Authors:Craig A. Rolling; Yuhong Yang, Dagmar Velez Pages: 1089 - 1110 Abstract: Estimating a treatment’s effect on an outcome conditional on covariates is a primary goal of many empirical investigations. Accurate estimation of the treatment effect given covariates can enable the optimal treatment to be applied to each unit or guide the deployment of limited treatment resources for maximum program benefit. Applications of conditional treatment effect estimation are found in direct marketing, economic policy, and personalized medicine. When estimating conditional treatment effects, the typical practice is to select a statistical model or procedure based on sample data. However, combining estimates from the candidate procedures often provides a more accurate estimate than the selection of a single procedure. This article proposes a method of model combination that targets accurate estimation of the treatment effect conditional on covariates. We provide a risk bound for the resulting estimator under squared error loss and illustrate the method using data from a labor skills training program. PubDate: 2019-12-01T00:00:00.000Z DOI: 10.1017/S0266466618000397 Issue No:Vol. 35, No. 6 (2019)

Authors:David Harris; Brendan McCabe Pages: 1111 - 1145 Abstract: This article considers testing for independence in a time series of small counts within an Integer Autoregressive (INAR) model, taking a semiparametric approach that avoids any distributional assumption on the arrivals process of the model. The nature of the testing problem is shown to differ depending on whether or not the support of the arrivals distribution is the full set of natural numbers (as would be the case for Poisson or Negative Binomial distributions for example) or some strict subset of the natural numbers (such as for a Binomial or Uniform distribution). The theory for these two cases is studied separately.For the case where the arrivals have support on the natural numbers, a new asymptotically efficient semiparametric test, the effective score (Neyman-Rao) test, is derived. The semiparametric Likelihood-Ratio, Wald and score tests are shown to be asymptotically equivalent to the effective score test, and hence also asymptotically efficient. Asymptotic relative efficiency calculations demonstrate that the semiparametric effective score test can provide substantial power advantages over the first order autocorrelation coefficient, which is most commonly applied in practice.For the case where the arrivals have support that is a strict subset of the natural numbers, the theory is considerably altered because the support of the observations becomes different under the null and alternative hypotheses. The semiparametric Likelihood-Ratio, Wald and score tests become asymptotically degenerate in this case, while the effective score test remains valid. Remarkably, in this case the effective score test is also found to have power against local alternatives that shrink to the null at the rate T−1. In rare cases where the arrival support is partly or totally known, additional tests exploiting this information are considered.Finite sample properties of the tests in these various cases demonstrate the semiparametric effective score test can provide substantial power advantages over the first order autocorrelation test implied by a parametric Poisson specification. The simulations also reveal situations in which the first order autocorrelation is preferable in finite samples, so a hybrid of the effective score and autocorrelation tests is proposed to capture most of the benefits of each test. PubDate: 2019-12-01T00:00:00.000Z DOI: 10.1017/S0266466618000403 Issue No:Vol. 35, No. 6 (2019)

Authors:Yu-Chin Hsu; Chu-An Liu, Xiaoxia Shi Pages: 1146 - 1200 Abstract: We propose a test for a generalized regression monotonicity (GRM) hypothesis. The GRM hypothesis is the sharp testable implication of the monotonicity of certain latent structures, as we show in this article. Examples include the monotonicity of the conditional mean function when only interval data are available for the dependent variable and the monotone instrumental variable assumption of Manski and Pepper (2000). These instances of latent monotonicity can be tested using our test. Moreover, the GRM hypothesis includes regression monotonicity and stochastic monotonicity as special cases. Thus, our test also serves as an alternative to existing tests for those hypotheses. We show that our test controls the size uniformly over a broad set of data generating processes asymptotically, is consistent against fixed alternatives, and has nontrivial power against some ${n^{ - 1/2}}$ local alternatives. PubDate: 2019-12-01T00:00:00.000Z DOI: 10.1017/S0266466618000439 Issue No:Vol. 35, No. 6 (2019)

Authors:Fabrizio Iacone; Stephen J. Leybourne, A.M. Robert Taylor Pages: 1201 - 1233 Abstract: We develop a test, based on the Lagrange multiplier [LM] testing principle, for the value of the long memory parameter of a univariate time series that is composed of a fractionally integrated shock around a potentially broken deterministic trend. Our proposed test is constructed from data which are de-trended allowing for a trend break whose (unknown) location is estimated by a standard residual sum of squares estimator applied either to the levels or first differences of the data, depending on the value specified for the long memory parameter under the null hypothesis. We demonstrate that the resulting LM-type statistic has a standard limiting null chi-squared distribution with one degree of freedom, and attains the same asymptotic local power function as an infeasible LM test based on the true shocks. Our proposed test therefore attains the same asymptotic local optimality properties as an oracle LM test in both the trend break and no trend break environments. Moreover, this asymptotic local power function does not alter between the break and no break cases and so there is no loss in asymptotic local power from allowing for a trend break at an unknown point in the sample, even in the case where no break is present. We also report the results from a Monte Carlo study into the finite-sample behaviour of our proposed test. PubDate: 2019-12-01T00:00:00.000Z DOI: 10.1017/S0266466618000361 Issue No:Vol. 35, No. 6 (2019)

Authors:Sébastien Fries; Jean-Michel Zakoian Pages: 1234 - 1270 Abstract: Noncausal autoregressive models with heavy-tailed errors generate locally explosive processes and, therefore, provide a convenient framework for modelling bubbles in economic and financial time series. We investigate the probability properties of mixed causal-noncausal autoregressive processes, assuming the errors follow a stable non-Gaussian distribution. Extending the study of the noncausal AR(1) model by Gouriéroux and Zakoian (2017), we show that the conditional distribution in direct time is lighter-tailed than the errors distribution, and we emphasize the presence of ARCH effects in a causal representation of the process. Under the assumption that the errors belong to the domain of attraction of a stable distribution, we show that a causal AR representation with non-i.i.d. errors can be consistently estimated by classical least-squares. We derive a portmanteau test to check the validity of the estimated AR representation and propose a method based on extreme residuals clustering to determine whether the AR generating process is causal, noncausal, or mixed. An empirical study on simulated and real data illustrates the potential usefulness of the results. PubDate: 2019-12-01T00:00:00.000Z DOI: 10.1017/S0266466618000452 Issue No:Vol. 35, No. 6 (2019)