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Publisher: Cambridge University Press   (Total: 387 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 387 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Neuropsychiatrica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Numerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.709, CiteScore: 10)
Advances in Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.441, CiteScore: 1)
Aeronautical J., The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Africa     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.582, CiteScore: 1)
African Studies Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.437, CiteScore: 1)
Ageing & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.756, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural and Resource Economics Review     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.414, CiteScore: 1)
AI EDAM     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.375, CiteScore: 1)
AJIL Unbound     Open Access  
AJS Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.128, CiteScore: 0)
American Political Science Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 314, SJR: 5.587, CiteScore: 4)
Anatolian Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.528, CiteScore: 1)
Ancient Mesoamerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.478, CiteScore: 1)
Anglo-Saxon England     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
animal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 2)
Animal Health Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.69, CiteScore: 2)
Animal Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Actuarial Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Annual of the British School at Athens     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Annual Review of Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 3.223, CiteScore: 4)
Antarctic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.643, CiteScore: 1)
Antichthon     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Antiquaries J., The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Antiquity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
ANZIAM J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.216, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Psycholinguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.945, CiteScore: 2)
APSIPA Transactions on Signal and Information Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.404, CiteScore: 2)
Arabic Sciences and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Arbor Clinical Nutrition Updates     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Archaeological Dialogues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.898, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological Reports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.128, CiteScore: 0)
Architectural History     Full-text available via subscription  
arq: Architectural Research Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 0)
Art Libraries J.     Full-text available via subscription  
Asian J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.129, CiteScore: 0)
Asian J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.135, CiteScore: 0)
Asian J. of Law and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.195, CiteScore: 0)
Astin Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.878, CiteScore: 1)
Australasian J. of Organisational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.154, CiteScore: 1)
Australian J. of Environmental Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Australian J. of Indigenous Education, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 1)
Australian J. of Rehabilitation Counseling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Austrian History Yearbook     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 0)
Behavioral and Brain Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.595, CiteScore: 1)
Behaviour Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.508, CiteScore: 1)
Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 176, SJR: 0.976, CiteScore: 2)
Bilingualism: Language and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 1.446, CiteScore: 2)
Biofilms     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Bird Conservation Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.581, CiteScore: 1)
BJPsych Advances     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 57, SJR: 0.275, CiteScore: 0)
BJPsych Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BJPsych Open     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Brain Impairment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.321, CiteScore: 1)
Breast Cancer Online     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Britannia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
British Actuarial J.     Full-text available via subscription  
British Catholic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.133, CiteScore: 1)
British J. for the History of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
British J. of Anaesthetic and Recovery Nursing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
British J. of Music Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.564, CiteScore: 1)
British J. Of Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 88, SJR: 1.612, CiteScore: 4)
British J. of Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 213, SJR: 4.661, CiteScore: 4)
British J. of Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 220, SJR: 2.844, CiteScore: 3)
Bulletin of Entomological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.805, CiteScore: 2)
Bulletin of Symbolic Logic     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 1)
Bulletin of the Australian Mathematical Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 0)
Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Business and Human Rights J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Business Ethics Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.098, CiteScore: 2)
Business History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.347, CiteScore: 1)
Cambridge Archaeological J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 150, SJR: 1.121, CiteScore: 1)
Cambridge Classical J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Cambridge J. of Postcolonial Literary Inquiry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Cambridge Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 197, SJR: 0.213, CiteScore: 0)
Cambridge Opera J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.14, CiteScore: 0)
Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.299, CiteScore: 1)
Cambridge Yearbook of European Legal Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
Camden Fifth Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Canadian Entomologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.482, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.624, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Law & Jurisprudence     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.237, CiteScore: 0)
Canadian J. of Law and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.259, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Mathematics / J. canadien de mathématiques     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian J. of Neurological Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.549, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Political Science/Revue canadienne de science politique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.385, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. on Aging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.426, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Mathematical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Yearbook of Intl. Law / Annuaire canadien de droit international     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Cardiology in the Young     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.372, CiteScore: 1)
Central European History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.159, CiteScore: 0)
Children Australia     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.255, CiteScore: 0)
China Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 2.289, CiteScore: 3)
Chinese J. of Agricultural Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Church History : Studies in Christianity and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 75, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Classical Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 0)
Classical Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
CNS Spectrums     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.391, CiteScore: 3)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Combinatorics, Probability and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 1)
Communications in Computational Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.048, CiteScore: 2)
Comparative Studies in Society and History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.585, CiteScore: 1)
Compositio Mathematica     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 3.139, CiteScore: 1)
Contemporary European History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Continuity and Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.107, CiteScore: 0)
Dance Research J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 0)
Development and Psychopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.068, CiteScore: 4)
