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Publisher: Cambridge University Press   (Total: 387 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 387 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Neuropsychiatrica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Numerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.709, CiteScore: 10)
Advances in Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.441, CiteScore: 1)
Aeronautical J., The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Africa     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.582, CiteScore: 1)
African Studies Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.437, CiteScore: 1)
Ageing & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.756, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural and Resource Economics Review     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.414, CiteScore: 1)
AI EDAM     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.375, CiteScore: 1)
AJIL Unbound     Open Access  
AJS Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.128, CiteScore: 0)
American Political Science Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 319, SJR: 5.587, CiteScore: 4)
Anatolian Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.528, CiteScore: 1)
Ancient Mesoamerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.478, CiteScore: 1)
Anglo-Saxon England     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
animal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 2)
Animal Health Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.69, CiteScore: 2)
Animal Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Actuarial Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Annual of the British School at Athens     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Annual Review of Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 3.223, CiteScore: 4)
Antarctic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.643, CiteScore: 1)
Antichthon     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Antiquaries J., The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Antiquity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
ANZIAM J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.216, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Psycholinguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.945, CiteScore: 2)
APSIPA Transactions on Signal and Information Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.404, CiteScore: 2)
Arabic Sciences and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Arbor Clinical Nutrition Updates     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Archaeological Dialogues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.898, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological Reports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.128, CiteScore: 0)
Architectural History     Full-text available via subscription  
arq: Architectural Research Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 0)
Art Libraries J.     Full-text available via subscription  
Asian J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.129, CiteScore: 0)
Asian J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.135, CiteScore: 0)
Asian J. of Law and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.195, CiteScore: 0)
Astin Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.878, CiteScore: 1)
Australasian J. of Organisational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.154, CiteScore: 1)
Australian J. of Environmental Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Australian J. of Indigenous Education, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 1)
Australian J. of Rehabilitation Counseling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Austrian History Yearbook     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 0)
Behavioral and Brain Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.595, CiteScore: 1)
Behaviour Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.508, CiteScore: 1)
Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 181, SJR: 0.976, CiteScore: 2)
Bilingualism: Language and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 1.446, CiteScore: 2)
Biofilms     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Bird Conservation Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.581, CiteScore: 1)
BJPsych Advances     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 57, SJR: 0.275, CiteScore: 0)
BJPsych Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BJPsych Open     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Brain Impairment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.321, CiteScore: 1)
Breast Cancer Online     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Britannia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
British Actuarial J.     Full-text available via subscription  
British Catholic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.133, CiteScore: 1)
British J. for the History of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
British J. of Anaesthetic and Recovery Nursing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
British J. of Music Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.564, CiteScore: 1)
British J. Of Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 90, SJR: 1.612, CiteScore: 4)
British J. of Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 217, SJR: 4.661, CiteScore: 4)
British J. of Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 222, SJR: 2.844, CiteScore: 3)
Bulletin of Entomological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.805, CiteScore: 2)
Bulletin of Symbolic Logic     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 1)
Bulletin of the Australian Mathematical Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 0)
Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Business and Human Rights J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Business Ethics Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.098, CiteScore: 2)
Business History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.347, CiteScore: 1)
Cambridge Archaeological J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 150, SJR: 1.121, CiteScore: 1)
Cambridge Classical J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Cambridge J. of Postcolonial Literary Inquiry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Cambridge Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 200, SJR: 0.213, CiteScore: 0)
Cambridge Opera J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.14, CiteScore: 0)
Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.299, CiteScore: 1)
Cambridge Yearbook of European Legal Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
Camden Fifth Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Canadian Entomologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.482, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.624, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Law & Jurisprudence     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.237, CiteScore: 0)
Canadian J. of Law and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.259, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Mathematics / J. canadien de mathématiques     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian J. of Neurological Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.549, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Political Science/Revue canadienne de science politique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.385, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. on Aging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.426, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Mathematical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Yearbook of Intl. Law / Annuaire canadien de droit international     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Cardiology in the Young     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.372, CiteScore: 1)
Central European History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.159, CiteScore: 0)
Children Australia     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.255, CiteScore: 0)
China Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 2.289, CiteScore: 3)
Chinese J. of Agricultural Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Church History : Studies in Christianity and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 75, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Classical Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 0)
Classical Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
CNS Spectrums     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.391, CiteScore: 3)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Combinatorics, Probability and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 1)
Communications in Computational Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.048, CiteScore: 2)
Comparative Studies in Society and History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.585, CiteScore: 1)
Compositio Mathematica     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 3.139, CiteScore: 1)
Contemporary European History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Continuity and Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.107, CiteScore: 0)
Dance Research J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 0)
Development and Psychopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.068, CiteScore: 4)
Dialogue Canadian Philosophical Review/Revue canadienne de philosophie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 0)
Diamond Light Source Proceedings     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.471, CiteScore: 1)
Du Bois Review: Social Science Research on Race     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.561, CiteScore: 1)
Early China     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Early Music History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
East Asian J. on Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.418, CiteScore: 1)
Ecclesiastical Law J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.114, CiteScore: 0)
Econometric Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.915, CiteScore: 1)
Economics and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.622, CiteScore: 1)
Edinburgh J. of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.283, CiteScore: 1)
Educational and Developmental Psychologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Eighteenth-Century Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.113, CiteScore: 0)
English Language and Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.52, CiteScore: 1)
English Profile J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
English Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 0)
Enterprise & Society : The Intl. J. of Business History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.245, CiteScore: 1)
Environment and Development Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.617, CiteScore: 1)
Environmental Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 1.028, CiteScore: 2)
Environmental Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.145, CiteScore: 0)
Epidemiology & Infection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.128, CiteScore: 2)
Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.494, CiteScore: 2)
Episteme     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.756, CiteScore: 1)
Ergodic Theory and Dynamical Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.193, CiteScore: 1)
Ethics & Intl. Affairs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.557, CiteScore: 1)
European Constitutional Law Review (EuConst)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.009, CiteScore: 1)
European J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.52, CiteScore: 1)
European J. of Intl. Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
European J. of Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.643, CiteScore: 1)
European Political Science Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.816, CiteScore: 2)
European Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Evolutionary Human Sciences     Open Access  
Experimental Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.647, CiteScore: 4)
Fetal and Maternal Medicine Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Financial History Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.238, CiteScore: 1)
Foreign Policy Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Forum of Mathematics, Pi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Forum of Mathematics, Sigma     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Genetics Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.483, CiteScore: 1)
Geological Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.966, CiteScore: 2)
Glasgow Mathematical J.     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 0)
Global Constitutionalism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Global Mental Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Global Sustainability     Open Access  
Government and Opposition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.965, CiteScore: 2)
Greece & Rome     Partially Free   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.113, CiteScore: 0)
Hague J. on the Rule of Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.271, CiteScore: 1)
Harvard Theological Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 80, SJR: 0.165, CiteScore: 0)
Health Economics, Policy and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 1)
Hegel Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
High Power Laser Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.901, CiteScore: 3)
Historical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.247, CiteScore: 1)
History in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Horizons     Partially Free   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.129, CiteScore: 0)
Industrial and Organizational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.916, CiteScore: 1)
Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42, SJR: 1.97, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. & Comparative Law Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 253, SJR: 0.369, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Annals of Criminology     Full-text available via subscription  
Intl. J. of Asian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.143, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Astrobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Cultural Property     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.253, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Disability Management Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.105, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Law in Context     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.275, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Legal Information     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 343)
Intl. J. of Microwave and Wireless Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Middle East Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72, SJR: 0.434, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Technology Assessment in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.714, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Labor and Working-Class History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. Organization     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 106, SJR: 8.527, CiteScore: 5)
Intl. Psychogeriatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.048, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Review of Social History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Review of the Red Cross     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. Theory: A J. of Intl. Politics, Law and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 2.293, CiteScore: 2)
Iraq     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Irish Historical Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
Irish J. of Psychological Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.221, CiteScore: 0)
Israel Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.165, CiteScore: 0)
Italian Political Science Review / Rivista Italiana di Scienza Politica     Hybrid Journal  
Itinerario     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.158, CiteScore: 0)
J. of African History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.348, CiteScore: 1)
J. of African Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.113, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Agricultural and Applied Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Agricultural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.563, CiteScore: 1)
J. of American Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.164, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Anglican Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Applied Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
J. of Asian Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Benefit-Cost Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
J. of Biosocial Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.48, CiteScore: 1)
J. of British Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.246, CiteScore: 0)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.842
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 4  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1751-7311 - ISSN (Online) 1751-732X
Published by Cambridge University Press Homepage  [387 journals]
  • ANM volume 13 issue 10 Cover and Front matter
    • PubDate: 2019-11-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1751731119002118
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2019)
  • ANM volume 13 issue 11 Cover and Back matter
    • PubDate: 2019-11-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S175173111900212X
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2019)
  • Dissecting total genetic variance into additive and dominance components
           of purebred and crossbred pig traits
    • Authors: L. Tusell; H. Gilbert, Z. G. Vitezica, M. J. Mercat, A. Legarra, C. Larzul
      Pages: 2429 - 2439
      Abstract: The partition of the total genetic variance into its additive and non-additive components can differ from trait to trait, and between purebred and crossbred populations. A quantification of these genetic variance components will determine the extent to which it would be of interest to account for dominance in genomic evaluations or to establish mate allocation strategies along different populations and traits. This study aims at assessing the contribution of the additive and dominance genomic variances to the phenotype expression of several purebred Piétrain and crossbred (Piétrain × Large White) pig performances. A total of 636 purebred and 720 crossbred male piglets were phenotyped for 22 traits that can be classified into six groups of traits: growth rate and feed efficiency, carcass composition, meat quality, behaviour, boar taint and puberty. Additive and dominance variances estimated in univariate genotypic models, including additive and dominance genotypic effects, and a genomic inbreeding covariate allowed to retrieve the additive and dominance single nucleotide polymorphism variances for purebred and crossbred performances. These estimated variances were used, together with the allelic frequencies of the parental populations, to obtain additive and dominance variances in terms of genetic breeding values and dominance deviations. Estimates of the Piétrain and Large White allelic contributions to the crossbred variance were of about the same magnitude in all the traits. Estimates of additive genetic variances were similar regardless of the inclusion of dominance. Some traits showed relevant amount of dominance genetic variance with respect to phenotypic variance in both populations (i.e. growth rate 8%, feed conversion ratio 9% to 12%, backfat thickness 14% to 12%, purebreds-crossbreds). Other traits showed higher amount in crossbreds (i.e. ham cut 8% to 13%, loin 7% to 16%, pH semimembranosus 13% to 18%, pH longissimus dorsi 9% to 14%, androstenone 5% to 13% and estradiol 6% to 11%, purebreds-crossbreds). It was not encountered a clear common pattern of dominance expression between groups of analysed traits and between populations. These estimates give initial hints regarding which traits could benefit from accounting for dominance for example to improve genomic estimated breeding value accuracy in genetic evaluations or to boost the total genetic value of progeny by means of assortative mating.
