Authors:John A. Krommes Abstract: The time-independent projection-operator formalism of Brey et al. (Physica A, vol. 109, 1981, pp. 425–444) for the derivation of Burnett equations is extended and considered in the context of multispecies and magnetized plasmas. The procedure provides specific formulas for transport coefficients in terms of two-time correlation functions involving both two and three phase-space points. It is shown how to calculate those correlation functions in the limit of weak coupling. The results are used to demonstrate, with the aid of a particular non-trivial example, that the Chapman–Enskog methodology employed by Catto & Simakov (CS) (Phys. Plasmas, vol. 11, 2004, pp. 90–102) to calculate the contributions to the parallel viscosity driven by temperature gradients is consistent with formulas previously derived from the two-time formalism by Brey (J. Chem. Phys., vol. 79, 1983, pp. 4585–4598). The work serves to unify previous work on plasma kinetic theory with formalism usually applied to turbulence. Additional contributions include discussions of (i) Braginskii-order interspecies momentum exchange from the point of view of two-time correlations; and (ii) a simple stochastic model, unrelated to many-body theory, that exhibits Burnett effects. Insights from that model emphasize the role of non-Gaussian statistics in the evaluation of Burnett transport coefficients, including the effects calculated by CS that stem from the nonlinear collision operator. Together, Parts 1 and 2 of this series provide an introduction to projection-operator methods that should be broadly useful in theoretical plasma physics. PubDate: 2018-12-01T00:00:00.000Z DOI: 10.1017/S0022377818000892 Issue No:Vol. 84, No. 6 (2018)

Authors:Peter J. Catto Abstract: The drift surfaces of minority heated ions differ from flux surfaces due to finite poloidal gyroradius effects. As the minority poloidal gyroradius approaches radial scale lengths in the plasma, the difference between drift and flux surfaces can modify the heating and lead to a symmetric spectrum minority counter-current being driven. In response, a corresponding overall net co-current of comparable size is driven. This beneficial symmetric spectrum current drive in a tokamak is due to the parallel velocity asymmetry in the drift departure from a flux surface. As this new source of driven current is a side effect of minority heating it comes without any additional economic cost to reactor power balance. The symmetric spectrum current driven for near Maxwellian minorities is evaluated by an adjoint method and found to be modest. However, minority heating typically results in strong non-Maxwellian features on minority distributions so it may be possible to drive a significantly larger co-current. A related evaluation is performed for alpha particles in a deuterium minority heated plasma with a tritium majority. The low density of the alphas tends to keep this driven symmetric spectrum current small, but at very high heating levels a significant co-current might be driven. Other mechanisms to drive co-current with a symmetric spectrum are discussed and estimated, including asymmetric electron drag and focusing of the applied minority heating radio frequency fields. PubDate: 2018-12-01T00:00:00.000Z DOI: 10.1017/S0022377818001071 Issue No:Vol. 84, No. 6 (2018)

Authors:F. Pecora; S. Servidio, A. Greco, W. H. Matthaeus, D. Burgess, C. T. Haynes, V. Carbone, P. Veltri Abstract: Particle transport, acceleration and energization are phenomena of major importance for both space and laboratory plasmas. Despite years of study, an accurate theoretical description of these effects is still lacking. Validating models with self-consistent, kinetic simulations represents today a new challenge for the description of weakly collisional, turbulent plasmas. We perform simulations of steady state turbulence in the 2.5-dimensional approximation (three-dimensional fields that depend only on two-dimensional spatial directions). The chosen plasma parameters allow to span different systems, going from the solar corona to the solar wind, from the Earth’s magnetosheath to confinement devices. To describe the ion diffusion we adapted the nonlinear guiding centre (NLGC) theory to the two-dimensional case. Finally, we investigated the local influence of coherent structures on particle energization and acceleration: current sheets play an important role if the ions’ Larmor radii are of the order of the current sheet’s size. This resonance-like process leads to the violation of the magnetic moment conservation, eventually enhancing the velocity-space diffusion. PubDate: 2018-12-01T00:00:00.000Z DOI: 10.1017/S0022377818000995 Issue No:Vol. 84, No. 6 (2018)

Authors:Igor O. Girka; V. M. Kondratenko, M. Thumm Abstract: Azimuthal surface waves are eigenmodes of cylindrical plasma–dielectric–metal structures both in the presence of and without an axial static magnetic field. They are actively studied due to possible applications in plasma electronics, nanotechnologies and biomedical diagnostics. Higher radial modes are known to propagate at higher frequencies and shorter wavelengths compared to those of the zeroth mode, a feature which is of interest for practical applications. To gain the advantage of the excitation of higher radial modes of azimuthal surface waves one has first to know their dispersion properties. This paper generalizes the results of earlier papers by including a static axial magnetic field and considering the higher radial modes. The presence of the constant axial magnetic field removes the degeneracy in the wave spectrum with respect to the sign of the azimuthal wavenumber. PubDate: 2018-12-01T00:00:00.000Z DOI: 10.1017/S0022377818001101 Issue No:Vol. 84, No. 6 (2018)