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Publisher: Cambridge University Press   (Total: 372 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 372 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Neuropsychiatrica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Numerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 6.709, CiteScore: 10)
Advances in Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.441, CiteScore: 1)
Aeronautical J., The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Africa     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.582, CiteScore: 1)
African Studies Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.437, CiteScore: 1)
Ageing & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.756, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural and Resource Economics Review     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.414, CiteScore: 1)
AI EDAM     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.375, CiteScore: 1)
AJS Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.128, CiteScore: 0)
American Political Science Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 283, SJR: 5.587, CiteScore: 4)
Anatolian Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.528, CiteScore: 1)
Ancient Mesoamerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.478, CiteScore: 1)
Anglo-Saxon England     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
animal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 2)
Animal Health Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.69, CiteScore: 2)
Animal Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Actuarial Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Annual of the British School at Athens     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Annual Review of Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 3.223, CiteScore: 4)
Antarctic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.643, CiteScore: 1)
Antichthon     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Antiquaries J., The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Antiquity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
ANZIAM J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.216, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Psycholinguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.945, CiteScore: 2)
APSIPA Transactions on Signal and Information Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.404, CiteScore: 2)
Arabic Sciences and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Arbor Clinical Nutrition Updates     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archaeological Dialogues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.898, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological Reports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.128, CiteScore: 0)
arq: Architectural Research Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 0)
Asian J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.129, CiteScore: 0)
Asian J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.135, CiteScore: 0)
Asian J. of Law and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.195, CiteScore: 0)
Astin Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.878, CiteScore: 1)
Australasian J. of Organisational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.154, CiteScore: 1)
Australasian J. of Special Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.187, CiteScore: 0)
Australian J. of Environmental Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Australian J. of Indigenous Education, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 1)
Australian J. of Rehabilitation Counseling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Austrian History Yearbook     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 0)
Behavioral and Brain Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.595, CiteScore: 1)
Behaviour Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.508, CiteScore: 1)
Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 150, SJR: 0.976, CiteScore: 2)
Bilingualism: Language and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.446, CiteScore: 2)
Biofilms     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Bird Conservation Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.581, CiteScore: 1)
BJPsych Advances     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 54, SJR: 0.275, CiteScore: 0)
BJPsych Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BJPsych Open     Open Access  
Brain Impairment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.321, CiteScore: 1)
Breast Cancer Online     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Britannia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
British Actuarial J.     Full-text available via subscription  
British Catholic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.133, CiteScore: 1)
British J. for the History of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
British J. of Anaesthetic and Recovery Nursing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
British J. of Music Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.564, CiteScore: 1)
British J. Of Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 81, SJR: 1.612, CiteScore: 4)
British J. of Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 179, SJR: 4.661, CiteScore: 4)
British J. of Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 199, SJR: 2.844, CiteScore: 3)
Bulletin of Entomological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.805, CiteScore: 2)
Bulletin of Symbolic Logic     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 1)
Bulletin of the Australian Mathematical Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 0)
Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Business and Human Rights J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Business Ethics Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.098, CiteScore: 2)
Business History Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.347, CiteScore: 1)
Cambridge Archaeological J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 132, SJR: 1.121, CiteScore: 1)
Cambridge Classical J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Cambridge J. of Postcolonial Literary Inquiry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Cambridge Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 180, SJR: 0.213, CiteScore: 0)
Cambridge Opera J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.14, CiteScore: 0)
Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.299, CiteScore: 1)
Camden Fifth Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Canadian Entomologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.482, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.624, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Law & Jurisprudence     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.237, CiteScore: 0)
Canadian J. of Law and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.259, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Neurological Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.549, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Political Science/Revue canadienne de science politique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.385, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. on Aging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.426, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Yearbook of Intl. Law / Annuaire canadien de droit international     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Cardiology in the Young     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.372, CiteScore: 1)
Central European History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.159, CiteScore: 0)
Children Australia     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.255, CiteScore: 0)
China Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 2.289, CiteScore: 3)
Chinese J. of Agricultural Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Church History: Studies in Christianity and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 71, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Classical Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 0)
Classical Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
CNS Spectrums     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.391, CiteScore: 3)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Combinatorics, Probability and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 1)
Communications in Computational Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.048, CiteScore: 2)
Comparative Studies in Society and History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.585, CiteScore: 1)
Compositio Mathematica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 3.139, CiteScore: 1)
Contemporary European History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Continuity and Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.107, CiteScore: 0)
Dance Research J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 0)
Development and Psychopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.068, CiteScore: 4)
Dialogue Canadian Philosophical Review/Revue canadienne de philosophie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 0)
Diamond Light Source Proceedings     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.471, CiteScore: 1)
Du Bois Review: Social Science Research on Race     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.561, CiteScore: 1)