      PubDate: 2019-11-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1751731119001046
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2019)
  • The footprint of recent and strong demographic decline in the genomes of
           Mangalitza pigs
    • Authors: V. A. Bâlteanu; T. F. Cardoso, M. Amills, I. Egerszegi, I. Anton, A. Beja-Pereira, A. Zsolnai
      Pages: 2440 - 2446
      Abstract: The Mangalitza pig breed has suffered strong population reductions due to competition with more productive cosmopolitan breeds. In the current work, we aimed to investigate the effects of this sustained demographic recession on the genomic diversity of Mangalitza pigs. By using the Porcine Single Nucleotid Polymorphism BeadChip, we have characterized the genome-wide diversity of 350 individuals including 45 Red Mangalitza (number of samples; n=20 from Hungary and n=25 from Romania), 37 Blond Mangalitza, 26 Swallow-belly Mangalitza, 48 Blond Mangalitza × Duroc crossbreds, 5 Bazna swine, 143 pigs from the Hampshire, Duroc, Landrace, Large White and Pietrain breeds and 46 wild boars from Romania (n=18) and Hungary (n=28). Performance of a multidimensional scaling plot showed that Landrace, Large White and Pietrain pigs clustered independently from Mangalitza pigs and Romanian and Hungarian wild boars. The number and total length of ROH (runs of homozygosity), as well as FROH coefficients (proportion of the autosomal genome covered ROH) did not show major differences between Mangalitza pigs and other wild and domestic pig populations. However, Romanian and Hungarian Red Mangalitza pigs displayed an increased frequency of very long ROH (>30 Mb) when compared with other porcine breeds. These results indicate that Red Mangalitza pigs underwent recent and strong inbreeding probably as a consequence of severe reductions in census size.
      PubDate: 2019-11-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1751731119000582
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2019)
  • A genome-wide association study for feed efficiency-related traits in a
           crossbred pig population
    • Authors: É. F. Silva; M. S. Lopes, P. S. Lopes, E. Gasparino
      Pages: 2447 - 2456
      Abstract: Feed efficiency (FE) is one of the most important traits in pig production. However, it is difficult and costly to measure it, limiting the collection of large amount of data for an accurate selection for better FE. Therefore, the identification of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with FE-related traits to be used in the genetic evaluation is of great interest of pig breeding programs for increasing the prediction accuracy and the genetic progress of these traits. The objective of this study was to identify SNPs significantly associated with FE-related traits: average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR). We also aimed to identify potential candidate genes for these traits. Phenotypic information recorded on a population of 2386 three-way crossbreed pigs that were genotyped for 51 468 SNPs was used. We identified three loci of quantitative trait (QTL) regions associated with ADG and three QTL regions associated with ADFI; however, no significant association was found for FCR. A false discovery rate (FDR) ≤ 0.005 was used as the threshold for declaring an association as significant. The QTL regions associated with ADG on Sus scrofa chromosome (SSC) 1 were located between 177.01 and 185.47 Mb, which overlaps with the QTL regions for ADFI on SSC1 (173.26 and 185.47 Mb). The other QTL region for ADG was located on SSC12 (2.87 and 3.22 Mb). The most significant SNPs in these QTL regions explained up to 3.26% of the phenotypic variance of these traits. The non-identification of genomic regions associated with FCR can be explained by the complexity of this trait, which is a ratio between ADG and ADFI. Finally, the genes CDH19, CDH7, RNF152, MC4R, PMAIP1, FEM1B and GAA were the candidate genes found in the 1 Mb window around the QTL regions identified in this study. Among them, the MC4R gene (SSC1) has a well-known function related to ADG and ADFI. In this study, we identified three QTL regions for ADG (SSC1 and SSC12) and three for ADFI (SSC1). These regions were previously described in purebred pig populations; however, to our knowledge, this is the first study to confirm the relevance of these QTL regions in a crossbred pig population. The potential use of the SNPs and genes identified in this study in prediction models that combine genomic selection and marker-assisted selection should be evaluated for increasing the prediction accuracy of these traits in this population.
      PubDate: 2019-11-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1751731119000910
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2019)
  • Correlated responses on growth traits after two-stage selection for
           ovulation rate and litter size in rabbits
    • Authors: R. Peiró; A. Y. Badawy, A. Blasco, M. A. Santacreu
      Pages: 2457 - 2462
      Abstract: Rabbit commercial maternal lines are usually selected for litter size (LS) and paternal lines for growth rate (GR). Line OR_LS was selected by ovulation rate (OR) and LS to improve LS more efficiently. In this study, growth traits of line OR_LS were evaluated by estimating the correlated response on weaning weight (WW), slaughter weight (SW) and GR during fattening period as well as their variability (DWW, DSW and DGR, respectively). Data were analyzed using Bayesian inference methods. Heritability estimates were low for growth traits (0.09, 0.13 and 0.14 for WW, SW and GR, respectively) and negligible for growth traits variability (0.01, 0.004 and 0.01 for DWW, DSW and DGR, respectively). Moderate common litter effect ratio (c2; 0.35, 0.28 and 0.27) and low maternal effect ratio (m2; 0.11, 0.05 and 0.01) were obtained for WW, SW and GR, respectively. Both c2 and m2 were lower at slaughter than at weaning. In addition, low common litter effect and negligible maternal effect were observed for growth traits variability. Genetic correlations between LS and both growth traits and their variability were close to zero. Positive genetic correlations were observed between OR and growth traits (0.19, 0.38 and 0.36 for WW, SW and GR, respectively) as well as between OR and growth traits variability (0.35, 0.62 and 0.20 for DWW, DSW and DGR, respectively). Positive correlated responses in both periods were obtained for growth traits, WW, SW and GR (0.037, 0.156 and 0.110 kg, respectively). The correlated response found in growth traits might be due to the positive genetic correlations between OR and these traits. However, selection for OR and LS using independent culling levels did not modify the growth traits variability. Therefore, no negative consequences on growth traits can be expected in current commercial maternal lines.
      PubDate: 2019-11-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1751731119001423
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2019)
  • Protein restriction and succedent realimentation affecting ileal
    • Authors: Q. Shi; Y. Zhu, J. Wang, H. Yang, J. Wang, W. Zhu
      Pages: 2463 - 2472
      Abstract: Dietary protein restriction is one of the effective ways to reduce post-weaning diarrhoea and intestinal fermentation in piglets, but it may also reduce growth performance. The compensatory growth induced by subsequent protein realimentation may solve the issue. However, little research has been done on the impact of protein realimentation on the gut. In this study, the effects of protein restriction and realimentation on ileal morphology, ileal microbial composition and metabolites in weaned piglets were investigated. Thirty-six 28-day-old weaned piglets with an average body weight of 6.47 ± 0.04 kg were randomly divided into a control group and a treatment group. The CP level in the diet of the control group was 18.83% for the entire experimental period. The piglets in the treatment group were fed 13.05% CP between days 0 and 14 and restored to a diet of 18.83% CP for days 14 to 28. On day 14 and 28, six pigs from each group were sacrificed and sampled. It was found that the abundance of Lactobacillus and Salmonella in the ileal digesta was significantly lower in the treatment group than the control group on day 14, whereas the abundance of Clostridium sensu stricto 1, Streptococcus, Halomonas and Pseudomonas significantly increased in the ileal digesta of the treatment group on day 14 compared with the control group. In addition, reduced concentrations of lactic acid, total short-chain fatty acids (total SCFAs), total branched chain fatty acids, ammonia and impaired ileal morphology and mucosal barrier were observed in the treatment group on day 14. However, diarrhoea levels decreased in the treatment group throughout the experiment. During the succedent protein realimentation stage, the treatment group demonstrated compensatory growth. Compared with the control group, the treatment group showed increased abundance of Lactobacillus and reduced abundance of Salmonella, Halomonas and Pseudomonas in the ileum on day 28. The concentrations of lactic acid and total SCFAs increased significantly, whereas the concentration of ammonia remained at a lower level in the treatment group on day 28 compared with the control group. Overall, protein realimentation could improve ileal morphology and barrier functions and promote ileal digestive and absorptive functions. In conclusion, ileal microbial composition and metabolites could change according to dietary protein restriction and realimentation and eventually influence ileal morphology and barrier functions.
