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Publisher: Cambridge University Press   (Total: 387 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 387 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Neuropsychiatrica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Numerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 6.709, CiteScore: 10)
Advances in Animal Biosciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.441, CiteScore: 1)
Aeronautical J., The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Africa     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.582, CiteScore: 1)
African Studies Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.437, CiteScore: 1)
Ageing & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.756, CiteScore: 2)
Agricultural and Resource Economics Review     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.414, CiteScore: 1)
AI EDAM     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.375, CiteScore: 1)
AJIL Unbound     Open Access  
AJS Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.128, CiteScore: 0)
American Political Science Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 319, SJR: 5.587, CiteScore: 4)
Anatolian Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.528, CiteScore: 1)
Ancient Mesoamerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.478, CiteScore: 1)
Anglo-Saxon England     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
animal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 2)
Animal Health Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.69, CiteScore: 2)
Animal Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Annals of Actuarial Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Annual of the British School at Athens     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Annual Review of Applied Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 3.223, CiteScore: 4)
Antarctic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.643, CiteScore: 1)
Antichthon     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Antiquaries J., The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Antiquity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
ANZIAM J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.216, CiteScore: 0)
Applied Psycholinguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.945, CiteScore: 2)
APSIPA Transactions on Signal and Information Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.404, CiteScore: 2)
Arabic Sciences and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Arbor Clinical Nutrition Updates     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Archaeological Dialogues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.898, CiteScore: 1)
Archaeological Reports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.128, CiteScore: 0)
Architectural History     Full-text available via subscription  
arq: Architectural Research Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 0)
Art Libraries J.     Full-text available via subscription  
Asian J. of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.129, CiteScore: 0)
Asian J. of Intl. Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.135, CiteScore: 0)
Asian J. of Law and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.195, CiteScore: 0)
Astin Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.878, CiteScore: 1)
Australasian J. of Organisational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.154, CiteScore: 1)
Australian J. of Environmental Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Australian J. of Indigenous Education, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 1)
Australian J. of Rehabilitation Counseling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Austrian History Yearbook     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 0)
Behavioral and Brain Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.595, CiteScore: 1)
Behaviour Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.508, CiteScore: 1)
Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 179, SJR: 0.976, CiteScore: 2)
Bilingualism: Language and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 1.446, CiteScore: 2)
Biofilms     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Bird Conservation Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.581, CiteScore: 1)
BJPsych Advances     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 57, SJR: 0.275, CiteScore: 0)
BJPsych Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BJPsych Open     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Brain Impairment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.321, CiteScore: 1)
Breast Cancer Online     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Britannia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
British Actuarial J.     Full-text available via subscription  
British Catholic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.133, CiteScore: 1)
British J. for the History of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 0)
British J. of Anaesthetic and Recovery Nursing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
British J. of Music Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.564, CiteScore: 1)
British J. Of Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 90, SJR: 1.612, CiteScore: 4)
British J. of Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 216, SJR: 4.661, CiteScore: 4)
British J. of Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 221, SJR: 2.844, CiteScore: 3)
Bulletin of Entomological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.805, CiteScore: 2)
Bulletin of Symbolic Logic     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 1)
Bulletin of the Australian Mathematical Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 0)
Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Business and Human Rights J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 1)
Business Ethics Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.098, CiteScore: 2)
Business History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.347, CiteScore: 1)
Cambridge Archaeological J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 149, SJR: 1.121, CiteScore: 1)
Cambridge Classical J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Cambridge J. of Postcolonial Literary Inquiry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Cambridge Law J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 199, SJR: 0.213, CiteScore: 0)
Cambridge Opera J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.14, CiteScore: 0)
Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.299, CiteScore: 1)
Cambridge Yearbook of European Legal Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
Camden Fifth Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Canadian Entomologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.482, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.624, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Law & Jurisprudence     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.237, CiteScore: 0)
Canadian J. of Law and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.259, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Mathematics / J. canadien de mathématiques     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian J. of Neurological Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.549, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Political Science/Revue canadienne de science politique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.385, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. on Aging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.426, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Mathematical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Yearbook of Intl. Law / Annuaire canadien de droit international     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Cardiology in the Young     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.372, CiteScore: 1)
Central European History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.159, CiteScore: 0)
Children Australia     Partially Free   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.255, CiteScore: 0)
China Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 2.289, CiteScore: 3)
Chinese J. of Agricultural Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Church History : Studies in Christianity and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 75, SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Classical Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 0)
Classical Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
CNS Spectrums     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.391, CiteScore: 3)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Combinatorics, Probability and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.839, CiteScore: 1)
Communications in Computational Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.048, CiteScore: 2)
Comparative Studies in Society and History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.585, CiteScore: 1)
Compositio Mathematica     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 3.139, CiteScore: 1)
Contemporary European History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Continuity and Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.107, CiteScore: 0)
Dance Research J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 0)
Development and Psychopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.068, CiteScore: 4)
Dialogue Canadian Philosophical Review/Revue canadienne de philosophie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 0)
Diamond Light Source Proceedings     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.471, CiteScore: 1)
Du Bois Review: Social Science Research on Race     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.561, CiteScore: 1)
Early China     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Early Music History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
East Asian J. on Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.418, CiteScore: 1)
Ecclesiastical Law J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.114, CiteScore: 0)
Econometric Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.915, CiteScore: 1)
Economics and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.622, CiteScore: 1)
Edinburgh J. of Botany     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.283, CiteScore: 1)
Educational and Developmental Psychologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Eighteenth-Century Music     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.113, CiteScore: 0)
English Language and Linguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.52, CiteScore: 1)
English Profile J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
English Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 0)
Enterprise & Society : The Intl. J. of Business History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.245, CiteScore: 1)
Environment and Development Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.617, CiteScore: 1)
Environmental Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 1.028, CiteScore: 2)
Environmental Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.145, CiteScore: 0)
Epidemiology & Infection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.128, CiteScore: 2)
Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.494, CiteScore: 2)
Episteme     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.756, CiteScore: 1)
Ergodic Theory and Dynamical Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.193, CiteScore: 1)
Ethics & Intl. Affairs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.557, CiteScore: 1)
European Constitutional Law Review (EuConst)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.009, CiteScore: 1)
European J. of Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.52, CiteScore: 1)
European J. of Intl. Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
European J. of Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.643, CiteScore: 1)
European Political Science Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.816, CiteScore: 2)
European Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.131, CiteScore: 0)
Evolutionary Human Sciences     Open Access  
Experimental Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.647, CiteScore: 4)
Fetal and Maternal Medicine Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Financial History Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.238, CiteScore: 1)
Foreign Policy Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Forum of Mathematics, Pi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Forum of Mathematics, Sigma     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Genetics Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.483, CiteScore: 1)
Geological Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.966, CiteScore: 2)
Glasgow Mathematical J.     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 0)
Global Constitutionalism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Global Mental Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Global Sustainability     Open Access  
Government and Opposition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.965, CiteScore: 2)
Greece & Rome     Partially Free   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.113, CiteScore: 0)
Hague J. on the Rule of Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.271, CiteScore: 1)
Harvard Theological Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 79, SJR: 0.165, CiteScore: 0)
Health Economics, Policy and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.745, CiteScore: 1)
Hegel Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
High Power Laser Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.901, CiteScore: 3)
Historical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.247, CiteScore: 1)
History in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Horizons     Partially Free   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.129, CiteScore: 0)
Industrial and Organizational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.916, CiteScore: 1)
Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42, SJR: 1.97, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. & Comparative Law Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 253, SJR: 0.369, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Annals of Criminology     Full-text available via subscription  
Intl. J. of Asian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.143, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Astrobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Cultural Property     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.253, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Disability Management Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.105, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Law in Context     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.275, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Legal Information     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 342)
Intl. J. of Microwave and Wireless Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Middle East Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72, SJR: 0.434, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Technology Assessment in Health Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.714, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Labor and Working-Class History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. Organization     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 106, SJR: 8.527, CiteScore: 5)
Intl. Psychogeriatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.048, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Review of Social History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Review of the Red Cross     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. Theory: A J. of Intl. Politics, Law and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 2.293, CiteScore: 2)
Iraq     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Irish Historical Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
Irish J. of Psychological Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.221, CiteScore: 0)
Israel Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.165, CiteScore: 0)
Italian Political Science Review / Rivista Italiana di Scienza Politica     Hybrid Journal  
Itinerario     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.158, CiteScore: 0)
J. of African History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.348, CiteScore: 1)
J. of African Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.113, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Agricultural and Applied Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Agricultural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.563, CiteScore: 1)
J. of American Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.164, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Anglican Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Applied Animal Nutrition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
J. of Asian Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Benefit-Cost Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
J. of Biosocial Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.48, CiteScore: 1)
J. of British Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.246, CiteScore: 0)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Behavioral and Brain Sciences
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.595
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 39  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0140-525X - ISSN (Online) 1469-1825
Published by Cambridge University Press Homepage  [387 journals]
  • Moral rigidity as a proximate facilitator of group cohesion and
    • Authors: Antoine Marie
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X19002036
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Cognitive+Gadgets:+The+Cultural+Evolution+of+Thinking&rft.title=Behavioral+and+Brain+Sciences&rft.issn=0140-525X&">Précis of Cognitive Gadgets: The Cultural
           Evolution of Thinking
    • Authors: Cecilia Heyes
      Abstract: Cognitive gadgets are distinctively human cognitive mechanisms – such as imitation, mind reading, and language – that have been shaped by cultural rather than genetic evolution. New gadgets emerge, not by genetic mutation, but by innovations in cognitive development; they are specialised cognitive mechanisms built by general cognitive mechanisms using information from the sociocultural environment. Innovations are passed on to subsequent generations, not by DNA replication, but through social learning: People with new cognitive mechanisms pass them on to others through social interaction. Some of the new mechanisms, like literacy, have spread through human populations, while others have died out, because the holders had more students, not just more babies. The cognitive gadgets hypothesis is developed through four case studies, drawing on evidence from comparative and developmental psychology, experimental psychology, and cognitive neuroscience. The framework employed – cultural evolutionary psychology, a descendant of evolutionary psychology and cultural evolutionary theory – addresses parallel issues across the cognitive and behavioural sciences. In common with evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo) and the extended evolutionary synthesis, cultural evolutionary psychology underlines the importance of developmental processes and environmental factors in the emergence of human cognition. In common with computational approaches (deep learning, predictive coding, hierarchical reinforcement learning, causal modelling), it emphasises the power of general-purpose mechanisms of learning. Cultural evolutionary psychology, however, also challenges use of the behavioural gambit in economics and behavioural ecology, and rejects the view that human minds are composed of “innate modules” or “cognitive instincts.”
