Authors:R. H. TEW Pages: 1 - 25 Abstract: Applications of a WKBJ-type ‘ray ansatz’ to obtain asymptotic solutions of the Helmholtz equation in the high-frequency limit are now standard and underpin the construction of ‘geometrical optics’ ray diagrams in many electromagnetic, acoustic and elastic reflection, transmission and other scattering problems. These applications were subsequently extended by Keller to include other types of rays – called ‘diffracted’ rays – to provide an accessible and impressively accurate theory which is relevant in wide-ranging sets of circumstances. Friedlander and Keller then introduced a modified ray ansatz to extend yet further the scope of ray theory and its applicability to certain other classes of diffraction problems (tangential ray incidence upon an obstructing boundary, for instance) and did so by the inclusion of an extra term proportional to a power of the wave number within the exponent of the initial ansatz. Our purpose here is to generalise this further still by the inclusion of several such terms, ordered in a natural sequence in terms of strategically chosen fractional powers of the large wave number, and to derive a systematic sequence of boundary value problems for the coefficient phase functions that arise within this generalised exponent, as well as one for the leading-order amplitude occurring as a pre-exponential factor. One particular choice of fractional power is considered in detail, and waves with specified radially symmetric or planar wavefronts are then analysed, along with a boundary value problem typifying two-dimensional radiation whereby arbitrary phase and amplitude variations are specified on a prescribed boundary curve. This theory is then applied to the scattering of plane and cylindrical waves at curved boundaries with small-scale perturbations to their underlying profile. PubDate: 2020-02-01T00:00:00.000Z DOI: 10.1017/S095679251800044X Issue No:Vol. 31, No. 1 (2020)

Authors:HUICONG LI; RUI PENG, TIAN XIANG Pages: 26 - 56 Abstract: This paper is concerned with two frequency-dependent susceptible–infected–susceptible epidemic reaction–diffusion models in heterogeneous environment, with a cross-diffusion term modelling the effect that susceptible individuals tend to move away from higher concentration of infected individuals. It is first shown that the corresponding Neumann initial-boundary value problem in an n-dimensional bounded smooth domain possesses a unique global classical solution which is uniformly in-time bounded regardless of the strength of the cross-diffusion and the spatial dimension n. It is further shown that, even in the presence of cross-diffusion, the models still admit threshold-type dynamics in terms of the basic reproduction number $\mathcal {R}_0$ – i.e. the unique disease-free equilibrium is globally stable if $\mathcal {R}_0\lt1$ , while if $\mathcal {R}_0\gt1$ , the disease is uniformly persistent and there is an endemic equilibrium (EE), which is globally stable in some special cases with weak chemotactic sensitivity. Our results on the asymptotic profiles of EE illustrate that restricting the motility of susceptible population may eliminate the infectious disease entirely for the first model with constant total population but fails for the second model with varying total population. In particular, this implies that such cross-diffusion does not contribute to the elimination of the infectious disease modelled by the second one. PubDate: 2020-02-01T00:00:00.000Z DOI: 10.1017/S0956792518000463 Issue No:Vol. 31, No. 1 (2020)

Authors:NATALIE E. SHEILS; BERNARD DECONINCK Pages: 57 - 83 Abstract: The linear Schrödinger equation with piecewise constant potential in one spatial dimension is a well-studied textbook problem. It is one of only a few solvable models in quantum mechanics and shares many qualitative features with physically important models. In examples such as ‘particle in a box’ and tunnelling, attention is restricted to the time-independent Schrödinger equation. This paper combines the unified transform method and recent insights for interface problems to present fully explicit solutions for the time-dependent problem. PubDate: 2020-02-01T00:00:00.000Z DOI: 10.1017/S0956792518000475 Issue No:Vol. 31, No. 1 (2020)

Authors:J.-B. BURIE; R. DJIDJOU-DEMASSE, A. DUCROT Pages: 84 - 110 Abstract: This work is devoted to the study of an integro-differential system of equations modelling the genetic adaptation of a pathogen by taking into account both mutation and selection processes. First, we study the asymptotic behaviour of the system and prove that it eventually converges to a stationary state. Next, we more closely investigate the behaviour of the system in the presence of multiple EAs. Under suitable assumptions and based on a small mutation variance asymptotic, we describe the existence of a long transient regime during which the pathogen population remains far from its asymptotic behaviour and highly concentrated around some phenotypic value that is different from the one described by its asymptotic behaviour. In that setting, the time needed for the system to reach its large time configuration is very long and multiple evolutionary attractors may act as a barrier of evolution that can be very long to bypass. PubDate: 2020-02-01T00:00:00.000Z DOI: 10.1017/S0956792518000487 Issue No:Vol. 31, No. 1 (2020)

