Authors:ERIK BATES; LISA SAUERMANN Pages: 325 - 334 Abstract: We show that a coupling of non-colliding simple random walkers on the complete graph on n vertices can include at most n - log n walkers. This improves the only previously known upper bound of n - 2 due to Angel, Holroyd, Martin, Wilson and Winkler (Electron. Commun. Probab.18 (2013)). The proof considers couplings of i.i.d. sequences of Bernoulli random variables satisfying a similar avoidance property, for which there is separate interest. PubDate: 2019-05-01T00:00:00.000Z DOI: 10.1017/S0963548318000500 Issue No:Vol. 28, No. 3 (2019)

Authors:XING SHI CAI; CECILIA HOLMGREN, SVANTE JANSON, TONY JOHANSSON, FIONA SKERMAN Pages: 335 - 364 Abstract: We study I(T), the number of inversions in a tree T with its vertices labelled uniformly at random, which is a generalization of inversions in permutations. We first show that the cumulants of I(T) have explicit formulas involving the k-total common ancestors of T (an extension of the total path length). Then we consider Xn, the normalized version of I(Tn), for a sequence of trees Tn. For fixed Tn's, we prove a sufficient condition for Xn to converge in distribution. As an application, we identify the limit of Xn for complete b-ary trees. For Tn being split trees [16], we show that Xn converges to the unique solution of a distributional equation. Finally, when Tn's are conditional Galton–Watson trees, we show that Xn converges to a random variable defined in terms of Brownian excursions. By exploiting the connection between inversions and the total path length, we are able to give results that significantly strengthen and broaden previous work by Panholzer and Seitz [46]. PubDate: 2019-05-01T00:00:00.000Z DOI: 10.1017/S0963548318000512 Issue No:Vol. 28, No. 3 (2019)

Authors:S. CANNON; D. A. LEVIN, A. STAUFFER Pages: 365 - 387 Abstract: We give the first polynomial upper bound on the mixing time of the edge-flip Markov chain for unbiased dyadic tilings, resolving an open problem originally posed by Janson, Randall and Spencer in 2002 [14]. A dyadic tiling of size n is a tiling of the unit square by n non-overlapping dyadic rectangles, each of area 1/n, where a dyadic rectangle is any rectangle that can be written in the form [a2−s, (a + 1)2−s] × [b2−t, (b + 1)2−t] for a, b, s, t ∈ ℤ⩾ 0. The edge-flip Markov chain selects a random edge of the tiling and replaces it with its perpendicular bisector if doing so yields a valid dyadic tiling. Specifically, we show that the relaxation time of the edge-flip Markov chain for dyadic tilings is at most O(n4.09), which implies that the mixing time is at most O(n5.09). We complement this by showing that the relaxation time is at least Ω(n1.38), improving upon the previously best lower bound of Ω(n log n) coming from the diameter of the chain. PubDate: 2019-05-01T00:00:00.000Z DOI: 10.1017/S0963548318000470 Issue No:Vol. 28, No. 3 (2019)

Authors:ALEXANDER E. HOLROYD; LIONEL LEVINE, PETER WINKLER Pages: 388 - 422 Abstract: An abelian processor is an automaton whose output is independent of the order of its inputs. Bond and Levine have proved that a network of abelian processors performs the same computation regardless of processing order (subject only to a halting condition). We prove that any finite abelian processor can be emulated by a network of certain very simple abelian processors, which we call gates. The most fundamental gate is a toppler, which absorbs input particles until their number exceeds some given threshold, at which point it topples, emitting one particle and returning to its initial state. With the exception of an adder gate, which simply combines two streams of particles, each of our gates has only one input wire, which sends letters (‘particles’) from a unary alphabet. Our results can be reformulated in terms of the functions computed by processors, and one consequence is that any increasing function from ℕk to ℕℓ that is the sum of a linear function and a periodic function can be expressed in terms of (possibly nested) sums of floors of quotients by integers. PubDate: 2019-05-01T00:00:00.000Z DOI: 10.1017/S0963548318000482 Issue No:Vol. 28, No. 3 (2019)

Authors:DONG YEAP KANG Pages: 423 - 464 Abstract: Mader proved that every strongly k-connected n-vertex digraph contains a strongly k-connected spanning subgraph with at most 2kn - 2k2 edges, where equality holds for the complete bipartite digraph DKk,n-k. For dense strongly k-connected digraphs, this upper bound can be significantly improved. More precisely, we prove that every strongly k-connected n-vertex digraph D contains a strongly k-connected spanning subgraph with at most kn + 800k(k + Δ(D)) edges, where Δ(D) denotes the maximum degree of the complement of the underlying undirected graph of a digraph D. Here, the additional term 800k(k + Δ(D)) is tight up to multiplicative and additive constants. As a corollary, this implies that every strongly k-connected n-vertex semicomplete digraph contains a strongly k-connected spanning subgraph with at most kn + 800k2 edges, which is essentially optimal since 800k2 cannot be reduced to the number less than k(k - 1)/2.We also prove an analogous result for strongly k-arc-connected directed multigraphs. Both proofs yield polynomial-time algorithms. PubDate: 2019-05-01T00:00:00.000Z DOI: 10.1017/S0963548318000469 Issue No:Vol. 28, No. 3 (2019)

Authors:DANIEL KRÁL'; BERNARD LIDICKÝ, TAÍSA L. MARTINS, YANITSA PEHOVA Pages: 465 - 472 Abstract: We prove the following 30 year-old conjecture of Győri and Tuza: the edges of every n-vertex graph G can be decomposed into complete graphs C1,. . .,Cℓ of orders two and three such that |C1|+···+|Cℓ| ≤ (1/2+o(1))n2. This result implies the asymptotic version of the old result of Erdős, Goodman and Pósa that asserts the existence of such a decomposition with ℓ ≤ n2/4. PubDate: 2019-05-01T00:00:00.000Z DOI: 10.1017/S0963548318000421 Issue No:Vol. 28, No. 3 (2019)

Authors:NABIL H. MUSTAFA; SAURABH RAY Pages: 473 - 482 Abstract: Let C be a bounded convex object in ℝd, and let P be a set of n points lying outside C. Further, let cp, cq be two integers with 1 ⩽ cq ⩽ cp ⩽ n - ⌊d/2⌋, such that every cp + ⌊d/2⌋ points of P contain a subset of size cq + ⌊d/2⌋ whose convex hull is disjoint from C. Then our main theorem states the existence of a partition of P into a small number of subsets, each of whose convex hulls are disjoint from C. Our proof is constructive and implies that such a partition can be computed in polynomial time.In particular, our general theorem implies polynomial bounds for Hadwiger--Debrunner (p, q) numbers for balls in ℝd. For example, it follows from our theorem that when p > q = (1+β)⋅d/2 for β > 0, then any set of balls satisfying the (p, q)-property can be hit by O((1+β)2d2p1+1/β logp) points. This is the first improvement over a nearly 60 year-old exponential bound of roughly O(2d).Our results also complement the results obtained in a recent work of Keller, Smorodinsky and Tardos where, apart from improvements to the bound on HD(p, q) for convex sets in ℝd for various ranges of p and q, a polynomial bound is obtained for regions with low union complexity in the plane. PubDate: 2019-05-01T00:00:00.000Z DOI: 10.1017/S0963548318000445 Issue No:Vol. 28, No. 3 (2019)