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Publisher: Cambridge University Press   (Total: 373 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 373 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Neuropsychiatrica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Numerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 6.709, CiteScore: 10)
Advances in Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.441, CiteScore: 1)
Aeronautical J., The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Africa     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.582, CiteScore: 1)
African Studies Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.437, CiteScore: 1)
Ageing & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.756, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural and Resource Economics Review     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.414, CiteScore: 1)
AI EDAM     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.375, CiteScore: 1)
AJS Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.128, CiteScore: 0)
American Political Science Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 295, SJR: 5.587, CiteScore: 4)
Anatolian Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.528, CiteScore: 1)
Ancient Mesoamerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.478, CiteScore: 1)
Anglo-Saxon England     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
animal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 2)
Animal Health Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.69, CiteScore: 2)
Animal Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Annals of Actuarial Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Annual of the British School at Athens     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Annual Review of Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 3.223, CiteScore: 4)
Antarctic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.643, CiteScore: 1)
Antichthon     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Antiquaries J., The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Antiquity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
ANZIAM J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.216, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Psycholinguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.945, CiteScore: 2)
APSIPA Transactions on Signal and Information Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.404, CiteScore: 2)
Arabic Sciences and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Arbor Clinical Nutrition Updates     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archaeological Dialogues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.898, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological Reports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.128, CiteScore: 0)
arq: Architectural Research Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 0)
Asian J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.129, CiteScore: 0)
Asian J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.135, CiteScore: 0)
Asian J. of Law and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.195, CiteScore: 0)
Astin Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.878, CiteScore: 1)
Australasian J. of Organisational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.154, CiteScore: 1)
Australian J. of Environmental Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Australian J. of Indigenous Education, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 1)
Australian J. of Rehabilitation Counseling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Austrian History Yearbook     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 0)
Behavioral and Brain Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.595, CiteScore: 1)
Behaviour Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.508, CiteScore: 1)
Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 170, SJR: 0.976, CiteScore: 2)
Bilingualism: Language and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 1.446, CiteScore: 2)
Biofilms     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Bird Conservation Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.581, CiteScore: 1)
BJPsych Advances     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.275, CiteScore: 0)
BJPsych Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BJPsych Open     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Brain Impairment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.321, CiteScore: 1)
Breast Cancer Online     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Britannia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
British Actuarial J.     Full-text available via subscription  
British Catholic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.133, CiteScore: 1)
British J. for the History of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
British J. of Anaesthetic and Recovery Nursing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
British J. of Music Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.564, CiteScore: 1)
British J. Of Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 84, SJR: 1.612, CiteScore: 4)
British J. of Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 199, SJR: 4.661, CiteScore: 4)
British J. of Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 211, SJR: 2.844, CiteScore: 3)
Bulletin of Entomological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.805, CiteScore: 2)
Bulletin of Symbolic Logic     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 1)
Bulletin of the Australian Mathematical Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 0)
Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Business and Human Rights J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Business Ethics Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.098, CiteScore: 2)
Business History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.347, CiteScore: 1)
Cambridge Archaeological J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 142, SJR: 1.121, CiteScore: 1)
Cambridge Classical J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Cambridge J. of Postcolonial Literary Inquiry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Cambridge Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 193, SJR: 0.213, CiteScore: 0)
Cambridge Opera J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.14, CiteScore: 0)
Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.299, CiteScore: 1)
Camden Fifth Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Canadian Entomologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.482, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.624, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Law & Jurisprudence     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.237, CiteScore: 0)
Canadian J. of Law and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.259, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Neurological Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.549, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Political Science/Revue canadienne de science politique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.385, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. on Aging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.426, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Yearbook of Intl. Law / Annuaire canadien de droit international     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Cardiology in the Young     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.372, CiteScore: 1)
Central European History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.159, CiteScore: 0)
Children Australia     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.255, CiteScore: 0)
China Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 2.289, CiteScore: 3)
Chinese J. of Agricultural Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Church History: Studies in Christianity and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 72, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Classical Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 0)
Classical Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
CNS Spectrums     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.391, CiteScore: 3)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Combinatorics, Probability and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 1)
Communications in Computational Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.048, CiteScore: 2)
Comparative Studies in Society and History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.585, CiteScore: 1)
Compositio Mathematica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 3.139, CiteScore: 1)
Contemporary European History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Continuity and Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.107, CiteScore: 0)
Dance Research J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 0)
Development and Psychopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.068, CiteScore: 4)
Dialogue Canadian Philosophical Review/Revue canadienne de philosophie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 0)
Diamond Light Source Proceedings     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.471, CiteScore: 1)
Du Bois Review: Social Science Research on Race     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.561, CiteScore: 1)
Early China     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Early Music History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
East Asian J. on Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.418, CiteScore: 1)
