alternative material. Part of plants used was the sterile axillary shoot. The explants were planted on MS0 medium for 2 weeks and later on multiplication medium MS+0.3 mg/l BAP + 0.3mg/l TDZ. The shoots obtained were fragmented into clusters (3-5 shoots) used for the next multiplication stage using five different medium formulas: (1) MS0; MS containing: (2) 0.1 mg/l BAP, (3) 0.3 mg/l BAP, (4) 0.1 mg/l BAP + 0.1 mg/l TDZ and (5) 0.3 mg/l BAP + 0.1 mg/l TDZ. The results showed that MS medium containing 0.1 mg/l BAP + 0.1mg/l TDZ was the best medium for B. balcooa propagation. The shoots produced from aforementioned medium had a better quality compared to the other medium. Forty days after planting, the average number of shoots in this medium was 14.25. MS medium containing 0.3 mg/l BAP + 0.1 mg/l TDZ produced the highest number of shoot but in lower quality. Rooting medium containing 10 mg/l IBA + 5 mg/l NAA produced 9-16 root in 8 weeks. Vermicompost was more prevalent for the acclimatization of B. balcooa compared to compost. The use of B.balcooa resulted in in vitro propagation as a substitute alternative for wood is expected to save the environment from illegal logging.  
      PubDate: 2018-04-02
      DOI: 10.15294/biosaintifika.v10i1.11079
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2018)
  • Effect of Lime Pretreatment on Microstructure of Cassava Stalk Fibers and
           Growth of Aspergillus niger

    • Authors: Pramesti Dewi, Retno Indrati, Ria Millati, Sardjono Sardjono
      Abstract: Cassava stalk can be converted into sugar-based product by using microorganism. Unfortunately, lignin act as a barrier of optimal bioconversion. Cassava stalk needs pretreatment process for removing this barrier. The effect of lime pretreatment on microstructure of cassava stalk fibers and the growth of Aspergillus niger FNCC 6114 were observed in this research. The cassava stalks were reduced into 0.147- 0.297 mm size and pretreated with 1 % Ca(OH)2. Lime pretreated and unpretreated cassava stalk was used as solid medium for Aspegillus niger FNCC 6114. The effect of pretreatment method on fibers microstructure of cassava stalk was evaluated through SEM micrograph. The growth and metabolism activities of Aspergillus niger FNCC 6114 were monitored through SEM micrograph of media after fermentation. The other parameters examined were changes in glucosamine, reducing sugar levels, and spores’ quantity. Lime pretreatment altered microstructure of cassava stalk fibers. However, cassava stalk without lime pretreatment gave better growth of Aspergillus niger FNCC 6144 based on metabolism activities parameters. Cassava stalks is suitable as media for Aspergillus niger FNCC 6144 through solid state fermentation. For better growth of Aspergillus niger FNCC 6144 fine-sized cassava stalk should not be lime pretreated. The results of this study  provide  information about the pretreatment of cassava stems which was effective in supporting the growth of Aspergillus niger. Enhancements the utilization of cassava stems by using fungi, for example Aspergillus niger can overcome the accumulation of organic waste that can interfere with environmental sustainability.
      PubDate: 2018-04-02
      DOI: 10.15294/biosaintifika.v10i1.13802
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2018)
  • Evaluation of Soybean Resistance to Pod-Sucking Bug, Riptortus linearis F.
           and Performance of its Agronomic Characters

    • Authors: Ayda Krisnawati, Mochammad Muchlish Adie
      Abstract: Pod sucking bug, Riptortus linearis, is the most damaging soybean pest in Indonesia. A total of 24 soybean genotypes was identified for their resistance to pod sucking bug. The objective of the study was to classifying the resistance of some soybean genotypes against pod sucking pests. The research was conducted during the second dry season (July - October) 2016 in Ngale Research Station, East Java, Indonesia. The experimental design was arranged in randomized block design with five times repetition and two types of environment (full crop protection and controlled until 50 days of planting/dap). The resistance to pod sucking bug was evaluated based on seed damage, pod damage, and seed weight. The grouping of resistance was by using Chiang & Talekar’s method (1980). A very high natural population of pod sucking bug was recorded in the research area as seen from the average number of damaged pod in full protection environment (L1) and insecticide control until 50 dap (L2), i.e. 41.45% and 60.16%, respectively. Genotype of G511H/Anj//Anj-2-8 was consistently resistant to pod sucking bug in L1 as well as L2. This genotype also had early days to maturity (78 days) and large seed size (15.57 g/100 seed), thus potentially to be developed in tropical area of Indonesia. The availability of genotype with such characteristics is in accordance with farmers’ preference and also important to minimize yield losses.
      PubDate: 2018-04-02
      DOI: 10.15294/biosaintifika.v10i1.12806
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2018)
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