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18002145
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • How is mindreading really like reading'
    • Authors: Ian A. Apperly
      Abstract: I suggest an alternative basis for Heyes’ analogy between cultural learning of mindreading and text reading. Unlike text reading, mindreading does not entail decoding of observable stimuli. Like text reading, mindreading requires relevant inferences. Identification of relevant inferences is a deeply challenging problem, and the most important contribution of cultural learning to mindreading may be an apprenticeship in thinking like a mindreader.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X19001031
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Tinkering with cognitive gadgets: Cultural evolutionary psychology meets
           active inference
    • Authors: Paul Benjamin Badcock; Axel Constant, Maxwell James Désormeau Ramstead
      Abstract: Cognitive Gadgets offers a new, convincing perspective on the origins of our distinctive cognitive faculties, coupled with a clear, innovative research program. Although we broadly endorse Heyes’ ideas, we raise some concerns about her characterisation of evolutionary psychology and the relationship between biology and culture, before discussing the potential fruits of examining cognitive gadgets through the lens of active inference.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X19001018
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Culture in the world shapes culture in the head (and vice versa)
    • Authors: Edward Baggs; Vicente Raja, Michael L. Anderson
      Abstract: We agree with Heyes that an explanation of human uniqueness must appeal to cultural evolution, and not just genes. Her account, though, focuses narrowly on internal cognitive mechanisms. This causes her to mischaracterize human behavior and to overlook the role of material culture. A more powerful account would view cognitive gadgets as spanning organisms and their (shared) environments.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X19001079
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Executive functions are cognitive gadgets
    • Authors: Senne Braem; Bernhard Hommel
      Abstract: Many psychologists and neuroscientists still see executive functions as independent, domain-general, supervisory functions that are often dissociated from more “low-level” associative learning. Here, we suggest that executive functions very much build on associative learning, and argue that executive functions might be better understood as culture-sensitive cognitive gadgets, rather than as ready-made cognitive instincts.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X19001043
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Cognitive gadgets: A provocative but flawed manifesto
    • Authors: Marco Del Giudice
      Abstract: The argument against innatism at the heart of Cognitive Gadgets is provocative but premature, and is vitiated by dichotomous thinking, interpretive double standards, and evidence cherry-picking. I illustrate my criticism by addressing the heritability of imitation and mindreading, the relevance of twin studies, and the meaning of cross-cultural differences in theory of mind development. Reaching an integrative understanding of genetic inheritance, plasticity, and learning is a formidable task that demands a more nuanced evolutionary approach.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X19001134
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Language is not a gadget
    • Authors: Peter Ford Dominey
      Abstract: Heyes does well to argue that some of the apparently innate human capabilities for cultural learning can be considered in terms of more general-purpose mechanisms. In the application of this to language, she overlooks some of its most interesting properties. I review three, and then illustrate how mindreading can come from general-purpose mechanism via language.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X19001092
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Cultural evolutionary psychology is still evolutionary psychology
    • Authors: Marco Fenici; Duilio Garofoli
      Abstract: The cognitive gadgets theory proposes to reform evolutionary psychology by replacing the standard nativist and internalist approach to modularity with a cultural constructivist one. However, the resulting “cultural evolutionary psychology” still maintains some controversial aspects of the original neo-Darwinian paradigm. These assumptions are unnecessary to the cognitive gadgets theory and can be eliminated without significant conceptual loss.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X19001067
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Cognitive gadgets and cognitive priors
    • Authors: Gian Domenico Iannetti; Giorgio Vallortigara
      Abstract: Some of the foundations of Heyes’ radical reasoning seem to be based on a fractional selection of available evidence. Using an ethological perspective, we argue against Heyes’ rapid dismissal of innate cognitive instincts. Heyes’ use of fMRI studies of literacy to claim that culture assembles pieces of mental technology seems an example of incorrect reverse inferences and overlap theories pervasive in cognitive neuroscience.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X19000992
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Cognitive gadgets and genetic accommodation
    • Authors: Eva Jablonka; Simona Ginsburg, Daniel Dor
      Abstract: Heyes argues that human metacognitive strategies (cognitive gadgets) evolved through cultural rather than genetic evolution. Although we agree that increased plasticity is the hallmark of human metacognition, we suggest cognitive malleability required the genetic accommodation of gadget-specific processes that enhanced the overall cognitive flexibility of humans.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X19001006
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • cultural+in+cultural+evolutionary+psychology:+Culture+shapes+indigenous+psychologies+in+specific+ecologies&rft.title=Behavioral+and+Brain+Sciences&rft.issn=0140-525X&">Keeping cultural in cultural evolutionary psychology: Culture shapes
           indigenous psychologies in specific ecologies
    • Authors: Rita Anne McNamara; Tia Neha
      Abstract: In Cognitive Gadgets, Heyes seeks to unite evolutionary psychology with cultural evolutionary theory. Although we applaud this unifying effort, we find it falls short of considering how culture itself evolves to produce indigenous psychologies fitted to particular environments. We focus on mentalizing and autobiographical memory as examples of how socialization practices embedded within culture build cognitive adaptations.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X19001109
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Imitation: Neither instinct nor gadget, but a cultural starting point'
    • Authors: Lindsey J. Powell
      Abstract: Heyes asks whether cultural learning mechanisms are cognitive instincts or cognitive gadgets. I argue that imitation does not fall into either category. Instead, its acquisition is promoted by its value in social interactions, which is evident across phylogeny and ontogeny and does not depend on the role of imitation in cultural learning.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X19000980
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Mending wall
    • Authors: Charles Rathkopf; Daniel C. Dennett
      Abstract: Heyes suggests that selective social learning comes in two varieties. One is common, domain general, and associative. The other is rare, domain specific, and metacognitive. We argue that this binary distinction cannot quite do the work she assigns it and sketch a framework in which additional strategies for selective social learning might be accommodated.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X19001110
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Mills made of grist, and other interesting ideas in need of clarification
    • Authors: Paul E. Smaldino; Michael J. Spivey
      Abstract: Heyes’ book is an important contribution that rightly integrates cognitive development and cultural evolution. However, understanding the cultural evolution of cognitive gadgets requires a deeper appreciation of complexity, feedback, and self-organization than her book exhibits.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X1900102X
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Instincts or gadgets' Not the debate we should be having
    • Authors: Dan Sperber
      Abstract: I argue, with examples, that most human cognitive skills are neither instincts nor gadgets but mechanisms shaped both by evolved dispositions and by cultural inputs. This shaping can work either through evolved skills fulfilling their function with the help of cultural skills that they contribute to shape, or through cultural skills recruiting evolved skills and adjusting to them.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X19001122
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Could nonhuman great apes also have cultural evolutionary psychology'
    • Authors: Claudio Tennie
      Abstract: Attempted answers are given to (a) whether nonhuman great apes (apes) also have evolved imitation (answer: no); (b) whether humans can transmit imitation as a gadget to apes (answer: yes, partly); (c) whether human-to-ape transmission can kickstart subsequent and stable ape cultural evolutionary psychology (“CEP”; answer: unlikely); and (d) when CEP evolved in our lineage (answer: relatively late).
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X19001055
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Sociocultural memory development research drives new directions in
           gadgetry science
    • Authors: Penny Van Bergen; John Sutton
      Abstract: Sociocultural developmental psychology can drive new directions in gadgetry science. We use autobiographical memory, a compound capacity incorporating episodic memory, as a case study. Autobiographical memory emerges late in development, supported by interactions with parents. Intervention research highlights the causal influence of these interactions, whereas cross-cultural research demonstrates culturally determined diversity. Different patterns of inheritance are discussed.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X19000979
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Twenty questions about cultural cognitive gadgets
    • Authors: Andrew Whiten
      Abstract: Heyes sets out an intriguing theory but it raises more questions than compelling answers concerning culturally shaped cognition. I set out what I see as the most pressing questions, ranging over the book's early chapters concerning the structure of the theory, to two of Heyes’ four exemplar cognitive domains, selective social learning and imitation.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X19001080
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Cognition blindness and cognitive gadgets
    • Authors: Cecilia Heyes
      Abstract: Responding to commentaries from psychologists, neuroscientists, philosophers, and anthropologists, I clarify a central purpose of Cognitive Gadgets – to overcome “cognition blindness” in research on human evolution. I defend this purpose against Brunerian, extended mind, and niche construction critiques of computationalism – that is, views prioritising meaning over information, or asserting that behaviour and objects can be intrinsic parts of a thinking process. I argue that empirical evidence from cognitive science is needed to locate distinctively human cognitive mechanisms on the continuum between gadgets and instincts. Focussing on that requirement, I also address specific challenges, and applaud extensions and refinements, of the evidence surveyed in my book. It has been said that “a writer's idea of sound criticism is ten thousand words of closely reasoned adulation.” I cannot disagree with this untraceable wag, but the 30 commentators on Cognitive Gadgets provided some 30,000 words of criticism that are of much greater scientific value than adulation. I am grateful to them all. The response that follows is V-shaped. It starts with the broadest conceptual and methodological issues and funnels down to matters arising from specific empirical studies.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X19001158
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Regard+for+Reason+in+the+Moral+Mind&rft.title=Behavioral+and+Brain+Sciences&rft.issn=0140-525X&">Précis of Regard for Reason in the Moral
    • Authors: Joshua May
      Abstract: Regard for Reason in the Moral Mind argues that a careful examination of the scientific literature reveals a foundational role for reasoning in moral thought and action. Grounding moral psychology in reason then paves the way for a defense of moral knowledge and virtue against a variety of empirical challenges, such as debunking arguments and situationist critiques. The book attempts to provide a corrective to current trends in moral psychology, which celebrate emotion over reason and generate pessimism about the psychological mechanisms underlying commonsense morality. Ultimately, there is rationality in ethics not just despite but in virtue of the neurobiological and evolutionary materials that shape moral cognition and motivation.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18002108
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Moral reasoning is the process of asking moral questions and answering
    • Authors: Mark Alfano
      Abstract: Reasoning is the iterative, path-dependent process of asking questions and answering them. Moral reasoning is a species of such reasoning, so it is a matter of asking and answering moral questions, which requires both creativity and curiosity. As such, interventions and practices that help people ask more and better moral questions promise to improve moral reasoning.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18002534
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Emotions in the development of moral norms within cooperative
    • Authors: Jeremy I. M. Carpendale; Beau Wallbridge
      Abstract: We support May's criticism of attempts to reduce morality to being primarily based on evolved emotional reactions. However, we question the clarity and consistence of his own position and suggest taking a developmental approach. We focus on providing a developmental approach to the role of emotions in the social origin of moral norms.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18002571
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • The social character of moral reasoning
    • Authors: Nick Chater; Hossam Zeitoun, Tigran Melkonyan
      Abstract: May provides a compelling case that reasoning is central to moral psychology. In practice, many morally significant decisions involve several moral agents whose actions are interdependent – and agents embedded in society. We suggest that social life and the rich patterns of reasoning that underpin it are ethical through and through.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18002583
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Optimism in unconscious, intuitive morality
    • Authors: Cory J. Clark; Bo M. Winegard
      Abstract: Moral cognition, by its very nature, stems from intuitions about what is good and bad, and these intuitions influence moral assessments outside of conscious awareness. However, because humans evolved a shared set of moral intuitions, and are compelled to justify their moral assessments as good and rational (even erroneously) to others, moral virtue and moral progress are still possible.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18002558
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Analyzing debunking arguments in moral psychology: Beyond the
           counterfactual analysis of influence by irrelevant factors
    • Authors: Joanna Demaree-Cotton
      Abstract: May assumes that if moral beliefs are counterfactually dependent on irrelevant factors, then those moral beliefs are based on defective belief-forming processes. This assumption is false. Whether influence by irrelevant factors is debunking depends on the mechanisms through which this influence occurs. This raises the empirical bar for debunkers and helps May avoid an objection to his Debunker's Dilemma.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18002716
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • The faces of pessimism
    • Authors: John M. Doris
      Abstract: In this commentary on May's Regard for Reason in the Moral Mind, I argue that many of the interdisciplinary moral psychologists whom May terms “pessimists” are often considerably more optimistic about the prospects for progress in moral inquiry than he contends.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X1800273X
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Rationalism, optimism, and the moral mind
    • Authors: Quinn Hiroshi Gibson
      Abstract: I welcome many of the conclusions of May's book, but I offer a suggestion – and with it what I take to be a complementary strategy – concerning the core commitments of rationalism across the domains of moral psychology in the hopes of better illuminating why a rationalist picture of the mind can deliver us from pessimism.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X1800256X
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Moral foundations are not moral propositions
    • Authors: Daniel Haas
      Abstract: Joshua May responds to skepticism about moral knowledge via appeal to empirical work on moral foundations. I demonstrate that the moral foundations literature is not able to do the work May needs. It demonstrates shared moral cognition, not shared moral judgment, and therefore, May's attempt to defeat general skepticism fails.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18002728
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Valuation mechanisms in moral cognition
    • Authors: Julia Haas
      Abstract: May cites a body of evidence suggesting that participants take consequences, personal harm, and other factors into consideration when making moral judgments. This evidence is used to support the conclusion that moral cognition relies on rule-based inference. This commentary defends an alternative interpretation of this evidence, namely, that it can be explained in terms of domain general valuation mechanisms.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18002686
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Moral judgment as reasoning by constraint satisfaction
    • Authors: Keith J. Holyoak; Derek Powell