Ecclesiastical Law J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.114, CiteScore: 0)
Econometric Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.915, CiteScore: 1)
Economics and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.622, CiteScore: 1)
Edinburgh J. of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.283, CiteScore: 1)
Eighteenth-Century Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.113, CiteScore: 0)
English Language and Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.52, CiteScore: 1)
English Profile J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
English Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 0)
Enterprise & Society : The Intl. J. of Business History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.245, CiteScore: 1)
Environment and Development Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.617, CiteScore: 1)
Environmental Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 1.028, CiteScore: 2)
Environmental Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.145, CiteScore: 0)
Epidemiology & Infection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.128, CiteScore: 2)
Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.494, CiteScore: 2)
Episteme     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.756, CiteScore: 1)
Equine and Comparative Exercise Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Ergodic Theory and Dynamical Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.193, CiteScore: 1)
Ethics & Intl. Affairs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.557, CiteScore: 1)
European Constitutional Law Review (EuConst)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.009, CiteScore: 1)
European J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.52, CiteScore: 1)
European J. of Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.643, CiteScore: 1)
European Political Science Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.816, CiteScore: 2)
European Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Experimental Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.647, CiteScore: 4)
Fetal and Maternal Medicine Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Financial History Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.238, CiteScore: 1)
Foreign Policy Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Forum of Mathematics, Pi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Forum of Mathematics, Sigma     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Genetics Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.483, CiteScore: 1)
Geological Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.966, CiteScore: 2)
Glasgow Mathematical J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 0)
Global Constitutionalism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Global Mental Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Global Sustainability     Open Access  
Government and Opposition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.965, CiteScore: 2)
Greece & Rome     Partially Free   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.113, CiteScore: 0)
Hague J. on the Rule of Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.271, CiteScore: 1)
Harvard Theological Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 68, SJR: 0.165, CiteScore: 0)
Health Economics, Policy and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 1)
Hegel Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
High Power Laser Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.901, CiteScore: 3)
Historical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.247, CiteScore: 1)
History in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Horizons     Partially Free   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.129, CiteScore: 0)
Industrial and Organizational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.916, CiteScore: 1)
Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.97, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. & Comparative Law Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 226, SJR: 0.369, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Asian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.143, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Astrobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Cultural Property     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.253, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Disability Management Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.105, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Law in Context     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.275, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Legal Information     Open Access   (Followers: 325)
Intl. J. of Microwave and Wireless Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Middle East Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69, SJR: 0.434, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Technology Assessment in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.714, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Tropical Insect Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Labor and Working-Class History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. Organization     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 100, SJR: 8.527, CiteScore: 5)
Intl. Psychogeriatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.048, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Review of Social History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Review of the Red Cross     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. Theory: A J. of Intl. Politics, Law and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.293, CiteScore: 2)
Iraq     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Irish Historical Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
Irish J. of Psychological Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.221, CiteScore: 0)
Israel Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.165, CiteScore: 0)
Itinerario     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.158, CiteScore: 0)
J. of African History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.348, CiteScore: 1)
J. of African Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.113, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Agricultural and Applied Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Agricultural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.563, CiteScore: 1)
J. of American Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.164, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Anglican Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Applied Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
J. of Asian Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Benefit-Cost Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
J. of Biosocial Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.48, CiteScore: 1)
J. of British Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.246, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Child Language     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.035, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Classics Teaching     Open Access  
J. of Dairy Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Demographic Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.227, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.843, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Diagnostic Radiography and Imaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
J. of East Asian Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.59, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Ecclesiastical History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Economic History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45, SJR: 1.82, CiteScore: 2)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.842
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 3  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1751-7311 - ISSN (Online) 1751-732X
Published by Cambridge University Press Homepage  [373 journals]
  • ANM volume 13 issue 6 Cover and Front matter
    • PubDate: 2019-06-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1751731119000533
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 6 (2019)
  • ANM volume 13 issue 6 Cover and Back matter
    • PubDate: 2019-06-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1751731119000545
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 6 (2019)
  • Comparison of genotype imputation strategies using a combined reference
           panel for chicken population
    • Authors: S. Ye; X. Yuan, S. Huang, H. Zhang, Z. Chen, J. Li, X. Zhang, Z. Zhang
      Pages: 1119 - 1126