Dialogue Canadian Philosophical Review/Revue canadienne de philosophie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 0)
Diamond Light Source Proceedings     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.471, CiteScore: 1)
Du Bois Review: Social Science Research on Race     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.561, CiteScore: 1)
Early China     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Early Music History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
East Asian J. on Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.418, CiteScore: 1)
Ecclesiastical Law J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.114, CiteScore: 0)
Econometric Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.915, CiteScore: 1)
Economics and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.622, CiteScore: 1)
Edinburgh J. of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.283, CiteScore: 1)
Educational and Developmental Psychologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Eighteenth-Century Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.113, CiteScore: 0)
English Language and Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.52, CiteScore: 1)
English Profile J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
English Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 0)
Enterprise & Society : The Intl. J. of Business History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.245, CiteScore: 1)
Environment and Development Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.617, CiteScore: 1)
Environmental Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 1.028, CiteScore: 2)
Environmental Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.145, CiteScore: 0)
Epidemiology & Infection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.128, CiteScore: 2)
Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.494, CiteScore: 2)
Episteme     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.756, CiteScore: 1)
Ergodic Theory and Dynamical Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.193, CiteScore: 1)
Ethics & Intl. Affairs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.557, CiteScore: 1)
European Constitutional Law Review (EuConst)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.009, CiteScore: 1)
European J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.52, CiteScore: 1)
European J. of Intl. Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
European J. of Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.643, CiteScore: 1)
European Political Science Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.816, CiteScore: 2)
European Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Evolutionary Human Sciences     Open Access  
Experimental Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.647, CiteScore: 4)
Fetal and Maternal Medicine Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Financial History Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.238, CiteScore: 1)
Foreign Policy Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Forum of Mathematics, Pi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Forum of Mathematics, Sigma     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Genetics Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.483, CiteScore: 1)
Geological Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.966, CiteScore: 2)
Glasgow Mathematical J.     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 0)
Global Constitutionalism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Global Mental Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Global Sustainability     Open Access  
Government and Opposition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.965, CiteScore: 2)
Greece & Rome     Partially Free   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.113, CiteScore: 0)
Hague J. on the Rule of Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.271, CiteScore: 1)
Harvard Theological Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 80, SJR: 0.165, CiteScore: 0)
Health Economics, Policy and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 1)
Hegel Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
High Power Laser Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.901, CiteScore: 3)
Historical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.247, CiteScore: 1)
History in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Horizons     Partially Free   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.129, CiteScore: 0)
Industrial and Organizational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.916, CiteScore: 1)
Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.97, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. & Comparative Law Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 249, SJR: 0.369, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Annals of Criminology     Full-text available via subscription  
Intl. J. of Asian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.143, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Astrobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Cultural Property     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.253, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Disability Management Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.105, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Law in Context     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.275, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Legal Information     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 341)
Intl. J. of Microwave and Wireless Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Middle East Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72, SJR: 0.434, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Technology Assessment in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.714, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Labor and Working-Class History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. Organization     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 105, SJR: 8.527, CiteScore: 5)
Intl. Psychogeriatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.048, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Review of Social History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Review of the Red Cross     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. Theory: A J. of Intl. Politics, Law and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 2.293, CiteScore: 2)
Iraq     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Irish Historical Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
Irish J. of Psychological Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.221, CiteScore: 0)
Israel Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.165, CiteScore: 0)
Italian Political Science Review / Rivista Italiana di Scienza Politica     Hybrid Journal  
Itinerario     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.158, CiteScore: 0)
J. of African History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.348, CiteScore: 1)
J. of African Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.113, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Agricultural and Applied Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Agricultural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.563, CiteScore: 1)
J. of American Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.164, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Anglican Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Applied Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
J. of Asian Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Benefit-Cost Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
J. of Biosocial Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.48, CiteScore: 1)
J. of British Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.246, CiteScore: 0)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Bilingualism: Language and Cognition
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.446
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 42  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1366-7289 - ISSN (Online) 1469-1841
Published by Cambridge University Press Homepage  [387 journals]
  • BIL volume 22 issue 4 Cover and Front matter
    • PubDate: 2019-08-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1366728919000269
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 4 (2019)
  • BIL volume 22 issue 4 Cover and Back matter
    • PubDate: 2019-08-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1366728919000270
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 4 (2019)
  • Computational approaches to word retrieval in bilinguals
      Pages: 655 - 656
      Abstract: The cognitive architecture of human language processing has been studied for decades, but using computational modeling for such studies is a relatively recent topic. Indeed, computational approaches to language processing have become increasingly popular in our field, mainly due to advances in computational modeling techniques and the availability of large collections of experimental data. Language learning, particularly child language learning, has been the subject of many computational models. By simulating the process of child language learning, computational models may indeed teach us which linguistic representations are learnable from the input that children have access to (and which are not), as well as which mechanisms yield the same patterns of behavior that are found in children's language performance.