Early China     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Early Music History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
East Asian J. on Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.418, CiteScore: 1)
Ecclesiastical Law J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.114, CiteScore: 0)
Econometric Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.915, CiteScore: 1)
Economics and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.622, CiteScore: 1)
Edinburgh J. of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.283, CiteScore: 1)
Eighteenth-Century Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.113, CiteScore: 0)
English Language and Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.52, CiteScore: 1)
English Profile J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
English Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 0)
Enterprise & Society : The Intl. J. of Business History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.245, CiteScore: 1)
Environment and Development Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.617, CiteScore: 1)
Environmental Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 1.028, CiteScore: 2)
Environmental Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.145, CiteScore: 0)
Epidemiology & Infection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.128, CiteScore: 2)
Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.494, CiteScore: 2)
Episteme     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.756, CiteScore: 1)
Equine and Comparative Exercise Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Ergodic Theory and Dynamical Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.193, CiteScore: 1)
Ethics & Intl. Affairs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.557, CiteScore: 1)
European Constitutional Law Review (EuConst)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.009, CiteScore: 1)
European J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.52, CiteScore: 1)
European J. of Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.643, CiteScore: 1)
European Political Science Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.816, CiteScore: 2)
European Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Experimental Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.647, CiteScore: 4)
Fetal and Maternal Medicine Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Financial History Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.238, CiteScore: 1)
Foreign Policy Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Forum of Mathematics, Pi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Forum of Mathematics, Sigma     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Genetics Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.483, CiteScore: 1)
Geological Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.966, CiteScore: 2)
Glasgow Mathematical J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 0)
Global Constitutionalism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Global Mental Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Government and Opposition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.965, CiteScore: 2)
Greece & Rome     Partially Free   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.113, CiteScore: 0)
Hague J. on the Rule of Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.271, CiteScore: 1)
Harvard Theological Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 68, SJR: 0.165, CiteScore: 0)
Health Economics, Policy and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 1)
Hegel Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
High Power Laser Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.901, CiteScore: 3)
Historical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.247, CiteScore: 1)
History in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Horizons     Partially Free   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.129, CiteScore: 0)
Industrial and Organizational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.916, CiteScore: 1)
Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.97, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. & Comparative Law Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 218, SJR: 0.369, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Asian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.143, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Astrobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Cultural Property     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.253, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Disability Management Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.105, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Law in Context     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.275, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Legal Information     Open Access   (Followers: 298)
Intl. J. of Microwave and Wireless Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Middle East Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 0.434, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Technology Assessment in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.714, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Tropical Insect Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Labor and Working-Class History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. Organization     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 98, SJR: 8.527, CiteScore: 5)
Intl. Psychogeriatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.048, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Review of Social History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Review of the Red Cross     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. Theory: A J. of Intl. Politics, Law and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.293, CiteScore: 2)
Iraq     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Irish Historical Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
Irish J. of Psychological Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.221, CiteScore: 0)
Israel Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.165, CiteScore: 0)
Itinerario     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.158, CiteScore: 0)
J. of African History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.348, CiteScore: 1)
J. of African Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.113, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Agricultural and Applied Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Agricultural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.563, CiteScore: 1)
J. of American Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.164, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Anglican Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Applied Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Asian Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Benefit-Cost Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
J. of Biosocial Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.48, CiteScore: 1)
J. of British Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.246, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Child Language     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.035, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Classics Teaching     Open Access  
J. of Dairy Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Demographic Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.227, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.843, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Diagnostic Radiography and Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
J. of East Asian Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.59, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Ecclesiastical History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Economic History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45, SJR: 1.82, CiteScore: 2)

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Journal Cover
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.842
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 3  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1751-7311 - ISSN (Online) 1751-732X
Published by Cambridge University Press Homepage  [372 journals]
  • ANM volume 13 issue 1 Cover and Back matter
    • PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1751731118003063
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2019)
  • Evaluation of reference lactation length in Chios dairy sheep
    • Authors: Z. Basdagianni; E. Sinapis, G. Banos