      Abstract: Using whole-genome sequence (WGS) data are supposed to be optimal for genome-wide association studies and genomic predictions. However, sequencing thousands of individuals of interest is expensive. Imputation from single nucleotide polymorphisms panels to WGS data is an attractive approach to obtain highly reliable WGS data at low cost. Here, we conducted a genotype imputation study with a combined reference panel in yellow-feather dwarf broiler population. The combined reference panel was assembled by sequencing 24 key individuals of a yellow-feather dwarf broiler population (internal reference panel) and WGS data from 311 chickens in public databases (external reference panel). Three scenarios were investigated to determine how different factors affect the accuracy of imputation from 600 K array data to WGS data, including: genotype imputation with internal, external and combined reference panels; the number of internal reference individuals in the combined reference panel; and different reference sizes and selection strategies of an external reference panel. Results showed that imputation accuracy from 600 K to WGS data were 0.834±0.012, 0.920±0.007 and 0.982±0.003 for the internal, external and combined reference panels, respectively. Increasing the reference size from 50 to 250 improved the accuracy of genotype imputation from 0.848 to 0.974 for the combined reference panel and from 0.647 to 0.917 for the external reference panel. The selection strategies for the external reference panel had no impact on the accuracy of imputation using the combined reference panel. However, if only an external reference panel with reference size >50 was used, the selection strategy of minimizing the average distance to the closest leaf had the greatest imputation accuracy compared with other methods. Generally, using a combined reference panel provided greater imputation accuracy, especially for low-frequency variants. In conclusion, the optimal imputation strategy with a combined reference panel should comprehensively consider genetic diversity of the study population, availability and properties of external reference panels, sequencing and computing costs, and frequency of imputed variants. This work sheds light on how to design and execute genotype imputation with a combined external reference panel in a livestock population.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1751731118002860
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 6 (2019)
  • Economic weights of maternal and direct traits of pigs calculated by
           applying gene flow methods
    • Authors: M. Wolfová; E. Krupa, Z. Krupová, E. Žáková
      Pages: 1127 - 1136
      Abstract: Multiple trait selection indexes in pig breeding programmes should take into account the population structure and time delay between parent selection and expressions of traits in all production levels next to the trait impacts on economic efficiency of production systems. Gene flow procedures could be used for the correct evaluation of maternal and direct traits of pig breeds involved in breeding or crossbreeding systems. Therefore, the aim of this study was to expand a previously developed bioeconomic model and computer program to calculate the marginal economic values by including a gene flow procedure to calculate the economic weights for maternal and direct traits in pig breeds. The new program was then applied to the three-way crossbreeding system of the Czech National Programme for Pig Breeding. Using this program, the marginal economic values of traits for dam breeds Czech Large White in the dam position and Czech Landrace in the sire position, and for the sire breed Pietrain were weighted by the number of discounted gene expressions of selected parents of each breed summarised within all links of the crossbreeding system during the 8-year investment period. Economic weights calculated in this way were compared with the approximate economic weights calculated previously without a gene flow procedure. Taking into account the time delay between parent selection and trait expression (using discounting with half-year discount rates of 2% or 5%) and including more than one generation of parent progeny had little impact on the relative economic importance of maternal and direct traits of breeds involved in the evaluated three-way crossbreeding system. These results indicated that this gene-flow method could be foregone when estimating the relative economic weights of traits in pig crossbreeding systems applying artificial insemination at all production levels.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1751731118002513
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 6 (2019)
  • The effect of manganese nanoparticles on performance, redox reactions and
           epigenetic changes in turkey tissues
    • Authors: K. Ognik; K. Kozłowski, A. Stępniowska, R. Szlązak, K. Tutaj, Z. Zduńczyk, J. Jankowski
      Pages: 1137 - 1144
      Abstract: The hypothesis of the research was the assumption, that manganese nanoparticles can affect the body in the same way as macromolecules. Their smaller size and greater biological reactivity will potentially allow the Mn addition to the diet to be reduced and, consequently, less excretion of this element into the environment. The aim of the study was to determine whether the use of Mn nanoparticles would make it possible to reduce the level of this micronutrient added to turkey diets without adversely affecting redox reactions in cells and epigenetic changes. The experiment was conducted on six groups with 10 replications, in a two-factor design with three dosages of manganese: 100, 50 and 10 mg/kg, and two sources: manganese oxide (MnO) and manganese nanoparticles (NP-Mn2O3). Markers of oxidative stress determined in the blood, that is, the concentration of lipid hydroperoxides, malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl derivatives, 3-nitrotyrosine, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, total glutathione, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, ceruloplasmin, total antioxidant status, albumin and vitamin C content. The level of epigenetic changes in the blood was determined by analysing global DNA methylation. In the experiment, in which the diet of turkeys was supplemented with two forms of Mn (MnO or NP-Mn2O3) at three dosages: 100, 50 and 10 mg/kg, the 10 mg/kg dose, especially in the form of NP-Mn2O3, induced lipid oxidation reactions to the greatest extent. Irrespective of the dosage of Mn in the turkey diet, Mn in the form of NP-Mn2O3 was found to reduce protein nitration more than Mn in the form of MnO. Reducing the Mn dosage in the diet from 100 to 50 mg/kg and then to 10 mg/kg is unfavourable because proportionally increases protein and DNA oxidation in cells, decreases the activity of antioxidant enzymes, and increases the level of glutathione. Reducing the dosage from 100 to 10 mg/kg increases global DNA methylation. The reduction of the Mn level, regardless of the form used, is disadvantageous, because it weakens the defense of the antioxidant system, which consequently can induce oxidative processes in the cells. Although Mn in the form of NP-Mn2O3 reduce protein nitration better than in MnO form, the use of manganese nanoparticles in turkey feeding (even in lower doses) requires further study.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1751731118002653
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 6 (2019)
  • l-theanine+on+the+growth+performance,+immune+function,+and+jejunum+morphology+and+antioxidant+status+of+ducks&rft.title=animal&rft.issn=1751-7311&,+X.+H.+Zhao,+C.+Wang,+Z.+Y.+Geng&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S1751731118002884">Effect of l-theanine on the growth performance, immune function, and
           jejunum morphology and antioxidant status of ducks
    • Authors: C. Zhang; K. K. Chen, X. H. Zhao, C. Wang, Z. Y. Geng
      Pages: 1145 - 1153
      Abstract: l-theanine is a unique nonproteinogenic amino acid found in tea, and has recently received considerable attention because of its various biological activities. However, there is no available research report on the use of l-theanine as a feed additive in ducks. This study was conducted to investigate the potential benefits and appropriate dosages of l-theanine on the growth performance, immune function, serum biochemical parameters, and jejunum morphology and antioxidant capacity of ducks. A total of 600 1-day-old Chaohu ducks were randomly allocated into five dietary treatment groups supplemented with 0 (control group), 300, 600, 900 and 1500 mg/kg of l-theanine. Each group included five replicates of 24 birds each. Body weight at day 28 was increased (P
      PubDate: 2019-06-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1751731118002884
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 6 (2019)
  • In+vitro+protein+digestion+kinetics+of+protein+sources+for+pigs&rft.title=animal&rft.issn=1751-7311&,+W.+H.+Hendriks,+A.+J.+M.+Jansman&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S1751731118002811">In vitro protein digestion kinetics of protein
           sources for pigs
    • Authors: H. Chen; P. A. Wierenga, W. H. Hendriks, A. J. M. Jansman
      Pages: 1154 - 1164
      Abstract: In current feed evaluation systems, the nutritional value of protein sources in diets for pigs is based on the ileal digestibility of protein and amino acids, which does not account for the kinetics of protein digestion along the gastrointestinal tract. The objective of the present study was to determine the in vitro protein digestion kinetics of different protein sources (soya bean meal (SBM), wheat gluten (WG), rapeseed meal (RSM), whey powder (WP), dried porcine plasma protein, yellow meal worm larvae and black soldier fly larvae (BSF)). Protein sources were incubated with pepsin at pH 3.5 for 0 to 90 min and subsequently with pancreatin at pH 6.8 for 0 to 210 min at 39°C. The in vitro protein digestion kinetics were described as the kinetics of nitrogen (N) solubilisation and the release of low molecular weight peptides (LMW) (
      PubDate: 2019-06-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1751731118002811
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 6 (2019)
  • Cereals level and source effects on rumen fermentation, colostrum and milk
           properties, and blood metabolites in periparturient ewes
    • Authors: M. Karam Babaei; H. Mirzaei-Alamouti, A. Nikkhah
      Pages: 1165 - 1172