      PubDate: 2019-11-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1751731119000776
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2019)
  • Standardized total tract digestible phosphorus requirement of 6 to 13 kg
           pigs fed diets without or with phytase
    • Authors: F. Wu; J. C. Woodworth, M. D. Tokach, S. S. Dritz, J. M. DeRouchey, R. D. Goodband, J. R. Bergstrom
      Pages: 2473 - 2482
      Abstract: Dietary phosphorus concentration greatly affects pig’s growth performance, environmental impact and diet cost. A total of 1080 pigs (initially 5.9 ± 1.08 kg) from three commercial research rooms were used to determine the effects of increasing standardized total tract digestible (STTD) P concentrations in diets without and with phytase on growth performance and percentage bone ash. Pens (10 pigs/pen, 9 pens/treatment) were balanced for equal weights and randomly allotted to 12 treatments. Treatments were arranged in two dose titrations (without or with 2000 units of phytase) with six levels of STTD P each. The STTD P levels were expressed as a percentage of NRC (2012) requirement estimates (% of NRC; 0.45 and 0.40% for phases 1 and 2, respectively) and were: 80%, 90%, 100%, 110%, 125% and 140% of NRC in diets without phytase and 100%, 110%, 125%, 140%, 155% and 170% of NRC in diets with phytase. Diets were provided in three phases, with experimental diets fed during phases 1 (days 0 to 11) and 2 (days 11 to 25), followed by a common diet from days 25 to 46. On day 25, radius samples from one median-weight gilt per pen were collected for analysis of bone ash. During the treatment period, increasing STTD P from 80% to 140% of NRC in diets without phytase improved average daily gain (ADG; quadratic, P < 0.01), average daily feed intake (ADFI; quadratic, P < 0.05) and gain–feed ratio (G : F; linear, P < 0.01). Estimated STTD P requirement in diets without phytase was 117% and 91% of NRC for maximum ADG according to quadratic polynomial (QP) and broken-line linear (BLL) models, respectively, and was 102%, 119% and >140% of NRC for maximum G : F using BLL, broken-line quadratic and linear models, respectively. When diets contained phytase, increasing STTD P from 100% to 170% of NRC improved ADG (quadratic, P < 0.05) and G : F (linear, P < 0.01). Estimated STTD P requirement in diets containing phytase was 138% for maximum ADG (QP), and 147% (QP) and 116% (BLL) of NRC for maximum G : F. Increasing STTD P increased (linear, P < 0.01) the percentage bone ash regardless of phytase addition. When comparing diets containing the same STTD P levels, phytase increased (P < 0.01) ADG, ADFI and G : F. In summary, estimated STTD P requirements varied depending on the response criteria and statistical models and ranged from 91% to >140% of NRC (0.41% to >0.63% of phase 1 diet and 0.36% to >0.56% of phase 2 diet) in diets without phytase, and from 116% to >170% of NRC (0.52% to >0.77% of phase 1 diet and 0.46% to >0.68% of phase 2 diet) for diets containing phytase. Phytase exerted an extra-phosphoric effect on promoting pig’s growth and improved the P dose-responses for ADG and G : F.
      PubDate: 2019-11-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1751731119000922
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2019)
  • The association between faecal host DNA or faecal calprotectin and feed
           efficiency in pigs fed yeast-enriched protein concentrate
    • Authors: K. R. Slinger; A. H. Stewart, Z. C. T. R. Daniel, H. Hall, H. V. Masey O’Neill, M. R. Bedford, T. Parr, J. M. Brameld
      Pages: 2483 - 2491
      Abstract: Gut cell losses contribute to overall feed efficiency due to the energy requirement for cell replenishment. Intestinal epithelial cells are sloughed into the intestinal lumen as digesta passes through the gastrointestinal tract, where cells are degraded by endonucleases. This leads to fragmented DNA being present in faeces, which may be an indicator of gut cell loss. Therefore, measuring host faecal DNA content could have potential as a non-invasive marker of gut cell loss and result in a novel technique for the assessment of how different feed ingredients impact upon gut health. Faecal calprotectin (CALP) is a marker of intestinal inflammation. This was a pilot study designed to test a methodology for extracting and quantifying DNA from pig faeces, and to assess whether any differences in host faecal DNA and CALP could be detected. An additional aim was to determine whether any differences in the above measures were related to the pig performance response to dietary yeast-enriched protein concentrate (YPC). Newly weaned (∼26.5 days of age) Large White × Landrace × Pietrain piglets (8.37 kg ±1.10, n = 180) were assigned to one of four treatment groups (nine replicates of five pigs), differing in dietary YPC content: 0% (control), 2.5%, 5% and 7.5% (w/w). Pooled faecal samples were collected on days 14 and 28 of the 36-day trial. Deoxyribonucleic acid was extracted and quantitative PCR was used to assess DNA composition. Pig genomic DNA was detected using primers specific for the pig cytochrome b (CYTB) gene, and bacterial DNA was detected using universal 16S primers. A pig CALP ELISA was used to assess gut inflammation. Dietary YPC significantly reduced feed conversion ratio (FCR) from weaning to day 14 (P0.05). Faecal CALP levels were significantly higher at day 14 compared with day 28, but there was no effect of YPC inclusion and no relationship with FCR. In conclusion, YPC reduced faecal CYTB DNA content and this correlated positively with FCR, but was unrelated to gut inflammation, suggesting that it could be a non-invasive marker of gut cell loss. However, further validation experiments by an independent method are required to verify the origin of pig faecal CYTB DNA as being from sloughed intestinal epithelial cells.
      PubDate: 2019-11-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1751731119000818
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2019)
  • Intake, milk yield and grazing behaviour of strip-grazing Alpine dairy
           goats in response to daily pasture allowance
    • Authors: A. Charpentier; H. Caillat, F. Gastal, R. Delagarde
      Pages: 2492 - 2500
      Abstract: Grazing management has an important impact on dairy ruminants’ performance. References on the intake and milk yield of dairy goats under strip-grazing systems in temperate regions are scarce. In order to study the effect of pasture allowance on pasture intake (PI), milk yield and grazing behaviour, a trial was carried out in spring with 36 Alpine goats in mid-lactation. Three daily pasture allowances (PA=1.7, 2.6 and 3.5 kg dry matter (DM)/day, namely Low, Medium and High, respectively) were compared in a 3 × 3 Latin square design replicated six times during three successive 14-day periods. Goats individually received 268 g DM of concentrate twice daily at each milking and had access 11 h/day to pasture (from 0830 to 1600 h and from 1730 to 2100 h). Pasture intake increased with PA, and more so between Low and Medium than between Medium and High (+216 v. +101 g DM/kg DM of PA). Milk yield was lower on Low than on Medium and High (2.79 v. 3.13 kg/day), as were milk fat and protein yields. Grazing time averaged 476 min/day and was lowest on Low and greatest on Medium. Pasture intake rate was 30 g DM/h lower on Low and Medium than on High. It is concluded that under temperate conditions, when goats are supplemented with 536 g DM of concentrate and have enough access time to pasture (11 h/day), a medium pasture allowance close to 2.6 kg DM/day may be sufficient to maximise milk yield.
      PubDate: 2019-11-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1751731119000703
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2019)
  • Reciprocal combinations of alfalfa hay and corn silage in the starter
           diets of Holstein dairy calves: effects on growth performance, nutrient
           digestibility, rumen fermentation and selected blood metabolites
    • Authors: M. Kanani; S. Kargar, M. J. Zamiri, S. M. Ghoreishi, M. Mirzaei
      Pages: 2501 - 2509
      Abstract: Adding corn silage (CS) instead of alfalfa hay (AH) to the finely ground starter diet would improve calf performance if feed intake or feed efficiency is increased. We investigated the effects of replacing AH with CS in the starter diet on nutrient intake, digestibility, growth performance, rumen fermentation and selected blood metabolites in Holstein calves. Newborn male calves (n = 30; 3 days of age; 40.2 ± 1.28 kg BW) were assigned randomly to three groups receiving starter diets containing chopped AH (10% dry matter (DM) basis; AH diet), CS (10% DM, CS diet) or their combination (each at 5% level; AHCS diet). The starter diets had the same nutrient composition but differed in DM content (91.2%, 87.5% and 83.8% for AH, AHCS and CS, respectively). The calves were weaned on day 50, and the study continued until day 70. Nutrient intake, BW (at weaning and at the end of the study) and body measurements were not affected by the diet. During the post-weaning period, average daily gain tended to be greater on CS than on AH diet. Feed efficiency was greater in CS than in AH or AHCS calves during the post-weaning period. Digestibility of neutral detergent fiber was greater in AHCS and CS compared with AH during the post-weaning period. Concentration and profile of volatile fatty acids and ruminal fluid pH were not affected by the diet. Replacing AH with CS in the starter diet had no effect on feed intake, growth performance and general health of the calves. These results indicate that AH and CS can be used interchangeably in dairy calf starter diets until 70 days of age, allowing dairy producers more choices in selecting the feed ingredients.