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Definition and establishment of a fixed reference lactation length could provide useful tools for on-farm comparison of ewes and flock management as well as genetic evaluations for the breeding programme. The objectives of this study were to (i) evaluate different reference lactation lengths for the Chios dairy sheep and (ii) define the most suitable reference length for the breed. A total of 260 042 test-day milk records from 24 474 ewes in 130 flocks collected between 2003 and 2014 were used; 15 different lactation lengths were evaluated ranging from 120 to 260 days, defined at 10-day intervals as reference for the Chios sheep. The evaluation criteria included: (a) heritability and repeatability of milk yield in each reference lactation, (b) genetic correlation of reference lactation milk yield with actual lactation milk yield and yield at first test-day record and (c) correlated response in reference lactation milk yield from selection based on first test-day milk yield. The latter emulates genetic gains achieved for milk yield based on early lactation selection. Heritability and repeatability estimates of reference lactation milk yield and genetic correlation with actual lactation yield favoured long reference lactations (180 to 230 days). On the contrary, correlation with first test-day record milk yield was higher for short lactations (120 to 170 days). Moreover, selection on first test-day record milk yield would lead to a correlated response in reference yield in 220 days equal to 85% of the highest estimate achieved in the maximum reference length of 260 days (190 days when only considering first lactation milk yield). Based on the results of the present study, an overall reference lactation length for the Chios breed of 220 days post-lambing and a first lactation reference length of 190 days post-lambing are recommended.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1751731118000769
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2019)
  • Genetic diversity and relationships among six local cattle populations in
           semi-arid areas assessed by a bovine medium-density single nucleotide
           polymorphism data
    • Authors: N. Boushaba; I. Boujenane, K. Moazami-Goudarzi, L. Flori, N. Saïdi-Mehtar, N. Tabet-Aoul, D. Laloë
      Pages: 8 - 14
      Abstract: The local cattle populations belonging to the ‘Brune de l’Atlas’ cattle in Algeria and Morocco are potential resources in terms of genetic diversity and socioeconomic prevalence and their characterization is an essential step in any program designed to conserve genetic diversity. Our objectives were to assess the genetic diversity, the population structure and relationships among four Algerian cattle breeds, the Biskra, Cheurfa, Chelifienne and Guelmoise and of two Moroccan, the Oulmès-Zaër and Tidili by genotyping 50 309 single nucleotide polymorphism in 203 unrelated animals. A low population structure was observed across breeds with pairwise FST values ranging from 0.008 to 0.043, suggesting a high level of gene flow. These data were combined with the available data on cattle populations representative of Europe (EUT), West African taurine (WAT) and zebu (ZEB). Principle Components Analysis was carried out which revealed that the Maghrebin populations are closer to the EUT/ZEB population than to the WAT. Structure analysis confirmed this mixed origin of the Maghrebin cattle populations. We also detected the influence of zebu breeds in Cheurfa and Guelmoise populations. This study provides the first information about genetic diversity within and between Algerian and Moroccan cattle populations and gives a detailed description of their genetic structure and relationships according to their historical origins. This study revealed that several combined effects contributed to shape the genetic diversity of the six Maghrebin populations studied: (i) gene flow among local breeds, (ii) the recent introgression of European breeds in local Algerian breeds and (iii) the traditional management systems. The results of this study will primarily assist policy makers and livestock keepers to make useful decisions for improvement of genetic resources while ensuring the preservation and conservation of local breeds in Algeria and Morocco.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1751731118001179
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2019)
  • Analysis of founders and performance test effects on an autochthonous
           horse population through pedigree analysis: structure, genetic variability
           and inbreeding
    • Authors: A. Giontella; C. Pieramati, M. Silvestrelli, F. M. Sarti
      Pages: 15 - 24
      Abstract: The Maremmano is an autochthonous Italian horse breed, which probably descended from the native horses of the Etruscans (VI century B.C.); the Studbook was acknowledged in 1980, and it includes 12 368 horses born from that year up to 2015. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the selection program on the genetic variability of the Maremmano population; the analysis was performed using both the ‘Endog v 4.8’ program available at and in-house software on official pedigree data. Four Reference Populations were considered, and the most important one was the population of the 12 368 Maremmano horses officially registered in the National Studbook. The pedigree completeness of this population was very good because it was more than 90% at the third parental generation and more than 70% at the fifth generation; the pedigree traced back to a maximum of 10.50 generations with an average of 3.30 complete generations and 5.70 equivalent complete generations. The average generation interval was 10.65±4.72 years, with stallions used for longer periods than mares. The intervals ranged from 10.15±4.45 (mother–daughter) to 10.99±4.93 (father–daughter). The effective number of founders (fe) was 74 and the effective number of ancestors (fa) was 30 so that the ratio fe/fa was 2.47. The founder genome equivalents (fg) was 13.72 with a ratio fg/fe equal to 0.18. The mean of the genetic conservation index was 5.55±3.37, and it ranged from 0.81 to 21.32. The average inbreeding coefficient was 2.94%, with an increase of 0.1%/year, and the average relatedness coefficient was 5.52%. The effective population size (Ne) computed by an individual increase in inbreeding was 68.1±13.00; the Ne on equivalent generations was 42.00, and this value slightly increased to 42.20 when computed by Log regression on equivalent generations. The analysis confirmed the presence of seven traditional male lines. The percentage of Thoroughbred blood in the foals born in 2015 was 20.30% and has increased 0.21%/year since 1980; in particular, it increased more than twice (0.51%/year) until 1993 and afterwards slightly fluctuated. The pedigree analysis confirmed the completeness of genealogical information and the traditional importance that breeders gave to the male lines; although the genetic diversity of Maremmano seemed to be not endangered by the selection program, some effects on the population structure were found and a more scientific approach to genetic conservation should be incorporated in the selection plans.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1751731118001180
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2019)
  • Dietary resveratrol impairs body weight gain due to reduction of feed
           intake without affecting fatty acid composition in Atlantic salmon
    • Authors: D. Menoyo; G. Kühn, N. Ruiz-Lopez, K. Pallauf, I. Stubhaug, J. J. Pastor, I. R. Ipharraguerre, G. Rimbach
      Pages: 25 - 32
      Abstract: Recent studies suggest that the use of vegetable oils at expense of fish oil in aquaculture feeds might have potential negative effects on fish redox homeostasis and adiposity. Resveratrol (RESV) is a lipid-soluble phytoalexin present in fruits and vegetables with proven in vivo antioxidant function in animals. The present study aims to assess the potential use of RESV in Atlantic salmon feeds. To this end, post-smolt salmons with an initial BW of 148±3 g were fed four experimental diets for 15 weeks. A diet low in fish oil served as a control and was supplemented with 0, 0.5, 1.5 and 2.5 g/kg of RESV, respectively. The effect of the experimental diets on animal performance, tissue fatty acid composition, and the expression of genes encoding proteins involved in antioxidant signalling, lipid peroxidation, and metabolism were studied. Resveratrol significantly reduced feed intake and final BW of the salmon. Feeding RESV did not affect the sum of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids or total lipids in the fillet. While the content of total polyunsaturated fatty acids was not affected, the percentages of some fatty acids in the liver and fillet were changed by RESV. Furthermore, in liver, the relative expression of glutathione peroxidase 4b, nuclear factor-like 2, and arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase remained unchanged across treatment groups. In conclusion, the negative impact of dietary RESV on FI and hence reduction of the BW discourages its inclusion in low fish oil diets for Atlantic salmon.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1751731118000812
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2019)
  • Effects of probiotic supplementation on performance traits, bone
           mineralization, cecal microbial composition, cytokines and corticosterone
           in laying hens
    • Authors: F. F. Yan; G. R. Murugesan, H. W. Cheng
      Pages: 33 - 41