      Abstract: Optimal type and dietary inclusion rates of cereal grains for periparturient sheep are unknown. The objective was to determine effects of feeding diets with high (H) v. low (L) levels of ground corn grain (CN) v. combined ground wheat and barley grains (WB) on intake, rumen fermentation, colostrum and milk properties, and blood metabolites of periparturient sheep. Twenty Afshari×Merino ewes were used in a completely randomized design study from 24 days prepartum through 21 days postpartum. Ewes were kept indoors in individual boxes and received once daily at 0900 h total mixed rations. Treatments were mixed rations containing either (1) H or (2) L concentrate based on either (1) 100% CN or (2) 50 : 50 ratio of ground wheat : ground barley grains in a 2×2 factorial arrangement. Each treatment group had five ewes including two twin-lamb ewes and three single-lamb ewes. Postpartal dry matter intake (DMI) increased by feeding high CN v. high and low WB, while high v. low CN improved postpartum DMI. The DMI during lambing tended to increase with the high v. low WB. Feeding CN v. WB, and feeding both CN and WB at L v. H level increased fecal pH. Postpartal rumen pH was lower with the high v. low WB (5.7 v. 6.2). Rumen concentrations of propionate were lower and of acetate were higher with L v. H grain levels. Increased dietary grain reduced urine pH for WB (7.24 v. 7.83) but not for CN (7.63 v. 7.52) prepartum. Colostrum properties, postpartal urine pH, lamb weight at birth and 21 days of age, and placental weight and expulsion time were unaffected. Milk yield increased and milk fat yield tended to increase by H v. L grain diets. Plasma glucose was increased by feeding high v. low WB, whereas CN v. WB tended to reduce peripartal plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and increased insulin to NEFA ratio. In conclusion, more cereal grains can be included in periparturient sheep diets and CN instead of WB may be fed to periparturient sheep to improve energy status. Findings suggest opportunities to optimize periparturient ewe physiology and performance through feeding certain cereals and avoiding high levels of WB.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1751731118002720
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 6 (2019)
  • Grain source and chromium supplementation: effects on feed intake, meal
           and rumination patterns, and growth performance in Holstein dairy calves
    • Authors: S. Kargar; Z. Habibi, S. Karimi-Dehkordi
      Pages: 1173 - 1179
      Abstract: Carbohydrate-rich diets may increase urinary excretion of chromium (Cr) and increase its requirements. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of grain type (barley v. corn) and Cr supplementation on feed intake, feeding behavior and weight gain in dairy calves. Forty-eight neonatal Holstein female calves were assigned randomly to four experimental diets in a 2×2 factorial arrangement. Experimental diets were either barley-based diet (BBD) or corn-based diet (CBD) supplemented with (+Cr) or without (−Cr) Cr as Cr-methionine (0.05 mg/kg of BW0.75). Chromium was provided in milk (from days 3 to 73 of life) during the pre-weaning period and then in pre-warmed water (from day 74 until day 94 of life) after weaning. Meal length tended to increase in calves fed the BBD v. CBD during the pre-weaning period. During the post-weaning period, meal size, inter-meal interval, and eating rate increased concurrently but meal frequency and eating time decreased in the BBD v. CBD. During the pre-weaning period, feed efficiency, BW at weaning, and heart girth increased and non-nutritive oral behaviors tended to decrease with Cr supplementation. Due to increased meal frequency, the starter feed intake but not eating time increased by Cr supplementation during the post-weaning period. Supplementing Cr increased starter feed intake, final BW, average daily gain and heart girth during the overall period. Rumination time increased in BBD+Cr calves due to increases in the frequency and duration of rumination, or decreased rumination bout interval. Overall, the type of grain had no effect on feed intake and growth performance; however, Cr supplementation decreased non-nutritive oral behaviors and increased starter feed intake via increasing the meal frequency and thereby improved growth performance.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1751731118002793
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 6 (2019)
  • A parsimonious software sensor for estimating the individual dynamic
           pattern of methane emissions from cattle
    • Authors: R. Muñoz-Tamayo; J. F. Ramírez Agudelo, R. J. Dewhurst, G. Miller, T. Vernon, H. Kettle
      Pages: 1180 - 1187
      Abstract: Large efforts have been deployed in developing methods to estimate methane emissions from cattle. For large scale applications, accurate and inexpensive methane predictors are required. Within a livestock precision farming context, the objective of this work was to integrate real-time data on animal feeding behaviour with an in silico model for predicting the individual dynamic pattern of methane emission in cattle. The integration of real-time data with a mathematical model to predict variables that are not directly measured constitutes a software sensor. We developed a dynamic parsimonious grey-box model that uses as predictor variables either dry matter intake (DMI) or the intake time (IT). The model is described by ordinary differential equations.Model building was supported by experimental data of methane emissions from respiration chambers. The data set comes from a study with finishing beef steers (cross-bred Charolais and purebred Luing finishing). Dry matter intake and IT were recorded using feed bins. For research purposes, in this work, our software sensor operated off-line. That is, the predictor variables (DMI, IT) were extracted from the recorded data (rather than from an on-line sensor). A total of 37 individual dynamic patterns of methane production were analyzed. Model performance was assessed by concordance analysis between the predicted methane output and the methane measured in respiration chambers. The model predictors DMI and IT performed similarly with a Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) of 0.78 on average. When predicting the daily methane production, the CCC was 0.99 for both DMI and IT predictors. Consequently, on the basis of concordance analysis, our model performs very well compared with reported literature results for methane proxies and predictive models. As IT measurements are easier to obtain than DMI measurements, this study suggests that a software sensor that integrates our in silico model with a real-time sensor providing accurate IT measurements is a viable solution for predicting methane output in a large scale context.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1751731118002550
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 6 (2019)
  • Characteristics of boli formed by dairy cows upon ingestion of fresh
           ryegrass, lucerne or chicory
    • Authors: E. M. K. Minnee; G. C. Waghorn, P. Gregorini, R. H. Bryant, D. F. Chapman
      Pages: 1188 - 1197
      Abstract: This study examined the comminution of fresh herbage, subsequent nutrient release, and the characteristics of swallowed boli from three physically and chemically contrasting forages during ingestive mastication by dairy cows. The extent and pattern of nutrient release will determine their availability to rumen microflora, and potentially influence their efficiency of use. The forages evaluated were perennial ryegrass (ryegrass, Lolium perenne L., cv Alto AR37), lucerne (Medicago sativa L., cv Torlesse) and chicory (Cichorium intybus L., cv Choice). Experimental design was a 3×3 cross-over with three forages and three consecutive 1-day measurement periods, conducted twice. Six non-lactating, pregnant, multiparous Holstein-Friesian×Jersey cows (Bos taurus) were used, with the first cross-over applied to three mature (10.1±0.61 years old; BW 631±64 kg) cows, and the second to three young (4.8±0.02 years; BW 505±19 kg) cows. Fresh cut forage was offered to the cows following partial rumen evacuation. Swallowed boli were collected directly at the cardia at the commencement, middle and end of the first feeding bout of the first meal of the day. Forage species did not affect the fresh weight of ingested boli (mean 169 g, P=0.605) but the proportion of saliva in boli varied between forage. Boli of chicory contained the greatest amount of herbage material and least amount of saliva, whereas ryegrass boli were the opposite. Boli fresh weight tended to increase as time in the meal progressed, but the age of the cow was not shown to affect any boli characteristics or nutrient release. Particle size reduction was affected by forage, with 31%, 38% and 35% of chicory, lucerne and ryegrass herbage reduced to
      PubDate: 2019-06-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1751731118002938
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 6 (2019)
  • Effects of soybean oil supplementation on performance, digestion and
           metabolism of early lactation dairy cows fed sugarcane-based diets
    • Authors: J. P. P. Rodrigues; R. M. de Paula, L. N. Rennó, G. P. Costa, V. C. E. Hamade, S. C. Valadares Filho, F. P. Rennó, M. I. Marcondes
      Pages: 1198 - 1207
