Journal Cover American Journal of Educational Research
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
     ISSN (Print) 2327-6126 - ISSN (Online) 2327-6150
     Published by Science and Education Publishing Homepage  [19 journals]
  • School-University Collaboration Initiative: Benefits and Challenges in

    • Authors: Charles Opolot-Okurut; Juliana Bbuye
      Pages: 843 - 849
      Abstract: This investigation examined academic staff, school administrators and school teachers’ perceptions of the university-school collaboration. A qualitative research paradigm was followed through a case study of Makerere University’s use of Teacher Education in Sub-Saharan Africa-(TESSA) project materials. The case study focused on gaining a wealth of detailed information on a small sample of academic staff, school administrators, and school teachers while addressing the research questions of the study. Twelve participants were used for data collection from the university (three) and the primary schools (nine). Data were collected using semi-structured interviews organized around the key research questions. Results indicated that the gap between university academics and school teachers is narrowing. Some school teachers have changed their practices that appear to have improved their methods of delivery of content to the learners. The use of TESSA materials is altering teachers’ teaching practices. But, the resources for university-school collaboration are varied and expensive. Teachers’ workload appears to leave them little time to be effectively involved in collaborative activities. Conclusions from these findings were that there are both merits and constraints to university school partnership to the advantage of each institution; teachers are incorporating TESSA materials into their teaching practices. The implications of these findings for the university-school partnership include the increased need for university and school administrators to support school teachers benefit from the collaboration; and to create more time for the involvement of all participating parties so that they can better implement the collaboration activities.
      PubDate: 2014-09-24
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 10 (2014)
  • Failure Factors of Teaching English as a Second Language Students in
           teaching Graduate Programme at Institute of Teacher Education

    • Authors: Muhammad Akbar Zahidi
      Pages: 850 - 855
      Abstract: This study was about the failure factors of Teaching English as a Second Language (TESL) students in teaching graduate programme (TGP) at institute of teacher education (ITE). Thus, this study identified the factors of failure from personal problems, lecturer, facility, syllabus and school factors. Furthermore, this study used a mixed mode method such as semi-structural interview and questionnaires. To answer the interview instrument, a total of 12 TGP students were selected from maximum variation method based on six different zones. Then, to answer the questionnaires, this research involved 40 TGP students at random. Next, descriptive statistics of SPSS 21.0 software was used to analyze the factors in five domains. The findings of the study indicated that the domain of syllabus factors contributed to the cause of the failure at the highest level. However, the finding of the lecturer communication was the highest among the items. Therefore, failure was causing some effects such as feeling sad, frustrated and stressed out to deal with colleagues and family members.
      PubDate: 2014-09-24
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 10 (2014)
  • The Experiences of Some Early and Elementary Education Living-Learning
           Community Participants

    • Authors: Tobin Richardson; James Stroud
      Pages: 856 - 861
      Abstract: Many factors may influence how a student experiences his or her residence community involvement. Ball State University, an institution with a history of innovative and effective housing programs, recently implemented a living-learning community comprised of students declaring majors within their Department of Elementary Education. A total of 15 participants who had resided within this living-learning community for a minimum of one academic-year were interviewed. Interviews focused on students overall experience within the Early and Elementary Education Living-Learning Community. Common themes emerging from the semi-structured interviews included participants feeling connected and comfortable quickly within their college transition, social benefit including the development and maintenance of long-term friendships, and academic benefit including better course performance and more commitment towards the field of study.
      PubDate: 2014-09-26
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 10 (2014)
  • 21st Century Curriculum Change Initiative: A Focus on STEM
           Education as an Integrated Approach to Teaching and Learning