      Abstract: May's careful examination of empirical evidence makes a compelling case against the primacy of emotion in driving moral judgments. At the same time, emotion certainly is involved in moral judgments. We argue that emotion interacts with beliefs, values, and moral principles through a process of coherence-based reasoning (operating at least partially below the level of conscious awareness) in generating moral judgments and decisions.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18002546
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • What is sentimentalism' What is rationalism'
    • Authors: Antti Kauppinen
      Abstract: May argues successfully that many claims about the causal influence of affect on moral judgment are overblown. But the findings he cites are compatible with many of the key arguments of philosophical sentimentalists. His account of rationalism, in turn, relies on an overly broad notion of inference, and leaves open crucial questions about how we reason to moral conclusions.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18002649
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • What sentimentalists should say about emotion
    • Authors: Charlie Kurth
      Abstract: Recent work by emotion researchers indicates that emotions have a multilevel structure. Sophisticated sentimentalists should take note of this work – for it better enables them to defend a substantive role for emotion in moral cognition. Contra May's rationalist criticisms, emotions are not only able to carry morally relevant information, but can also substantially influence moral judgment and reasoning.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18002601
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Cautiously optimistic rationalism may not be cautious enough
    • Authors: Justin F. Landy
      Abstract: May expresses optimism about the source, content, and consequences of moral judgments. However, even if we are optimistic about their source (i.e., reasoning), some pessimism is warranted about their content, and therefore their consequences. Good reasoners can attain moral knowledge, but evidence suggests that most people are not good reasoners, which implies that most people do not attain moral knowledge.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18002613
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Regard+for+Reason+in+the+Moral+Mind&rft.title=Behavioral+and+Brain+Sciences&rft.issn=0140-525X&">Moral principles in May's Regard for Reason in the
           Moral Mind
    • Authors: Colin Marshall
      Abstract: Joshua May offers four principles that might serve as the rational foundations of moral judgments. I argue that these principles, if they are independent of affect, are too weak to be the basis of any substantive moral judgment and do not fit with the idea that morality is categorical.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18002674
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Moral reasoning performance determines epistemic peerdom
    • Authors: William H. B. McAuliffe; Michael E. McCullough
      Abstract: We offer a friendly criticism of May's fantastic book on moral reasoning: It is overly charitable to the argument that moral disagreement undermines moral knowledge. To highlight the role that reasoning quality plays in moral judgments, we review literature that he did not mention showing that individual differences in intelligence and cognitive reflection explain much of moral disagreement. The burden is on skeptics of moral knowledge to show that moral disagreement arises from non-rational origins.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18002595
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Do framing effects debunk moral beliefs'
    • Authors: Kelsey McDonald; Siyuan Yin, Tara Weese, Walter Sinnott-Armstrong
      Abstract: May argues that framing effects do not undermine moral beliefs, because they affect only a minority of moral judgments in small ways. We criticize his estimates of the extent of framing effects on moral judgments, and then we argue that framing effects would cause trouble for moral judgments even if his estimates were correct.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18002662
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Baselines for human morality should include species typicality,
           inheritances, culture, practice, and ecological attachment
    • Authors: Darcia Narvaez
      Abstract: Empirical studies involve WEIRD (Western, European, industrialized, rich, democratic) but also un-nested (raised outside humanity's evolved nest) and underdeveloped participants. Assessing human moral potential needs to integrate a transdisciplinary approach to understanding species typicality and baselines, relevant evolutionary inheritances beyond genes, assessment of cultures and practices that foster (or not) virtue, and ecological morality. Human moral reason (nous) emerges from all of these.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18002625
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Kantian indifference about moral reason
    • Authors: Adam J. Roberts
      Abstract: The pessimistic arguments May challenges depend on an anti-Kantian philosophical assumption. That assumption is that what I call philosophical optimists about moral reason are also committed to empirical optimism, or what May calls “optimistic rationalism.” I place May's book in the literature by explaining how that assumption is resisted by Christine Korsgaard, one of May's examples of a contemporary Kantian.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18002650
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • The space between rationalism and sentimentalism: A perspective from moral
    • Authors: Joshua Rottman
      Abstract: May interprets the prevalence of non-emotional moral intuitions as indicating support for rationalism. However, research in developmental psychology indicates that the mechanisms underlying these intuitions are not always rational in nature. Specifically, automatic intuitions can emerge passively, through processes such as evolutionary preparedness and enculturation. Although these intuitions are not always emotional, they are not clearly indicative of reason.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18002698
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Regard+for+Reason&rft.title=Behavioral+and+Brain+Sciences&rft.issn=0140-525X&">Humean replies to Regard for Reason
    • Authors: Neil Sinhababu
      Abstract: First, I argue that the Humean theory is compatible with the commonsense psychological explanations May invokes against it. Second, I explain why desire provides better-integrated explanations than the mental states May describes as sharing its effects. Third, I defend individuating processes by relata, which May rejects in arguing that anti-Humean views are as parsimonious as the Humean theory.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18002704
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Rationalization, controversy, and the entanglement of moral-social
           cognition: A “critical pessimist” take
    • Authors: Robin Zheng
      Abstract: I raise two worries about the Debunker's and Defeater Dilemmas, respectively, and I argue that moral cognition is inextricable from social cognition, which tends to rationalize deep social inequality. I thus opine that our moral-social capacities fare badly in profoundly unjust social contexts such as our own.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18002637
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Defending optimistic rationalism: A reply to commentators
    • Authors: Joshua May
      Abstract: In response, I elaborate on my conception of moral reasoning, as well as clarify the structure of debunking arguments and how my cautious optimism is only of the “glass half full” sort. I also explain how rationalism can capture insights purportedly only explained by sentimentalist and Humean views. The reply concludes by clarifying and admitting some limits of the book's scope.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X19000967
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • But how does it develop' Adopting a sociocultural lens to the
           development of intergroup bias among children
    • Authors: Niamh McLoughlin; Kathleen H. Corriveau
      Abstract: We argue that adopting a sociocultural lens to the origins of intergroup bias is important for understanding the nature of attacking and defending behavior at a group level. We specifically propose that the potential divergence in the development of in-group affiliation and out-group derogation supports De Dreu and Gross's framework but does indicate that more emphasis on early sociocultural input is required.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X19000761
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Revisiting the form and function of conflict: Neurobiological,
           psychological, and cultural mechanisms for attack and defense within and
           between groups
    • Authors: Carsten K. W. De Dreu; Jörg Gross
      Abstract: Conflict can profoundly affect individuals and their groups. Oftentimes, conflict involves a clash between one side seeking change and increased gains through victory and the other side defending the status quo and protecting against loss and defeat. However, theory and empirical research largely neglected these conflicts between attackers and defenders, and the strategic, social, and psychological consequences of attack and defense remain poorly understood. To fill this void, we model (1) the clashing of attack and defense as games of strategy and reveal that (2) attack benefits from mismatching its target's level of defense, whereas defense benefits from matching the attacker's competitiveness. This suggests that (3) attack recruits neuroendocrine pathways underlying behavioral activation and overconfidence, whereas defense invokes neural networks for behavioral inhibition, vigilant scanning, and hostile attributions; and that (4) people invest less in attack than defense, and attack often fails. Finally, we propose that (5) in intergroup conflict, out-group attack needs institutional arrangements that motivate and coordinate collective action, whereas in-group defense benefits from endogenously emerging in-group identification. We discuss how games of attack and defense may have shaped human capacities for prosociality and aggression, and how third parties can regulate such conflicts and reduce their waste.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18002170
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Behavioural inhibition and valuation of gain/loss are neurally distinct
           from approach/withdrawal
    • Authors: Neil McNaughton; Philip J. Corr
      Abstract: Gain or omission/termination of loss produces approach; while loss or omission/termination of gain produces withdrawal. Control of approach/withdrawal motivation is distinct from valuation of gain/loss and does not entail learning – making “reward” and “punishment” ambiguous. Approach-withdrawal goal conflict engages a neurally distinct Behavioural Inhibition System, which controls “anxiety” (conflict/passive avoidance) but not “fear” (withdrawal/active avoidance).
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X19000712
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • The political complexity of attack and defense
    • Authors: Talbot M. Andrews; Leonie Huddy, Reuben Kline, H. Hannah Nam, Katherine Sawyer
      Abstract: De Dreu and Gross's distinction between attack and defense is complicated in real-world conflicts because competing leaders construe their position as one of defense, and power imbalances place status quo challengers in a defensive position. Their account of defense as vigilant avoidance is incomplete because it avoids a reference to anger which transforms anxious avoidance into collective and unified action.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X19000852
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Functional sex differences and signal forms have coevolved with conflict
    • Authors: D. Vaughn Becker; Shelli L. Dubbs
      Abstract: Evolutionary theory makes further predictions about conflict. It predicts sex differences in the proclivity to attack and defend. It further suggests complementary biases in what we expect of the sexes. Finally, it suggests that the forms of human facial expressions of anger and happiness may have coevolved with the regularity of conflict as a means of signaling, bluffing, and defusing attack.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X1900089X
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Towards the elucidation of evolution of out-group aggression
    • Authors: Nobuhiro Mifune; Dora Simunovic
      Abstract: We focus on the implications of De Dreu and Gross's findings for the evolutionary perspective on out-group aggression and in-group cooperation. Although their experimental protocols are potentially useful in determining the origins of out-group aggression in humans, they so far provide inconclusive evidence only. We suggest ways of furthering our understanding of the connection between parochial cooperation and intergroup conflict.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X19000943
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • The evolutionarily mismatched nature of modern group makeup and the
           proposed application of such knowledge on promoting unity among members
           during times of intergroup conflict
    • Authors: Jiaqing O
      Abstract: Many modern-day groups differ from prehistoric ones regarding the proportion of members who are related to any particular individual. From an evolutionary mismatch lens, an appreciation of this disparity could help better explain the potential dilution of group cohesion during peacetime and inform novel, more effective approaches to enhancing group unity – strategies that might enhance national security around the globe.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X19000797
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Reasons to strike first
    • Authors: William Buckner; Luke Glowacki
      Abstract: De Dreu and Gross predict that attackers will have more difficulty winning conflicts than defenders. As their analysis is presumed to capture the dynamics of decentralized conflict, we consider how their framework compares with ethnographic evidence from small-scale societies, as well as chimpanzee patterns of intergroup conflict. In these contexts, attackers have significantly more success in conflict than predicted by De Dreu and Gross's model. We discuss the possible reasons for this disparity.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X19000840
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • The multiple facets of psychopathy in attack and defense conflicts
    • Authors: Tiago O. Paiva; Rui C. Coelho, Rita Pasion, Beatriz Ribeiro, Pedro R. Almeida, Fernando Ferreira-Santos, João Marques-Teixeira, Fernando Barbosa
      Abstract: With respect to De Dreu and Gross's article, we comment on the psychological functions for attack and defense, focusing on associations between individual differences in psychopathic personality traits and the behavioral patterns observed in attack-defense conflicts. We highlight the dimensional nature of psychopathy and formulate hypothetical associations between distinct traits, their different behavioral outcomes, and associated brain mechanisms.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X19000803
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Emotions in attacker-defender conflicts
    • Authors: Patricia Cernadas Curotto; Eran Halperin, David Sander, Olga Klimecki
      Abstract: The distinction between attackers and defenders might help refine the understanding of the role of emotions in conflicts. Here, we briefly discuss differences between attackers and defenders in terms of appraisals, action tendencies, emotional preferences, and brain activities. Finally, we outline how attackers and defenders may differ in their response to emotion-based interventions that aim to promote conflict resolution.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X19000918
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Identity leadership: Managing perceptions of conflict for collective
    • Authors: Philip Pärnamets; Diego A. Reinero, Andrea Pereira, Jay J. Van Bavel
      Abstract: We argue that how players perceive the attack-defense game might matter far more than its actual underlying structure in determining the outcomes of intergroup conflict. Leaders can use various tactics to dynamically modify these perceptions, from collective victimization to the distortion of the perceived payoffs, with some followers being more receptive than others to such leadership tactics.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X19000876
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • The attack and defense mechanisms: Perspectives from behavioral economics
           and game theory
    • Authors: Subhasish M. Chowdhury
      Abstract: This commentary complements the article by De Dreu and Gross (2019) from the perspectives of behavioral economics and game theory. It aims to provide a bridge between psychology/neuroscience research and economics research in attack-and-defense by stipulating relevant literature, clarifying theoretical structures, and suggesting improvements in experimental designs and possible further investigations.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X19000815
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Collective action problems in offensive and defensive warfare
    • Authors: Agner Fog
      Abstract: A collective action problem exists not only in offensive warfare, but also in defensive situations. The collective action problem is dealt with in the same way in offensive and defensive warfare: by strong leadership, discipline, rewards and punishments, strong group identification, strict religiosity, and intolerance of deviants. This behavior is explained in terms of evolutionary psychology.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X19000700
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Between-group attack and defence in an ecological setting: Insights from
           nonhuman animals
    • Authors: Andrew N. Radford; Susanne Schindler, Tim W. Fawcett
      Abstract: Attempts to understand the fundamental forces shaping conflict between attacking and defending groups can be hampered by a narrow focus on humans and reductionist, oversimplified modelling. Further progress depends on recognising the striking parallels in between-group conflict across the animal kingdom, harnessing the power of experimental tests in nonhuman species and modelling the eco-evolutionary feedbacks that drive attack and defence.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X19000773