      PubDate: 2019-11-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1751731119000934
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2019)
  • Effects of lowering crude protein supply alone or in a combination with
           essential oils on productivity, rumen function and nutrient utilization in
           dairy cows
    • Authors: J. Oh; M. Harper, A. N. Hristov
      Pages: 2510 - 2518
      Abstract: Lowering dietary protein concentration is known to decrease urinary nitrogen (N) losses and increase milk N efficiency in dairy cows, but it may negatively affect animal productivity. Plant-derived essential oils (EO) may alleviate these negative effects by improving the efficiency of rumen fermentation in cows fed reduced feed protein diets. The experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of lowering crude protein (CP) supply alone or in a combination with an EO product on feed intake, milk production and composition, rumen fermentation, total tract digestibility and N utilization in dairy cows. Twenty-one Holstein cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design experiment. Each period consisted of 14 days for adaptation and 14 days for data collection and sampling. Cows were randomly assigned to one of three experimental diets: a 165 g/kg CP diet (control), a 155 g/kg CP diet (LCP) and LCP supplemented with 35 g/day per cow EO (LCPEO). The dry matter (DM) intake was decreased by LCP and LCPEO compared with the control; there was no effect of EO on DM intake. Milk yield and composition and feed efficiency were similar among treatments. Ruminal pH, lactate, ammonia and volatile fatty acids concentrations were not affected by treatment, except increased valerate concentration by LCPEO compared with LCP. The supplementation of EO tended to decrease protozoal counts. The LCP and LCPEO increased total tract digestibility of DM and organic matter and decreased CP digestibility compared with the control. Supplementation with EO did not affect total tract digestibility of dietary nutrients compared with the control or LCP. The LCP and LCPEO decreased urinary and fecal N excretions and increased milk N efficiency; nitrogen losses were not affected by EO. In this study, lowering dietary CP by 10 g/kg decreased urinary and fecal N excretion without affecting productivity. The supplementation of EO to LCP had only minor effects on rumen fermentation and did not affect productivity, digestibility and N excretion in lactating dairy cows.
      PubDate: 2019-11-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1751731119001083
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2019)
  • The effect of temporal variation in feed quality and quantity on the
           diurnal feeding behaviour of dairy cows
    • Authors: A. J. John; S. C. Garcia, K. L. Kerrisk, M. J. Freeman, M. R. Islam, C. E. F. Clark
      Pages: 2519 - 2526
      Abstract: The diurnal feeding patterns of dairy cows affects the 24 h robot utilisation of pasture-based automatic milking systems (AMS). A decline in robot utilisation between 2400 and 0600 h currently occurs in pasture-based AMS, as cow feeding activity is greatly reduced during this time. Here, we investigate the effect of a temporal variation in feed quality and quantity on cow feeding behaviour between 2400 and 0600 h as a potential tool to increase voluntary cow trafficking in an AMS at night. The day was allocated into four equal feeding periods (0600 to 1200, 1200 to 1800, 1800 to 2400 and 2400 to 0600 h). Lucerne hay cubes (CP = 19.1%, water soluble carbohydrate = 3.8%) and oat, ryegrass and clover hay cubes with 20% molasses (CP = 11.8%, water soluble carbohydrate = 10.7%) were offered as the ‘standard’ and ‘preferred’ (preference determined previously) feed types, respectively. The four treatments were (1) standard feed offered ad libitum (AL) throughout 24 h; (2) as per AL, with preferred feed replacing standard feed between 2400 and 0600 h (AL + P); (3) standard feed offered at a restricted rate, with quantity varying between each feeding period (20:10:30:60%, respectively) as a proportion of the (previously) measured daily ad libitum intake (VA); (4) as per VA, with preferred feed replacing standard feed between 2400 and 0600 h (VA + P). Eight non-lactating dairy cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. During each experimental period, treatment cows were fed for 7 days, including 3 days habituation and 4 days data collection. Total daily intake was approximately 8% greater (P < 0.001) for the AL and AL + P treatments (23.1 and 22.9 kg DM/cow) as compared with the VA and VA + P treatments (21.6 and 20.9 kg DM/cow). The AL + P and VA treatments had 21% and 90% greater (P < 0.001) dry matter intake (DMI) between 2400 and 0600 h, respectively, compared with the AL treatment. In contrast, the VA + P treatment had similar DMI to the VA treatment. Our experiment shows ability to increase cow feeding activity at night by varying feed type and quantity, though it is possible that a penalty to total DMI may occur using VA. Further research is required to determine if the implementation of variable feed allocation on pasture-based AMS farms is likely to improve milking robot utilisation by increasing cow feeding activity at night.
      PubDate: 2019-11-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1751731119001198
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2019)
  • Effects of increasing diet fermentability on intake, digestion, rumen
           fermentation, blood metabolites and milk production of heat-stressed dairy
    • Authors: S. M. Nasrollahi; A. Zali, G. R. Ghorbani, M. Khani, H. Maktabi, K. A. Beauchemin
      Pages: 2527 - 2535
      Abstract: Heat stress is a major problem for dairy cows in hot climates, thus coping strategies are essential. This study evaluated the effects of increasing diet fermentability on intake, total tract digestibility, ruminal pH and volatile fatty acids (VFA) profile, blood metabolite profile and milk production and composition of lactating dairy cows managed under conditions of ambient heat stress. Nine multiparous cows (650 ± 56 kg BW; mean ± SD) averaging 102 ± 13 days in milk and producing 54 ± 6 kg/day were randomly assigned to a triplicate 3 × 3 Latin square. During each 21-day period, cows were offered one of three total mixed rations that varied in diet fermentability. The three levels of diet fermentability were achieved by increasing the proportion of pellets containing ground wheat and barley in the dietary DM from 11.7% (low), to 23.3% (moderate), and 35.0% (high) by replacing ground corn grain. Each period had 14 day of adaptation and 7 day of sampling. The ambient temperature–humidity index ( ≥ 72) indicated that the cows were in heat stress almost the entire duration of the study. Also, rectal temperature of cows was elevated at 39.2°C, another indication of heat stress. Increasing diet fermentability linearly decreased dry matter intake (22.8, 22.5, 21.8 kg/day for low, moderate and high, respectively; P ≤ 0.05) but increased non-fibre carbohydrate digestibility (P ≤ 0.05) and tended to increase digestibility of DM (P = 0.10) and crude protein (P = 0.06). As a result, the intake of digestible DM was not affected by the treatments. The production of 3.5% fat corrected milk (32.6, 33.7, and 31.5 kg/day) was quadratically (P ≤ 0.05) affected by diet fermentability with lower production for the high diet compared with the other two, which were similar. Rumen pH (ruminocentesis) and proportions of butyrate and isovalerate linearly decreased whereas propionate proportion linearly increased with increasing diet fermentability (P ≤ 0.05). The rumen concentration of NH3-N (11.0, 9.0, and 8.7 mg/dL) and blood concentration of urea linearly decreased with increasing diet fermentability (P ≤ 0.05). The activity of alkaline phosphatase increased (65.1, 83.2, and 84.9 U/l) and concentration of malondialdehyde decreased (2.39, 1.90 and 1.87 µmol/l) linearly with increasing diet fermentability (P ≤ 0.05), which indicated possible attenuation of the effects of oxidative stress with increasing diet fermentability. Overall, a modest increase of diet fermentability improved nitrogen metabolism, milk protein production and oxidative stress of heat-stressed dairy cows, but a further increase in diet fermentability decreased milk yield.
      PubDate: 2019-11-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1751731119001113
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2019)
  • Towards the quantitative characterisation of piglets’ robustness to
           weaning: a modelling approach
    • Authors: M. Revilla; N. C. Friggens, L. P. Broudiscou, G. Lemonnier, F. Blanc, L. Ravon, M. J. Mercat, Y. Billon, C. Rogel-Gaillard, N. Le Floch, J. Estellé, R. Muñoz-Tamayo
      Pages: 2536 - 2546
      Abstract: Weaning is a critical transition phase in swine production in which piglets must cope with different stressors that may affect their health. During this period, the prophylactic use of antibiotics is still frequent to limit piglet morbidity, which raises both economic and public health concerns such as the appearance of antimicrobial-resistant microbes. With the interest of developing tools for assisting health and management decisions around weaning, it is key to provide robustness indexes that inform on the animals’ capacity to endure the challenges associated with weaning. This work aimed at developing a modelling approach for facilitating the quantification of piglet resilience to weaning. A total of 325 Large White pigs weaned at 28 days of age were monitored and further housed and fed conventionally during the post-weaning period without antibiotic administration. Body weight and diarrhoea scores were recorded before and after weaning, and blood was sampled at weaning and 1 week later for collecting haematological data. A dynamic model was constructed based on the Gompertz–Makeham law to describe live weight trajectories during the first 75 days after weaning, following the rationale that the animal response is partitioned in two time windows (a perturbation and a recovery window). Model calibration was performed for each animal. Our results show that the transition time between the two time windows, as well as the weight trajectories are characteristic for each individual. The model captured the weight dynamics of animals at different degrees of perturbation, with an average coefficient of determination of 0.99, and a concordance correlation coefficient of 0.99. The utility of the model is that it provides biologically meaningful parameters that inform on the amplitude and length of perturbation, and the rate of animal recovery. Our rationale is that the dynamics of weight inform on the capability of the animal to cope with the weaning disturbance. Indeed, there were significant correlations between model parameters and individual diarrhoea scores and haematological traits. Overall, the parameters of our model can be useful for constructing weaning robustness indexes by using exclusively the growth curves. We foresee that this modelling approach will provide a step forward in the quantitative characterisation of robustness.