    • Authors: Kimberly Barcelona
      Pages: 862 - 875
      Abstract: The objective of this paper is to apply Kotter’s 8-Stage Process for Change in transforming traditional school organizationsinto models for 21st century instruction and explore research that suggests the change process was effectively implemented in order to improve student achievement. This paper is developed through inquiry and research that describes a course of action for a change initiative to enrich curricula and meet a vision for competency-based curricular reform. Two analyses were conducted including (1) review of literature and statistics driving the need for curricular reform and (2) a qualitative analyses of data collection from studies conducted on schools which instituted curricular reform to develop interdisciplinary curricula in the areas of science, technology, engineering and math (STEM). Analyzing and using the statistics and data from school systems in the state of Maine, which have made changes in their curricula and instructional methods, allows for critical review of the success of the change process. Results reveal that curriculum reform in the areas of STEM that creates a shift towards a more integrated approach in curriculum design has improved student achievement. Improving curriculum and instruction would be a hollow gesture without identifying and reviewing the research that suggests the use and application of the principles from John Kotter’s 8-Stage Process for Change outlined in his book Leading Changewas applied to deeply root successful change. Curriculum reform is a response to the growing need for educating future innovators that can continue to keep our world moving forward. Kotter’s first step to creating change begins with a sense of urgency and currently we have a wealth of studies that are conducted that speak loudly to our society that we must focus on curriculum that involves students in problem solving challenges and innovative thinking activities to prepare them for the needs our society today and in the future. The educational system we have today is a product of the industrial age and was organized like an assembly line to produce a standardized product, which was considered the educated. At the time, it fit the needs of businesses. It is time that we begin asking what skills we will need our learners to know in the next twenty years. Engineers work in teams to solve large, complex problems and educational systems lack necessary skill building activities to foster what industries will need for the future success of our global society (Senge, 2014). As our economy moves from a manufacturing-based economy to, an information and service-based economy, the demand for a workforce well educated in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) is growing. Unfortunately, the number of students who choose STEM fields continues to decline (US Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2009; Galloway, 2008; National Research Council Committee on Science, Engineering Education Reform, 2006; Mooney & Laubach, 2002). As such, there is a great need to spark interest among our K-12 youth in STEM, and to develop and facilitate quality engineering experiences for K-12 students (National Science Board, 2003; Frantz, DiMiranda & Siller, 2011) (Table 1).
      PubDate: 2014-09-26
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 10 (2014)
  • Analyzing the Labours of Hercules

    • Authors: Alireza Nabilou
      Pages: 876 - 882
      Abstract: In this research, Labours of Hercules has been studied from the viewpoint of Greimas. Features of story have been explained and then narration and narratology has been studied. Greimas is one of the narratologists who modified Propp’s theory about seven scops of fictional actions and mentioned new attitude for studying structure of narration by mentioning six actants (Object/subject; sender/receiver; helper/ Opposer). He also introduced three separate sequences in narration which were known as contractual, the performative and the disjunctive. By studying this story from the viewpoint of Greimas, we find valuable points. In this narration, Hercules is subject and the goals are expiation, atone and immortalize. Senders are Eurystheus and oracle Pythoness. Hercules is helped by Thespius, Athena, Iolaus, Artemis, Atlas, Zeus, Hermes etc. Hera, Nessus, creatures and agents in Labours decide to fight against Hercules and defeat him. Sender and receiver are common in labours of Hercules; Eurystheus is Sender and Receiver. As we see, Hercules is Receiver and Subject. Of other issues of Greimas which have been studied in this story are three narrative sequences i.e. contractual, the performative and the disjunctive and as shown, these sequences are available in the discussed story. Therefore it is proved based on Greimas’ theory that Labours of Hercules has fixed design and pattern and systematic narrative structure.
      PubDate: 2014-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 10 (2014)
  • The Assessment Process of Pupils’ Learning in Saudi Education
           System: A Literature Review

    • Authors: Yahya Al Alhareth; Ibtisam Al Dighrir
      Pages: 883 - 891
      Abstract: Assessments are essential components of teaching and learning programmes and help shape individual learning. Assessment at secondary and higher education levels in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) uses an examination system and it relies solely on the teacher to assess students. The assessment does not assess the ability of students to design and carry out experiments or even evaluate their understanding of mathematical and scientific concepts. Thereby, this paper will review the literature of the assessment process in the Saudi General Education System by considering several different aspects. This consideration will include the definitions and purpose of assessment as a means of learning about students and the progression of their learning. The different forms of assessment will also be considered as well the assessment practices in mathematics, and in particular in intermediate schools in Saudi Arabia as it can provide insights into the quality of assessment practices.
      PubDate: 2014-10-08
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 10 (2014)
  • Evaluating the University's Governing Board: A Comprehensive Review of Its
           Domains and Indicators

    • Authors: Haniye Sadat Sajadi; Mohammadreza Maleki, Hamid Ravaghi, Steve o. Michael, Mohammad Hadi
      Pages: 892 - 897
      Abstract: Background: Existing evidence with regard to the indicators of board performance evaluation of the University demonstrated that a comprehensive review of literature is required. The aim of this article is to add to the literature on performance evaluation of the universities’ governing boards by providing a summary of literature-based perspectives. Methodology: Systematic literature searches were undertaken, and relevant studies identified using specific inclusion and exclusion criteria. The selected studies were appraised, and their findings synthesized.Principal Findings: Fourteen relevant studies were identified, mostly from the USA. Fifty six indicators, categorized in seven domains, were identified to evaluate board performance in different universities. Conclusion: Our results showed a gap in the literature with respect to the performance evaluation of universities’ governing boards. Given the unique context of these universities, it is suggested that more research need to be done in order to understand the indicators of the board performance evaluation in these institutions.
      PubDate: 2014-10-08
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 10 (2014)
  • Leadership and Competence Development in Higher Education: Reconstituting
           the Human – Machine Interfaces in the Space of Digital Systems

