Journal Cover American Journal of Educational Research
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     ISSN (Print) 2327-6126 - ISSN (Online) 2327-6150
     Published by Science and Education Publishing Homepage  [19 journals]
  • School-University Collaboration Initiative: Benefits and Challenges in
           Uganda

    • Authors: Charles Opolot-Okurut; Juliana Bbuye
      Pages: 843 - 849
      Abstract: This investigation examined academic staff, school administrators and school teachers’ perceptions of the university-school collaboration. A qualitative research paradigm was followed through a case study of Makerere University’s use of Teacher Education in Sub-Saharan Africa-(TESSA) project materials. The case study focused on gaining a wealth of detailed information on a small sample of academic staff, school administrators, and school teachers while addressing the research questions of the study. Twelve participants were used for data collection from the university (three) and the primary schools (nine). Data were collected using semi-structured interviews organized around the key research questions. Results indicated that the gap between university academics and school teachers is narrowing. Some school teachers have changed their practices that appear to have improved their methods of delivery of content to the learners. The use of TESSA materials is altering teachers’ teaching practices. But, the resources for university-school collaboration are varied and expensive. Teachers’ workload appears to leave them little time to be effectively involved in collaborative activities. Conclusions from these findings were that there are both merits and constraints to university school partnership to the advantage of each institution; teachers are incorporating TESSA materials into their teaching practices. The implications of these findings for the university-school partnership include the increased need for university and school administrators to support school teachers benefit from the collaboration; and to create more time for the involvement of all participating parties so that they can better implement the collaboration activities.
      PubDate: 2014-09-24
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 10 (2014)
       
  • Failure Factors of Teaching English as a Second Language Students in
           teaching Graduate Programme at Institute of Teacher Education

    • Authors: Muhammad Akbar Zahidi
      Pages: 850 - 855
      Abstract: This study was about the failure factors of Teaching English as a Second Language (TESL) students in teaching graduate programme (TGP) at institute of teacher education (ITE). Thus, this study identified the factors of failure from personal problems, lecturer, facility, syllabus and school factors. Furthermore, this study used a mixed mode method such as semi-structural interview and questionnaires. To answer the interview instrument, a total of 12 TGP students were selected from maximum variation method based on six different zones. Then, to answer the questionnaires, this research involved 40 TGP students at random. Next, descriptive statistics of SPSS 21.0 software was used to analyze the factors in five domains. The findings of the study indicated that the domain of syllabus factors contributed to the cause of the failure at the highest level. However, the finding of the lecturer communication was the highest among the items. Therefore, failure was causing some effects such as feeling sad, frustrated and stressed out to deal with colleagues and family members.
      PubDate: 2014-09-24
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 10 (2014)
       
  • The Experiences of Some Early and Elementary Education Living-Learning
           Community Participants

    • Authors: Tobin Richardson; James Stroud
      Pages: 856 - 861
      Abstract: Many factors may influence how a student experiences his or her residence community involvement. Ball State University, an institution with a history of innovative and effective housing programs, recently implemented a living-learning community comprised of students declaring majors within their Department of Elementary Education. A total of 15 participants who had resided within this living-learning community for a minimum of one academic-year were interviewed. Interviews focused on students overall experience within the Early and Elementary Education Living-Learning Community. Common themes emerging from the semi-structured interviews included participants feeling connected and comfortable quickly within their college transition, social benefit including the development and maintenance of long-term friendships, and academic benefit including better course performance and more commitment towards the field of study.
      PubDate: 2014-09-26
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 10 (2014)
       
  • 21st Century Curriculum Change Initiative: A Focus on STEM
           Education as an Integrated Approach to Teaching and Learning