      PubDate: 2019-11-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1751731119000843
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2019)
  • Effects of body condition score on direct and indirect measurements of
           insulin sensitivity in periparturient dairy cows
    • Authors: S. Saed Samii; J. E. Rico, A. T. Mathews, A. N. Davis, C. L. Orndorff, L. O. Aromeh, J. W. McFadden
      Pages: 2547 - 2555
      Abstract: Reductions in insulin sensitivity in periparturient dairy cows develop as a means to support lactation; however, excessive mobilization of fatty acids (FA) increases the risk for peripartal metabolic disorders. Our objectives were to investigate the effect of prepartum body condition score (BCS) on systemic glucose and insulin tolerance, and to compare direct and indirect measurements of insulin sensitivity in peripartal lean and overweight dairy cows. Fourteen multiparous Holstein cows were allocated into two groups according to their BCS at day −28 prepartum: lean (n = 7; BCS ≤ 3.0) or overweight; (n = 7; BCS ≥ 4.0). Liver biopsies were performed on day −27, −14 and 4, relative to expected parturition. Intravenous insulin or glucose tolerances tests were performed following each liver biopsy. Relative to lean cows, overweight cows exhibited lower dry matter intake, lost more BCS and displayed increased plasma FA and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations and elevated liver lipid content during peripartum. Glucose clearance rate was lower for all cows postpartum. Prepartum BCS had minimal effects on insulin and glucose tolerance; however, the ability of the cow to restore blood glucose levels following an insulin challenge was suppressed by increased BCS. Glucose-dependent parameters of insulin and glucose tolerance were not correlated with surrogate indices of insulin sensitivity. We conclude that prepartum BCS had minimal effect on systemic insulin sensitivity following parturition. The observed inconsistency between surrogate indices of insulin sensitivity and direct measurements of insulin and glucose tolerance adds support to growing concerns regarding their usefulness as tools to estimate systemic insulin action in periparturient cows.
      PubDate: 2019-11-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S175173111900065X
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2019)
  • Effects of increased levels of supplemental vitamins during the summer in
           a commercial artificial insemination boar stud
    • Authors: D. W. Lugar; K. E. Harlow, J. Hundley, M. Goncalves, J. Bergstrom, K. R. Stewart
      Pages: 2556 - 2568
      Abstract: Heat stress due to increasing extremes in ambient temperature and humidity results in reduced semen quality in boars. This has caused reduced efficiency of the swine industry, requiring more boars to breed the same number of sows. Vitamins such as vitamin C (VC) and E (VE) have been shown to improve semen quality in boars. Recently, vitamin D has been shown to improve semen quality in boars. The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of increased supplemental vitamins on boar reproduction during the summer season in a commercial boar stud. One hundred and sixty Pig Improvement Company (PIC) terminal line boars (n = 32 per treatment) and 39 maternal, heat-sensitive boars (n = 7 or 8 per treatment) were randomly allocated to treatment and fed a corn and soybean meal-based diet adjusted based on individual boar body condition score. A control (CNT) diet was used that met PIC recommendations for boars. Increased supplementation of specific vitamins was given in the form of a top-dress and consisted of CNT wheat middlings, CNT plus VC (560 mg/day), CNT plus 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 (VD) (125 µg/day), CNT plus VE (275 mg/day) and CNT plus VC, VD and VE (CDE). The experiment was split into three periods based on maximum daily high temperatures in the barn, where period 1 was weeks 1 to 4, period 2 was weeks 5 to 11 and period 3 was weeks 12 to 14. Semen was collected from boars as needed using the stud’s normal production schedule and was analyzed for sperm quantity and quality characteristics. There were no dietary effects on semen volume, sperm concentration or total sperm production (P ≥ 0.553). Total motility of sperm was not impacted by diet (P = 0.115); although, VC tended (P = 0.064) to have a greater progressive motility than CDE. Percentages of morphologically normal sperm and normal acrosomes were not affected by dietary supplementation (P ≥ 0.157). Period effects were observed for most semen quality parameters, with quality generally becoming reduced over time. The present study demonstrates that increased supplementation of vitamins beyond PIC recommendations was not beneficial for boar reproduction during the summer.
      PubDate: 2019-11-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1751731119001150
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2019)
  • interferon-tau+messenger+RNA+expression+in+conceptuses+from+Bos+indicus+beef+cows&rft.title=animal&rft.issn=1751-7311&,+J.+L.+M.+Vasconcelos,+R.+L.+A.+Cerri&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S1751731119000636">Estrous expression during a fixed-time artificial insemination protocol
           enhances development and interferon-tau messenger RNA expression in
           conceptuses from Bos indicus beef cows
    • Authors: R. F. Cooke; K. G. Pohler, J. L. M. Vasconcelos, R. L. A. Cerri
      Pages: 2569 - 2575
      Abstract: Expression of estrus (EST) near the time of fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) increases pregnancy success in beef females. This outcome has been associated with improved pregnancy establishment and maintenance, although research is still warranted to validate this theory. Hence, this experiment compared ovarian, uterine and conceptus factors associated with pregnancy establishment in Bos indicus beef cows according to estrous expression during a FTAI protocol. One hundred lactating multiparous Nelore cows received a 2 mg injection of estradiol benzoate and an intravaginal progesterone (P4) releasing device on day −11, a 12.5 mg injection of prostaglandin F2α on day −4, P4 device removal in addition to 0.6 mg injection of estradiol cypionate and 300 IU injection of equine chorionic gonadotropin on day −2, and FTAI on day 0. An estrous detection patch was attached to the tailhead of each cow on day −2, and estrous expression was defined as removal of >50% of the rub-off coating from the patch at FTAI. Overall, 39 cows expressed EST, 55 did not express EST (NOEST), and six cows lost their patch and were discarded from the experiment. Ovarian ultrasonography was performed at FTAI, and on days 7 and 15 of the experiment. Blood samples were also collected on days 7 and 15. Only cows without a corpus luteum (CL) on day 0, and with a CL on days 7 and 15 remained in the experiment (EST, n=36; NOEST, n=48). On day 15, cows were randomly selected within each group (EST, n=29; NOEST, n=30) for conceptus collection via transcervical flushing, followed by endometrial biopsy in the uterine horn ipsilateral to the CL. Within cows not assigned to conceptus collection, blood samples were collected for whole blood RNA extraction (day 20) and pregnancy status was verified by transrectal ultrasonography (day 30). Diameter of dominant follicle on day 0 and plasma P4 concentrations on day 7 were greater (P⩽0.02) in EST v. NOEST cows. Conceptus length and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of prostaglandin E synthase and interferon-tau were greater (P⩽0.04) in EST v. NOEST cows. Moreover, EST cows diagnosed as pregnant on day 30 had greater (P
      PubDate: 2019-11-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1751731119000636
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2019)
  • An investigation into the effectiveness of compressed straw blocks in
           reducing abnormal behaviour in growing pigs
    • Authors: A. Haigh; J. Yun-Chou, K. O’Driscoll
      Pages: 2576 - 2585
      Abstract: The provision of manipulable material to pigs is a legal requirement to ensure their good welfare. Loose straw is edible, chewable, investigable and manipulable, and has been proven to be effective in reducing abnormal behaviour. However, it is incompatible with slatted systems and therefore not a viable option for many intensive units. Thus, there is a need to identify enrichment materials that are as effective as loose straw and compatible with slatted floors. This study investigated the viability of using compressed straw blocks on a commercial farm in terms of cost and effectiveness in reducing biting relative to plastic hanging toys. A total of 880 slaughter pigs were used, among which half (n = 440, 8 groups) were provided with commercial pig toys (TOY) and the other half (n = 440, 8 groups) were provided compressed straw blocks (STRAW BLOCK). Animals were separated according to sex to investigate whether there was a higher propensity to tail and ear bite depending on sex. Pigs were monitored from weaning to slaughter, with tails being examined post scalding and any condemnations recorded at the abattoir. Throughout their life, the tails and ears of all pigs were examined individually, and behavioural observations of each pig group were conducted fortnightly. Salivary cortisol was also obtained from a subsample of pigs from each group every fortnight to monitor stress levels. The highest straw usage was recorded in the second weaner stage (39 to 67 days after weaning). Enrichment type or sex had no effect on tail lesion scores or cold carcass weight recorded at the abattoir. There was also no effect of enrichment type or sex on body, tail, or ear lesion scores during either the weaner (0 to 39 days after weaning) or finisher stage (67 to145 days after weaning). Female pigs showed more biting behaviour than males, and female pigs that were provided STRAW BLOCK performed better than those provided TOY. In both the weaner and finisher accommodation, more instances of interaction were recorded with TOY pens as enrichment than with STRAW BLOCK, but the interaction duration was not recorded. There was no effect of sex on either stage. More instances of aggression were observed with the TOY than with STRAW BLOCK in the weaner stage (P < 0.05). Enrichment type or sex had no effect on cortisol levels. Thus, relative to plastic hanging toys, compressed straw blocks provided in this manner did not benefit pig welfare.
      PubDate: 2019-11-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1751731119000715
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2019)
  • ®+in+mulesed+Merino+lambs&rft.title=animal&rft.issn=1751-7311&,+M.+Laurence,+A.+Thompson&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S1751731119000491">Behavioural measures reflect pain-mitigating effects of meloxicam in
           combination with Tri-Solfen® in mulesed Merino lambs
    • Authors: L. Inglis; S. Hancock, M. Laurence, A. Thompson
      Pages: 2586 - 2593
      Abstract: Flystrike costs the Australian industry $173 to 280 M per annum and 70% to 80% of Merino lambs are currently mulesed to reduce the risk of flystrike. To alleviate welfare concerns there has been widespread adoption of analgesics to mitigate the pain associated with mulesing. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effectiveness of Tri-Solfen® and meloxicam (Metacam® 20) at reducing pain-related behavioural responses to mulesing in Merino lambs. One hundred and forty Merino lambs were allocated to one of seven treatment groups: (1) non-mulesed (Control); (2) mulesed with no pain relief; (3) subcutaneous (s.c.) meloxicam administered 15 min before mulesing; (4) Tri-Solfen® administered at time of mulesing; (5) Tri-Solfen® and saline injection (s.c.) 15 min before mulesing; (6) Tri-Solfen® and meloxicam (s.c.) 15 min before mulesing; and (7) meloxicam (s.c.) at time the of mulesing. Behavioural responses such as standing, walking and lying were measured every 15 min for 6 h on the day of marking and for up to 2 h for 4 days thereafter. Standing (hunched v. normal) and walking (stiff v. normal) behaviours were then categorised into pain- and normal-related behaviours while lying remained in its own category. Mulesed lambs with no pain relief displayed significantly more pain-related behaviours than Control lambs during the 6 h post-mulesing (1.22 v. 0.22 out of a total score of 3; RSD=1.15). Lambs that received a combination of pain relief displayed significantly less pain-related behaviour than mulesed lambs with no pain relief on the day of mulesing (0.85 v. 1.22 out of a total score of 3; RSD=1.15). Administration of meloxicam or Tri-Solfen® on their own had minimal if any significant effect on pain-related behaviours on the day of mulesing. The results of this experiment support the use of pain-related behaviours to measure the efficacy of analgesics and the use of multimodal analgesia during mulesing of lambs.