      Abstract: Recent researches have showed that probiotics promote bone health in humans and rodents. The objective of this study was to determine if probiotics have the similar effects in laying hens. Ninety-six 60-week-old White Leghorn hens were assigned to four-hen cages based on their BW. The cages were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: a layer diet mixed with a commercial probiotic product (containing Enterococcus faecium, Pediococcus acidilactici, Bifidobacterium animalis and Lactobacillus reuteri) at 0, 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 g/kg feed (Control, 0.5×, 1.0× and 2.0×) for 7 weeks. Cecal Bifidobacterium spp. counts were higher in all probiotic groups (P0.05). In addition, the plasma concentrations of cytokines (interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, interleukin-10, interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α) and corticosterone as well as the levels of heterophil to lymphocyte ratio were similar between the 2.0× group and the control group (P>0.05). In line with these findings, no differences of cecal tonsil mRNA expressions of interleukin-1β, interleukin-6 and lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-α factor were detected between these two groups (P>0.05). These results suggest that immune cytokines and corticosterone may not involve in the probiotic-induced improvement of eggshell quality and bone mineralization in laying hens. In conclusion, the dietary probiotic supplementation altered cecal microbiota composition, resulting in reduced shell-less egg production and improved bone mineralization in laying hens; and the dietary dose of the probiotic up to 2.0× did not cause negative stress reactions in laying hens.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S175173111800109X
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2019)
  • Effects of curcumin on performance, antioxidation, intestinal barrier and
           mitochondrial function in ducks fed corn contaminated with ochratoxin A
    • Authors: D. Ruan; W. C. Wang, C. X. Lin, A. M. Fouad, W. Chen, W. G. Xia, S. Wang, X. Luo, W. H. Zhang, S. J. Yan, C. T. Zheng, L. Yang
      Pages: 42 - 52
      Abstract: Curcumin has been attributed with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial activities, and has shown highly protective effects against enteropathogenic bacteria and mycotoxins. Ochratoxin A (OTA) is one of the major intestinal pathogenic mycotoxins. The possible effect of curcumin on the alleviation of enterotoxicity induced by OTA is unknown. The effects of dietary curcumin supplementation on OTA-induced oxidative stress, intestinal barrier and mitochondrial dysfunctions were examined in young ducks. A total of 540 mixed-sex 1-day-old White Pekin ducklings with initial BW (43.4±0.1 g) were randomly assigned into controls (fed only the basal diet), a group fed an OTA-contaminated diet (2 mg/kg feed), and a group fed the same OTA-contaminated feed plus 400 mg/kg of curcumin. Each treatment consisted of six replicates, each containing 30 ducklings and treatment lasted for 21 days. There was a significant decrease in average daily gain (ADG) and increased feed : gain caused by OTA (P
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1751731118000678
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2019)
  • Bilberry pomace in rabbit nutrition: effects on growth performance,
           apparent digestibility, caecal traits, bacterial community and antioxidant
    • Authors: S. Dabbou; I. Ferrocino, A. Kovitvadhi, S. Dabbou, S. Bergagna, D. Dezzuto, A. Schiavone, L. Cocolin, F. Gai, V. Santoro, L. Gasco
      Pages: 53 - 63
      Abstract: Agricultural by-products could be used as alternative raw materials in rabbit nutrition as they have been found to be highly nutritious and low cost feeding sources. The aim of this study was to estimate the nutritive value and potential use of bilberry pomace (BP) for growing rabbits. A total of 144 Grimaud rabbits (35 days old) were allotted to four groups and fed with a diet containing increasing level of BP: BP0 (basal diet), BP5, BP10 and BP15 containing 0, 50, 100 and 150 g/kg respectively. Growth trial lasted 48 days; apparent digestibility was evaluated, starting at 46 days of age, over 4 consecutive days. The nutritive value of BP was measured using the mean digestibility of the experimental diets. At 83 days of age, rabbits were slaughtered: blood, and liver and kidney samples were collected in order to determine the blood parameters and the antioxidant enzyme activities of the tissues. Moreover, caecal content was sampled and gut microbiota assessed by means of amplicon-based high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. The digestible protein was estimated to 104 g/kg of DM while digestible energy to 9.44 MJ/kg DM for incorporation rate up to 150 g/kg. During the finishing period, average daily feed intake and feed conversion ratio showed linear response to BP increase (P=0.008 and
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S175173111800099X
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2019)
  • Resistant starch reduces large intestinal pH and promotes fecal
           lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in pigs
    • Authors: B. U. Metzler-Zebeli; N. Canibe, L. Montagne, J. Freire, P. Bosi, J. A. M. Prates, S. Tanghe, P. Trevisi
      Pages: 64 - 73
      Abstract: Dietary resistant starch (RS) may have prebiotic properties but its effects on fermentation and the microbial population are inconsistent. This meta-analysis aimed to quantify the relationship between RS type 2 (RS2) and intestinal short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and pH as well as certain key bacterial taxa for intestinal health in pigs. From the 24 included articles with sufficient information about the animal, and dietary and physiological measurements published between 2000 and 2017, individual sub-data sets for fermentation metabolites, pH, bacterial abundances and apparent total tract digestibility were built and used to parameterize prediction models on the effect of RS2, accounting for inter- and intra-study variability. In addition, the effect of pig’s BW at the start of the experiment and duration of the experimental period on response variables were also evaluated using backward elimination analysis. Dietary RS levels ranged from 0% to 78.0% RS, with median and mean RS levels of 28.8% and 23.0%, respectively. Negative relationships could be established between dietary RS and pH in the large intestine (P
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1751731118001003
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2019)
  • Dietary CP and amino acid restriction has a different impact on the
           dynamics of protein, amino acid and fat deposition in entire male,
           castrated and female pigs
    • Authors: I. Ruiz-Ascacibar; P. Stoll, M. Kreuzer, G. Bee
      Pages: 74 - 82
      Abstract: Breeding efforts over the last decades altered markedly empty body (EB) composition of pigs. This study aimed to re-evaluate the dynamics of changes in the composition and deposition rate of fat, protein and amino acids (AA) in the EB from birth to 140 kg BW depending on the dietary CP and AA supply in a current pig genotype. In the experiment 66 entire male, 58 castrated and 66 female Swiss Large White pigs were used. From 20 kg BW onwards, they had either ad libitum access to a control (C) diet or a diet (LP) compared to diet C only 80% of CP, lysine, methione+cystine, threonine and tryptophan. The EB composition was determined at birth on eight boars and eight females, at 10 and 20 kg BW on two boars, two castrates and two females, and at 20 kg intervals from 40 to 140 kg BW, on four pigs per gender and dietary treatment. Each EB fraction was weighed and analysed for protein, fat and AA profile. The AA-to-lysine ratio was calculated and the different chemical component contents were fitted to allometric regressions. Overall, C-boars had the greatest EB protein and AA content and deposition rates, and lowest fat content and deposition rates. At the beginning of the grower period, LP-castrates and females displayed the lowest protein and AA and the highest fat deposition rates. However, compared with their counterparts in the C-group, in LP-castrates and females protein and AA deposition rates were greater above 64 and 40 kg EB weight, respectively, whereas fat deposition rates was lower above 80 kg EB weight. Thus, there seems a great potential to optimise protein and AA efficiency especially in the finisher period in castrates and females. Important individual variations were found in the essential AA-to-lysine ratio of the EB. Phenylalanine and threonine-to-lysine ratios decreased with increasing EB weight. Valine- and threonine-to-lysine ratios in C-castrates and C-females were 5% and 4% greater than recently reported by the National Research Council (NRC) whereas cysteine-, methionine- and tyrosine-to-lysine ratios were lower by 34%, 25% and 10%, respectively. The clear differences found between the EB AA-to-lysine ratios in the present study and the NRC might partly be explained by the genotype and the temporal changes in the relative weight of each EB fraction or changes in the AA profile. Nevertheless, these findings on changes in the essential AA profile of tissue protein warrant further studies.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1751731118000770
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2019)
  • Development of equations, based on milk intake, to predict starter feed
           intake of preweaned dairy calves
    • Authors: A. L. Silva; T. J. DeVries, L. O. Tedeschi, M. I. Marcondes
      Pages: 83 - 89
