Authors:
Kunle Adegoke; Henry Otobrise, Tolulope Famoroti, Adenike Olatinwo, Funmi Akintujoye, Afees Tiamiyu Pages: 6 - 15 Abstract: We derive an explicit matrix representation for the Hamiltonian of the Ising model in mutually orthogonal external magnetic fields, using as basis the eigenstates of a system of non-interacting spin 1/2 particles in external magnetic fields. We subsequently apply our results to obtain an analytical expression for the ground state energy per spin, to the fourth order in the exchange integral, for the Ising model in perpendicular external fields. PubDate: 2019-01-18 DOI: 10.12691/ijp-7-1-2 Issue No:Vol. 7, No. 1 (2019)

Authors:
Jarl-Thure Eriksson
Pages: 16 - 20 Abstract: A study based on a new formulation of the Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker equation has led to an alternative scenario for the evolving universe. Further, a theory which replaces the cosmological constant with the momentum pressure of emerging matter has been developed. The set of equations is called the CBU model (Continuously Breeding Universe). The model offers a tool to investigate the present state of the universe. It is assumed that expansion is caused by the continuous addition of matter, due to, say, electron-positron fluctuations. As a feature of the model the gravitational constant G is inversely proportional to the scale factor a. A gravitational uphill for light coming from distant galaxies causes a redshift far more dominant than the cosmological redshift. However, the influence is small in the nearby space of the Milky Way. The combined redshift provides the time of the CMB maximum. The redshift is zCMB = 1,54·109 for a scale factor of aCMB = 2,55·10-5. According to the CBU theory the time as measured from the initial event, i.e. the birth of the universe, is 389.000 years, surprisingly close to the Standard model value of 380.000 years. The combined redshift zCMB corresponds precisely to the frequency 160,23 GHz and the energy of the two photons emerging from a positron-electron annihilation, 1,63742·10-13 J. PubDate: 2019-01-29 DOI: 10.12691/ijp-7-1-3 Issue No:Vol. 7, No. 1 (2019)