      PubDate: 2019-08-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1366728919000221
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 4 (2019)
  • Multilink: a computational model for bilingual word recognition and word
      Pages: 657 - 679
      Abstract: The computational BIA+ model (Dijkstra & Van Heuven, 2002) has provided a useful account for bilingual word recognition, while the verbal (pre-quantitative) RHM (Kroll & Stewart, 1994) has often served as a reference framework for bilingual word production and translation. According to Brysbaert and Duyck (2010), a strong need is felt for a unified implemented account of bilingual word comprehension, lexical-semantic processing, and word production. With this goal in mind, we built a localist-connectionist model, called Multilink, which integrates basic assumptions of both BIA+ and RHM. It simulates the recognition and production of cognates (form-similar translation equivalents) and non-cognates of different lengths and frequencies in tasks like monolingual and bilingual lexical decision, word naming, and word translation production. It also considers effects of lexical similarity, cognate status, relative L2-proficiency, and translation direction. Model-to-model comparisons show that Multilink provides higher correlations with empirical data than both IA and BIA+ models.
      PubDate: 2019-08-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1366728918000287
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 4 (2019)
  • The bilingual mental lexicon beyond Dutch–English written words
    • Authors: MIRA GORAL
      Pages: 680 - 681
      Abstract: The contribution that Ton Dijkstra has made to the field of bilingualism, with his colleagues over the years, is beyond measure. He has advanced our field with the thoughtful and thought-provoking models of the bilingual lexicon he has put forward, and with the vast empirical data he and his colleagues have collected from numerous bilinguals, using a variety of experimental methods. This paper by Dijkstra, Wahl, Buytenhuijs, van Halem, Al-jibouri, de Korte, and Rekké (2018) is no exception. It comprises a thoughtful and detailed description of a new model, Multilink, and provides relevant information regarding the context in which the model was developed, its assumptions, its successes and challenges. The model is the first to consider aspects of both word production and word recognition, as well as of word translation, and to explicitly address how translation equivalents that share both form and meaning – cognates – may be processed. Also addressed are word-frequency concerns, including differences in word frequency that are dependent on language proficiency and exposure. The assumptions that are made within the model are clearly laid out, and less-than-ideal decisions that needed to be made are acknowledged. The authors conclude that a model like Multilink could be the basis for a general model of the mental lexicon. In that, they promote the view taken in Libben, Goral, and Libben (2017) that the bilingual – not the monolingual – lexicon should be considered as the default.
      PubDate: 2019-08-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1366728918000743
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 4 (2019)
  • Scaling up: How computational models can propel bilingualism research
    • Authors: PING LI; ANGELA GRANT
      Pages: 682 - 684
      Abstract: The Multilink model that Dijkstra, Wahl, Buytenhuijs, van Halem, Al-jibouri, de Korte, and Rekké (2018) present is an excellent example that connects empirical patterns obtained from behavioral studies with mechanisms that can be implemented in computational models. We have previously argued that implementation of computational models is important because it forces the researchers to be explicit about assumptions and to specify parameters and variables that may be absent in verbal models. The Multilink model, along with BIA/BIA+ and many other models, provides concrete hypotheses regarding the role of variables such as word frequency, word length, orthographic similarity, and phonological neighborhood for researchers to test and verify against empirical data (see examples in the special issue on computational modeling published in this journal; Li, 2013).