      Abstract: There is a lack of studies that provide models or equations capable of predicting starter feed intake (SFI) for milk-fed dairy calves. Therefore, a multi-study analysis was conducted to identify variables that influence SFI, and to develop equations to predict SFI in milk-fed dairy calves up to 64 days of age. The database was composed of individual data of 176 calves from eight experiments, totaling 6426 daily observations of intake. The information collected from the studies were: birth BW (kg), SFI (kg/day), fluid milk or milk replacer intake (MI; l/day), sex (male or female), breed (Holstein or Holstein×Gyr crossbred) and age (days). Correlations between SFI and the quantitative variables MI, birth BW, metabolic birth BW, fat intake, CP intake, metabolizable energy intake, and age were calculated. Subsequently, data were graphed, and based on a visual appraisal of the pattern of the data, an exponential function was chosen. Data were evaluated using a meta-analysis approach to estimate fixed and random effects of the experiments using nonlinear mixed coefficient statistical models. A negative correlation between SFI and MI was observed (r=−0.39), but age was positively correlated with SFI (r=0.66). No effect of liquid feed source (milk or milk replacer) was observed in developing the equation. Two equations, significantly different for all parameters, were fit to predict SFI for calves that consume less than 5 (SFI5) l/day of milk or milk replacer: ${\rm SFI}_{{\,\lt\,5}} {\equals}0.1839_{{\,\pm\,0.0581}} {\times}{\rm MI}{\times}{\rm exp}^{{\left( {\left( {0.0333_{{\,\pm\,0.0021 }} {\minus}0.0040_{{\,\pm\,0.0011}} {\times}{\rm MI}} \right){\times}\left( {{\rm A}{\minus}{\rm }\left( {0.8302_{{\,\pm\,0.5092}} {\plus}6.0332_{{\,\pm\,0.3583}} {\times}{\rm MI}} \right)} \right)} \right)}} {\minus}\left( {0.12{\times}{\rm MI}} \right)$ ; ${\rm SFI}_{{\,\gt\,5}} {\equals}0.1225_{{\,\pm\,0.0005 }} {\times}{\rm MI}{\times}{\rm exp}^{{\left( {\left( {0.0217_{{\,\pm\,0.0006 }} {\minus}0.0015_{{\,\pm\,0.0001}} {\times}{\rm MI}} \right){\times}\left( {{\rm A}{\minus}\left( {3.5382_{{\,\pm\,1.3140 }} {\plus}1.9508_{{\,\pm\,0.1710}} {\times}{\rm MI}} \right)} \right)} \right)}} {\minus}\left( {0.12{\times}{\rm MI}} \right)$ where MI is the milk or milk replacer intake (l/day) and A the age (days). Cross-validation and bootstrap analyses demonstrated that these equations had high accuracy and moderate precision. In conclusion, the use of milk or milk replacer as liquid feed did not affect SFI, or development of SFI over time, which increased exponentially with calf age. Because SFI of calves receiving more than 5 l/day of milk/milk replacer had a different pattern over time than those receiving
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1751731118000666
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2019)
  • Quantitative evaluation of ruminal methane and carbon dioxide formation
           from formate through C-13 stable isotope analysis in a batch culture
    • Authors: Z. X. He; J. Y. Qiao, Q. X. Yan, Z. L. Tan, M Wang
      Pages: 90 - 97
      Abstract: Methane produced from formate is one of the important methanogensis pathways in the rumen. However, quantitative information of CH4 production from formate has been rarely reported. The aim of this study was to characterize the conversion rate (CR) of formic acid into CH4 and CO2 by rumen microorganisms. Ground lucerne hay was incubated with buffered ruminal fluid for 6, 12, 24 and 48 h. Before the incubation, 13C-labeled H13COOH was also supplied into the incubation bottle at a dose of 0, 1.5, 2.2 or 2.9 mg/g of DM substrate. There were no interactions (P>0.05) between dose and incubation time for all variables evaluated. When expressed as an absolute amount (ml in gas sample) or a relative CR (%), both 13CH4 and 13CO2 production quadratically increased (P
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1751731118000691
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2019)
  • Reactions to saline drinking water in Boer goats in a free-choice system
    • Authors: R. A. Runa; L. Brinkmann, A. Riek, J. Hummel, M. Gerken
      Pages: 98 - 105
      Abstract: Salinization of groundwater and soil is a prevalent global issue with serious consequences on animal health and production. The present study was conducted to investigate the capacity of Boer goats to adjust their salt intake from saline drinking water in a free-choice system. In total, 12 non-pregnant Boer goats aged between 1 and 8 years with an average BW of 46.4±8.3 kg were kept in individual pens for 4 weeks. In the control phase (1 week), only fresh water was supplied in five identical buckets for each pen. During the subsequent treatment phase (3 weeks), fresh water and four different concentrations (0.75, 1.0, 1.25 and 1.5% NaCl) of saline water were offered simultaneously in a free-choice system. The positions of the concentrations were changed daily at random. Cut hay and water were provided ad libitum, and a mineral supplement was allocated. Feed and water intake, mineral supplement intake, ambient temperature and relative humidity were recorded daily, whereas BW and body condition score were measured weekly. Dry matter intake, total water intake and total sodium intake were significantly (P
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1751731118000800
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2019)
  • Evaluation of panicle residue from broom sorghum as a feed ingredient in
           finishing diets for lambs
    • Authors: A. Estrada-Angulo; F. Coronel-Burgos, B. I. Castro-Pérez, A. Barreras, R. A. Zinn, L. Corona-Gochi, A. Plascencia
      Pages: 106 - 111
      Abstract: Sorghum panicle residue (SPR), a by-product of Sorghum vulgare, obtained in the manufacture of brooms and wisks, has potential as a partial substitute for grain in growing-finishing diets for feedlot lambs. Accordingly, 48 Pelibuey×Katahdin lambs (initial weight=16.2±4.3 kg) were used in an 84-d growth-performance trial to evaluate its comparative feeding value. Lambs were blocked by weight and assigned within weight groupings to 12 pens (4 lambs per pen). The SPR was finely ground before it was incorporated into the diet. The basal diet contained 60% whole grain sorghum (WGS; DM basis). Dietary treatments consisted in the replacement of WGS with 0, 50, or 100% SPR. Replacement of WGS with SPR decreased (linear effect, P=0.04) average daily gain (ADG), and tended to increase (linear effect, P=0.06) dry matter intake (DMI). Replacement of WGS with SPR decreased (linear effect, P
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1751731118001015
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2019)
  • Net mineral requirements for the growth and maintenance of Somali lambs
    • Authors: E. S. Pereira; F. W. R. Lima, A. C. N. Campos, M. S. S. Carneiro, L. P. Silva, M. W. F. Pereira, A. N. Medeiros, L. R. Bezerra, R. L. Oliveira
      Pages: 112 - 118
      Abstract: Minerals are limiting factors in animal production, and the knowledge of mineral requirements for livestock is crucial to the success of a commercial enterprise. Hair sheep may have different mineral requirements than those presents by the international committees. A study was carried to evaluate the net calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), potassium (K), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) and copper (Cu) requirements for the growth and maintenance of Brazilian Somali lambs. A total of 48 hair lambs (13.5±1.8 kg) aged 60±15 days were allocated to individual pens. Eight animals were slaughtered at the beginning of the experiment to serve as a reference group to estimate initial empty BW (EBW) and initial body composition. The remaining lambs (n=40) were assigned to a completely randomized design with eight replications in five levels of metabolizable energy (ME; 4.93, 8.65, 9.41, 10.12 and 11.24 MJ/kg DM). When the lambs of a given treatment reached an average BW of 28 kg, they were slaughtered. Initial body composition was used to calculate the retention of minerals. Mineral body composition was fit using a logarithmic equation in the form of a nonlinear model. The maintenance requirements were estimated from regressions of mineral retention in the empty body on mineral intake. The body mineral concentration decreased in lambs with a BW ranging from 15 to 30 kg. The net mineral requirements (100 g/day of average daily gain (ADG)) decreased from 0.52 to 0.51 g for Ca, 0.28 to 0.23 g for P, 0.02 to 0.02 g for Mg, 0.09 to 0.08 g for Na, 0.11 to 0.09 g for K, 1.30 to 1.08 mg for Zn, 3.77 to 3.22 mg for Fe, 0.08 to 0.06 mg for Mn and 0.09 to 0.08 mg for Cu when BW increased from 15 to 30 kg. The daily net requirements for maintenance per kilogram of BW were 30.13 mg of Ca, 27.58 mg of P, 1.26 mg of Mg, 4.12 mg of Na, 8.11 mg of K, 0.133 mg of Zn, 0.271 mg of Fe, 0.002 mg of Mn and 0.014 mg of Cu. The results of this study indicate that the net mineral requirements for weight gain and maintenance in Brazilian Somali lambs are different than the values that are commonly recommended by the main evaluation systems for feed and nutritional requirements for sheep. These results for the nutritional requirements of minerals may help to optimize mineral supply for hair sheep.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1751731118000782
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2019)
  • Alternative rib bone biopsy measurements to estimate changes in skeletal
           mineral reserves in cattle
    • Authors: R. M. Dixon; D. B. Coates, R. J. Mayer, C. P. Miller
      Pages: 119 - 126