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Using the research on intergroup conflict in nonhuman animals to help
           inform patterns of human intergroup conflict
    • Authors: Amanda R. Ridley; Melanie O. Mirville
      Abstract: There is a large body of research on conflict in nonhuman animal groups that measures the costs and benefits of intergroup conflict, and we suggest that much of this evidence is missing from De Dreu and Gross's interesting article. It is a shame this work has been missed, because it provides evidence for interesting ideas put forward in the article.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X19000827
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Attack versus defense: A strategic rationale for role differentiation in
    • Authors: Catherine Hafer
      Abstract: Is there a strategic mechanism that explains role-contingent differences in conflict behavior' I sketch a theory in which differences in optimal behavior for attackers and defenders arise under initially symmetric conditions through the dynamic accumulation of differences in the distributions of traits in the subpopulations of potential opponents.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X19000888
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Resolving attacker-defender conflicts through intergroup negotiation
    • Authors: Nir Halevy
      Abstract: The target article focuses on how attacker-defender conflicts are fought. This commentary complements it by considering how attacker-defender conflicts may be resolved at the bargaining table. I highlight multiple linkages between asymmetric intergroup conflict as modeled with the attacker-defender game and negotiation research and illustrate how the proposed model of attacker-defender conflicts can inspire new research on intergroup negotiation.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X19000694
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • A note on the endogeneity of attacker and defender roles in asymmetric
    • Authors: Hannes Rusch; Robert Böhm
      Abstract: We argue that the roles of attacker and defender in asymmetric intergroup conflict are structurally ambiguous and their perception is likely to be subjectively biased. Although this allows for endogenous selection into each role, we argue that claiming the role of the defender likely is more advantageous for conflict participants.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X19000748
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Symmetric conflicts also allow for the investigation of attack and defense
    • Authors: Joachim Hüffmeier; Jens Mazei
      Abstract: De Dreu and Gross argue that only asymmetric games allow the motives underlying defense and attack to be disentangled. However, the Prisoner's Dilemma Game Alt matrix (PDG-Alt matrix), a modified symmetric PDG, also allows these motives to be disentangled. Studies using the PDG-Alt matrix produced findings contradicting a central claim of De Dreu and Gross.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X19000724
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • The attack and defense games
    • Authors: Roman M. Sheremeta
      Abstract: The attack-and-defense game is a game in which an attacker (a group of attackers) has an incentive to revise the status quo and a defender (a group of defenders) wants to protect it. The asymmetry in objectives creates incompatible interests and results in a mixed-strategy Nash equilibrium. However, this equilibrium could be heavily impacted by behavioral considerations.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X19000931
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Unraveling the role of oxytocin in the motivational structure of conflict
    • Authors: René Hurlemann; Nina Marsh
      Abstract: Current psychological perspectives emphasize “attack” and “defense” as the behavioral mechanisms underlying conflict. Here, we extend this view by highlighting the relevance of pathological altruism and the neuroendocrine pathways associated with hostile behaviors. Specifically, we elucidate the modulatory role of the neuropeptide hormone oxytocin in motivating extraordinary levels of in-group commitment that can promote extreme behaviors and endure conflict with out-groups.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X19000785
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Advantaged- and disadvantaged-group members have motivations similar to
           those of defenders and attackers, but their psychological characteristics
           are fundamentally different
    • Authors: Nurit Shnabel; Julia Becker
      Abstract: Modern societies are characterized by group-based hierarchies. Similar to attackers, disadvantaged-group members wish to change the status quo; like defenders, advantaged-group members wish to protect it. However, the psychological arrays that are typical of disadvantaged- and advantaged-group members are opposite to those of attackers and defenders – suggesting that the Attacker-Defender Game does not capture the dynamics between advantaged and disadvantaged groups.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X19000736
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Toward the need to discriminate types of attackers and defenders in
           intergroup conflicts
    • Authors: Dashalini Katna; Bobby K. Cheon
      Abstract: Here, we argue that attackers in intergroup conflicts are also likely to hold strong identity fusion, anticipate threat from the out-groups, and retaliate by signaling preemptive aggressiveness, which may not be asymmetrically exclusive to defenders. We propose that the study of the intergroup and intragroup dynamics could highlight more specific, robust markers to differentiate types of defenders from attackers.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X19000839
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Levels of analysis and problems of evidential support in the study of
           asymmetric conflict
    • Authors: Dragos Simandan
      Abstract: The contribution by De Dreu and Gross oversimplifies the complexity of the topic. I provide counterarguments that undermine the two sweeping contentions on which the article's argument depends, and I argue that asymmetric conflict is best understood at the finer-grained level of studying the sequences of strikes and counterstrikes that the rival actors have in store for one another.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X19000682
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Matching pennies games as asymmetric models of conflict
    • Authors: Michał Wiktor Krawczyk
      Abstract: De Dreu and Gross (D&G) seem to have disregarded some relevant experimental literature on games of conflict, most notably variations on “matching pennies” games. While in such games, “attacker” and “defender” are typically not explicitly labelled, players’ differentiated roles yield naturally to such notions. These studies partly validate some of D&G's findings and interpretations.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X19000864
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Using political sanctions to discourage intergroup attacks: Social
           identity and authority legitimacy
    • Authors: Karolina Urbanska; Sam Pehrson
      Abstract: De Dreu and Gross offer novel solutions to discouraging attackers via political sanctions. We offer insights from social psychological and criminological research on when such sanctions would work and when they could backfire. We argue that the influence of such sanctioning ultimately rests upon the extent to which such authorities can claim to represent the society that they serve.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X1900075X
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Do people always invest less in attack than defense' Possible
           qualifying factors
    • Authors: Ori Weisel
      Abstract: In many conflict situations, defense is easier to mobilize than attack. However, a number of factors, namely, the initial endowments available to each side, the stakes of the conflict, the respective costs of defense and attack, and the way that conflict is framed and perceived, may make attacking more attractive than defending.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X19000955
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • The importance of raiding ecology and sex differences in offensive and
           defensive warfare
    • Authors: Anthony C. Lopez
      Abstract: De Dreu and Gross offer a compelling synthesis of a growing literature on the psychology of attack and defense. I argue that human raiding ecology suggests the need to endogenize attacker-defender move order as well as opportunities for tactical mismatch available to defenders. Perhaps most significantly, I draw attention to the surprising lacunae in sex differences across attack and defense.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X19000906
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Asymmetric conflict: Structures, strategies, and settlement
    • Authors: Carsten K. W. De Dreu; Jörg Gross
      Abstract: Our target article modeled conflict within and between groups as an asymmetric game of strategy and developed a framework to explain the evolved neurobiological, psychological, and sociocultural mechanisms underlying attack and defense. Twenty-seven commentaries add insights from diverse disciplines, such as animal biology, evolutionary game theory, human neuroscience, psychology, anthropology, and political science, that collectively extend and supplement this model in three ways. Here we draw attention to the superordinate structure of attack and defense, and its subordinate means to meet the end of status quo maintenance versus change, and we discuss (1) how variations in conflict structure and power disparities between antagonists can impact strategy selection and behavior during attack and defense; (2) how the positions of attack and defense emerge endogenously and are subject to rhetoric and propaganda; and (3) how psychological and economic interventions can transform attacker-defender conflicts into coordination games that allow mutual gains and dispute resolution.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X1900116X
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Moral rigidity as a proximate facilitator of group cohesion and
    • Authors: Antoine Marie
      Abstract: De Dreu and Gross's description of the proximate mechanisms conditioning success in intergroup conflict omits humans' deontological morality. Drawing on research on sacralization and moral objectivism, I show how “moral rigidity” may have evolved through partner selection mechanisms to foster coalitions’ cohesion and combativeness in intergroup conflict.De Dreu and Gross's argument that attack and defense are distinct strategies underpinned by different neuropsychological circuitries is an original refinement of the theory of conflict. However, their description of the proximate mechanisms facilitating success in intergroup competition (sect. 4, target article) omits humans’ deontological moral intuitions. In interaction with overconfidence biases, hostile attributions, and the enforcement of “cultural rituals and sanctioning systems” (sect. 4, para. 1), what may crucially help groups of individuals cohere and prevail in conflict are high levels of “moral rigidity” in their tribal members, that is, of inflexible loyalty to their interpersonal commitments within the group.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X1900092X
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Being versus appearing socially uninterested: Challenging assumptions
           about social motivation in autism
    • Authors: Vikram K. Jaswal; Nameera Akhtar
      Abstract: Progress in psychological science can be limited by a number of factors, not least of which are the starting assumptions of scientists themselves. We believe that some influential accounts of autism rest on a questionable assumption that many of its behavioral characteristics indicate a lack of social interest – an assumption that is flatly contradicted by the testimony of many autistic people themselves. In this article, we challenge this assumption by describing alternative explanations for four such behaviors: (a) low levels of eye contact, (b) infrequent pointing, (c) motor stereotypies, and (d) echolalia. The assumption that autistic people's unusual behaviors indicate diminished social motivation has had profound and often negative effects on the ways they are studied and treated. We argue that understanding and supporting autistic individuals will require interrogating this assumption, taking autistic testimony seriously, considering alternative explanations for unusual behaviors, and investigating unconventional – even idiosyncratic – ways in which autistic individuals may express their social interest. These steps are crucial, we believe, for creating a more accurate, humane, and useful science of autism.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18001826
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Beyond autism: Challenging unexamined assumptions about social motivation
           in typical development
    • Authors: Karen Bartsch; David Estes
      Abstract: In challenging the assumption of autistic social uninterest, Jaswal & Akhtar have opened the door to scrutinizing similar unexamined assumptions embedded in other literatures, such as those on children's typically developing behaviors regarding others’ minds and morals. Extending skeptical analysis to other areas may reveal new approaches for evaluating competing claims regarding social interest in autistic individuals.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18002273
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Novel epigenetic, quantitative, and qualitative insights on the socialness
           of autism
    • Authors: William Michael Brown; Ewan Foxley-Webb
      Abstract: Three complementary points to Jaswal & Akhtar are raised: (1) As a person with autism, I desire sociality despite vulnerability to others’ antisocial behaviour; (2) Asperger's conflation of autism with psychopathy (Czech 2018) likely caused clinicians to disregard social motivation among those with autism; and (3) adverse experiences cause social-engagement diversity to develop in all people, not just those on the spectrum.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18002285
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Autistics appear different, but also are different, and this should be
    • Authors: Michelle Dawson; Tyler Cowen
      Abstract: We agree that autistics’ unusual overt behaviors don't necessarily mean reduced social motivation. But Jaswal & Akhtar maintain that, while autistics may appear socially uninterested, their social interest is in fact typical and indeed must be to avoid multiple poor outcomes. This problematic idealization of social typicality deflects attention from important differences in autistic cognition and interests, which should be valued.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18002467
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Being misunderstood in autism: The role of motor disruption in expressive
           communication, implications for satisfying social relations
    • Authors: Jonathan Delafield-Butt; Colwyn Trevarthen, Philip Rowe, Christopher Gillberg
      Abstract: Jaswal & Akhtar's outstanding target article identifies the necessary social nature of the human mind, even in autism. We agree with the authors and present significant contributory origins of this autistic isolation in disruption of purposeful movement made social from infancy. Timing differences in expression can be misunderstood in embodied engagement, and social intention misread. Sensitive relations can repair this.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X1800242X
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • The value of giving autistic testimony a substantial role in the science
           of autism
    • Authors: Janette Dinishak
      Abstract: Jaswal & Akhtar argue that taking seriously autistic testimony will help make the science of autism more humane, accurate, and useful. In this commentary, I pose two questions about autistic testimony's role(s) in a better science of autism and extract a general lesson about the value of autistic testimony from the authors’ arguments.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18002352
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Autistic people may lack social motivation, without being any less human
    • Authors: Sue Fletcher-Watson; Catherine J. Crompton
      Abstract: In arguing that autistic people are socially motivated, Jaswal & Akhtar miss the opportunity to puncture the notion that social motivation is a prerequisite for humanity. Instead, we contend that some autistic people may indeed find social interactions to be unmotivating and that this doesn't have to be seen as a problem.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18002406
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Socially interested, or socially sophisticated' On mutual social
           influence in autism
    • Authors: Baudouin Forgeot d'Arc; Isabelle Soulières
      Abstract: A lower tendency to influence and be influenced by their social environment seems almost self-evident in autism. However, a closer look at differences and similarities between autistic and non-autistic individuals suggests that some basic mechanisms involved in social influence might be intact in autism, whereas atypical responses point to differences in more sophisticated recursive social strategies, such as reputation management.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18002510
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • What is taken for granted in autism research'
    • Authors: Michele Ilana Friedner
      Abstract: This commentary focuses on three points: the need to consider semiotic ideologies of both researchers and autistic people, questions of commensurability, and problems with “the social” as an analytical concept. It ends with a call for new research methodologies that are not deficit-based and that consider a broad range of linguistic and non-linguistic communicative practices.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X1800225X
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Have we outgrown the reduced social motivation theory of autism'
    • Authors: Kristen Gillespie-Lynch
      Abstract: Although refreshing, Jaswal & Akhtar's critique of the reduced social motivation theory omits reference to Asperger's work and to changes in the diagnostic criteria over time. I situate the theory in the historical contexts that shaped – and eventually contradicted – it to highlight its dehumanizing aspects while emphasizing that critiques should be rooted in recognition of the diversity of the spectrum.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18002431