    • Authors: Milan Jaros
      Pages: 898 - 905
      Abstract: It is an outstanding intellectual and leadership challenge in higher education to develop effective ‘competence’ delivery and evaluation practices complementary to and building upon the traditional programs. The key obstacle is the growing generic gap between systems of thought and organization governing the established curriculum and those required for decision making conditioned by the radical changes in the divisions of labor. It is argued that this decision making takes place in an open problem space in which success depends on being able to recognize and make use of the pathways imposed upon us by digitalization of knowledge systems and work practices. These are the highways along which the current thoughts and material exchanges travel and collide, and which condition the much needed synergy of inputs spanning disparate knowledge and power systems. Two aspects of this structural problem are of particular interest here. Firstly, the boundary separating human and machinic contributions have become blurred beyond repair. Secondly, the failure to recognise fully the impact of new work practices amounts to de facto abdication by humans from taming runaway complexification. This rapidly reduces the space in which to make efforts required to ensure that the human condition - and the standing of higher education as a guardian of the consititutive role of human –human engagenment in particular - remain open for debate and perpetual re-positioning in rapidly changing circumstances. The aim here is to establish pedagogy for a fresh re-appraisal of this constitutive process in the liminal space of human and machinic contributions, and one capable of engendering the human-centered character of University without depriving staff and students of benefits brought by the maturing post-mechanical culture.
      PubDate: 2014-10-08
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 10 (2014)
  • The Issue of Residential Mobility in the Congo; Case of the City of

    • Authors: Nzoussi Hilaire Kevin; Li Jiang Feng, Koua Stephen Faller, Mabiala Koyo Grace, Mouele Mboungou Patrick Joe Stivell, Naoueyama Corine Elsa
      Pages: 906 - 910
      Abstract: Urbanization is the developing process of cities. For over a decade, African cities in general have had a very high population growth. We have observed the same trend within the same time period in Brazzaville, the political capital. This is probably due to the Political and Economic stability particularly marked by urbanization and the boom of the oil industry. This significant population growth, especially not controlled results in jeopardizing all the urbanization planning and cause a lot problems. Cities have certainly some advantages because they are opened to the world, however, it is a big challenge for everyone to live and comply with cities ‘constraints and requirements. Feeding, clothing and getting a decent accommodation are undoubtedly big issues the economically weak have to challenge. This article aims to study first the causes and consequences of residential mobility’s in Brazzaville, then offers some possible solutions in order to reduce this problem. These are the main objectives assigned to this work.
      PubDate: 2014-10-08
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 10 (2014)
  • ‘Teaching the Way I Was Taught’: We Can and Should Do Better

    • Authors: Lorraine Bennett
      Pages: 911 - 918
      Abstract: Consideration of the quality of higher education is a complex and multifaceted issue. A number of stakeholders contribute to this debate and have very diverse perspectives and distinctive opinions on what constitutes quality of, and quality in, higher education and how it should be described, fostered, measured and reported. Discussion at the meta-level tends to focus on aspects such as: national quality frameworks and standards; rankings; benchmarking; and, graduate employment outcomes. Over the past decade, in Australia and in other countries with similar higher education ideologies and structures, there have been concerted efforts to identify and map characteristics of teaching effectiveness and attributes of an effective teacher to better understand how these factors contribute to quality of higher education. Some research studies and educational commentators nominate the capacity and effectiveness of the teacher as critical components in providing a quality education experience. The irony is that in Australian universities, and similarly in higher education in many other countries, a tertiary teaching qualification is not required for employment as a teacher/lecturer in universities. Consequently, for many of our universities the practice of ‘teaching the way I was taught’ has become the default approach to engaging with increasingly diverse and mobile higher education student populations. This paper describes how a personalised Graduate Certificate in Education (Tertiary Teaching), for newly appointed and early career tertiary teachers, taken post-employment, is addressing this issue to some extent. However, in the final analysis the questions that need to be asked are: ‘What is the impact on the quality of higher education of not requiring our teaching staff to have a tertiary teacher education qualification as a pre-requisite for employment?’ and ‘Are we doing a disservice to our students by not requiring university teachers to have appropriate tertiary teacher education preparation?
      PubDate: 2014-10-12
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 10 (2014)
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