Authors:GEORGE FRAGOYIANNIS; FOTEINI KARIOTOU, PANAYIOTIS VAFEAS Pages: 111 - 142 Abstract: The present work is part of a series of studies conducted by the authors on analytical models of avascular tumour growth that exhibit both geometrical anisotropy and physical inhomogeneity. In particular, we consider a tumour structure formed in distinct ellipsoidal regions occupied by cell populations at a certain stage of their biological cycle. The cancer cells receive nutrient by diffusion from an inhomogeneous supply and they are subject to also an inhomogeneous pressure field imposed by the tumour microenvironment. It is proved that the lack of symmetry is strongly connected to a special condition that should hold between the data imposed by the tumour’s surrounding medium, in order for the ellipsoidal growth to be realizable, a feature already present in other non-symmetrical yet more degenerate models. The nutrient and the inhibitor concentration, as well as the pressure field, are provided in analytical fashion via closed-form series solutions in terms of ellipsoidal eigenfunctions, while their behaviour is demonstrated by indicative plots. The evolution equation of all the tumour’s ellipsoidal interfaces is postulated in ellipsoidal terms and a numerical implementation is provided in view of its solution. From the mathematical point of view, the ellipsoidal system is the most general coordinate system that the Laplace operator, which dominates the mathematical models of avascular growth, enjoys spectral decomposition. Therefore, we consider the ellipsoidal model presented in this work, as the most general analytic model describing the avascular growth in inhomogeneous environment. Additionally, due to the intrinsic degrees of freedom inherited to the model by the ellipsoidal geometry, the ellipsoidal model presented can be adapted to a very populous class of avascular tumours, varying in figure and in orientation. PubDate: 2020-02-01T00:00:00.000Z DOI: 10.1017/S0956792518000499 Issue No:Vol. 31, No. 1 (2020)

Authors:M. J. CHEN; L. S. KIMPTON, J. P. WHITELEY, M. CASTILHO, J. MALDA, C. P. PLEASE, S. L. WATERS, H. M. BYRNE Pages: 143 - 171 Abstract: Tissue engineering aims to grow artificial tissues in vitro to replace those in the body that have been damaged through age, trauma or disease. A recent approach to engineer artificial cartilage involves seeding cells within a scaffold consisting of an interconnected 3D-printed lattice of polymer fibres combined with a cast or printed hydrogel, and subjecting the construct (cell-seeded scaffold) to an applied load in a bioreactor. A key question is to understand how the applied load is distributed throughout the construct. To address this, we employ homogenisation theory to derive equations governing the effective macroscale material properties of a periodic, elastic–poroelastic composite. We treat the fibres as a linear elastic material and the hydrogel as a poroelastic material, and exploit the disparate length scales (small inter-fibre spacing compared with construct dimensions) to derive macroscale equations governing the response of the composite to an applied load. This homogenised description reflects the orthotropic nature of the composite. To validate the model, solutions from finite element simulations of the macroscale, homogenised equations are compared to experimental data describing the unconfined compression of the fibre-reinforced hydrogels. The model is used to derive the bulk mechanical properties of a cylindrical construct of the composite material for a range of fibre spacings and to determine the local mechanical environment experienced by cells embedded within the construct. PubDate: 2020-02-01T00:00:00.000Z DOI: 10.1017/S0956792518000657 Issue No:Vol. 31, No. 1 (2020)

Authors:ANDRÁS A. SIPOS Pages: 172 - 182 Abstract: Evolution of planar curves under a nonlocal geometric equation is investigated. It models the simultaneous contraction and growth of carbonate particles called ooids in geosciences. Using classical ODE results and a bijective mapping, we demonstrate that the steady parameters associated with the physical environment determine a unique, time-invariant, compact shape among smooth, convex curves embedded in ℝ2. It is also revealed that any time-invariant solution possesses D2 symmetry. The model predictions remarkably agree with ooid shapes observed in nature. PubDate: 2020-02-01T00:00:00.000Z DOI: 10.1017/S0956792519000019 Issue No:Vol. 31, No. 1 (2020)

Authors:N. E. COURTIER; J. M. FOSTER, S. E. J. O’KANE, A. B. WALKER, G. RICHARDSON Pages: 183 - 184 Abstract: Following publication, errors were discovered in the y-axis labels of the electron and hole concentration plots in the following figure panels: figure 4c, figure 4d, figure 5c, figure 5d, figure 6c, figure 6d, figure 8c and figure 8d. The error does not affect the description, analysis or conclusions. The correct representation of the figure panels are shown here. PubDate: 2020-02-01T00:00:00.000Z DOI: 10.1017/S0956792519000135 Issue No:Vol. 31, No. 1 (2020)