      PubDate: 2019-11-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1751731119000491
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2019)
  • Grazing behaviour of dairy cows on biodiverse mountain pastures is more
           influenced by slope than cow breed
    • Authors: M. Koczura; B. Martin, M. Bouchon, G. Turille, J. Berard, A. Farruggia, M. Kreuzer, M. Coppa
      Pages: 2594 - 2602
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine how cows with different genetic merit behave and perform when grazing biodiverse and heterogeneous mountain pastures with different slopes. Three groups of 12 cows in late lactation, each composed of four Holstein, four Montbéliarde and four Valdostana Red Pied cows, breeds of increasing presumed robustness and decreasing milk yield (MY) potential. Cows grazed without concentrate either on a low-diversity flat pasture or on two species-rich mountainous pastures having slopes of either 7° or 22°. Milk yield, BW and grazing behaviour were monitored two times in the first and once in the second grazing cycle. Cows of different breeds had similar behaviour on all pastures. The Montbéliarde cows performed close to their production potential; Holstein and Valdostana cows produced less milk than anticipated. No breed difference in terms of BW loss was found. The Valdostana cows exhibited the least selective behaviour with respect to plant species and plant growth stage. Still, all cows searched for the most palatable vegetation regardless of pasture diversity. On the steep pasture, cows optimised the trade-off between ingesting and saving energy to obtain feed. They remained longer at the lowest zone and selected forbs, whereas cows on the flatter pasture went to the upper zone to select grasses. The present study gave no evidence for a superior short-term adaptation to harsh grazing conditions through an optimised feeding behaviour of the Valdostana breed compared to Montbéliarde and Holstein cows.
      PubDate: 2019-11-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S175173111900079X
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2019)
  • Health, behaviour and growth performance of Charolais and Limousin bulls
           fattened on different types of flooring
    • Authors: L. Magrin; F. Gottardo, M. Brscic, B. Contiero, G. Cozzi
      Pages: 2603 - 2611
      Abstract: Intensive fattening of late-maturing breeds on concrete or rubberized slatted floors is the prevalent beef production system in mainland Europe. The rationale behind this study is that specific beef breeds with different slaughter weights might have a diverse response to different flooring systems. The study aimed at assessing whether growth performance, health, behaviour and claw condition of two beef breeds, Charolais (CH) and Limousine (LIM), would be affected by their housing on concrete (CS) or rubber-covered (RCS) fully slatted floor. A total of 228 CH (116 on CS; 112 on RCS) and 115 LIM (57 on CS; 58 on RCS) were housed in four and two commercial farms, respectively, in groups of 9.0 ± 2.1 animals/pen with an average space allowance of 3.1 ± 0.2 m2. Draining gaps of CS and RCS pens were 16.9 ± 1.7% and 11.6 ± 1.2% of the total surface, respectively. Bulls of both breeds had similar initial body weight (429.4 ± 31.5 kg for CH; 369.6 ± 31.7 kg for LIM), and they were slaughtered when they reached suitable finishing. Charolais had a higher final body weight (BW) than LIM (750.8 ± 8.6 v. 613.7 ± 10.9 kg; P < 0.01), and bulls of both breeds on RCS had higher average daily gain than on CS (1.47 ± 0.02 v. 1.39 ± 0.02 kg/day; P < 0.05). The percentage of bulls early culled or treated for locomotor disorders were reduced by RCS only for LIM, while RCS tended to prevent the occurrence of bursitis for both breeds. During two 8-h behavioural observations, bulls on RCS performed more head butt/displacements and chases than on CS, and they reduced the frequency of abnormal lying down events. The use of RCS increased mounts’ frequency only in LIM, while its reduced drainage capacity impaired only the cleanliness of CH. Postmortem hoof inspection showed longer claw dorsal wall and diagonal lengths, and sharper toe angles for CH on RCS than LIM on both floors. Results of this study point out that fully slatted floors, regardless of being rubberized or not, are not suitable for bulls finished at a final BW above 700 kg due to their detrimental effects on health and welfare. The use of RCS could be recommended as an alternative to CS only if bulls are slaughtered at a lower final BW (around 600 kg), like in the case of LIM breed.
      PubDate: 2019-11-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S175173111900106X
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2019)
  • Comparison of three different farrowing systems: skin lesions and
           behaviour of sows with special regard to nursing behaviour in a group
           housing system for lactating sows
    • Authors: T. Nicolaisen; B. Risch, E. Lühken, C. van Meegen, M. Fels, N. Kemper
      Pages: 2612 - 2620
      Abstract: While group housing (GH) is mandatory in the European Union for the greater part of pregnancy, single housing in farrowing crates (FCs) during lactation that restrict sows in most of their natural behaviour patterns is still practised on a large scale. Research is urgently needed to develop alternative farrowing systems that improve sows’ welfare. Therefore, sows in three different farrowing systems – pens with FC, loose housing (LH) pens and GH for six sows – were compared regarding the level of skin injuries and their active and resting behaviour. A skin injury score was assessed for 15 body parts of 102 sows in six batches on 3 days (days 1, 14 and 34). In total, the active and resting behaviour of 77 sows in six batches was examined on 3 days (days 18, 25 and 32) between 0700 h and 1900 h by means of a scan sampling method. The suckling behaviour and the level of cross-suckling were analysed in GH by means of direct observation in four batches during three 4-h sampling periods (days 17, 24 and 31). No significant differences were found in total skin injuries when the sows entered the systems (day 1), but GH sows showed significantly higher total skin injuries compared to FC and LH sows in the middle (day 14) and at the end (day 34) of the lactation period. A significant difference between FC and LH sows was never seen. Differences were found for the proportion of different body postures between the three systems. The odds for lying in lateral recumbency versus standing and sitting versus standing were significantly higher for FC and LH sows compared to GH sows. Additionally, sows were significantly more likely to be standing as opposed to lying in lateral recumbency as the lactation period progressed. Cross-suckling was a frequent behaviour in GH, seen in 35.0% of all successful suckling bouts. However, only an average of 0.56 piglets per successful suckling bout was observed cross-suckling, suggesting only a few piglets were engaged in cross-suckling. In conclusion, the skin injury score was only moderately increased in GH compared to FC and LH and comparable to pregnant group-housed sows, both free farrowing systems seemed to be an environmental enrichment for lactating sows and good management cannot prevent the occurrence of cross-suckling in a GH system, but can probably reduce it.