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Classical social reward signatures in infants with later ASD
    • Authors: Teodora Gliga; Mayada Elsabbagh
      Abstract: Autistic individuals can be socially motivated. We disagree with the idea that self-report is sufficient to understand their social drive. Instead, we underscore evidence for typical non-verbal signatures of social reward during the early development of autistic individuals. Instead of focusing on whether or not social motivation is typical, research should investigate the factors that modulate social drives.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18002492
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Learning how to read autistic behavior from interactions between autistic
    • Authors: Brett Heasman; Alex Gillespie
      Abstract: Do autistic people read autistic behavior in the same way as neurotypical observers' We consider evidence that suggests autistic-to-autistic interactions demonstrate enabling norms and question the possibilities for neurotypical researchers to learn from autistic social appraisal.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18002364
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Expanding the critique of the social motivation theory of autism with
           participatory and developmental research
    • Authors: Steven K. Kapp; Emily Goldknopf, Patricia J. Brooks, Bella Kofner, Maruf Hossain
      Abstract: We argue that understanding of autism can be strengthened by increasing involvement of autistic individuals as researchers and by exploring cascading impacts of early sensory, perceptual, attentional, and motor atypicalities on social and communicative developmental trajectories. Participatory action research that includes diverse participants or researchers may help combat stigma while expanding research foci to better address autistic people's needs.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18002479
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Social motivation in autism: Gaps and directions for measurement of a
           putative core construct
    • Authors: Cara M. Keifer; Gabriel S. Dichter, James C. McPartland, Matthew D. Lerner
      Abstract: This commentary highlights the observation that social motivation is usually an imprecisely specified construct. We suggest four social motivation conceptualizations across levels of analysis and explore where the target article situates among these. We then offer theoretical and practical guidance for operationalization and measurement of social motivation to support more comprehensive future research on this complex construct in the autism literature.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18002418
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Pragmatics and social motivation in autism
    • Authors: Mikhail Kissine
      Abstract: Pragmatic deficits constitute a central feature of autism, which is highly relevant to Jaswal & Akhtar's criticisms of the social motivation theory of autism. Recent research reveals that while certain context-based interpretations are accessible, more complex pragmatic phenomena remain challenging for people on the spectrum. Such a selective pragmatic impairment is difficult to account for in motivational terms.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18002224
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • “Autistic people”' Who do you mean'
    • Authors: Yonata Levy
      Abstract: Jaswal & Akhtar (J&A) offer evidence against lack of social motivation in “autistic people,” providing no further phenotypic details as to the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) subgroups that they refer to. I will argue that given the extensive behavioral and neurobiological heterogeneity among people who receive the diagnosis, reference to “autistic people” is misleading. As a consequence, J&A's claims are difficult to interpret.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18002261
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Two sources of bias affecting the evaluation of autistic communication
    • Authors: Pearl Han Li; Melissa Koenig
      Abstract: We support Jaswal & Akhtar's interrogation of social motivational accounts of autism and discuss two sources of bias that contribute to how others construe autistic people's communications: (1) an experience-based bias that limits our ability to discern the speaker's action as communicative and (2) a prejudice against the credibility of certain speakers that limits a listener's willingness to believe their testimony.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18002327
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Compensation in autism is not consistent with social motivation theory
    • Authors: Lucy Anne Livingston; Punit Shah, Francesca Happé
      Abstract: Growing evidence, as presented by Jaswal & Akhtar, indicates that social motivation is not universally reduced in autism. Here, we evaluate and extend this argument in light of recent evidence of “compensation” in autism. We thereby argue that autistic “compensators” – exhibiting neurotypical behaviour despite persistent difficulties in social cognition – indicate intact or potentially heightened social motivation in autism.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18002388
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • The double empathy problem, camouflage, and the value of expertise from
    • Authors: Peter Mitchell; Sarah Cassidy, Elizabeth Sheppard
      Abstract: To understand why autistic people are misperceived in the way Jaswal & Akhtar suggest, we should embrace concepts like the “double empathy problem” and camouflaging and recognize the negative consequences these have for mental health in autism. Moreover, we need to value expertise from experience so that autistic people have a voice and indeed a stake in research into autism.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18002212
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • The loneliness of me: The assumption of social disinterest and its
           worrying consequences in autism
    • Authors: Rachel Louise Moseley; Jie Sui
      Abstract: We share Jaswal & Akhtar's concerns about the unintended repercussions of assumed social disinterest in autism. We expand consideration of these consequences with discussion of the literature and our own work on loneliness, mental ill-health, and self-representation, which is a cornerstone to social and emotional health. Further study is needed with expansive, mixed methodologies and involvement of the autistic community.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18002303
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Normocentric biases taint cognitive neuroscience and intervention of
    • Authors: Laurent Mottron
      Abstract: Stepping away from a normocentric understanding of autism goes beyond questioning the supposed lack of social motivation of autistic people. It evokes subversion of the prevalence of intellectual disability even in non-verbal autism. It also challenges the perceived purposelessness of some restricted interests and repetitive behaviors, and instead interprets them as legitimate exploratory and learning-associated manifestations.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18002297
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Individual differences, social attention, and the history of the social
           motivation hypotheses of autism
    • Authors: Peter C. Mundy
      Abstract: The stereotype of people with autism as unresponsive or uninterested in other people was prominent in the 1980s. However, this view of autism has steadily given way to recognition of important individual differences in the social-emotional development of affected people and a more precise understanding of the possible role social motivation has in their early development.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18002509
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • A call for revamping socio-emotional ability research in autism
    • Authors: Sally Olderbak; Mattis Geiger, Oliver Wilhelm
      Abstract: In light of Jaswal & Akhtar's compelling argument, we argue there should instead be more focus on deficits in socio-emotional abilities. However, current research is limited by the psychometric problems with most measures. We discuss specific problems, outlining examples for theory of mind. We conclude with recommendations for new lines of research derived from findings in the individual differences literature.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X1800239X
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Social motivation in children with autism: Support from attachment
    • Authors: David Oppenheim; Nina Koren-Karie, Tirtsa Joels
      Abstract: We provide support from attachment research to the argument that children with autism only appear to lack social motivation. This research has shown that the attachment system of children with autism is intact, and one-half form secure attachments. This is illustrated with an observation of a young child with autism during a separation and reunion observation with his mother.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18002200
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • To be or not to be emotionally aware and socially motivated: How
           alexithymia impacts autism spectrum disorders
    • Authors: Luigi Pastore; Sara Dellantonio, Claudio Mulatti, Gianluca Esposito
      Abstract: Autism often co-occurs with alexithymia, a condition characterized by no or diminished awareness of emotions that significantly impacts an individual's social relationships. We investigate how the social motivation of autistics would be eroded by comorbidity with alexithymia and why this diminished motivation would be difficult for non-autistic people to perceive and reciprocate.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18002315
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Knowing autism: The place of experiential expertise
    • Authors: Elizabeth Pellicano; Jacquiline den Houting, Lee du Plooy, Rozanna Lilley
      Abstract: Jaswal & Akhtar challenge the notion that autistic people have diminished social motivation, prompted in part by a desire to take autistic testimony seriously. We applaud their analysis and go further to suggest that future research could be enhanced by involving autistic people directly in the research process.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18002376
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Adaptive behaviour and predictive processing accounts of autism
    • Authors: Kelsey Perrykkad
      Abstract: Many autistic behaviours can rightly be classified as adaptive, but why these behaviours differ from adaptive neurotypical behaviours in the same environment requires explanation. I argue that predictive processing accounts best explain why autistic people engage different adaptive responses to the environment and, further, account for evidence left unexplained by the social motivation theory.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18002248
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Being socially uninterested versus not having social prediction skills:
           The impact of multisensory integration deficits on social skills in autism
    • Authors: Giuseppe Riva; Daniele Di Lernia, Antonios Dakanalis
      Abstract: Jaswal & Akhtar in their target article convincingly argue that subjects with autism do not have diminished social motivation. However, they still recognize that autistic people behave socially in an unusual way. Why' Here we suggest that these behaviours are the results of a multisensory integration deficit. Viewed from this perspective, the assumption that autistic people's unusual behaviours indicate diminished social motivation has to be replaced by the one that they have diminished social prediction skills.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18002340
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • The benefits of modesty
    • Authors: Danilyn Rutherford
      Abstract: Speaking as an anthropologist, I comment on three striking features of Jaswal & Akhtar's argument. I suggest that the boldness of their intervention lies in its modesty. In challenging a parsimonious explanation for autistic behavior, they invite a conversation including scholars from other disciplines, as well as autistic people themselves.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18002443
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • What do autistic people want from autism research'
    • Authors: Chloe Silverman
      Abstract: Research that engages the experiences and insights of autistics and their caregivers can be more ethical, less stigmatizing, and innovative. To avoid reproducing established assumptions, researchers should learn how autistics and their caregivers understand behavioral and communicative differences, and how they prioritize interventions and accommodations. Fostering “autistic flourishing” requires that researchers focus on similarities between autistics and neurotypical people while allowing for autistic differences. Consulting autistics helps ensure that their personhood is acknowledged.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18002522
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Challenges to the social motivation theory of autism: The dangers of
           counteracting an imprecise theory with even more imprecision
    • Authors: Mirko Uljarević; Giacomo Vivanti, Susan R. Leekam, Antonio Y. Hardan
      Abstract: The arguments offered by Jaswal & Akhtar to counter the social motivation theory (SMT) do not appear to be directly related to the SMT tenets and predictions, seem to not be empirically testable, and are inconsistent with empirical evidence. To evaluate the merits and shortcomings of the SMT and identify scientifically testable alternatives, advances are needed on the conceptualization and operationalization of social motivation across diagnostic boundaries.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18002339
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Whose words are these' Statements derived from Facilitated
           Communication and Rapid Prompting Method undermine the credibility of
           Jaswal & Akhtar's social motivation hypotheses
    • Authors: Stuart Vyse; Bronwyn Hemsley, Russell Lang, Scott O. Lilienfeld, Mark P. Mostert, Henry D. Schlinger, Howard C. Shane, Mark Sherry, James T. Todd
      Abstract: Jaswal & Akhtar provide several quotes ostensibly from people with autism but obtained via the discredited techniques of Facilitated Communication and the Rapid Prompting Method, and they do not acknowledge the use of these techniques. As a result, their argument is substantially less convincing than they assert, and the article lacks transparency.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18002236
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Reconciling autistic individuals’ self-reported social motivation with
           diminished social reward responsiveness in neuroimaging
    • Authors: Lisa D. Yankowitz; Caitlin C. Clements
      Abstract: The self-report of some autistic individuals that they experience social motivation should not be interpreted as a refutation of neuroimaging evidence supporting the social motivation hypothesis of autism. Neuroimaging evidence supports subtle differences in unconscious reward processing, which emerge at the group level and which may not be perceptible to individuals, but which may nonetheless impact an individual's behavior.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18002455
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Supporting autistic flourishing
    • Authors: Vikram K. Jaswal; Nameera Akhtar
      Abstract: In response to the 32 commentaries, we clarify and extend two of the central arguments in our target article: (1) Social motivation is a dynamic, emergent process, not a static characteristic of individuals, and (2) autistic perspectives are essential to the study of autistic social motivation. We elaborate on how taking these two arguments seriously can contribute to a more accurate, humane, and useful science of autism.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X19000025
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Microbiota-gut-brain research: A critical analysis
    • Authors: Katarzyna B. Hooks; Jan Pieter Konsman, Maureen A. O'Malley
      Abstract: Microbiota-gut-brain (MGB) research is a fast-growing field of inquiry with important implications for how human brain function and behaviour are understood. Researchers manipulate gut microbes (“microbiota”) to reveal connections between intestinal microbiota and normal brain functions (e.g., cognition, emotion, and memory) or pathological states (e.g., anxiety, mood disorders, and neural developmental disorders such as autism). Many claims are made about causal relationships between gut microbiota and human behaviour. By uncovering these relationships, MGB research aims to offer new explanations of mental health and potential avenues of treatment.So far, limited evaluation has been made of MGB's methods and its core experimental findings, many of which are extensively reiterated in copious reviews of the field. These factors, plus the self-help potential of MGB, have combined to encourage uncritical public uptake of MGB discoveries. Both social and professional media focus on the potential for dietary intervention in mental health, and causal relationships are assumed to be established.Our target article has two main aims. One is to examine critically the core practices and findings of experimental MGB research and to raise questions about them for brain and behavioural scientists who may not be familiar with the field. The other is to challenge the way in which MGB findings are presented. Our positive goal is to suggest how current problems and weaknesses may be addressed, in order for both scientific and public audiences to gain a clearer picture of MGB research and its strengths and limitations.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18002133
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Increasing reproducibility and interpretability of microbiota-gut-brain
           studies on human neurocognition and intermediary microbial metabolites
    • Authors: Esther Aarts; Sahar El Aidy
      Abstract: In this commentary, we point to guidelines for performing human neuroimaging studies and their reporting in microbiota-gut-brain (MGB) articles. Moreover, we provide a view on interpretational issues in MGB studies, with a specific focus on gut microbiota–derived metabolites. Thus, extending the target article, we provide recommendations to the field to increase reproducibility and relevance of this type of MGB study.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18002777