      Abstract: Sugarcane is an important forage source for dairy cows in tropical countries. However, it provides limited digestible fiber and energy intake, and fat supplementation can be a way to increase energy density and decrease dietary, non-fiber carbohydrates concentrations. We aimed to evaluate the performance, digestion and metabolism of dairy cows in early lactation fed different concentrations of soybean oil (SBO) in sugarcane-based diets. Fourteen primiparous (545±17.2 kg of BW) and eight multiparous (629±26.7 kg BW) Holstein dairy cows were used according to a randomized block design. After calving, diets were randomly assigned to cows within the two parity groups. Diets were formulated with increasing concentrations of SBO (g/kg dry matter (DM)): control (0), low (LSBO; 15.7), medium (MSBO; 44.3) and high (HSBO; 73.4). The study was performed from calving until 84 days in milk, divided into three periods of 28 days each. Dry matter intake (DMI) was affected quadratically in response to SBO addition with the greatest and lowest values of 19.0 and 16.0 kg/day for LSBO and HSBO diets, respectively. The digestibility of potentially digestible NDF was quadratically affected by SBO with the greatest value of 623 g/kg for LSBO diet. Both milk and energy-corrected milk (ECM) production were quadratically affected by SBO inclusion, with greatest ECM values of 27.9 and 27.3 for LSBO and MSBO, respectively. Soybean oil inclusion linearly decreased milk fat concentration by 13.2% from control to HSBO. The CLA t10,c12-18:2 was observed in milk fat only for MSBO and HSBO diets. Soybean oil inclusion did not affect plasma glucose or serum concentrations of total proteins, globulins, albumin, urea nitrogen, beta-hydroxybutyrate, non-esterified fatty acids or insulin. Serum concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein increased with SBO supplementation. Soybean oil inclusion in sugarcane-based diets for early lactation dairy cows from 15.7 to 44.3 g/kg DM can improve energy intake and performance; however, at 44.3 g/kg DM milk fat concentration and ECM decreased. Soybean oil inclusion at 73.4 g/kg DM adversely affected energy intake, fiber digestion and performance of early lactation dairy cows and is not recommended.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1751731118002781
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 6 (2019)
  • Effects of temperament on growth, plasma cortisol concentrations and
           puberty attainment in Nelore beef heifers
    • Authors: R. F. Cooke; P. Moriel, B. I. Cappellozza, V. F. B. Miranda, L. F. D. Batista, E. A. Colombo, V. S. M. Ferreira, M. F. Miranda, R. S. Marques, J. L. M. Vasconcelos
      Pages: 1208 - 1213
      Abstract: Excitable temperament disrupts physiological events required for reproductive development in cattle, but no research has investigated the impacts of temperament on growth and puberty attainment in Bos indicus females. Hence, this experiment evaluated the effects of temperament on growth, plasma cortisol concentrations and puberty attainment in B. indicus heifers. A total of 170 Nelore heifers, weaned 4 months before the beginning of this experiment (days 0 to 91), were managed in two groups of 82 and 88 heifers each (mean ± SE; initial BW=238±2 kg, initial age=369±1 days across groups). Heifer temperament was evaluated via exit velocity on day 0. Individual exit score was calculated within each group by dividing exit velocity into quintiles and assigning heifers with a score from 1 to 5 (1=slowest; 5=fastest heifer). Heifers were classified according to exit score as adequate (ADQ, n=96; exit score⩽3) or excitable temperament (EXC, n=74; exit score>3). Heifer BW, body condition score (BCS) and blood samples were obtained on days 0, 31, 60 and 91. Heifer exit velocity and score were recorded again on days 31, 60 and 91. Ovarian transrectal ultrasonography was performed on days 0 and 10, 31 and 41, 60 and 70, 81 and 91 for puberty evaluation. Heifer was declared pubertal at the first 10-day interval in which a corpus luteum was detected. Exit velocity and exit score obtained on day 0 were correlated (r⩾0.64, P
      PubDate: 2019-06-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1751731118002628
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 6 (2019)
  • Supplementation of a clay mineral-based product modulates plasma
           metabolomic profile and liver enzymes in cattle fed grain-rich diets
    • Authors: E. Humer; I. Kröger, V. Neubauer, N. Reisinger, Q. Zebeli
      Pages: 1214 - 1223
      Abstract: Grain-rich diets often lead to subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) impairing rumen and systemic cattle health. Recent data suggest beneficial effects of a clay mineral (CM)- based product on the rumen microbiome of cattle during SARA. This study sought to investigate whether the CM supplementation can counteract SARA-induced perturbations of the bovine systemic health. The study used an intermittent diet-induced SARA-model with eight dry Holstein cows receiving either no additive as control or CM via concentrates (n=8 per treatment). Cows received first a forage diet (Baseline) for 1 week, followed by a 1-week SARA-challenge (SARA 1), a 1-week recovery phase (Recovery) and finally a second SARA-challenge for 2 weeks (SARA 2). Cows were monitored for feed intake, reticular pH and chewing behavior. Blood samples were taken and analyzed for metabolites related to glucose and lipid metabolism as well as liver health biomarkers. In addition, a targeted electrospray ionization-liquid chromatography-MS-based metabolomics approach was carried out on the plasma samples obtained at the end of the Baseline and SARA 1 phase. Data showed that supplementing the cows’ diet with CM improved ruminating chews per regurgitated bolus by 16% in SARA 1 (P=0.01) and enhanced the dry matter intake during the Recovery phase (P=0.05). Moreover, the SARA-induced decreases in several amino acids and phosphatidylcholines were less pronounced in cows receiving CM (P≤0.10). The CM-supplemented cows also had lower concentrations of lactate (P=0.03) and biogenic amines such as histamine and spermine (P
      PubDate: 2019-06-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1751731118002665
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 6 (2019)
  • Response profiles of dairy cows to a single 24-h milking interval in
           relation with milk proteolysis, udder expansion and immune traits
    • Authors: C. Charton; H. Larroque, S. Pochet, P. Germon, G. Lequeux, J. Guinard-Flament
      Pages: 1224 - 1233
      Abstract: An extended milking interval of 24 h (24-h milking interval (24h-MI)) constitutes the acute phase of cow adaptation to once-daily milking (ODM). A recent trial including 724 24h-MI challenges demonstrated that milk yield responses to this acute phase of ODM are highly variable (from+22% to −52% of milk yield when switching to the 24h-MI, mean=−25.3%) and that factors such as stage of lactation parity and milk yield level influenced cows’ responses but did not account for all individual variability. Additional traits related to physiological, immune and behavioural adaptation were measured on a subset (96 observations) of this data set. This study aimed to determine (1) the relationship of these traits with cows’ milk yield responses, (2) their ability – combined with previously identified traits – to help predict milk yield responses to 24h-MI (adaptive profiles). The 24h-MI challenge consisted of three successive periods: one control week of twice-daily milking (cTDM), one single day of 24h-MI and then 13 days of TDM (pTDM). Milk yield responses to the 24h-MI (corrected for effects of stage of lactation, parity, milk yield level and milk yield) were related to physiological traits measured during cTDM (milk flow rate, presence or absence of interleukin-8) and to their changes during the 24h-MI (absolute increase in milk flow rate and relative udder distension). Analysis of associations between milk yield responses, stage of lactation, parity, milk yield level, proteolysis, udder expansion and immune traits found three adaptive cow profile clusters. Cows in cluster 1 had a less compliant udder than cows in cluster 2, and they lost more milk during the 24h-MI than cluster-2 and cluster-3 cows. After resuming twice daily-milking (TDM), cluster-2 cows fully recovered the milk they had lost during the 24h-MI. On the opposite, cluster-3 cows did not recover the milk they lost, likely due to udder inflammation during cTDM, as suggested by elevated concentrations of interleukin-8 in their milk. These results combining new traits with stage of lactation, parity and milk yield level constitute a first step towards predicting individual cow responses to a 24h-MI.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1751731118002483
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 6 (2019)
  • Effect of dietary sodium butyrate supplementation on growth, blood
           biochemistry, haematology and histomorphometry of intestine and immune
           organs of Japanese quail
    • Authors: S. S. Elnesr; A. Ropy, A. H. Abdel-Razik
      Pages: 1234 - 1244
      Abstract: New strategies must be developed to improve poultry performance and health. One of these strategies is the use of supplementations as sodium butyrate (SB) to improve the physiological status and then increasing the growth performance, but the best period of age in which the addition of SB is more effective on birds is not well understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary inclusion of SB supplementation through the first, second or whole growth period on some physiological indices and growth performance of growing Japanese quail. In total, 240 unsexed 1-day-old quail chicks were divided into four groups (three replicates per group of 20 chicks in each). The first group was fed basal diet without SB from 1 to 42 days (control, T1), while SB at a rate of 1 g/kg basal diet was mixed with the feed of the 2nd, 3rd and 4th groups of chicks from 1 to 21 days (SB 1 to 21, T2), 1 to 42 days (SB 1 to 42, T3) and 22 to 42 days (SB 22 to 42, T4) of age, respectively. The results stated that addition of SB significantly improved live BW at 21 days, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and BW gain (BWG) during 1 to 21 days in T2 and T3 groups compared to T1 and T4 groups. During the whole period, group T3 had higher BWG and better FCR than the other groups (T1, T2 and T4). At 21 days, no significant differences among all treatments were detected on haematology and serum biochemistry except total protein and cholesterol. At 42 days, SB supplementation significantly improved most serum constituents, haematological parameters, villus height and width of intestine and morphometry of immune organs. The group fed SB throughout the experiment (T3) showed the best results. In conclusion, it is recommended feeding quail on diets containing SB through the whole growth period to show its affirmative impact on the growth and physiological indices.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1751731118002732