      Abstract: Rib bone biopsy samples are often used to estimate changes in skeletal mineral reserves in cattle but differences in sampling procedures and the bone measurements reported often make interpretation and comparisons among experiments difficult. ‘Full-core’ rib bone biopsy samples, which included the external cortical bone, internal cortical bone and trabecular bone (CBext, CBint and Trab, respectively), were obtained from cattle known to be in phosphorus (P) adequate (Padeq) or severely P-deficient (Pdefic) status. Experiments 1 and 2 examined growing steers and Experiment 3 mature breeder cows. The thickness of cortical bone, specific gravity (SG), and the amount and concentration of ash and P per unit fresh bone volume, differed among CBext, CBint and Trab bone. P concentration (mg/cc) was closely correlated with both SG and ash concentrations (pooled data, r=0.99). Thickness of external cortical bone (CBText) was correlated with full-core P concentration (FC-Pconc) (pooled data, r=0.87). However, an index, the amount of P in CBext per unit surface area of CBext (PSACB; mg P/mm2), was more closely correlated with the FC-Pconc (pooled data, FC-Pconc=37.0+146×PSACB; n=42, r=0.94, RSD=7.7). Results for measured or estimated FC-Pconc in 10 published studies with cattle in various physiological states and expected to be Padeq or in various degrees of Pdefic status were collated and the ranges of FC-Pconc indicative of P adequacy and P deficiency for various classes of cattle were evaluated. FC-Pconc was generally in the range 130 to 170 and 100 to 120 mg/cc fresh bone in Padeq mature cows and young growing cattle, respectively. In conclusion, the FC-Pconc could be estimated accurately from biopsy samples of CBext. This allows comparisons between studies where full-core or only CBext biopsy samples of rib bone have been obtained to estimate changes in the skeletal P status of cattle and facilitates evaluation of the P status of cattle.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S175173111800068X
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2019)
  • Effect of timing of corn silage supplementation to Holstein dairy cows
           given limited daily access to pasture: intake and performance
    • Authors: D. A. Mattiauda; M. J. Gibb, M. Carriquiry, S. Tamminga, P. Chilibroste
      Pages: 127 - 135
      Abstract: The timing in which supplements are provided in grazing systems can affect dry matter (DM) intake and productive performance. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of timing of corn silage supplementation on ingestive behaviour, DM intake, milk yield and composition in grazing dairy cows. In total, 33 Holstein dairy cows in a randomized block design grazed on a second-year mixed grass–legume pasture from 0900 to 1500 h and received 2.7 kg of a commercial supplement at each milking. Paddock sizes were adjusted to provide a daily herbage allowance of 15 kg DM/cow determined at ground level. The three treatments imposed each provided 3.8 kg DM/day of corn silage offered in a single meal at 0800 h (Treatment AM), equally distributed in two meals 0800 and 1700 h (Treatment AM-PM) or a single meal at 1700 h (Treatment PM). The experiment was carried out during the late autumn and early winter period, with 1 week of adaptation and 6 weeks of measurements. There were no differences between treatments in milk yield, but 4% fat-corrected milk yield tended to be greater in AM-PM than in AM cows, which did not differ from PM (23.7, 25.3 and 24.6±0.84 kg/day for AM, AM-PM and PM, respectively). Fat percentage and yield were greater for AM-PM than for AM cows and intermediate for PM cows (3.89 v. 3.66±0.072% and 1.00 v. 0.92±0.035 kg/day, respectively). Offering corn silage in two meals had an effect on herbage DM intake which was greater for AM-PM than AM cows and was intermediate in PM cows (8.5, 11.0 and 10.3±0.68 kg/day for AM, AM-PM and PM, respectively). During the 6-h period at pasture, the overall proportion of observations on which cows were grazing tended to be different between treatments and a clear grazing pattern along the grazing session (1-h observation period) was identified. During the time at pasture, the proportion of observations during which cows ruminated was positively correlated with the DM intake of corn silage immediately before turn out to pasture. The treatment effects on herbage DM intake did not sufficiently explain differences in productive performance. This suggests that the timing of the corn silage supplementation affected rumen kinetics and likewise the appearance of hunger and satiety signals as indicated by observed changes in temporal patterns of grazing and ruminating activities.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1751731118000794
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2019)
  • The effects of superoxide dismutase-rich melon pulp concentrate on
           inflammation, antioxidant status and growth performance of challenged
           post-weaning piglets
    • Authors: A. S. M. L. Ahasan; G. Invernizzi, G. Farina, A. Pilotto, F. Barbé, V. Bontempo, R. Rossi, F. Bellagamba, C. Lecchi, G. Savoini, A. Agazzi
      Pages: 136 - 143
      Abstract: Piglets can often suffer impaired antioxidant status and poor immune response during post-weaning, especially when chronic inflammation takes place, leading to lower growth rates than expected. Oral administration of dietary antioxidant compounds during this period could be a feasible way to balance oxidation processes and increase health and growth performance. The aim of the trial was to study the effects of an antioxidant feed supplement (melon pulp concentrate) that contains high concentration of the antioxidant superoxide dismutase (SOD) on inflammation, antioxidant status and growth performance of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenged weaned piglets. In total, 48 weaned piglets were individually allocated to four experimental groups in a 2×2 factorial design for 29 days. Two different dietary treatments were adopted: (a) control (CTR), fed a basal diet, (b) treatment (MPC), fed the basal diet plus 30 g/ton of melon pulp concentrate. On days 19, 21, 23 and 25 half of the animals within CTR and MPC groups were subjected to a challenge with intramuscular injections of an increasing dosage of LPS from Escherichia coli (serotype 0.55:B5) (+) or were injected with an equal amount of PBS solution (−). Blood samples were collected at the beginning of the trial and under the challenge period for interleukin 1β, interleukin 6, tumour necrosis factor α, haptoglobin, plasma SOD activity, total antioxidant capacity, reactive oxygen species, red blood cells and plasma resistance to haemolysis, and 8-oxo-7, 8-dihydro-2’-deoxyguanosine. Growth performance was evaluated weekly. A positive effect of melon pulp concentrate was evidenced on total antioxidant capacity, half-haemolysis time of red blood cells, average daily gain (ADG) and feed intake, while LPS challenge increased pro-inflammatory cytokines and haptoglobin serum concentrations, with a reduced feed intake and gain : feed (G : F). The obtained results show that oral SOD supplementation with melon pulp concentrate ameliorates the total antioxidant capacity and the half-haemolysis time in red blood cell of post-weaning piglets, with positive results on growing performance.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1751731118001234
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2019)
  • Lactobacillus+acidophilus+fermentation+product+can+attenuate+the+acute+phase+response+following+a+lipopolysaccharide+challenge+in+weaned+pigs&rft.title=animal&rft.issn=1751-7311&,+P.+R.+Broadway,+B.+E.+Bass,+J.+W.+Frank&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S1751731118001222">Supplementation of a Lactobacillus acidophilus fermentation product can
           attenuate the acute phase response following a lipopolysaccharide
           challenge in weaned pigs
    • Authors: N. C. Burdick Sanchez; J. A. Carroll, P. R. Broadway, B. E. Bass, J. W. Frank
      Pages: 144 - 152
      Abstract: Lactobacillus acidophilus fermentation products have been used to improve the performance of nursery pigs. However, research on the influence of this supplement on health is lacking. This study was designed to determine if feeding a Lactobacillus acidophilus fermentation product to weaned pigs would reduce stress and acute phase responses (APR) following a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Pigs (n=30; 6.4±0.1 kg) were individually housed in stainless steel pens with ad libitum access to feed and water. Pigs were weighed upon arrival, assigned to one of three groups (n=10/treatment), and fed for 18 days: (1) Control, fed a non-medicated starter diet; (2) Control diet with the inclusion of a Lactobacillus acidophilus fermentation product at 1 kg/metric ton (SGX1) and (3) Control diet with the inclusion of a Lactobacillus acidophilus fermentation product at 2 kg/metric ton (SGX2). On day 7 pigs were anesthetized for insertion of an i.p. temperature device, and similarly on day 14 for insertion of a jugular catheter. Pigs were challenged i.v. with LPS (25 µg/kg BW) on day 15. Blood samples were collected at 0.5 h (serum) and 1 h (complete blood cell counts) intervals from −2 to 8 h and at 24 h relative to LPS administration at 0 h. Pigs and feeders were weighed on days 7, 14 and 18. The supplemented pigs had increased BW and average daily gain before the challenge. In response to LPS, there was a greater increase in i.p. temperature in Control pigs compared with supplemented pigs. In addition, cortisol was reduced in SGX2 pigs while cortisol was elevated in SGX1 pigs at several time points post-challenge. White blood cells, neutrophils and lymphocytes were decreased in SGX1 and SGX2 compared with Control pigs. Furthermore, the pro-inflammatory cytokine response varied by treatment and dose of treatment. Specifically, serum TNF-α was greatest in SGX2, intermediate in Control, and least in SGX1 pigs, while the magnitude and temporal pattern of IFN-γ in SGX2 pigs was delayed and reduced. In contrast, IL-6 concentrations were reduced in both SGX treatment groups compared with Control pigs. These data demonstrate that different supplementation feed inclusion rates produced differential responses, and that feeding SynGenX to weaned pigs attenuated the APR to an LPS challenge.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1751731118001222