      PubDate: 2019-08-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1366728918000755
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 4 (2019)
  • The role of learning on bilinguals’ lexical architecture: Beyond
           separated vs. integrated lexicons
      Pages: 685 - 686
      Abstract: How are the two lexicons of a bilingual represented and how do they interact during language processing' These questions are central to bilingualism and have been the topics of a large number of studies. Dijkstra, Wahl, Buytenhuijs, van Halem, Al-jibouri, De Korte & Rekke (in press) put forward a model that tries to capture people's behavior in several tasks mostly involving reading, with the exception of word translation. A praise-worthy feature of the model is that it is computationally implemented following a local-connectionist architecture. The model is then used to quantitatively account for reaction time patterns on various tasks, with considerable success.
      PubDate: 2019-08-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1366728918000809
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 4 (2019)
  • Multilink for bilingual language production
      Pages: 687 - 688
      Abstract: A major benefit of computational models is their ability to demonstrate which theoretical assumptions are truly necessary to explain a pattern of data. Dijkstra, Wahl, Buytenhuijs, van Halem, Al-jibouri, de Korte, and Rekké (in press) have impressively shown with Multilink that it is possible to account for a range of findings from bilingual lexical decision, word naming, and forward and backward translation tasks with an integrated lexicon, without lateral connections between translation equivalents, and without inhibition. In this commentary, we consider the applicability of the current model to other multilingual language production tasks, and note where the model's assumptions might need revision as its scope is expanded.
      PubDate: 2019-08-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1366728918000718
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 4 (2019)
  • Words only go so far: Linguistic context affects bilingual word processing
    • Authors: JANET G. VAN HELL
      Pages: 689 - 690
      Abstract: In their keynote paper, Dijkstra, Wahl, Buytenhuijs, van Halem, Al-jibouri, de Korte, and Rekké (2018) present a computational model of bilingual word recognition and translation, Multilink, that integrates and further refines the architecture and processing principles of two influential models of bilingual word processing: the Bilingual Activation Model (BIA/BIA+) and the Revised Hierarchical model (RHM). Unlike the earlier models, Multilink has been implemented as a computational model so its design principles and assumptions can be compared with human processing data in simulation studies – which is an important step forward in model development and refinement. But Multilink also leaves behind an important theoretical advancement that was touched upon in extending BIA to BIA+ (Dijkstra & Van Heuven, 2002): how linguistic context influences word processing. In their presentation of BIA+, Dijkstra and Van Heuven (2002) hypothesized that syntactic and semantic aspects of sentence context may affect the word identification system. Theoretically, this was an important step forward, as none of the bilingual word processing models (and few monolingual word processing models, for that matter) had incorporated linguistic context, and at that time only a handful of empirical studies had examined how linguistic context affects bilingual word processing. However, in the past 15 years a significant body of empirical work has been published that examines how semantic and syntactic information in sentences impacts word processing in bilinguals. These important insights are not incorporated in the Multilink model.
      PubDate: 2019-08-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1366728918000706
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 4 (2019)
  • A few suggestions on broadening the cross-linguistic relevance of the
           Multilink model
      Pages: 691 - 692
      Abstract: In their keynote article, Dijkstra, Wahl, Buytenhuijs, van Halem, Al-jibouri, De Korte & Rekke (2018) propose a new model that aims to integrate and take care of the possible shortcomings of both the Revised Hierarchical Model (RHM, Kroll & Stewart, 1994) and Bilingual Interactive Activation model (BIA and several of its later versions, Dijkstra & Van Heuven, 1998). They begin their proposal by examining the objections/issues raised by Brysbaert and Duyck (2010) on RHM. It is well known that RHM is a developmental, production-based model which mostly predicted performance on translation-based tasks albeit with different predictions for translation recognition vs. production with regard to second language proficiency; BIA being a connectionist model of bilingual word recognition majorly emphasized on language non –selective selection and parallel language activation. Having been developed in and around Dutch (English as the second language), it took cognate status and orthographic similarity between words very seriously. Cognate status and orthographic similarity as factors won't count much as theoretical constructs around which a hypothesis could be developed if we look round the diverse types of orthographies and phonologies we find around the world.