    • Authors: Kimberly Barcelona
      Pages: 862 - 875
      Abstract: The objective of this paper is to apply Kotter’s 8-Stage Process for Change in transforming traditional school organizationsinto models for 21st century instruction and explore research that suggests the change process was effectively implemented in order to improve student achievement. This paper is developed through inquiry and research that describes a course of action for a change initiative to enrich curricula and meet a vision for competency-based curricular reform. Two analyses were conducted including (1) review of literature and statistics driving the need for curricular reform and (2) a qualitative analyses of data collection from studies conducted on schools which instituted curricular reform to develop interdisciplinary curricula in the areas of science, technology, engineering and math (STEM). Analyzing and using the statistics and data from school systems in the state of Maine, which have made changes in their curricula and instructional methods, allows for critical review of the success of the change process. Results reveal that curriculum reform in the areas of STEM that creates a shift towards a more integrated approach in curriculum design has improved student achievement. Improving curriculum and instruction would be a hollow gesture without identifying and reviewing the research that suggests the use and application of the principles from John Kotter’s 8-Stage Process for Change outlined in his book Leading Changewas applied to deeply root successful change. Curriculum reform is a response to the growing need for educating future innovators that can continue to keep our world moving forward. Kotter’s first step to creating change begins with a sense of urgency and currently we have a wealth of studies that are conducted that speak loudly to our society that we must focus on curriculum that involves students in problem solving challenges and innovative thinking activities to prepare them for the needs our society today and in the future. The educational system we have today is a product of the industrial age and was organized like an assembly line to produce a standardized product, which was considered the educated. At the time, it fit the needs of businesses. It is time that we begin asking what skills we will need our learners to know in the next twenty years. Engineers work in teams to solve large, complex problems and educational systems lack necessary skill building activities to foster what industries will need for the future success of our global society (Senge, 2014). As our economy moves from a manufacturing-based economy to, an information and service-based economy, the demand for a workforce well educated in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) is growing. Unfortunately, the number of students who choose STEM fields continues to decline (US Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2009; Galloway, 2008; National Research Council Committee on Science, Engineering Education Reform, 2006; Mooney & Laubach, 2002). As such, there is a great need to spark interest among our K-12 youth in STEM, and to develop and facilitate quality engineering experiences for K-12 students (National Science Board, 2003; Frantz, DiMiranda & Siller, 2011) (Table 1).
      PubDate: 2014-09-26
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 10 (2014)
       
  • Analyzing the Labours of Hercules

    • Authors: Alireza Nabilou
      Pages: 876 - 882
      Abstract: In this research, Labours of Hercules has been studied from the viewpoint of Greimas. Features of story have been explained and then narration and narratology has been studied. Greimas is one of the narratologists who modified Propp’s theory about seven scops of fictional actions and mentioned new attitude for studying structure of narration by mentioning six actants (Object/subject; sender/receiver; helper/ Opposer). He also introduced three separate sequences in narration which were known as contractual, the performative and the disjunctive. By studying this story from the viewpoint of Greimas, we find valuable points. In this narration, Hercules is subject and the goals are expiation, atone and immortalize. Senders are Eurystheus and oracle Pythoness. Hercules is helped by Thespius, Athena, Iolaus, Artemis, Atlas, Zeus, Hermes etc. Hera, Nessus, creatures and agents in Labours decide to fight against Hercules and defeat him. Sender and receiver are common in labours of Hercules; Eurystheus is Sender and Receiver. As we see, Hercules is Receiver and Subject. Of other issues of Greimas which have been studied in this story are three narrative sequences i.e. contractual, the performative and the disjunctive and as shown, these sequences are available in the discussed story. Therefore it is proved based on Greimas’ theory that Labours of Hercules has fixed design and pattern and systematic narrative structure.
      PubDate: 2014-09-27
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 10 (2014)
       
  • The Assessment Process of Pupils’ Learning in Saudi Education
           System: A Literature Review

    • Authors: Yahya Al Alhareth; Ibtisam Al Dighrir
      Pages: 883 - 891
      Abstract: Assessments are essential components of teaching and learning programmes and help shape individual learning. Assessment at secondary and higher education levels in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) uses an examination system and it relies solely on the teacher to assess students. The assessment does not assess the ability of students to design and carry out experiments or even evaluate their understanding of mathematical and scientific concepts. Thereby, this paper will review the literature of the assessment process in the Saudi General Education System by considering several different aspects. This consideration will include the definitions and purpose of assessment as a means of learning about students and the progression of their learning. The different forms of assessment will also be considered as well the assessment practices in mathematics, and in particular in intermediate schools in Saudi Arabia as it can provide insights into the quality of assessment practices.
      PubDate: 2014-10-08
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 10 (2014)
       
  • Evaluating the University's Governing Board: A Comprehensive Review of Its
           Domains and Indicators

    • Authors: Haniye Sadat Sajadi; Mohammadreza Maleki, Hamid Ravaghi, Steve o. Michael, Mohammad Hadi
      Pages: 892 - 897
      Abstract: Background: Existing evidence with regard to the indicators of board performance evaluation of the University demonstrated that a comprehensive review of literature is required. The aim of this article is to add to the literature on performance evaluation of the universities’ governing boards by providing a summary of literature-based perspectives. Methodology: Systematic literature searches were undertaken, and relevant studies identified using specific inclusion and exclusion criteria. The selected studies were appraised, and their findings synthesized.Principal Findings: Fourteen relevant studies were identified, mostly from the USA. Fifty six indicators, categorized in seven domains, were identified to evaluate board performance in different universities. Conclusion: Our results showed a gap in the literature with respect to the performance evaluation of universities’ governing boards. Given the unique context of these universities, it is suggested that more research need to be done in order to understand the indicators of the board performance evaluation in these institutions.
      PubDate: 2014-10-08
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 10 (2014)
       