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2019)
  • Physiologic and innate immunity responses to bacterial lipopolysaccharide
           administration in beef heifers supplemented with OmniGen-AF
    • Authors: A. P. Brandão; R. F. Cooke, K. M. Schubach, R. S. Marques
      Pages: 153 - 160
      Abstract: Nutritional alternatives to strengthen animal immunocompetence are critical for welfare and productivity in livestock systems, such as beef cattle operations. This experiment evaluated physiological and innate immunity effects of supplementing an immunomodulatory feed ingredient (Omnigen-AF; Phibro Animal Health, Teaneck, NJ, USA) to beef heifers administered bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In total, 8 non-pregnant, non-lactating nulliparous Angus×Hereford heifers (676±4 days of age) were ranked by BW (473±8 kg), and assigned to crossover design containing two periods of 34 days each. Heifers were housed in individual pens and had ad libitum access to meadow foxtail (Alopecurus pratensis L.) hay, water and a granulated commercial vitamin+mineral mix. Within each period, heifers received (as-fed basis) 227 g/day of dried distillers grains including (OMN) or not (CON) 56 g of Omnigen-AF for 34 days. On day 28 of each period (0800 h), heifers received an intravenous bolus dose (0.5 μg/kg of BW, diluted in 5 ml of 0.9% sterile saline) of bacterial LPS (Escherichia coli 0111:B4). Hay DM intake was recorded daily from day 0 to 34. Blood was collected at −1, 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 4, 5, 6, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 and 144 h relative to LPS administration. Heifer intravaginal temperature was recorded every 10 min from −0.5 to 10 h relative to LPS administration. No treatment effect was detected (P=0.35) for hay DM intake during the experiment. No treatment effects were detected (P⩾0.64) for intravaginal temperature and plasma concentrations of tumor necrosis-α, cortisol and haptoglobin, which increased (time effect, P
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1751731118001441
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2019)
  • Review: Assessing fish welfare in research and aquaculture, with a focus
           on European directives
    • Authors: M. Toni; A. Manciocco, E. Angiulli, E. Alleva, C. Cioni, S. Malavasi
      Pages: 161 - 170
      Abstract: The number of farmed fish in the world has increased considerably. Aquaculture is a growing industry that will in the future provide a large portion of fishery products. Moreover, in recent years, the number of teleost fish used as animal models for scientific research in both biomedical and ecological fields has increased. Therefore, it is increasingly important to implement measures designed to enhance the welfare of these animals. Currently, a number of European rules exist as requirements for the establishment, care and accommodation of fish maintained for human purposes. As far as (teleost) fish are concerned, the fact that the number of extant species is much greater than that of all other vertebrates must be considered. Of further importance is that each species has its own specific physical and chemical requirements. These factors make it difficult to provide generalized recommendations or requirements for all fish species. An adequate knowledge is required of the physiology and ecology of each species bred. This paper integrates and discusses, in a single synthesis, the current issues related to fish welfare, considering that teleosts are target species for both aquaculture and experimental models in biological and biomedical research. We first focus on the practical aspects, which must be considered when assessing fish welfare in both research and aquaculture contexts. Next, we address husbandry and the care of fish housed in research laboratories and aquaculture facilities in relation to their physiological and behavioural requirements, as well as in reference to the suggestions provided by European regulations. Finally, to evaluate precisely which parameters described by Directive 2010/63/EU are reported in scientific papers, we analysed 82 articles published by European researchers in 2014 and 2015. This review found that there is a general lack of information related to the optimal environmental conditions that should be provided for the range of species covered by this directive.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1751731118000940
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2019)
  • Play behaviour, fear responses and activity levels in commercial broiler
           chickens provided with preferred environmental enrichments
    • Authors: M. Baxter; C. L. Bailie, N. E. O’Connell
      Pages: 171 - 179
      Abstract: There is currently a lack of research investigating the effectiveness of commercial broiler enrichments, and in particular the ability of these additions to create opportunities for positive welfare. One aim of this study was to investigate whether offering broiler chickens enrichments that have recently been found to be preferred leads to increased levels of activity. A second aim was to investigate the emotional effects of provision of these enrichments by assessing levels of fearfulness and play-like activity. Commercially housed broilers were assigned to treatment houses containing either: (1) platform perches, (2) platform perches+peat dust baths, (3) no enrichment (control). Activity levels and play behaviours in unenriched areas of the house were measured in weeks 3, 4 and 5. Levels of active behaviours, such as foraging and locomotion, were determined from video recordings of undisturbed birds in unenriched areas of the house. To stimulate play-like behaviours an observer walked through the birds, displacing them and creating a space. The broilers using the space were then filmed for 5 min and the occurrences of frolicking, sparring and food-running were recorded. Fearfulness of broilers in unenriched areas of the house, and also when using enrichments, was measured using observer avoidance tests in week 5. We found that creating space among the broilers was a successful method of stimulating play (largely sparring and frolicking), with play being observed in 93% of videos, however the presence of enrichments did not have an effect on the level of play recorded (P>0.05). There was also no treatment effect on activity levels of broilers in unenriched areas (P>0.05), however levels of overall activity decreased as broilers aged. Compared with the control, flight distances in unenriched areas were significantly lower in the perches+dust bath treatment (P=0.026), and were numerically lower in the perches treatment. This suggests a reduction in fearfulness with increased environmental complexity, and thus possible welfare benefits. It is suggested that further research should investigate whether increasing the level of provision of these enrichments leads to more marked improvements in welfare.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1751731118001118
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2019)
  • Consistency is key: interactions of current and previous farrowing system
           on litter size and piglet mortality
    • Authors: R. L. King; E. M. Baxter, S. M. Matheson, S. A. Edwards
      Pages: 180 - 188
      Abstract: Global interest in alternative indoor farrowing systems is increasing, leading to a growing number of farms utilising such systems alongside standard crates. There is evidence that interchanging sows between different farrowing systems affects maternal behaviour, whilst the subsequent effect of this on piglet mortality is unknown. The current study hypothesised that second parity piglet mortality would be higher if a sow farrowed in a different farrowing system to that of her first parity. Retrospective farm performance records were used from 753 sows during their first and second parities. Sows farrowed in either standard crates (crates), temporary crates (360s) or straw-bedded pens (pens), with mortality recorded as occurring either pre- or post-processing. Inter- and intra-parity sow consistency in performance were also investigated. Overall, total piglet mortality reduced from the first to the second parity, being significantly higher in the crates and higher in the 360s during the first or second parity, respectively. In the second parity, an interaction of the current and previous farrowing systems resulted in the lowest incidence of crushing for sows housed in the same system as their first parity for the crates and pens, but not the 360s. Post-processing mortality was significantly higher in the crates if a sow previously farrowed in the 360s and vice versa. Sows which previously farrowed in a pen had a significantly larger litter size and lower pre-processing mortality from crushing in their second parity than sows previously housed in the crates or the 360s. No inter-parity consistency of sow performance was found, whilst intra-parity consistency was found in the first but not second parity. In conclusion, returning sows to the same farrowing system appears to reduce piglet mortality, whilst farrowing in a pen during the first parity significantly increased second parity litter size without increasing piglet mortality.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1751731118000927