      PubDate: 2019-08-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1366728918000834
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 4 (2019)
  • Phonology-based bilingual activation among different-script
    • Authors: NAN JIANG
      Pages: 693 - 694
      Abstract: Multilink developed by Dijkstra et al. (2018) is a computational model of monolingual and bilingual lexical access in comprehension and production. The non-selective activation of a bilingual's two languages is handled in the model by assuming that bilinguals have an integrated lexicon and that orthographic overlap between the input and the lexical representation drives lexical activation. Hence, an orthographic unit such as the letter T may activate words from multiple languages that contain the letter, resulting in simultaneous activation of multiple languages. This basic mechanism for explaining non-selective activation is similar between Multilink and its predecessors BIA and BIA+.
      PubDate: 2019-08-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1366728918000664
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 4 (2019)
  • The need for a universal computational model of bilingual word recognition
           and word translation
      Pages: 695 - 696
      Abstract: Dijkstra, Wahl, Buytenhuijs, van Halem, Al-jibouri, de Korte, and Rekké (2018) present in their keynote article a promising computational model of word recognition and word production in monolinguals and bilinguals, called Multilink. We agree with the authors that the model is a “basis for the development of a more general computational model of word retrieval” (Dijkstra et al., 2018). However, it is also important that such a model is universal.
      PubDate: 2019-08-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1366728918000688
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 4 (2019)
  • The critical roles of errors and individual differences in bilingual
      Pages: 697 - 698
      Abstract: Multilink moves the field a step forward in being able to make clear predictions about how a bilingual's languages interact in a variety of tasks. It addresses some shortcomings of the BIA (Dijkstra, van Heuven & Grainger, 1998) and BIA+ (Dijkstra & van Heuven, 2002) models, which did not explain performance from bilinguals of varied proficiency levels or on translation tasks. However, there are still gains that can be made – Dijkstra, Wahl, Buytenhuijs, van Halem, Al-jibouri, de Korte, and Rekké (2018) themselves point out that there are additional ways in which they plan to expand the model.
      PubDate: 2019-08-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S136672891800069X
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 4 (2019)
  • On keeping cool: The role of inhibition in bilingual word processing
      Pages: 699 - 700
      Abstract: One of the cool aspects of the original implementation of the BIA model (van Heuven, Dijkstra & Grainger, 1998) was the discovery that inhibitory connections between language nodes and lexical representations was a necessary feature for the model to be able to simulate the target data set at that time. This demonstrates the importance of computational modeling, a key point of the present target article, since inhibitory connections were postulated to occur only between representations at the same level in the conceptual model (Grainger & Dijkstra, 1992). Top-down inhibition was subsequently dropped in the BIA+ model (Dijkstra & van Heuven, 2002), and the Multilink model of the present target article (Dijkstra, Wahl, Buytenhuijs, van Halem, Al-jibouri, de Korte & Rekké, 2018) goes one step further by removing all kinds of inhibitory connections, both between and within levels. Instead, the authors of the model propose that bilingual language processing relies on bidirectional excitatory connections between representations at different levels. This is curious given that even more evidence has accumulated in favor of inhibition since the original implementation of the BIA model, both between neighboring lexical representations (i.e., lateral inhibition) and from language membership representations (e.g., language nodes and tags) down to lexical representations. In this commentary, we focus on whether the exclusion of these two inhibitory processes is warranted, and how the inclusion of these processes might benefit future developments of the model.
      PubDate: 2019-08-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1366728918000676
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 4 (2019)
  • Language membership as a gradient emergent feature
      Pages: 701 - 702
      Abstract: In their keynote article, Dijkstra, Wahl, Buytenhuijs, van Halem, Al-jibouri, de Korte, and Rekké (2018) introduce the Multilink model representing an integrated bi/multilingual lexicon. This proposal builds upon both previous and recent research on an integrated cognitive architecture underlying the language faculty (for a summary, see e.g., Putnam, Carlson & Reitter, 2018). In our view, the adjustments proposed by the authors are an improvement on previous instantiations of similar models such as those discussed in the present article. In our remarks we explicate how the Multilink model may be further enhanced, by making any appeal to language-specific nodes or representations epiphenomenal. To achieve this, we propose a novel approach to representing language membership as the result of gradient emergent principles that builds upon the integrated lexicon underlying the Multilink model.