      PubDate: 2019-11-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1751731119000661
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2019)
  • Transfer of passive immunity in dairy calves: the effectiveness of
           providing a supplementary colostrum meal in addition to nursing from the
    • Authors: I. Lora; F. Gottardo, L. Bonfanti, A. L. Stefani, E. Soranzo, B. Dall’Ava, K. Capello, M. Martini, A. Barberio
      Pages: 2621 - 2629
      Abstract: Failed transfer of passive immunity (FTPI) in dairy calves – which is often due to the low amount of colostrum provided within a few hours after birth – remains a crucial issue. Enabling dairy calves to nurse colostrum from their dams could be useful in increasing intake and thus avoiding FTPI, but further potential effects on the health and welfare of both calves and dams should also be considered. In this study, 107 calf-dam pairs from two Italian dairy farms were alternately assigned to one of the following colostrum provision methods (CPMs): ‘hand-fed method’ (HFM) – the calf was separated from the dam immediately after birth and colostrum was provided by nipple-bottle (n = 50); ‘nursing method’ (NM) – the calf nursed colostrum from the dam for the first 12 h of life without farmer assistance (n = 30); and ‘mixed method’ (MM) – the nursing calf received a supplementary colostrum meal by nipple-bottle (n = 27). Serum of calves (1 to 5 days of age) and samples of their first colostrum meal were analysed by electrophoresis to assess immunoglobulin (Ig) concentration. Additionally, behavioural indicators of separation distress (calf and dam vocalisations; calf refusal of the first meal after separation; undesirable dam behaviour at milking) in the following 24 h were recorded as binary variables (Yes/No), and the health status of calves (disease occurrence and mortality) and dams (postpartum disorders and mastitis occurrence) were monitored for the first 3 months of life and 7 days after parturition, respectively. The lowest FTPI occurrence (calf serum Ig concentration
      PubDate: 2019-11-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1751731119000879
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2019)
  • Using lamb sales data to investigate associations between implementation
           of disease preventive practices and sheep flock performance
    • Authors: E. Lima; F. Lovatt, P. Davies, J. Kaler
      Pages: 2630 - 2638
      Abstract: Although the UK is the largest lamb meat producer in Europe, there are limited data available on sheep flock performance and on how sheep farmers manage their flocks. The aims of this study were to gather evidence on the types of disease control practices implemented in sheep flocks, and to explore husbandry factors associated with flock productivity. A questionnaire focusing on farm characteristics, general husbandry and flock health management was carried out in 648 farms located in the UK over summer 2016. Abattoir sales data (lamb sales over 12 months) was compared with the number of breeding ewes on farm to estimate flock productivity (number of lambs sold for meat per 100 ewes per farm per year). Results of a multivariable linear regression model, conducted on 615 farms with complete data, indicated that farms vaccinating ewes against abortion and clostridial agents and administering a group 4/5 anthelmintic to ewes (as recommended by the Sustainable Control of Parasites in Sheep Initiative) during quarantining had a greater flock productivity than farms not implementing these actions (P
      PubDate: 2019-11-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1751731119001058
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2019)
  • Developing and validating a model to predict the dry matter intake of
           grazing lactating beef cows
    • Authors: M. Williams; R. Prendiville, K. O’Sullivan, S. McCabe, E. Kennedy, M. Liddane, F. Buckley
      Pages: 2639 - 2649
      Abstract: Current techniques for measuring the dry matter intake (DMI) of grazing lactating beef cows are invasive, time consuming and expensive making them impractical for use on commercial farms. This study was undertaken to explore the potential to develop and validate a model to predict DMI of grazing lactating beef cows, which could be applied in a commercial farm setting, using non-invasive animal measurements. The calibration dataset used to develop the model was comprised of 94 measurements recorded on 106 beef or beef–dairy crossbred cows (maternal origin). The potential of body measurements, linear type scoring, grazing behaviour and thermal imaging to predict DMI in combination with known biologically plausible adjustment variables and energy sinks was investigated. Multivariable regression models were constructed for each independent variable using SAS PROC REG and contained milk yield, BW, parity, calving day and maternal origin (dairy or beef). Of the 94 variables tested, 32 showed an association with DMI (P < 0.25) upon multivariable analysis. These variables were incorporated into a backwards linear regression model using SAS PROC REG. Variables were retained in this model if P < 0.05. Five variables; width at pins, full body depth, ruminating mastications, central ligament and rump width score, were retained in the model in addition to milk yield, BW, parity, calving day and maternal origin. The inclusion of these variables in the model increased the predictability of DMI by 0.23 (R2 = 0.68) when compared to a model containing milk yield, BW, parity, calving day and maternal origin only. This model was applied to data recorded on an independent dataset; a herd of 60 lactating beef cows two years after the calibration study. The R2 for the validation was 0.59. Estimates of DMI are required for measuring feed efficiency. While acknowledging challenges in applicability, the findings suggest a model such as that developed in this study may be used as a tool to more easily and less invasively estimate DMI on large populations of commercial beef cows, and therefore measure feed efficiency.
      PubDate: 2019-11-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1751731119001241
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2019)
  • Failure costs associated with mastitis in smallholder dairy farms keeping
           Holstein Friesian × Zebu crossbreed cows
    • Authors: S. A. Mekonnen; G. Koop, A. M. Getaneh, T. J. G. M. Lam, H. Hogeveen
      Pages: 2650 - 2659
      Abstract: Mastitis is a costly disease and in many areas of the world, these costs have been quantified to support farmers in their decision making with regard to prevention of mastitis. Although for subsaharan circumstances estimates have been made for the costs of subclinical mastitis (SCM), farm-specific cost estimations comprising both clinical mastitis (CM) and SCM are lacking. In this paper, we quantified failure costs of both CM and SCM on 150 Ethiopian market-oriented dairy farms keeping Holstein Friesian × Zebu breed cows. Data about CM were collected by face-to-face interviews and the prevalence of SCM was estimated for each farm using the California mastitis test. All other relevant information needed to calculate the failure costs, such as the consequences of mastitis and price levels, was collected during the farm visits, except for the parameter for milk production losses due to SCM, which was based on literature estimates and subjected to sensitivity analyses. The average total failure costs of mastitis was estimated to be 4 765 Ethiopian Birr (ETB) (1 ETB = 0.0449 USD) per farm per year of which SCM contributed 54% of the costs. The average total failure costs per lactating cow per farm per year were 1 961 ETB, with a large variation between farms (range 0 to 35 084 ETB). This large variation in failure costs between farms was mainly driven by variation in incidence of CM and prevalence of SCM. Milk production losses made the largest contribution (80%), whereas culling contributed 13% to 17% to the total failure costs. In our estimates, costs of veterinary services, drugs, discarded milk and labour made a minor contribution to the total failure costs of mastitis. Relative to the income of dairy farmers in North Western Ethiopia; the total failure costs of mastitis are high. In general, Ethiopian farmers are aware of the negative consequences of CM, but creating awareness of the high costs of SCM and showing large variation between farmers may be instrumental in motivating farmers to also take preventive measures for SCM.
      PubDate: 2019-11-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S175173111900082X
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2019)
  • Weeping forsythia extract alleviates dexamethasone-induced oxidative
           injury of breast muscles in broilers
    • Authors: L. Pan; X. K. Ma, P. F. Zhao, X. S. Piao
      Pages: 2660 - 2668
      Abstract: Antioxidants have been always used to improve post-slaughter meat quality in broilers subjected to stress. Forsythia suspensa extract (FSE), a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, is generally regarded as a natural source of antioxidants. Therefore, the objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that FSE could protect post-slaughter breast muscles against oxidative injury induced by dexamethasone (DEX) mimicking chronic physiological stress in poultry production. Average daily gain and feed efficiency of poultry were suppressed by DEX and improved by FSE (P < 0.05). Dexamethasone caused the decrease in the redness value and the increase in the lightness and yellowness values and drip loss of the breast muscles (P < 0.05), and FSE had the converse effects (P < 0.05). Dietary FSE supplementation decreased monounsaturated fatty acid (FA) and increased polyunsaturated FA in breast muscles of broilers (P < 0.05). In addition, FSE decreased malondialdehyde and carbonyl content in the breast muscles of DEX-treated broilers (P < 0.05). The inhibition of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl in the breast muscles was decreased by DEX and increased by FSE (P < 0.05). Total-antioxidant capacity and glutathione peroxidase activity in the breast muscles were decreased in birds subjected to DEX and increased in birds supplemented with FSE (P < 0.05). Totally, DEX suppressed growth performance and induced breast muscle oxidative injury in broilers, and FSE supplementation improved antioxidant capacity to attenuate these adverse effects. Therefore, FSE could be a potential natural antioxidant to alleviate oxidative injury of the breast muscles in broilers and to improve the meat quality for human consumption.
      PubDate: 2019-11-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S175173111900096X
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2019)
  • Reliability of visible reflectance spectroscopy in discriminating between
           pasture and stall-fed lambs from thin and fat-tailed sheep breeds in dry
           and hot environment
    • Authors: H. Hajji; S. Prache, D. Andueza, S. Smeti, M. Mahouachi, N. Atti
      Pages: 2669 - 2678
      Abstract: Considering the additional market value of pasture meat, many authentication methods were developed to discriminate it from meat produced in conventional systems. The visible reflectance spectroscopy technique has proved its efficiency under European conditions and breeds. The present study tested the reliability of this method to discriminate between pasture-fed (P) and stall-fed (S) lambs under North African conditions and investigated the effect of feeding system (FS) (P v. S) and breed (Barbarine; Queue Fine de l’Ouest; and Noire de Thibar) on weight and colour of perirenal, subcutaneous and caudal fat. A total of 18 P and 18 S lambs were used with 6 P and 6 S lambs for each breed. The colour and the reflectance spectrum of different fat tissues were measured. The FS affected weights of all fat tissues and all colour parameters of perirenal and subcutaneous fat (P ≤ 0.01); it almost affected redness and yellowness of caudal fat (P ≤ 0.05; P ≤ 0.01). In all adipose tissues, lightness was higher and both redness and yellowness were lower for S lambs than P lambs. The breed affected weight, lightness and redness of perirenal fat and weight and redness of subcutaneous fat with significant interaction with FS for subcutaneous fat data. To discriminate P lambs from S lambs, the reflectance spectrum of perirenal, subcutaneous and caudal fat at wavelengths between 450 and 510 nm (Method 1, M1) or at wavelengths between 400 and 700 nm using partial least squares discriminative analysis as a classification method (Method 2, M2) were used. M2 yielded to a higher proportion of correctly classified lambs compared with M1 (P = 0.001). The proportion of correctly classified lambs using M2 was 76.4, 75.0 and 80.0% for perirenal, subcutaneous and caudal fat for P lambs and 83.3, 76.4 and 100.0% for S lambs. Despite lower reliability in comparisons to European researches, this study confirmed the efficiency of visible reflectance spectroscopy technique applied on perirenal fat in feeding systems authentication under North African conditions and spotted the caudal fat as a new support for better classification of fat-tailed breeds.