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 6 (2019)
  • Layer pullet preferences for light colors of light-emitting diodes
    • Authors: G. Li; B. Li, Y. Zhao, Z. Shi, Y. Liu, W. Zheng
      Pages: 1245 - 1251
      Abstract: Light colors may affect poultry behaviors, well-being and performance. However, preferences of layer pullets for light colors are not fully understood. This study was conducted to investigate the pullet preferences for four light-emitting diode colors, including white, red, green and blue, in a lighting preference test system. The system contained four identical compartments each provided with a respective light color. The pullets were able to move freely between the adjacent compartments. A total of three groups of 20 Chinese domestic Jingfen layer pullets (54 to 82 days of age) were used for the test. Pullet behaviors were continuously recorded and summarized for each light color/compartment into daily time spent (DTS), daily percentage of time spent (DPTS), daily times of visit (DTV), duration per visit, daily feed intake (DFI), daily feeding time (DFT), feeding rate (FR), distribution of pullet occupancy and hourly time spent. The results showed that the DTS (h/pullet·per day) were 3.9±0.4 under white, 1.4±0.3 under red, 2.2±0.3 under green and 4.5±0.4 under blue light, respectively. The DTS corresponded to 11.7% to 37.6% DPTS in 12-h lighting periods. The DTV (times/pullet·per day) were 84±5 under white, 48±10 under red, 88±10 under green and 94±8 under blue light. Each visit lasted 1.5 to 3.2 min. The DFI (g/pullet·per day) were 27.6±1.7 under white, 7.1±1.6 under red, 15.1±1.1 under green and 23.1±2.0 under blue light. The DFT was 0.18 to 0.65 h/pullet·per day and the FR was 0.57 to 0.75 g/min. For most of the time during the lighting periods, six to 10 birds stayed under white, and one to five birds stayed under red, green and blue light. Pullets preferred to stay under blue light when the light was on and under white light 4 h before the light off. Overall, pullets preferred blue light the most and red light the least. These findings substantiate the preferences of layer pullets for light colors, providing insights for use in the management of light-emitting diode colors to meet pullet needs.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1751731118002537
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 6 (2019)
  • The learning ability and memory retention of broiler breeders: 1 effects
           of reduced balanced protein diet on reward based learning
    • Authors: C. Li; J. Lesuisse, S. Schallier, C. Lamberigts, Y. Wang, B. Driessen, N. Everaert, J. Buyse
      Pages: 1252 - 1259
      Abstract: Learning and mental abilities of farm animals are important for their adaptation to new environments and could serve as an indicator for welfare and performance. This study assessed the learning ability and memory retention of broiler breeders through a T-maze test with a reward v. no reward set-up. Feed supplemented with or without meal worms served as a reward. Two trials were conducted with either parent stock (PS) breeders or pure line A (PL) breeders and with the same dietary treatment namely a control (C) group fed with standard commercial diets and a reduced balanced protein (RP) group fed with RP diets (25% reduction of CP and amino acids). To maintain similar target BW, the RP group received on average 10% more feed. A tonic immobility (TI) test was performed to estimate the fearfulness of PS breeders. Most breeders were capable of completing the T-maze tests, but the C group needed less time compared with the RP group when their own feed was given as a reward. However, when meal worms were provided as an extra incentive, the RP group completed the maze significantly faster than the C group. Compared to the C breeders, the RP breeders remained longer in a TI state, indicating a higher level of fearfulness. Long-term memory retention in the T-maze test was observed in both groups. It is concluded that the RP diet had no influences on the learning ability of the reward v. no reward discrimination test and its memory retention of broiler breeders. The increased amount of time the RP breeders needed to solve the test was probably due to a higher sense of fear. Furthermore, the RP diet enhanced the motivation of breeders to obtain an alternative feed such as meal worms.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1751731118002434
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 6 (2019)
  • The learning ability and memory retention of broiler breeders: 2
           transgenerational effects of reduced balanced protein diet on reward-based
    • Authors: C. Li; S. Schallier, J. Lesuisse, C. Lamberigts, B. Driessen, N. Everaert, J. Buyse
      Pages: 1260 - 1268
      Abstract: The effect of reduced balanced protein (RP) diet in the F0 and F1 generation of broiler breeders on the learning ability and memory retention of the F2 generation was investigated by means of a reward v. no reward discrimination T-maze test. There were two treatments for the F0 generation: control (C) group, reared on standard commercial diets, and reduced balanced protein (RP) group, fed with RP diets (25% reduction in CP and amino acids). The female F0-progeny of each treatment was again separated into the two dietary treatments, resulting in four treatments for the F1 generation: C/C, C/RP, RP/C and RP/RP (breeder feed in F0/F1 generation). The RP diets fed breeders received on average 10% more feed than C diets fed breeders to achieve a similar target BW. The F2 generation was composed of four treatments coming from the female F1-progeny of the four treatments and were all fed with C diet (namely C/C/C, C/RP/C, RP/C/C and RP/RP/C). All four F2 generation groups were able to complete the T-maze learning test with a slight difference in success rate but a significant difference within groups was observed regarding the time needed to complete the test. In general, the RP/RP/C group needed more time for completing the test compared with the other three groups and the shortest time was recorded for the RP/C/C group. At similar ages, breeders with early learning experience spent significantly less time in completing the test compared with unexperienced breeders. Long-term memory retention was observed in all four groups whereas the learning ability in solving the test decreased with age. It took longer for the breeders to complete the test at older ages. In conclusion, under our experimental conditions, the RP dietary treatment in previous generations had no influence on the T-maze learning ability and memory retention of broiler breeders of the third generation, although it might have effects on the working performance in the T-maze learning test of F2 generation breeders.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1751731118002501
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 6 (2019)
  • Comparison of performance, health and welfare aspects between commercially
           housed hatchery-hatched and on-farm hatched broiler flocks
    • Authors: I. C. de Jong; H. Gunnink, T. van Hattum, J. W. van Riel, M. M. P. Raaijmakers, E. S. Zoet, H. van den Brand
      Pages: 1269 - 1277
      Abstract: On-farm hatching systems for broiler chicks are increasingly used in practice. We studied whether or not performance, health and welfare aspects differed between commercial flocks hatched on-farm or in a hatchery (control). In two successive production cycles on seven farms, a total of 16 on-farm hatched flocks were paired to 16 control flocks, housed at the same farm. Paired flocks originated from the same batch of eggs and were subjected to similar on-farm management. On-farm hatched and control flocks only differed with respect to hatching conditions, with on-farm hatched flocks not being exposed to, for example, chick handling, post-hatch feed and water deprivation and transport, in contrast to control flocks that were subjected to standard hatchery procedures, subsequently transported and placed in the poultry house. Day-old chick quality (navel and hock scores), 1st week mortality, total mortality, BW at day (d) 0, d7 and at depopulation, and (total) feed conversion ratio were determined. Prevalence of footpad dermatitis, hock burn, breast discoloration/blisters and cleanliness, litter quality and gait score were determined at d21 of age and around depopulation (d39 on average). Gross pathology and gut morphology were examined at depopulation age in a sample of birds of five flocks per treatment. On-farm hatching resulted in a higher BW at d0 (Δ=5.4 g) and d7 (Δ=11.5 g) (P
      PubDate: 2019-06-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1751731118002872
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 6 (2019)
  • Evaluation of new biomarkers of stress in saliva of sheep
    • Authors: M. D. Contreras-Aguilar; D. Escribano, A. Quiles, M. López-Arjona, J. J. Cerón, S. Martínez-Subiela, M. L. Hevia, F. Tecles
      Pages: 1278 - 1286