      PubDate: 2019-08-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S136672891800072X
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 4 (2019)
  • Modelling bilingual lexical processing: A research agenda and
      Pages: 703 - 713
      Abstract: Like the BIA model (Dijkstra & van Heuven, 1998; van Heuven, Dijkstra & Grainger, 1998) and the BIA+ model (Dijkstra & van Heuven, 2002), the Multilink model is a symbolic, localist-connectionist, interactive model for lexical processing in the visual domain. In our view, the symbolic nature of Multilink makes it attractive and easily interpretable, even in relation to brain activity (Page, 2000, p. 501; 2017). Symbolic localist-connectionist models have a long tradition and have been applied to many different areas of cognitive research (e.g., Grainger & Jacobs, 1998). As a consequence, a lot is known about their properties and limitations (e.g., Bowers, 2009). These models can also easily be organized hierarchically in a cognitive functional way, and they have a reasonable degree of flexibility while still being falsifiable. Thus, despite the availability of other sophisticated frameworks for modeling language processes, a lot can still be gained from localist models.
      PubDate: 2019-08-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1366728918000986
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 4 (2019)
  • Early executive function: The influence of culture and bilingualism
      Pages: 714 - 732
      Abstract: Evidence suggests that cultural experiences and learning multiple languages have measurable effects on children's development of executive function (EF). However, the precise impact of how bilingualism and culture contribute to observed effects remains inconclusive. The present study aims to investigate how these factors shape the development of early EF constructs longitudinally, between monolingual and bilingual children at ages 3, 3½ and 4 years, with a set of EF tasks that are uniquely relevant to the effects of bilingualism and cultural practices. We hypothesize that the effects of bilingualism and cultural backgrounds (i.e., Eastern) are based on different, though related, cognitive control processes associated with different EF constructs. Results revealed a significant bilingualism effect on cognitive control processes measuring selective attention, switching, and inhibition; while an effect of culture was most pronounced on behavioral regulation/response inhibition. Contributions of bilingualism and cultural experiences on individual EF constructs across development are discussed.
      PubDate: 2019-08-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1366728918000160
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 4 (2019)
  • Bilingual experience and executive control over the adult lifespan: The
           role of biological sex
      Pages: 733 - 751
      Abstract: We investigated whether bilingual language experience over the lifespan impacts women and men in a manner that differentially buffers against age-related declines in executive control. To this end, we investigated whether executive control performance in a lifespan sample of adult women and men were differentially impacted by individual differences in bilingual language experience, assessed using an unspeeded measure of executive control: the Wisconsin Card Sort Test. The results suggested that women showed both the greatest degree of age-related decline across WCST measures, and a greater likelihood than men to express improved performance as a function of increased bilingual experience. We consider implications of this finding for advancing our understanding of the relation between bilingualism and cognition, and also the effects of biological sex on cognitive aging.
      PubDate: 2019-08-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1366728918000317
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 4 (2019)
  • Enhanced temporal binding of audiovisual information in the bilingual
      Pages: 752 - 762
      Abstract: We asked whether bilinguals’ benefits reach beyond the auditory modality to benefit multisensory processing. We measured audiovisual integration of auditory and visual cues in monolinguals and bilinguals via the double-flash illusion where the presentation of multiple auditory stimuli concurrent with a single visual flash induces an illusory perception of multiple flashes. We varied stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) between auditory and visual cues to measure the “temporal binding window” where listeners fuse a single percept. Bilinguals showed faster responses and were less susceptible to the double-flash illusion than monolinguals. Moreover, monolinguals showed poorer sensitivity in AV processing compared to bilinguals. The width of bilinguals’ AV temporal integration window was narrower than monolinguals’ for both leading and lagging SOAs (Biling.: -65–112 ms; Mono.: -193 – 112 ms). Our results suggest the plasticity afforded by speaking multiple languages enhances multisensory integration and audiovisual binding in the bilingual brain.