      PubDate: 2019-11-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1751731119000909
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2019)
  • Crossbreeding applied to systems of beef cattle production to improve
           performance traits and carcass quality
    • Authors: R. Favero; G. R. O. Menezes, R. A. A. Torres, L. O. C. Silva, M. N. Bonin, G. L. D. Feijó, G. Altrak, M. V. G. Niwa, R. Kazama, I. Y. Mizubuti, R. C. Gomes
      Pages: 2679 - 2686
      Abstract: Crossbreeding represents an important technique to improve growth, beef quality and adaptability in beef production systems in tropical countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate sire and dam breed effects on performance and carcass traits of crossbred cattle produced in a tropical environment. Heifers and steers were evaluated during the pre-weaning, the post-weaning (n = 173) and the finishing phase (n = 123). Animals were produced by mating Nellore (N_N), Angus × Nellore (A_N) and Caracu × Nellore (C_N) dams with Braford, Charbray and Caracu sires. After weaning, animals were raised grazing on Marandu grass for 12 months; thereafter they were housed in individual pens and finished in a feedlot, receiving a total mixed ration. Ultrasound carcass evaluations were performed to determine ribeye area (R_A), backfat thickness (B_T) and rump fat thickness (R_T). A_N progeny were heavier at birth than N_N (P
      PubDate: 2019-11-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1751731119000855
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2019)
  • Digestive physiology of pigs 2018
    • Authors: E. Roura; M. D. Lindemann, F. R. Dunshea
      Pages: 2687 - 2688
      PubDate: 2019-11-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1751731119001769
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2019)
  • Review: Microbial endocrinology: intersection of microbiology and
           neurobiology matters to swine health from infection to behavior
    • Authors: J. M. Lyte; M. Lyte
      Pages: 2689 - 2698
      Abstract: From birth to slaughter, pigs are in constant interaction with microorganisms. Exposure of the skin, gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts, and other systems allows microorganisms to affect the developmental trajectory and function of porcine physiology as well as impact behavior. These routes of communication are bi-directional, allowing the swine host to likewise influence microbial survival, function and community composition. Microbial endocrinology is the study of the bi-directional dialogue between host and microbe. Indeed, the landmark discovery of host neuroendocrine systems as hubs of host–microbe communication revealed neurochemicals act as an inter-kingdom evolutionary-based language between microorganism and host. Several such neurochemicals are stress catecholamines, which have been shown to drastically increase host susceptibility to infection and augment virulence of important swine pathogens, including Clostridium perfringens. Catecholamines, the production of which increase in response to stress, reach the epithelium of multiple tissues, including the gastrointestinal tract and lung, where they initiate diverse responses by members of the microbiome as well as transient microorganisms, including pathogens and opportunistic pathogens. Multiple laboratories have confirmed the evolutionary role of microbial endocrinology in infectious disease pathogenesis extending from animals to even plants. More recent investigations have now shown that microbial endocrinology also plays a role in animal behavior through the microbiota–gut–brain axis. As stress and disease are ever-present, intersecting concerns during each stage of swine production, novel strategies utilizing a microbial endocrinology-based approach will likely prove invaluable to the swine industry.
      PubDate: 2019-11-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1751731119000284
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2019)
  • in+vivo+brain+imaging&rft.title=animal&rft.issn=1751-7311&">Review: Impact of food, gut–brain signals and metabolic status on brain
           activity in the pig model: 10 years of nutrition research using in vivo
           brain imaging
    • Authors: D. Val-Laillet
      Pages: 2699 - 2713
      Abstract: The purpose of this review is to offer a panorama on 10 years of nutrition research using in vivo brain imaging in the pig model. First, we will review some work describing the brain responses to food signals, including basic tastants such as sweet and bitter at both oral and visceral levels, as well as conditioned preferred and aversive flavours. Second, we will have a look at the impact of weight gain and obesity on brain metabolism and functional responses, drawing the parallel with obese human patients. Third, we will evoke the concept of the developmental origins of health and diseases, and how the pig model can shed light on the importance of maternal nutrition during gestation and lactation for the development of the gut–brain axis and adaptation abilities of the progeny to nutritional environments. Finally, three examples of preventive or therapeutic strategies will be introduced: the use of sensory food ingredients or pre-, pro-, and postbiotics to improve metabolic and cognitive functions; the implementation of chronic vagus nerve stimulation to prevent weight gain and glucose metabolism alterations; and the development of bariatric surgery in the pig model for the understanding of its complex mechanisms at the gut–brain level. A critical conclusion will brush the limitations of neurocognitive studies in the pig model and put in perspective the rationale and ethical concerns underlying the use of pig experimentation in nutrition and neurosciences.
      PubDate: 2019-11-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1751731119001745
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2019)
  • Review: Chemosensing of nutrients and non-nutrients in the human and
           porcine gastrointestinal tract
    • Authors: E. Roura; I. Depoortere, M. Navarro
      Pages: 2714 - 2726
      Abstract: The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is an interface between the external and internal milieus that requires continuous monitoring for nutrients or pathogens and toxic chemicals. The study of the physiological/molecular mechanisms, mediating the responses to the monitoring of the GIT contents, has been referred to as chemosensory science. While most of the progress in this area of research has been obtained in laboratory rodents and humans, significant steps forward have also been reported in pigs. The objective of this review was to update the current knowledge on nutrient chemosensing in pigs in light of recent advances in humans and laboratory rodents. A second objective relates to informing the existence of nutrient sensors with their functionality, particularly linked to the gut peptides relevant to the onset/offset of appetite. Several cell types of the intestinal epithelium such as Paneth, goblet, tuft and enteroendocrine cells (EECs) contain subsets of chemosensory receptors also found on the tongue as part of the taste system. In particular, EECs show specific co-expression patterns between nutrient sensors and/or transceptors (transport proteins with sensing functions) and anorexigenic hormones such as cholecystokinin (CCK), peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY) or glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), amongst others. In addition, the administration of bitter compounds has an inhibitory effect on GIT motility and on appetite through GLP-1-, CCK-, ghrelin- and PYY-labelled EECs in the human small intestine and colon. Furthermore, the mammalian chemosensory system is the target of some bacterial metabolites. Recent studies on the human microbiome have discovered that commensal bacteria have developed strategies to stimulate chemosensory receptors and trigger host cellular functions. Finally, the study of gene polymorphisms related to nutrient sensors explains differences in food choices, food intake and appetite between individuals.
      PubDate: 2019-11-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1751731119001794
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2019)
  • Review: The roles and functions of glutamine on intestinal health and
           performance of weaning pigs
    • Authors: F. J. Ji; L. X. Wang, H. S. Yang, A. Hu, Y. L. Yin
      Pages: 2727 - 2735
      Abstract: The gut is composed of a single layer of intestinal epithelial cells and plays important roles in the digestion and absorption of nutrients, immune and barrier functions and amino acid metabolism. Weaning stress impairs piglet intestinal epithelium structural and functional integrities, which results in reduced feed intake, growth rates and increased morbidity and mortality. Several measures are needed to maintain swine gut development and growth performance after weaning stress. A large body of evidence indicates that, in weaning piglets, glutamine, a functional amino acid, may improve growth performance and intestinal morphology, reduce oxidative damage, stimulate enterocyte proliferation, modulate cell survival and death and enhance intestinal paracellular permeability. This review focuses on the effects of glutamine on intestinal health in piglets. The aim is to provide evidentiary support for using glutamine as a feed additive to alleviate weaning stress.
      PubDate: 2019-11-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1751731119001800
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2019)
  • Review: Link between intestinal immunity and practical approaches to swine
    • Authors: B. Humphrey; J. Zhao, R. Faris
      Pages: 2736 - 2744
      Abstract: Gaining a deeper understanding into the underlying mechanisms associated with intestinal function and immunity during the weaning transition is critical to help shed new light into applied nutrition approaches to improve piglet performance and health during this critical life-stage transition. The transient anorexia triggered at weaning leads to compromised intestinal barrier function and a localized inflammatory response. Considering barrier function, specific nutrient fractions appear to have a significant impact on the development and function of the immune and microbial systems around weaning. Understanding the specific impact of nutrients in the small intestine and hindgut is important for helping to bring more focus and consistency to nutritional approaches to support health and immunity during the weaning transition period. The challenge continues to be how to translate these modes of action into practical and scalable approaches for swine nutrition. We will focus specifically on practical nutritional approaches to influence intestinal immunity through lipid, protein and antioxidant nutrition.
      PubDate: 2019-11-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1751731119001861
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2019)
  • Review: Effects of fibre, grain starch digestion rate and the ileal brake
           on voluntary feed intake in pigs
    • Authors: V. Ratanpaul; B. A. Williams, J. L. Black, M. J. Gidley
      Pages: 2745 - 2754
      Abstract: Grains rich in starch constitute the primary source of energy for both pigs and humans, but there is incomplete understanding of physiological mechanisms that determine the extent of digestion of grain starch in monogastric animals including pigs and humans. Slow digestion of starch to produce glucose in the small intestine (SI) leads to undigested starch escaping to the large intestine where it is fermented to produce short-chain fatty acids. Glucose generated from starch provides more energy than short-chain fatty acids for normal metabolism and growth in monogastrics. While incomplete digestion of starch leads to underutilised feed in pigs and economic losses, it is desirable in human nutrition to maintain consistent body weight in adults. Undigested nutrients reaching the ileum may trigger the ileal brake, and fermentation of undigested nutrients or fibre in the large intestine triggers the colonic brake. These intestinal brakes reduce the passage rate in an attempt to maximise nutrient utilisation, and lead to increased satiety that may reduce feed intake. The three physiological mechanisms that control grain digestion and feed intake are: (1) gastric emptying rate; (2) interplay of grain digestion and passage rate in the SI controlling the activation of the ileal brake; and (3) fermentation of undigested nutrients or fibre in the large intestine activating the colonic brake. Fibre plays an important role in influencing these mechanisms and the extent of their effects. In this review, an account of the physiological mechanisms controlling the passage rate, feed intake and enzymatic digestion of grains is presented: (1) to evaluate the merits of recently developed methods of grain/starch digestion for application purposes; and (2) to identify opportunities for future research to advance our understanding of how the combination of controlled grain digestion and fibre content can be manipulated to physiologically influence satiety and food intake.
      PubDate: 2019-11-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1751731119001459
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 11 (2019)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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