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • The parent-offspring microbiome and neurobehavioral development
    • Authors: Jeffrey R. Alberts; Christopher Harshaw, Gregory E. Demas, Cara L. Wellman, Ardythe L. Morrow
      Abstract: We identify the significance and typical requirements of developmental analyses of the microbiome-gut-brain (MGB) in parents, offspring, and parent-offspring relations, which have particular importance for neurobehavioral outcomes in mammalian species, including humans. We call for a focus on behavioral measures of social-emotional function. Methodological approaches to interpreting relations between the microbiota and behavior are discussed.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18002819
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Microbiota-gut-brain research: A plea for an interdisciplinary approach
           and standardization
    • Authors: Mattia Andreoletti; Maria Rescigno
      Abstract: Hooks et al. note that microbiota-gut-brain research suffers from serious methodological flaws and interpretative issues. We suggest two corrective measures: first, taking more seriously the need of interdisciplinary work; second, interpreting some of the methodological issues as ordinary challenges of standardization, typical of emerging disciplines.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18002868
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Beyond a gut feeling: How the immune system impacts the effect of gut
           microbiota in neurodevelopment
    • Authors: Atiqah Azhari; Farouq Azizan, Gianluca Esposito
      Abstract: Hooks et al. posit that gastrointestinal microbes alter the end state of development indirectly. Here, we present the immune system as the link that facilitates communication between the gut and the brain. Illustrating the case of autism spectrum disorder, we explicate the role of the immune system in responding to microbial dysbiosis by inducing an inflammatory state that affects neurodevelopment. We propose two models: directly, within the infant, and indirectly, via maternal and infant systems.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18002790
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Stress and microbiota: Between biology and psychology
    • Authors: Rasmus Hoffmann Birk
      Abstract: This comment expands on Hooks et al.’s criticism of the problematic and overly general uses of “stress” within the microbiota-gut-brain field. The comment concludes that, for the microbiota-gut-brain field (as for other fields drawing on “stress”), much work is yet to be done in terms of how we explore and understand biology vis-à-vis psychology.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18002789
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Combining integrated systems-biology approaches with intervention-based
           experimental design provides a higher-resolution path forward for
           microbiome research
    • Authors: J. Alfredo Blakeley-Ruiz; Carlee S. McClintock, Ralph Lydic, Helen A. Baghdoyan, James J. Choo, Robert L. Hettich
      Abstract: The Hooks et al. review of microbiota-gut-brain (MGB) literature provides a constructive criticism of the general approaches encompassing MGB research. This commentary extends their review by: (a) highlighting capabilities of advanced systems-biology “-omics” techniques for microbiome research and (b) recommending that combining these high-resolution techniques with intervention-based experimental design may be the path forward for future MGB research.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18002911
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • The contribution of microbiology to neuroscience: More complex than it
    • Authors: Elisa Borghi; Aglaia Vignoli, Armando D'Agostino
      Abstract: The overblown, somewhat dramatic media interpretation of microbiota-gut-brain literature is highly misleading. This phenomenon is not new to neuroscience, wherein rapidly evolving research fields struggle to translate findings into clinical practice. Advances in microbiology might integrate our understanding of complex biological pathways that should be interpreted within neuropsychiatric symptom dimensions rather than specific disorders.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18002844
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Neurotropic enteroviruses co-opt “fair-weather-friend” commensal gut
           microbiota to drive host infection and central nervous system disturbances
    • Authors: Kevin B. Clark
      Abstract: Some neurotropic enteroviruses hijack Trojan horse/raft commensal gut bacteria to render devastating biomimicking cryptic attacks on human/animal hosts. Such virus-microbe interactions manipulate hosts’ gut-brain axes with accompanying infection-cycle-optimizing central nervous system (CNS) disturbances, including severe neurodevelopmental, neuromotor, and neuropsychiatric conditions. Co-opted bacteria thus indirectly influence host health, development, behavior, and mind as possible “fair-weather-friend” symbionts, switching from commensal to context-dependent pathogen-like strategies benefiting gut-bacteria fitness.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18002741
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Nourishing the gut microbiota: The potential of prebiotics in
           microbiota-gut-brain axis research
    • Authors: Boushra Dalile; Kristin Verbeke, Lukas Van Oudenhove, Bram Vervliet
      Abstract: Dietary fiber and prebiotics consistently modulate microbiota composition and function and hence may constitute a powerful tool in microbiota-gut-brain axis research. However, this is largely ignored in Hooks et al.’s analysis, which highlights the limitations of probiotics in establishing microbiome-mediated effects on neurobehavioral functioning and neglects discussing the potential of prebiotics in warranting the microbiota's role in such effects.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18002856
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Neuropeptide-like signaling in the microbiota-gut-brain axis
    • Authors: Sergueï O. Fetissov
      Abstract: For gut microbiota to influence behavior, microorganisms should be able to interfere with specific brain neurochemical circuitries. Understanding these molecular mechanisms is a key task in the new microbiota-gut-brain field. Recent studies have revealed that one major mechanistic link is the modulation of neuropeptide signaling by homologous bacterial proteins acting both directly and indirectly via production of neuropeptide-reactive immunoglobulins.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18002765
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Scientific claims are constitutive of common sense about health
    • Authors: Nada Gligorov
      Abstract: Endorsing the view that commonsense conceptions are shaped by scientific claims provides an explanation for why microbiota-gut-brain (MGB) research might become incorporated into commonsense notions of health. But scientific claims also shape notions of personal identity, which accounts for why they can become entrenched in common sense even after they have been refuted by science.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18002893
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Putting microbiota-gut-brain research in a systemic developmental context:
           Focus on breast milk
    • Authors: Brittany Howell; Antonella Tramacere
      Abstract: The microbiota-gut-brain (MGB) field holds huge potential for understanding behavioral development and informing effective early interventions for psychological health. To realize this potential, factors that shape the MGB axis in infancy (i.e., breast milk) must be integrated into a systemic framework that considers salient behavioral outcomes. This is best accomplished applying network analyses in large prospective, longitudinal investigations in humans.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X1800290X
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Why a developmental cognitive neuroscience approach may be key for
           future-proofing microbiota-gut-brain research
    • Authors: Nicola Johnstone; Kathrin Cohen Kadosh
      Abstract: Here we argue that a multidisciplinary research approach, such as currently practised in the field of developmental cognitive neuroscience, is key to maintaining current momentum and to future-proof the field of microbiome-gut-brain research. Moreover, such a comprehensive approach will also bring us closer to our aims of translation and targeted intervention approaches to improve mental health and well-being.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18002753
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • A call for mapping the development of the microbiota-gut-brain axis during
           human infancy
    • Authors: Caroline Malory Kelsey; Tobias Grossmann
      Abstract: We argue for the importance of looking at the microbiota-gut-brain axis from a human developmental perspective. For this purpose, we first briefly highlight emerging research with infants attesting that the microbiome plays a role in early brain and cognitive development. We then discuss the use of developmentally informed humanized mouse models and implications of microbiome research that go beyond probiotic administration.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18002923
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Why don't probiotics work'
    • Authors: Bert Jan Korte; S. Mechiel Korte
      Abstract: The conclusions reached by Hooks et al. urge the field to investigate the complex multipathway interactions between the microbiome and the gut-brain axis to understand the potential causal relationships involved. Claims in the field of microbiota-gut-brain research remain problematic without appropriate controls and adequate statistical power. A crucial question that follows from the authors' extensive review is: “Why don't probiotics work'”
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18002832
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Why microbes, not microbiomes, are better causal explanations in gut-brain
    • Authors: Kate E. Lynch
      Abstract: Much microbiota-gut-brain research focuses on the causal role of microbiomes as a whole, rather than their component parts: microbes. Hooks et al. find these whole-community explanations inadequate; however, they do not provide suggestions for better explanations. By appealing to proportionality – a criterion that can be used to develop more appropriate causal explanations – more accurate causal claims can be made.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18002820
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • On the potential distortions of highly cited papers in emerging research
           fields: A critical appraisal
    • Authors: Edoardo G. Ostinelli; Orsola Gambini, Armando D'Agostino
      Abstract: Citation-based metrics are increasingly used as a proxy to define representative, considerable, or significant papers. We challenge this belief by taking into account factors that may play a role in providing citations to a manuscript and whether/how those highly cited studies could shape a scientific field. A different approach to summarisation of relevant core publications within a topic is proposed.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18002807
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Practical guidelines for gut microbiome analysis in microbiota-gut-brain
           axis research
    • Authors: Mireia Valles-Colomer; Gwen Falony, Sara Vieira-Silva, Jeroen Raes
      Abstract: The microbiota-gut-brain (MGB) axis field is at an exciting stage, but the most recent developments in microbiota research still have to find their way into MGB studies. Here we outline the standards for microbiome data generation, the appropriate statistical techniques, and the covariates that should be included in MGB studies to optimize discovery and translation to clinical applications.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18002881
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Inter-individual variation shapes the human microbiome
    • Authors: Emily F. Wissel; Leigh K. Smith
      Abstract: The target article suggests inter-individual variability is a weakness of microbiota-gut-brain (MGB) research, but we discuss why it is actually a strength. We comment on how accounting for individual differences can help researchers systematically understand the observed variance in microbiota composition, interpret null findings, and potentially improve the efficacy of therapeutic treatments in future clinical microbiome research.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X1800287X
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Causal clarity and deeper dimensions in microbiota-gut-brain research
    • Authors: Katarzyna B. Hooks; Jan Pieter Konsman, Maureen A. O'Malley
      Abstract: Our analysis of microbiota-gut-brain (MGB) research took MGB to task for some of its methods, concepts, and interpretations. Commentators then raised numerous issues about the neuroscientific and microbiome aspects of MGB and how it can be understood as a field. We respond by addressing the dimensionality (scope and depth) and causal focus of MGB.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X19000050
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Using episodic memory to gauge implicit and/or indeterminate social
    • Authors: John Michael; Marcell Székely, Wayne Christensen
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X19001985
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Getting to the bottom of things: The value of evolutionary approaches in
           discerning the origin of psychopathology—ERRATUM
    • Authors: Jiaqing O; Martin Brüne
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X19001146
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • How foraging works: Uncertainty magnifies food-seeking motivation
    • Authors: Patrick Anselme; Onur Güntürkün
      Abstract: Food uncertainty has the effect of invigorating food-related responses. Psychologists have noted that mammals and birds respond more to a conditioned stimulus that unreliably predicts food delivery, and ecologists have shown that animals (especially small passerines) consume and/or hoard more food and can get fatter when access to that resource is unpredictable. Are these phenomena related' We think they are. Psychologists have proposed several mechanistic interpretations, while ecologists have suggested a functional interpretation: The effect of unpredictability on fat reserves and hoarding behavior is an evolutionary strategy acting against the risk of starvation when food is in short supply. Both perspectives are complementary, and we argue that the psychology of incentive motivational processes can shed some light on the causal mechanisms leading animals to seek and consume more food under uncertainty in the wild. Our theoretical approach is in agreement with neuroscientific data relating to the role of dopamine, a neurotransmitter strongly involved in incentive motivation, and its plausibility has received some explanatory and predictive value with respect to Pavlovian phenomena. Overall, we argue that the occasional and unavoidable absence of food rewards has motivational effects (called incentive hope) that facilitate foraging effort. We show that this hypothesis is computationally tenable, leading foragers in an unpredictable environment to consume more food items and to have higher long-term energy storage than foragers in a predictable environment.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18000948
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Food seeking and food sharing under uncertainty
    • Authors: Efrat Aharonov-Majar; Ramzi Suleiman
      Abstract: We propose an elaboration of Anselme and Güntürkün's research that considers individuals’ foraging behavior as part of group efforts to cope with uncertainty. We discuss different possibilities for the interaction between individual and group mechanisms for risk reduction in uncertain environments, and we raise some open questions for future research.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18001887
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • A neural basis for food foraging in obesity
    • Authors: Eva Almiron-Roig; Maria A. Pastor, J. Alfredo Martínez, Adam Drewnowski
      Abstract: Poverty-related food insecurity can be viewed as a form of economic and nutritional uncertainty that can lead, in some situations, to a desire for more filling and satisfying food. Given the current obesogenic food environment and the nature of the food supply, those food choices could engage a combination of sensory, neurophysiological, and genetic factors as potential determinants of obesity.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18001905
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Foraging extends beyond food: Hoarding of mental energy and information
           seeking in response to uncertainty
    • Authors: Jessica L. Alquist; Roy F. Baumeister
      Abstract: When an environment is uncertain, humans and other animals benefit from preparing for and attempting to predict potential outcomes. People respond to uncertainty both by conserving mental energy on tasks unrelated to the source of the uncertainty and by increasing their attentiveness to information related to the uncertainty. This mental hoarding and foraging allow people to prepare in uncertain situations.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18001838
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Simulating exploration versus exploitation in agent foraging under
           different environment uncertainties
    • Authors: Nader Chmait; David L. Dowe, David G. Green, Yuan-Fang Li
      Abstract: For artificial agents trading off exploration (food seeking) versus (short-term) exploitation (or consumption), our experiments suggest that uncertainty (interpreted information, theoretically) magnifies food seeking. In more uncertain environments, with food distributed uniformly randomly, exploration appears to be beneficial. In contrast, in biassed (less uncertain) environments, with food concentrated in only one part, exploitation appears to be more advantageous. Agents also appear to do better in biassed environments.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18001954
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Unpredictable homeodynamic and ambient constraints on irrational decision
           making of aneural and neural foragers
    • Authors: Kevin B. Clark