      PubDate: 2019-08-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1366728918000408
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 4 (2019)
  • Novel-word learning, executive control and working memory: A bilingual
      Pages: 763 - 782
      Abstract: Studies of the effects of bilingualism on cognition have given results that do not consistently replicate, reflecting at least in part wide differences in criteria for bilingualism and heterogeneity of language combinations within studied samples. We examined the bilingual advantage in attention, working memory and novel-word learning in early sequential Hindi–English bilinguals. We sought to clarify the aspects of cognition that benefit from bilingualism by using multiple measures and a sample sufficiently well-defined to permit independent replication. Bilinguals outperformed monolinguals on response inhibition, novel-word learning and almost all working memory tasks. In contrast, both groups performed comparably on selective attention. Analyses of individual differences showed that bilingual novel-word learning was related to their verbal working memory and ability to inhibit an ongoing action, whereas this was not the case for monolinguals. Results indicate a specific bilingual advantage that is confined to some but not all aspects of cognition.
      PubDate: 2019-08-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S136672891800041X
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 4 (2019)
  • Bilingual exposure enhances left IFG specialization for language in
      Pages: 783 - 801
      Abstract: Language acquisition is characterized by progressive use of inflectional morphology marking verb tense and agreement. Linguistic milestones are also linked to left-brain lateralization for language specialization. We used neuroimaging (fNIRS) to investigate how bilingual exposure influences children's cortical organization for processing morpho-syntax. In Study 1, monolinguals and bilinguals (n = 39) completed a grammaticality judgment task that included English sentences with violations in earlier-acquired (verb agreement) and later-acquired (verb tense/agreement) structures. Groups showed similar performance and greater activation in left inferior frontal region (IFG) for later- than earlier-acquired conditions. Bilinguals showed stronger and more restricted left IFG activation. In Study 2, bilinguals completed a comparable Spanish task revealing patterns of left IFG activation similar to English. Taken together, the findings suggest that bilinguals with linguistic competence at parity with monolingual counterparts have a higher degree of cortical specialization for language, likely a result of enriched linguistic experiences.
      PubDate: 2019-08-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1366728918000512
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 4 (2019)
  • Language background affects online word order processing in a second
           language but not offline
      Pages: 802 - 825
      Abstract: This study examines possible crosslinguistic influence on basic word order processing in a second language (L2). Targeting Swedish V2 word order we investigate adult German learners (+V2 in the L1) and English learners (-V2 in the L1) of Swedish who are matched for proficiency. We report results from two offline behavioural tasks (written production, metalinguistic judgements), and online processing as measured by event-related potentials (ERPs). All groups showed sensitivity to word order violations behaviourally and neurocognitively. Behaviourally, the learners differed from the native speakers only on judgements. Crucially, they did not differ from each other. Neurocognitively, all groups showed a similar increased centro-parietal P600 ERP-effect, but German learners (+V2) displayed more nativelike anterior ERP-effects than English learners (-V2). The results suggest crosslinguistic influence in that the presence of a similar word order in the L1 can facilitate online processing in an L2 – even if no offline behavioural effects are discerned.
      PubDate: 2019-08-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1366728918000573
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 4 (2019)
  • “My French is rusty”: Proficiency and bilingual gesture use in a
           majority English community
      Pages: 826 - 835
      Abstract: Gestures serve many functions, including aiding language access and message construction, particularly in spatial tasks. Some researchers have argued that gesture frequency is linked to proficiency in bilinguals, although results have been inconsistent. We tested Nicoladis’ (2007) proposal that bilinguals’ proficiency interacts with task: namely, more spatial tasks elicit greater proficiency effects. French–English bilinguals completed a cartoon-retell task (high spatial) and an interview task (low spatial) in both languages. We measured bilingual proficiency categorically by first language (L1) and continuously by assessing receptive vocabulary, oral fluency, and word types. Participants gestured more in the cartoon-retell task, but there were minimal proficiency effects and no interactions between proficiency and task. Interestingly, only participants with English as their L1 gestured more in their second language (L2), potentially due to ‘rustiness’, or lexical access difficulties in French from low usage in the majority English community.