      Abstract: Some routine handling procedures can produce stress in farm animals, and an adequate control of these stressors is important to avoid the negative effects on animal health and production. The measurement of biomarkers in saliva can be a suitable tool for the evaluation and control of stress. In this report, lipase, butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), total esterase (TEA) and adenosine deaminase (ADA) activities in the saliva of sheep were evaluated as biomarkers of stress. For this purpose, they were measured after inducing stress by facing a dog (experiment 1) and shearing (experiment 2), and comparing them to other stress salivary biomarkers such as α-amylase (sAA) and cortisol, as well as heart rate (HR). Each analyte was measured at the basal time, and during and just after the end of the stressful stimulus, and at various times for the first hour after the period of stress induction. Values were compared with those obtained from a control group. Lipase was the only analyte that showed significant changes between the stress and the control group in both experiments. Although TEA and ADA increased after stress, no significant differences were seen compared with the control group. Lipase was correlated highly with sAA and HR, in experiment 1; and correlated moderately with cortisol and HR in experiment 2. Lipase showed the greatest percentage increase after the stressful stimuli and less overlap with the control group in the two experiments. From the results of this study it can be concluded that lipase, TEA, BChE and ADA are enzymes present in the saliva of sheep and that they can be measured by using simple and fast colorimetric methods. Further studies should be undertaken with regard to the possible application of lipase as a biomarker of stress in sheep.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1751731118002707
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 6 (2019)
  • Relationships between handling, behaviour and stress in lambs at abattoirs
    • Authors: P. H. Hemsworth; M. Rice, S. Borg, L. E. Edwards, E. N. Ponnampalam, G. J. Coleman
      Pages: 1287 - 1296
      Abstract: There is community concern about the treatment of farm animals post-farm gate, particularly animal transport and slaughter. Relationships between lamb behavioural and physiological variables on farm, stockperson, dog and lamb behavioural variables pre-slaughter and plasma cortisol, glucose and lactate in lambs post-slaughter were studied in 400 lambs. The lambs were observed in three behavioural tests, novel arena, flight distance to a human and temperament tests, before transport for slaughter. Closed-circuit television video footage was used to record stockperson, dog and lamb behaviour immediately before slaughter. Blood samples for cortisol, glucose and lactate analyses were collected on farm following the three behavioural tests and immediately post-slaughter. The regression models that best predicted plasma cortisol, glucose and lactate concentrations post-slaughter included a mixture of stockperson and dog behavioural variables as well as lamb variables both on-farm and pre-slaughter. These regression models accounted for 33%, 34% and 44% of the variance in plasma cortisol, glucose and lactate concentrations post-slaughter, respectively. Some of the stockperson and dog behaviours pre-slaughter that were predictive of the stress and metabolic variables post-slaughter included the duration of negative stockperson behaviours such as fast locomotion and lifting/pulling lambs, and the duration of dog behaviours such as lunging and barking at the lamb, while some of the predictive lamb behaviour variables included the durations of jumping and fleeing. Some of the physiological and behavioural responses to the behavioural tests on farm were also predictive of the stress and metabolic variables post-slaughter. These relationships support the well-demonstrated effect of handling on fear and stress responses in livestock, and although not direct evidence of causal relationships, highlight the potential benefits of training stockpeople to reduce fear and stress in sheep at abattoirs.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1751731118002744
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 6 (2019)
  • Social dominance affects intake rate and behavioral time budget in
    • Authors: C. Fiol; M. Aguerre, M. Carriquiry, R. Ungerfeld
      Pages: 1297 - 1303
      Abstract: In intensive feeding systems, competition may be high and social dominance may affect animal performance by changing dry matter intake (DMI) and behavioral time budgets. If competition level is maintain over time, the strategies developed by heifers of different social status are expected to differ. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare individual DMI, intake rate and eating, ruminating, lying and standing behaviors in dominant (DOM) and subordinate (SUB) pre-pubertal dairy heifers in a model study implying continuous competitive situations. A total of 16 Holstein and Jersey×Holstein pre-pubertal heifers (251±10 days old, weighing 208±14 kg; mean±SEM) were allocated into eight homogeneous dyads. Each dyad was maintained during 120 days (day 0=beginning of measurements) in pens, and received a total mixed ration from one feeder/dyad. The DOM and SUB heifers was determined (day 0, twice during the first month of the experiment and every month afterwards) by observation of the winner in agonistic interactions in each dyad after the feed was supplied. The general activity pattern (eating, ruminating, lying and standing) of each heifer was recorded by direct instantaneous scan-sampling, every 10 min for 12 h, in 7 days (days 1, 21, 35, 60, 75, 100 and 120). Individual DMI was estimated with the double marker technique, in three intervals (I=days 17-26; II=days 78-87 and III=days 112-120), while estimated intake rate (kg/min) was calculated for each interval as the DMI per total eating time. After the experiment was concluded, data of the first 5 and the last 6 h of the 12 h scan-sampling (related to the moment the feed was supplied) was grouped according to the moments of greater and lesser competition for feed on each day. During the first 5 h, where competition was expected to be highest, no differences in eating behavior were found between heifers of different social status, but DOM heifers spent more time ruminating and lying than SUB heifers, while SUB spent more time standing than DOM heifers. No differences were found on DMI between DOM and SUB, but SUB ate at a faster rate on interval II compared with DOM heifers. In conclusion, in this model study of heifer dyads, SUB heifers had greater intake rate with no differences in feed intake, spent less time ruminating and lying, and more time standing than DOM heifers during the first hours after feed delivery.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1751731118002835
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 6 (2019)
  • Robot milking and relationship with culling rate in dairy cows
    • Authors: A. Bugueiro; R. Fouz, F. Camino, E. Yus, F. J. Diéguez
      Pages: 1304 - 1310
      Abstract: Cow routines and behavioral responses are altered substantially following the installation of robot milking. The present study was designed to analyze the effect that switching from milking parlor to automatic milking system (AMS) had on the culling rate (due to various causes) of dairy cattle. For this purpose, culling records and causes for culling were tracked in 23 dairy farms in the Galicia region (NW Spain). The animals in these farms were monitored for 5 years. For the present study, that length of time was divided into three different stages, as follows: 2 years before switching from a milking parlor to AMS (stage 1), the 1st year following the implementation of AMS (stage 2) and the 2nd and 3rd years succeeding the implementation of AMS (stage 3). Cox models for survival analysis were used to estimate the time to culling due to different reasons during stage 1 in relation to stages 2 and 3. The data indicated that the risk of loss due to death or emergency slaughter decreased significantly following the installation of AMS. In contrast, the risk of culling due to low production, udder problems, infertility or lameness increased significantly. Low-production cows (such as cows in advanced lactation due to infertility) or sick cows (such as mastitic or lame cows) allegedly have a noticeable effect both on the performance and the amortization of the cost of AMS, which in turn would lead to a higher probability of elimination than in conventional systems.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1751731118002896
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 6 (2019)
  • Mob size of single-bearing or twin-bearing Merino ewes at lambing may not
           influence lamb survival when feed-on-offer is high
    • Authors: A. Lockwood; S. Hancock, B. Paganoni, C. Macleay, G. Kearney, R. Sohi, A. Thompson
      Pages: 1311 - 1318