      Abstract: Foraging for nutritional sustenance represents common significant learned/heritable survival strategies evolved for phylum-diverse cellular life on Earth. Unicellular aneural to multicellular neural foragers display conserved rational or irrational decision making depending on outcome predictions for noise-susceptible real/illusory homeodynamic and ambient dietary cues. Such context-dependent heuristic-guided foraging enables optimal, suboptimal, or fallacious decisions that drive organismal adaptation, health, longevity, and life history.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X1800184X
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Hope, exploration, and equilibrated action schemes
    • Authors: Davood G. Gozli; Ci Jun Gao
      Abstract: The concepts want, hope, and exploration cannot be organized in relation to a single type of motive (e.g., motive for food). They require, in addition, the motive for acquiring and maintaining a stable scheme that enables reward-directed activity. Facing unpredictability, the animal has to seek not only reward, but also a new equilibrated state within which reward seeking is possible.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18001863
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Mechanistic models must link the field and the lab
    • Authors: Alasdair I. Houston; Gaurav Malhotra
      Abstract: In the theory outlined in the target article, an animal forages continuously, making sequential decisions in a world where the amount of food and its uncertainty are fixed, but delays are variable. These assumptions contrast with the risk-sensitive foraging theory and create a problem for comparing the predictions of this model with many laboratory experiments that do not make these assumptions.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18001966
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Extending models of “How Foraging Works”: Uncertainty,
           controllability, and survivability
    • Authors: Oliver J. Hulme; Duda Kvitsiani
      Abstract: We argue that How Foraging Works sketches a good foundational model, but it needs expanding to incorporate hierarchical and multiscale conceptions of uncertainty and to incorporate inference of environmental controllability. Most pressingly, its algorithmic implementation needs to be better justified in terms of its functional forms and, ultimately, to be more heavily constrained by survival optimality.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18002017
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Beyond uncertainty: A broader scope for “incentive hope”
           mechanisms and its implications
    • Authors: Omer Linkovski; Noam Weinbach, Shimon Edelman, Marcus W. Feldman, Arnon Lotem, Oren Kolodny
      Abstract: We propose that food-related uncertainty is but one of multiple cues that predicts harsh conditions and may activate “incentive hope.” An evolutionarily adaptive response to these would have been to shift to a behavioral-metabolic phenotype geared toward facing hardship. In modernity, this phenotype may lead to pathologies such as obesity and hoarding. Our perspective suggests a novel therapeutic approach.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18002029
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Complex social ecology needs complex machineries of foraging
    • Authors: Toshiya Matsushima; Hidetoshi Amita, Yukiko Ogura
      Abstract: Uncertainty is caused not only by environmental changes, but also by social interference resulting from competition over food resources. Actually, foraging effort is socially facilitated, which, however, does not require incentive control by the dopamine system; Zajonc's “drive” theory is thus questionable. Instead, social adjustments may be pre-embedded in the limbic network responsible for decisions of appropriate effort-cost investment.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18002078
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Does the “incentive hope” hypothesis explain food-wasting behavior
           among humans' Yes and no
    • Authors: Michał Misiak; Piotr Sorokowski, Maciej Karwowski
      Abstract: In this commentary, we discuss how the “incentive hope” hypothesis explains differences in food-wasting behaviors among humans. We stress that the role of relevant ecological characteristics should be taken into consideration together with the incentive hope hypothesis: population mobility, animal domestication, and food-wasting visibility.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18001942
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • The value of uncertainty: An active inference perspective
    • Authors: Giovanni Pezzulo; Karl J. Friston
      Abstract: We discuss how uncertainty underwrites exploration and epistemic foraging from the perspective of active inference: a generic scheme that places pragmatic (utility maximization) and epistemic (uncertainty minimization) imperatives on an equal footing – as primary determinants of proximal behavior. This formulation contextualizes the complementary motivational incentives for reward-related stimuli and environmental uncertainty, offering a normative treatment of their trade-off.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18002066
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Considerations for the study of “incentive hope” and
           sign-tracking behaviors in humans
    • Authors: Eva R. Pool; David Sander
      Abstract: The amplification of reward-seeking behavior under uncertainty described by Anselme & Güntürkün is based on the animal literature. However, this phenomenon could provide valuable information for the understanding of several dysfunctional human behaviors such as overeating and gambling. Therefore, we formulated some considerations on how the “incentive hope” hypothesis could be tested on a human population.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18001929
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Food security and obesity: Can passerine foraging behavior inform
           explanations for human weight gain'
    • Authors: Ursula Pool
      Abstract: Commonly used measures of human food insecurity differ categorically from measures determining food security in other species. In addition, human foraging behaviors may have arisen in a divergent evolutionary context from nonhuman foraging. Hence, a theoretical framework based on food insecurity and fat storage in nonhumans may not be appropriate for explaining associations between human food insecurity and obesity.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18001899
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Hoarding all of the chips: Slot machine gambling and the foraging for
    • Authors: Mike James Ferrar Robinson
      Abstract: Predictions made by the “incentive hope” hypothesis account for overconsumption in unpredictable food environments. However, when applied to uncertain gambling situations, there are several areas where this theory falls short. Most notably, it has trouble explaining why, in slot machine gambling, players are motivated by extended play to spend time trying to resolve uncertainty, rather than hoarding monetary gains.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18001917
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • “How Foraging Works”: Let's not forget the physiological
           mechanisms of energy balance
    • Authors: Tom V. Smulders; Timothy Boswell, Lindsay J. Henderson
      Abstract: Anselme & Güntürkün propose a novel mechanism to explain the increase in foraging motivation when experiencing an unpredictable food supply. However, the physiological mechanisms that maintain energy homeostasis already control foraging intensity in response to changes in energy balance. Therefore, unpredictability may just be one of many factors that feeds into the same dopaminergic “wanting” system to control foraging intensity.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X1800198X
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Food-seeking behavior has complex evolutionary pressures in songbirds:
           Linking parental foraging to offspring sexual selection
    • Authors: Kate T. Snyder; Nicole Creanza
      Abstract: The target article addresses increased food-seeking behaviors in times of instability, particularly in passerines. We note that food instability might have intergenerational effects on birds: Nutritional stress during development affects song-learning abilities, associating parental foraging with offspring sexual selection. We explore the implications of these compounding selection pressures on food-seeking motivation during breeding, as well as the hormonal underpinnings of these behaviors.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18002030
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Random isn't real: How the patchy distribution of ecological rewards may
           generate “incentive hope”
    • Authors: Laurel Symes; Thalia Wheatley
      Abstract: Anselme & Güntürkün generate exciting new insights by integrating two disparate fields to explain why uncertain rewards produce strong motivational effects. Their conclusions are developed in a framework that assumes a random distribution of resources, uncommon in the natural environment. We argue that, by considering a realistically clumped spatiotemporal distribution of resources, their conclusions will be stronger and more complete.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18002005
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Overlapping neural systems underlying “incentive hope” and
    • Authors: Mattie Tops
      Abstract: Positioning “incentive hope” in a general model of behavioral control systems removes artificial boundaries between mechanisms of incentive motivation in foraging behavior and other functions of the striatum and connected systems. Specifically, incentive hope may involve mechanisms of anticipation of both reward and threat, explaining why anxious individuals show stronger potentiation of incentive motivation under conditions of reward uncertainty.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18001991
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • “Incentive hope” and the nature of impulsivity in
           low-socioeconomic-status individuals
    • Authors: Francesca Walsh; Erik Cheries, Youngbin Kwak
      Abstract: Low-income environments have been associated with greater levels of impulsive behavior, which contribute to the higher debt and obesity rates that further perpetuate current wealth and health disparities. In this commentary, we describe how this might be explained by an appeal to “incentive hope” and the motivational drive toward consumption triggered by the future uncertainty these groups face.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18001978
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Beyond “incentive hope”: Information sampling and learning
           under reward uncertainty
    • Authors: Maya Zhe Wang; Benjamin Y. Hayden
      Abstract: Information seeking, especially when motivated by strategic learning and intrinsic curiosity, could render the new mechanism “incentive hope” proposed by Anselme & Güntürkün sufficient, but not necessary to explain how reward uncertainty promotes reward seeking and consumption. Naturalistic and foraging-like tasks can help parse motivational processes that bridge learning and foraging behaviors and identify their neural underpinnings.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18001930
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • How uncertainty begets hope: A model of adaptive and maladaptive seeking
    • Authors: Martin Zack
      Abstract: The “incentive hope” model creatively explains hoarding and fat accumulation by foragers under uncertainty and food seeking when food cues are present but food is not. The model has difficulty explaining why animals driven by cues fare better than animals driven by food reward itself, why human obesity exists when food is abundant, and why people enjoy gambling and care about winning.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18001875
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Incentive hope: A default psychological response to multiple forms of
    • Authors: Patrick Anselme; Onur Güntürkün
      Abstract: Our target article proposes that a new concept – incentive hope – is necessary in the behavioral sciences to explain animal foraging under harsh environmental conditions. Incentive hope refers to a specific motivational mechanism in the brain – considered only in mammals and birds. But it can also be understood at a functional level, as an adaptive behavioral strategy that contributes to improve survival. Thus, this concept is an attempt to bridge across different research fields such as behavioral psychology, reward neuroscience, and behavioral ecology. Many commentaries suggest that incentive hope even could help understand phenomena beyond these research fields, including food wasting and food sharing, mental energy conservation, diverse psychopathologies, irrational decisions in invertebrates, and some aspects of evolution by means of sexual selection. We are favorable to such extensions because incentive hope denotes an unconscious process capable of working against many forms of adversity; organisms do not need to hope as a subjective feeling, but to behave as if they had this feeling. In our response, we carefully discuss each suggestion and criticism and reiterate the importance of having a theory accounting for motivation under reward uncertainty.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18002194
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • The analytic utility of distinguishing fighting from dying—ERRATUM
    • Authors: Ian Grant Hansen
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X19000293
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Brain disorders' Not really: Why network structures block reductionism
           in psychopathology research
    • Authors: Denny Borsboom; Angélique O. J. Cramer, Annemarie Kalis
      Abstract: In the past decades, reductionism has dominated both research directions and funding policies in clinical psychology and psychiatry. The intense search for the biological basis of mental disorders, however, has not resulted in conclusive reductionist explanations of psychopathology. Recently, network models have been proposed as an alternative framework for the analysis of mental disorders, in which mental disorders arise from the causal interplay between symptoms. In this target article, we show that this conceptualization can help explain why reductionist approaches in psychiatry and clinical psychology are on the wrong track. First, symptom networks preclude the identification of a common cause of symptomatology with a neurobiological condition; in symptom networks, there is no such common cause. Second, symptom network relations depend on the content of mental states and, as such, feature intentionality. Third, the strength of network relations is highly likely to depend partially on cultural and historical contexts as well as external mechanisms in the environment. Taken together, these properties suggest that, if mental disorders are indeed networks of causally related symptoms, reductionist accounts cannot achieve the level of success associated with reductionist disease models in modern medicine. As an alternative strategy, we propose to interpret network structures in terms of D. C. Dennett's (1987) notion of real patterns, and suggest that, instead of being reducible to a biological basis, mental disorders feature biological and psychological factors that are deeply intertwined in feedback loops. This suggests that neither psychological nor biological levels can claim causal or explanatory priority, and that a holistic research strategy is necessary for progress in the study of mental disorders.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X17002266
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Reductionist thinking and animal models in neuropsychiatric research
    • Authors: Nicole M. Baran
      Abstract: Reductionist thinking in neuroscience is manifest in the widespread use of animal models of neuropsychiatric disorders. Broader investigations of diverse behaviors in non-model organisms and longer-term study of the mechanisms of plasticity will yield fundamental insights into the neurobiological, developmental, genetic, and environmental factors contributing to the “massively multifactorial system networks” which go awry in mental disorders.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18001231
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Beyond trait reductionism: Implications of network structures for
           dimensional models of psychopathology
    • Authors: Robert F. Bornstein
      Abstract: Borsboom et al. discuss the implications of network structures for neurobiology-based reductionism, but inherent in the network approach is that dimensional models of psychopathology are untenable as well. Insofar as mental disorders are complex dynamic constellations of symptoms, the “trait reductionism” of dimensional psychopathology frameworks suffers from the same limitations as neurobiological reductionism.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18001243
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • The adaptive self: Culture and social flexibility in feedback networks
    • Authors: Daina Crafa; Saskia K. Nagel
      Abstract: Culture contextualizes the contents and intentionality of many mental statuses. Cognitive mediation of cultural information shapes these contents and intentionalities, as well as many of the false beliefs of pathology. Flexibility of cognitive mediation processes and resulting beliefs and pathologies may vary by individual, be a key mechanism of the feedback loop, and help characterize network connections.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18001255
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Beyond reduction with the representation: The need for causality with full
           complexity to unravel mental health
    • Authors: Martin Desseilles; Christophe Phillips
      Abstract: In this commentary on Borsboom et al.’s target article, we argue that researchers should be aware of the historical development of models in neuroscience. Considering the importance of causality in anatomo-clinical approach and stressing the complexity of mental phenomenon, we provide new insight on reductionism and representation limitation.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18001267
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Symptoms are not the solution but the problem: Why psychiatric research
           should focus on processes rather than symptoms