      PubDate: 2019-08-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1366728918000639
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 4 (2019)
  • pointing+of+view+about+the+future:+The+effect+of+signs+on+co-speech+gestures+about+time+in+Mandarin–CSL+bimodal+bilinguals&rft.title=Bilingualism:+Language+and+Cognition&rft.issn=1366-7289&,+MARC+SWERTS&rft_id=info:doi/10.1017/S1366728918000652">Having a different pointing of view about the future: The effect of signs
           on co-speech gestures about time in Mandarin–CSL bimodal bilinguals
      Pages: 836 - 847
      Abstract: Mandarin speakers often use gestures to represent time laterally, vertically, and sagittally. Chinese Sign Language (CSL) users also exploit signs for that purpose, and can differ from the gestures of Mandarin speakers in their choices of axes and direction of sagittal movements. The effects of sign language on co-speech gestures about time were investigated by comparing spontaneous temporal gestures of late bimodal bilinguals (Mandarin learners of CSL) and non-signing Mandarin speakers. Spontaneous gestures were elicited via a wordlist definition task. In addition to effects of temporal words on temporal gestures, results showed significant effects of sign. Compared with non-signers, late bimodal bilinguals (1) produced more sagittal but fewer lateral temporal gestures; and (2) exhibited a different temporal orientation of sagittal gestures, as they were more likely to gesture past events to their back. In conclusion, bodily experience of sign language can not only impact the nature of co-speech gestures, but also spatio-motoric thinking and abstract space-time mappings.
      PubDate: 2019-08-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1366728918000652
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 4 (2019)
  • The illusory benefit of cognates: Lexical facilitation followed by
           sublexical interference in a word typing task
      Pages: 848 - 865
      Abstract: Cognate facilitation and cognate interference in word production have been elicited separately, in different paradigms. In our experiment, we created conditions for facilitation and interference to occur sequentially, and identified the levels at which the two processes manifested. Bilinguals translated cognates and noncognates from L2 to L1 and typed the translations. Response-onset latencies were shorter for cognates (cognate-facilitation) but execution latencies were longer, and cross-language orthographic errors were more frequent for cognates than for noncognates (cognate-interference). Facilitation at onset followed by interference during word execution suggests that the language-selection mechanism operated efficiently at the lexical level but inefficiently at the sublexical level. It also suggests that language selection is not an event with irreversible outcome, but selection at one level may not guarantee language-selectivity at subsequent levels. We propose that a model of bilingual language production that specifies multiple language-selection processes at multiple loci of selection can accommodate this phenomenon.
      PubDate: 2019-08-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1366728918000792
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 4 (2019)
  • Second language (L2) proficiency, socioeconomic status (SES), and
           intelligence (IQ) are significant predictors of cognitive control
           differences among young adult unbalanced Chinese–English bilinguals
      Pages: 866 - 882
      Abstract: The current study investigates how second-language (L2) proficiency contributes to cognitive control differences among three groups of unbalanced Chinese–English bilinguals matched for socioeconomic status (SES), intelligence (IQ), education, age, culture, and L1 background. A Flanker task and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) were administered to measure conflict monitoring, inhibition, and mental set shifting. ANOVA analyses revealed faster performance for the High-L2 Group compared to the Low-L2 Group in the congruent, neutral, and incongruent conditions of the Flanker task. However, there were no group differences on the WCST. Multiple step-wise regression analyses showed that L2 proficiency was a predictor for the Flanker task performance in all three conditions, SES in the neutral and the incongruent condition, and IQ in the congruent condition. These results suggest that L2 proficiency, along with SES and IQ, contribute significantly to cognitive control differences in conflict monitoring among young-adult bilinguals.
      PubDate: 2019-08-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1366728918000822
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 4 (2019)
  • Effect of speaker certainty on novel word learning in monolingual and
           bilingual children
      Pages: 883 - 895
      Abstract: In the present study, we examined the effect of speaker certainty on word-learning performance in English-speaking monolingual (MAge = 6.40) and Spanish–English bilingual (MAge = 6.58) children. No group differences were observed when children learned novel words from a certain speaker. However, bilingual children were more willing to learn novel words from an uncertain speaker than their monolingual peers. These findings indicate that language experience influences how children weigh cues to speaker credibility during learning and suggest that children with more diverse linguistic backgrounds (i.e., bilinguals) are less prone to prioritizing information based on speaker certainty.
      PubDate: 2019-08-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1366728918000536
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 4 (2019)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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