      Abstract: Limited research has suggested that higher lambing densities increase interference from foreign ewes at lambing which disrupts the ewe-lamb bond and compromises lamb survival. This may be particularly evident in mobs of twin-bearing ewes compared to single-bearing ewes because a greater number of lambs are born per day. Therefore, we hypothesised that; (i) decreasing the mob size of ewes at lambing has a greater impact on the survival of twin-born lambs than single-born lambs; (ii) the relationship between mob size and lamb survival can be explained by differences in the rate of interaction with foreign ewes and lambs at lambing; and (iii) ewes will utilise a limited area of the paddock at lambing and thus lambing density will be defined by the distribution of ewes in the paddock rather than the paddock area. Merino ewes were allocated into a 2×2 factorial combination of ewe pregnancy status (single- or twin-bearing) and mob size (high (n=130 ewes) or low (n=50 ewes)) on day 140 from the start of joining. Each treatment had two replicates excepting the low mob size for twins which had a third replicate. Ewes lambed at a stocking rate of 11 ewes/ha. Feed-on-offer during lambing exceeded 2400 kg dry matter (DM)/ha. Ewe-lamb behaviour was observed and dead lambs were autopsied over 11 days during the peak of lambing. The distribution of ewes in each paddock was recorded every 2 h during daylight hours by counting the number of ewes occupying 2500 m2 grids. The proportion of ewes and their newborn progeny which interacted with foreign ewes at lambing did not differ between the high and low mob sizes for single- (24.9% v. 20.8%) or twin-bearing ewes (14.3% v. 19.6%; P=0.74). Similarly, interaction with foreign lambs did not differ between the high and low mob sizes for single- (14.5% v. 25.2%) and twin-bearing ewes (34.5% v. 26.4%; P=0.44). The distribution of ewes within the paddock did not differ between treatments (P=0.95). On average, single-bearing ewes which lambed at the high and low mob sizes occupied 34% and 36% of the paddock during daylight hours, and the corresponding values for twin-bearing ewes were 40% and 43%. Survival of twin-born lambs was lower than single-born lambs (75.3% v. 87.9%; P
      PubDate: 2019-06-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S175173111800280X
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 6 (2019)
  • Current recommendations for footbath solutions renewal rates in dairy
           cattle: the need for adaptation'
    • Authors: J. M. Ariza; N. Bareille, K. Oberle, R. Guatteo
      Pages: 1319 - 1325
      Abstract: Footbaths represent a potentially useful strategy for the prevention of claw infectious diseases by treating a large number of animals concomitantly. Nevertheless, under field conditions, footbath solutions are exposed to increasing number of animal passages and therefore, to different volume losses and concentrations of manure contamination which could alter their presumed bactericidal activity. Across increasing number of cow passages, the organic matter (OM) concentration, the microbial load (ML) and the residual volumes were assessed in six commercial farms. The results indicate that the OM concentration and ML increased linearly with the number of passages of animals, and with the number of defecations in the footbath. The OM concentrations and the ML were not impacted by the farm’s feet hygiene status (clean, fair and dirty), suggesting that probably the increasing number of cow passages and defecations influenced more the contamination of footbaths than the hygiene of the feet. In all the farms the volumes decreased drastically after 200 cow passages (50%). The OM concentrations after 150 and 200 cow passages did not exceed the regulatory concentrations in which disinfectant products should demonstrate to still be effective (20 g/l), and coincide with the often advised renewal rates. The findings of this study suggested that beyond the footbath contamination by OM, the renewal rates must be mainly adapted according to the remaining volume to guarantee that the entire foot is covered and therefore assure the topical action of the solution. This study highlights the importance of footbath designs for the successful implementation of these strategies in practice.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1751731118002847
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 6 (2019)
  • The effects of immunization against gonadotropin-releasing hormone on
           growth performance, reproductive activity and carcass traits of heavy
           weight gilts
    • Authors: L. A. Rodrigues; F. R. C. L. Almeida, J. V. Peloso, F. N. A. Ferreira, J. Allison, D. O. Fontes
      Pages: 1326 - 1331
      Abstract: Heavy weight gilts commonly show signs of oestrus during the late finishing phase, which results in a period of reduced feed intake and growth rate. Immunization against gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) (IM, immunocastration) was developed for finishing boars and recently extrapolated to females. Immunocastration acts by suppressing reproductive activity and improving the growth potential. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of IM on growth performance, reproductive activity and carcass characteristics of late finishing gilts. Seventy-two gilts (63.49 ± 0.39 kg) were either injected with saline (Intact) or immunized against GnRH (Immunized). The study consisted of three experimental periods: between the first to second immunization (V1 to V2, 15 to 19 weeks of age), from the second immunization to the beginning of daily boar exposure (DBE) (V2 to DBE, 19 to 21 weeks of age) and from the beginning of DBE to slaughter (S) (DBE to S, 21 to 25 weeks of age). Immunized gilts showed an overall increase (from 15 to 25 weeks) of 3.90 kg (P < 0.05) of live weight, 56 g (P < 0.05) of average daily gain (ADG) and 250 g (P < 0.001) of average daily feed intake (ADFI). Immunized gilts had a greater ADFI (+240 g, P < 0.05) and worse feed conversion ratio (+0.26, P < 0.05) from 19 (V2) to 21 weeks of age (before DBE). Furthermore, those females had higher feed intake (+410 g; P < 0.001) plus greater daily weight gain (+92 g; P < 0.05) from V2 to S, and from DBE to S (+470 g of ADFI, P < 0.001; +129 g of ADG, P < 0.01, respectively). Immunocastration had no effect on backfat thickness, lean meat percentage and weight, cold carcass yield or loin depth (P > 0.05). Immunized gilts showed 4.4% increased cold carcass weight (P < 0.01) and 10.6% greater gross flank weight (P < 0.001). Immunization against GnRH did not influence shoulder, collar, loin, belly or ham weights. Nor did it influence belly fat thickness, or meat, skin plus fat and bones yields of cold ham (P > 0.05). Immunocastration reduced ovarian and uterine weights by 82% (P < 0.001) and 93% (P < 0.001), respectively, and suppressed oestrus manifestation in all gilts in the immunized group (P < 0.001). These results indicate that immunization against GnRH is a promising tool for stimulating growth performance with no detrimental effects on carcass quality of heavy weight finishing gilts, by means of oestrus suppression.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1751731118003099
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 6 (2019)
  • Genetic polymorphisms at candidate genes affecting fat content and fatty
           acid composition in Modicana cows: effects on milk production traits in
           different feeding systems
    • Authors: B. Valenti; A. Criscione, V. Moltisanti, S. Bordonaro, A. De Angelis, D. Marletta, F. Di Paola, M. Avondo
      Pages: 1332 - 1340
      Abstract: Feeding greatly affects milk yield and composition. The research is highlighting the potential of genetic polymorphism at some loci to affect milk yield and quality traits. These loci can be up/down regulated depending on the production environment; therefore, we hypothesized that milk yield and composition could differ when cows with different genotype at SCD, DGAT1 and ABCG2 loci are reared in different feeding systems. The polymorphisms of SCD, DGAT1 and ABCG2 genes were investigated in Modicana breed. In all, three polymorphic sites, responsible for the genetic variation of quantitative trait loci and therefore defined quantitative trait nucleotides, were genotyped: the transition g.10329C>T in 5th exon determines a substitution p.A293V in the SCD, the dinucleotide mutation g.10433-10434AA>GC in 8th exon responsible for p.K232A substitution in the DGAT1 and the transition g.62569A>C in the 14th exon responsible for p.Y581S substitution in the ABCG2 gene. In the sample of 165 Modicana cows, SCD and DGAT1 genes resulted polymorphic; the alleles g.10329T and g.10433-10434GC were the most frequent in SCD and DGAT1 (0.73 and 0.91) respectively, whereas ABCG2 locus was monomorphic for allele A (p.581Y). Sequencing analysis was carried out on 14 samples with different genotypes to confirm the results of the PCR-RFLP protocols. Based on the genotypes at SCD locus, 47 Modicana cows were selected for the nutritional trial: 24 cows in a semi-intensive farm, with 2 h/day grazing on natural pasture, and 23 cows in an extensive farm, with 8 h/day grazing on natural pasture. Monthly, milk yield and composition were evaluated and individual milk samples were analyzed for fatty acids composition by gas chromatography. No differences in milk yield, fat, protein, lactose, casein and urea were associated to SCD genotype. Feeding systems affected milk yield and composition. No significant genotype×feeding system interaction was observed for milk yield and composition. Fatty acids composition was significantly affected only by the feeding system. Significant interactions were found between SCD genotype and feeding system for six fatty acids: 4:0, 6:0, 8:0, 10:0, 12:0 and t11 18:1. We concluded that the feeding system was the factor that mostly affected milk production and composition; moreover, our results do not confirm what reported in literature as regard the effect of the SCD polymorphism on milk fatty acid composition. The high amount of pasture seemed to have resized the SCD polymorphism effects because of the different fatty acids composition of the diet.
      PubDate: 2019-06-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1751731118002604
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 6 (2019)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
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