    • Authors: Immanuel G. Elbau; Elisabeth B. Binder, Victor I. Spoormaker
      Abstract: Progress in psychiatric research has been hindered by the use of artificial disease categories to map distinct biological substrates. Efforts to overcome this obstacle have led to the misconception that relevant psychiatric dimensions are not biologically reducible. Consequently, the return to phenomenology is once again advocated. We propose a process-centered paradigm of biological reduction compatible with non-reductive materialism.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18001000
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Networks, intentionality and multiple realizability: Not enough to block
    • Authors: Markus I. Eronen; Laura F. Bringmann
      Abstract: Borsboom et al. propose that the network approach blocks reductionism in psychopathology. We argue that the two main arguments, intentionality and multiple realizability of mental disorders, are not sufficient to establish that mental disorders are not brain disorders, and that the specific role of networks in these arguments is unclear.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18001012
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Indeed, not really a brain disorder: Implications for reductionist
           accounts of addiction
    • Authors: Matt Field; Nick Heather, Reinout W. Wiers
      Abstract: Borsboom et al.’s formulation provides an opportunity for a fundamental rethink about the “brain disease model” of addiction that dominates research, treatment, policy, and lay understanding of addiction. We also demonstrate how the American opioid crisis provides a contemporary example of how “brain disease” is not moderated by the environmental context but is instead crucially dependent upon it.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18001024
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Conceptualizing neurodevelopmental disorders as networks: Promises and
    • Authors: Kristien Hens; Kris Evers, Johan Wagemans
      Abstract: The target article by Borsboom et al. proposes network models as an alternative to reductionist approaches in the analysis of mental disorders, using mood disorders such as depression and anxiety as examples. We ask how this framework can be applied to neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Specifically, we raise a number of promises and challenges when conceptualizing neurodevelopmental disorders as networks.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18001218
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • The value of clinical and translational neuroscience approaches to
           psychiatric illness
    • Authors: Juyoen Hur; Rachael M. Tillman, Andrew S. Fox, Alexander J. Shackman
      Abstract: Borsboom et al. confuse biological approaches with extreme biological reductionism and common-cause models of psychopathology. In muddling these concepts, they mistakenly throw the baby out with the bathwater. Here, we highlight recent work underscoring the unique value of clinical and translational neuroscience approaches for understanding the nature and origins of psychopathology and for developing improved intervention strategies.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18001036
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Functional disorders can also be explained through a non-reductionist
           application of network theory
    • Authors: Michael E. Hyland
      Abstract: A network structure explains why reductionism is not possible for mental illness, but the same argument applies for the somatic symptoms of functional disorders. Because the covariation of symptoms of functional disorders cannot be explained in terms of symptom-to-symptom causality, explanation requires a network of biological mechanisms having emergent properties that cannot be reduced to biology.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18001048
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Therapy and prevention for mental health: What if mental diseases are
           mostly not brain disorders'
    • Authors: John P. A. Ioannidis
      Abstract: Neurobiology-based interventions for mental diseases and searches for useful biomarkers of treatment response have largely failed. Clinical trials should assess interventions related to environmental and social stressors, with long-term follow-up; social rather than biological endpoints; personalized outcomes; and suitable cluster, adaptive, and n-of-1 designs. Labor, education, financial, and other social/political decisions should be evaluated for their impacts on mental disease.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X1800105X
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Network models can help focus research on the role of culture and context
           in psychopathology, but don't discount latent variable models
    • Authors: Nuwan Jayawickreme; Andrew Rasmussen, Alison Karasz, Jay Verkuilen, Eranda Jayawickreme
      Abstract: Borsboom et al. correctly note that the use of latent variable models in cross-cultural research has resulted in a futile search for universal, biological causes of psychopathology; however, this is not an inevitable outcome of such models. While network analytic approaches require further development, network models have the potential to better elucidate the role of cultural and contextual variables related to psychopathology.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18001061
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • The network takeover reaches psychopathology
    • Authors: Richard J. McNally
      Abstract: Borsboom et al. have written a trenchant critique of biological reductionism in psychopathology. After commenting on recent controversies concerning the network perspective, I discuss ways of integrating biology into the network enterprise.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18001073
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Making a case for constructive reductionism
    • Authors: Christian P. Müller
      Abstract: Borsboom and colleagues argue that reductionism in psychopathology research has not provided the expected insights. Instead, they suggest a systems approach of interacting syndromes, which, however, falls short of a perspective for empirical testing. Here, a combination of both approaches is suggested: a reductionistic empirical approach allowing testability, synergistic with a constructivistic systems appraisal of syndrome networks – a constructive reductionism.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18001085
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Neither biological nor symptomatology reductionism: A call for integration
           in psychopathology research
    • Authors: Benjamin C. Nephew; Marcelo Febo, Hudson P Santos
      Abstract: We agree with Borsboom et al. in challenging neurobiological reductionism, and underscore some specific strengths of a network approach. However, they do not acknowledge that a similar problem is present in current psychosocial frameworks. We discuss this challenge as well as describe valuable parallels between symptom and neurobiological network theories that will substantially augment psychopathological research when integrated.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18001279
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Getting to the bottom of things: The value of evolutionary approaches in
           discerning the origin of psychopathology
    • Authors: O Jiaqing; Martin Brüne
      Abstract: The network approach as a novel way of understanding psychopathology has helped address some of the existing issues associated with traditional biological interpretations. Nonetheless, it has similarly failed in explaining the fundamental etiology of mental conditions – a persistent conundrum that arguably could be adequately addressed only by evolutionary formulations, specifically evolutionary mismatch and life history theories.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18001097
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Evolutionary-developmental modeling of neurodiversity and psychopathology
    • Authors: D. Kimbrough Oller
      Abstract: Modeling the extremes of mental/emotional conditions requires explicit accounts of evolutionary-developmental sources of human neurodiversity, not merely psychopathology. The target article's approach could be improved by incorporation of a hierarchical scheme wherein mental/emotional infrastructure interacts across differentiated layers of function. The notion of “symptom networks” thus calls for differentiation into hierarchically interacting components of mental/emotional evolution and development.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18001103
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Brain networks require a network-conscious psychopathological approach
    • Authors: Achille Pasqualotto
      Abstract: In experimental psychology and neuroscience, technological advances and multisensory research have contributed to gradually dismiss a version of reductionism. Empirical results no longer support a brain model in which distinct “modules” perform discrete functions, but rather, a brain of partially overlapping networks. A similarly changed brain model is extending to psychopathology and clinical psychology, and partly accounts for the problems of reductionism.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18001115
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Reductionism – simplified and scientific
    • Authors: Leonid Perlovsky
      Abstract: In this commentary on Borsboom et al.’s target article, I address an inadequate, simplified use of the idea of “reductionism” in clinical psychology and psychiatry. This is important because reductionism is a fundamental methodology of science. Explaining mental states and processes in terms of biological and brain states and processes is fundamental for the science of psychology. I also briefly address a fundamental methodology of the goal of psychology as a hard science.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18001127
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Elimination, not reduction: Lessons from the Research Domain Criteria
           (RDoC) and multiple realisation
    • Authors: Tuomas K. Pernu
      Abstract: The thesis of multiple realisation that Borsboom et al. are relying on should not be taken for granted. In dissolving the apparent multiple realisation, the reductionist research strategies in psychopathology research (the Research Domain Criteria [RDoC] framework, in particular) are bound to lead to eliminativism rather than reductionism. Therefore, Borsboom et al. seem to be aiming at a wrong target.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18001139
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Brain networks for emotion and cognition: Implications and tools for
           understanding mental disorders and pathophysiology
    • Authors: Luiz Pessoa
      Abstract: Understanding how structure maps to function in the brain in terms of large-scale networks is critical to elucidating the brain basis of mental phenomena and mental disorders. Given that this mapping is many-to-many, I argue that researchers need to shift to a multivariate brain and behavior characterization to fully unravel the contributions of brain processes to typical and atypical function.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18001140
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Taking an engineer's view: Implications of network analysis for
           computational psychiatry
    • Authors: A. David Redish; Rebecca Kazinka, Alexander B. Herman
      Abstract: An engineer's viewpoint on psychiatry asks: What are the failure modes that underlie psychiatric dysfunction' And: How can we modify the system' Psychiatry has made great strides in understanding and treating disorders using biology; however, failure modes and modification access points can also exist extrinsically in environmental interactions. The network analysis suggested by Borsboom et al. in the target article provides a new viewpoint that should be incorporated into current theoretical constructs, not placed in opposition to them.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18001152
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Special, radical, failure of reduction in psychiatry
    • Authors: Don Ross
      Abstract: Use of network models to identify causal structure typically blocks reduction across the sciences. Entanglement of mental processes with environmental and intentional relationships, as Borsboom et al. argue, makes reduction of psychology to neuroscience particularly implausible. However, in psychiatry, a mental disorder can involve no brain disorder at all, even when the former crucially depends on aspects of brain structure. Gambling addiction constitutes an example.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18001164
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Intentional content in psychopathologies requires an expanded
    • Authors: Marc Slors; Jolien C. Francken, Derek Strijbos
      Abstract: We argue that the explanatory role of intentional content in connecting symptoms in a network approach to psychopathology hinges neither on causality nor on rationality. Instead, we argue that it hinges on a pluralistic body of practical and clinical know-how. Incorporating this practical approach to intentional state ascription in psychopathological cases expands and improves traditional interpretivism.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18001176
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Why not be pluralists about explanatory reduction'
    • Authors: Kathryn Tabb
      Abstract: Borsboom et al. convincingly argue that, from their symptom network perspective, mental disorders cannot be reduced to brain disorders. While granting that network structures exist, I respond that there is no reason to think they are the only psychiatric phenomena worth explaining. From a pluralist perspective, what is required is not a full-scale rejection of explanatory reductionism but a critical attention to the circumstances of its application.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18002054
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Problem behavior in autism spectrum disorders: A paradigmatic
           self-organized perspective of network structures
    • Authors: Lucio Tonello; Luca Giacobbi, Alberto Pettenon, Alessandro Scuotto, Massimo Cocchi, Fabio Gabrielli, Glenda Cappello
      Abstract: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) subjects can present temporary behaviors of acute agitation and aggressiveness, named problem behaviors. They have been shown to be consistent with the self-organized criticality (SOC), a model wherein occasionally occurring “catastrophic events” are necessary in order to maintain a self-organized “critical equilibrium.” The SOC can represent the psychopathology network structures and additionally suggests that they can be considered as self-organized systems.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18001188
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • The biology of mental disorders: What are we talking about'
    • Authors: Alfonso Troisi
      Abstract: After the Darwinian revolution, biology is not only the study of the operation of structural elements (functional biology), but also the study of adaption and phylogenetic history (evolutionary biology). From an evolutionary perspective, the biology of mental disorders is not just “neurobiology and genetic constitution” but also adaptive reactions to adverse situations. Evolutionary explanations of mental disorders are biological and non-reductionist.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X1800119X
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • What's in a model' Network models as tools instead of representations
           of what psychiatric disorders really are
    • Authors: Hanna M. van Loo; Jan-Willem Romeijn
      Abstract: Network models block reductionism about psychiatric disorders only if models are interpreted in a realist manner – that is, taken to represent “what psychiatric disorders really are.” A flexible and more instrumentalist view of models is needed to improve our understanding of the heterogeneity and multifactorial character of psychiatric disorders.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18001206
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Families of network structures – we need both phenomenal and
           explanatory models
    • Authors: Tony Ward; Ronald Fischer
      Abstract: Symptom network models (SNWMs) play an important role in identifying but not explaining patterns of symptoms. We discuss underlying assumptions of SNWMs and argue that they represent phenomenal models, best suited to detecting patterns among symptoms. SNWMs need to be supplemented with mechanistic models that provide constitutive and etiological explanations of each symptom (network nodes) once relevant patterns have been identified.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X1800122X
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Reductionism in retreat
    • Authors: Denny Borsboom; Angélique O. J. Cramer, Annemarie Kalis
      Abstract: We address the commentaries on our target article in terms of four major themes. First, we note that virtually all commentators agree that mental disorders are not brain disorders in the common interpretation of these terms, and establish the consensus that explanatory reductionism is not a viable thesis. Second, we address criticisms to the effect that our article was misdirected or aimed at a straw man; we argue that this is unlikely, given the widespread communication of reductionist slogans in psychopathology research and society. Third, we tackle the question of whether intentionality, extended systems, and multiple realizability are as problematic as claimed in the target article, and we present a number of nuances and extensions with respect to our article. Fourth, we discuss the question of how the network approach should incorporate biological factors, given that wholesale reductionism is an unlikely option.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X18002091
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Four things we need to know about extreme self-sacrifice—CORRIGENDUM
    • Authors: Harvey Whitehouse
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X19000013
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
  • Self-sacrifice for ingroup's history: A diachronic
    • Authors: Maria Babińska; Michal Bilewicz
      PubDate: 2019-01-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X19000037
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2019)
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