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2019)
  • Temporary crate opening procedure affects immediate post-opening piglet
           mortality and sow behaviour
    • Authors: R. L. King; E. M. Baxter, S. M. Matheson, S. A. Edwards
      Pages: 189 - 197
      Abstract: Producers are interested in utilising farrowing systems with reduced confinement to improve sow welfare. However, concerns of increased mortality may limit commercial uptake. Temporary confinement systems utilise a standard crate which is opened 3 to 7 days postpartum, providing protection for neonatal piglets at their most vulnerable age and later increased freedom of movement for sows. However, there is anecdotal evidence that piglet mortality increases immediately after the temporary crate is opened. The current study aims were to determine if piglet mortality increases post-opening, to trial different opening techniques to reduce post-opening piglet mortality and to identify how the different opening techniques influence sow behaviour. Three opening treatments were implemented across 416 sows: two involved opening crates individually within each farrowing house when each litter reached 7 days of age, in either the morning or afternoon (AM or PM), with a control of the standard method used on the farm to open all crates in each farrowing house simultaneously once the average litter age reached 7 days (ALL). Behavioural observations were performed on five sows from each treatment during the 6 h after crate opening, and during the same 6 h period on the previous and subsequent days. Across all treatments, piglet mortality was significantly higher in the post-opening than pre-opening period (P
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1751731118000915
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2019)
  • Impact of longevity on greenhouse gas emissions and profitability of
           individual dairy cows analysed with different system boundaries
    • Authors: F. Grandl; M. Furger, M. Kreuzer, M. Zehetmeier
      Pages: 198 - 208
      Abstract: Dairy production systems are often criticized as being major emitters of greenhouse gases (GHG). In this context, the extension of the length of the productive life of dairy cows is gaining interest as a potential GHG mitigation option. In the present study, we investigated cow and system GHG emission intensity and profitability based on data from 30 dairy cows of different productive lifetime fed either no or limited amounts of concentrate. Detailed information concerning productivity, feeding and individual enteric methane emissions of the individuals was available from a controlled experiment and herd book databases. A simplified GHG balance was calculated for each animal based on the milk produced at the time of the experiment and for their entire lifetime milk production. For the lifetime production, we also included the emissions arising from potential beef produced by fattening the offspring of the dairy cows. This accounted for the effect that changes in the length of productive life will affect the replacement rate and thus the number of calves that can be used for beef production. Profitability was assessed by calculating revenues and full economic costs for the cows in the data set. Both emission intensity and profitability were most favourable in cows with long productive life, whereas cows that had not finished their first lactation performed particularly unfavourably with regard to their emissions per unit of product and rearing costs were mostly not repaid. Including the potential beef production, GHG emissions in relation to total production of animal protein also decreased with age, but the overall variability was greater, as the individual cow history (lifetime milk yield, twin births, stillbirths, etc.) added further sources of variation. The present results show that increasing the length of productive life of dairy cows is a viable way to reduce the climate impact and to improve profitability of dairy production.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S175173111800112X
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2019)
  • Mountain pasturing of rearing stock reduces the culling risk as dairy cows
    • Authors: B. Fuerst-Waltl; T. Aichhorn, C. Fuerst
      Pages: 209 - 212
      Abstract: Alpine transhumance or droving livestock to mountainous areas during summer months is highly relevant for Austrian agriculture but also for other countries in Alpine regions. Access of rearing stock to mountain pastures is often claimed to be beneficial with respect to health and longevity, but the robust evidence is scarce. Therefore, its effect was tested by including it in the routine genetic evaluation data set for longevity. Alpine transhumance records from 2004 to 2013 were used. After several plausibility checks and restriction to animals with sire and dam known, records of 871 287 dual-purpose Fleckvieh cows sired by 9953 bulls were available. Data were analysed by means of survival analysis accounting for the time-dependent fixed effects of region-year-season, relative performance within herd, change of herd size, and Alpine pasturing of cows, the fixed effects age at first calving and Alpine pasturing of rearing stock, the random time-dependent effect of herd-year and the random genetic effects of sire and maternal grandsire. Fleckvieh cows that had access to Alpine pasture during their rearing period at least once for a minimum of 60 days had functional longevity that was nearly 2 months prolonged compared with cows that had always stayed on the farms as calves or heifers. In a more detailed analysis, the lowest relative culling risk among the significant estimates was observed for cows that had been Alpine pastured in years 1 and 3; it was about 15% below that of cows that never had access to mountain grazing. Evidence for the beneficial effect of Alpine pasturing of rearing stock on the animals’ later fitness, indicated by longevity, could thus be provided.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1751731118001465
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2019)
  • Effects of sire genotype on lamb performance at weaning in extensive sheep
    • Authors: H. F. Elizalde; A. F. Carson, C. Muñoz
      Pages: 213 - 220
      Abstract: A low finishing weight and poor carcass characteristics are major causes of lower incomes in extensive sheep flocks; however, the use of terminal sire crossbreeding would improve lamb performance and carcass traits under these conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate sire breed effects on the performance of lambs born to Corriedale ewes in extensive sheep systems in Western Patagonia. A total of 10 Corriedale, 10 Dorset, nine Suffolk and seven Texel sires, 16 of which were under a genetic recorded scheme and 20 selected from flocks not participating in genetic improvement programmes, were used across six commercial farms for 2 successive years. Data were collected from 685 lambs of the four resulting genotypes. Overall, Corriedale lambs were 0.47 kg lighter at birth than crossbred lambs (P
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1751731118000848
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2019)
  • Performance and carcass characteristics of steers fed with two levels of
           metabolizable energy intake during summer and winter season
    • Authors: R. A. Arias; J. P. Keim, M. Gandarillas, A. Velásquez, C. Alvarado-Gilis, T. L. Mader
      Pages: 221 - 230
      Abstract: Climate change is producing an increase on extreme weather events around the world such as flooding, drought and extreme ambient temperatures impacting animal production and animal welfare. At present, there is a lack of studies addressing the effects of climatic conditions associated with energy intake in finishing cattle in South American feed yards. Therefore, two experiments were conducted to assess the effects of environmental variables and level of metabolizable energy intake above maintenance requirements (MEI) on performance and carcass quality of steers. In each experiment (winter and summer), steers were fed with 1.85 or 2.72 times of their requirements of metabolizable energy of maintenance. A total of 24 crossbred steers per experiment were used and located in four pens (26.25 m2/head) equipped with a Calan Broadbent Feeding System. Animals were fed with the same diet within each season, varying the amount offered to adjust the MEI treatments. Mud depth, mud scores, tympanic temperature (TT), environmental variables, average daily gain, respiration rates and carcass characteristics plus three thermal comfort indices were collected. Data analysis considered a factorial arrangement (Season and MEI). In addition, a repeated measures analysis was performed for TT and respiration rate. Mean values of ambient temperature, solar radiation and comfort thermal indices were greater in the summer experiment as expected (P
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1751731118001131
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2019)
  • ANM volume 13 issue 1 Cover and Front matter
    • PubDate: 2018-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1751731118003051
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2018)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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