  • Leadership and Competence Development in Higher Education: Reconstituting
           the Human – Machine Interfaces in the Space of Digital Systems

    • Authors: Milan Jaros
      Pages: 898 - 905
      Abstract: It is an outstanding intellectual and leadership challenge in higher education to develop effective ‘competence’ delivery and evaluation practices complementary to and building upon the traditional programs. The key obstacle is the growing generic gap between systems of thought and organization governing the established curriculum and those required for decision making conditioned by the radical changes in the divisions of labor. It is argued that this decision making takes place in an open problem space in which success depends on being able to recognize and make use of the pathways imposed upon us by digitalization of knowledge systems and work practices. These are the highways along which the current thoughts and material exchanges travel and collide, and which condition the much needed synergy of inputs spanning disparate knowledge and power systems. Two aspects of this structural problem are of particular interest here. Firstly, the boundary separating human and machinic contributions have become blurred beyond repair. Secondly, the failure to recognise fully the impact of new work practices amounts to de facto abdication by humans from taming runaway complexification. This rapidly reduces the space in which to make efforts required to ensure that the human condition - and the standing of higher education as a guardian of the consititutive role of human –human engagenment in particular - remain open for debate and perpetual re-positioning in rapidly changing circumstances. The aim here is to establish pedagogy for a fresh re-appraisal of this constitutive process in the liminal space of human and machinic contributions, and one capable of engendering the human-centered character of University without depriving staff and students of benefits brought by the maturing post-mechanical culture.
      PubDate: 2014-10-08
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 10 (2014)
       
  • The Issue of Residential Mobility in the Congo; Case of the City of
           Brazzaville

    • Authors: Nzoussi Hilaire Kevin; Li Jiang Feng, Koua Stephen Faller, Mabiala Koyo Grace, Mouele Mboungou Patrick Joe Stivell, Naoueyama Corine Elsa
      Pages: 906 - 910
      Abstract: Urbanization is the developing process of cities. For over a decade, African cities in general have had a very high population growth. We have observed the same trend within the same time period in Brazzaville, the political capital. This is probably due to the Political and Economic stability particularly marked by urbanization and the boom of the oil industry. This significant population growth, especially not controlled results in jeopardizing all the urbanization planning and cause a lot problems. Cities have certainly some advantages because they are opened to the world, however, it is a big challenge for everyone to live and comply with cities ‘constraints and requirements. Feeding, clothing and getting a decent accommodation are undoubtedly big issues the economically weak have to challenge. This article aims to study first the causes and consequences of residential mobility’s in Brazzaville, then offers some possible solutions in order to reduce this problem. These are the main objectives assigned to this work.
      PubDate: 2014-10-08
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 10 (2014)
       
  • ‘Teaching the Way I Was Taught’: We Can and Should Do Better

    • Authors: Lorraine Bennett
      Pages: 911 - 918
      Abstract: Consideration of the quality of higher education is a complex and multifaceted issue. A number of stakeholders contribute to this debate and have very diverse perspectives and distinctive opinions on what constitutes quality of, and quality in, higher education and how it should be described, fostered, measured and reported. Discussion at the meta-level tends to focus on aspects such as: national quality frameworks and standards; rankings; benchmarking; and, graduate employment outcomes. Over the past decade, in Australia and in other countries with similar higher education ideologies and structures, there have been concerted efforts to identify and map characteristics of teaching effectiveness and attributes of an effective teacher to better understand how these factors contribute to quality of higher education. Some research studies and educational commentators nominate the capacity and effectiveness of the teacher as critical components in providing a quality education experience. The irony is that in Australian universities, and similarly in higher education in many other countries, a tertiary teaching qualification is not required for employment as a teacher/lecturer in universities. Consequently, for many of our universities the practice of ‘teaching the way I was taught’ has become the default approach to engaging with increasingly diverse and mobile higher education student populations. This paper describes how a personalised Graduate Certificate in Education (Tertiary Teaching), for newly appointed and early career tertiary teachers, taken post-employment, is addressing this issue to some extent. However, in the final analysis the questions that need to be asked are: ‘What is the impact on the quality of higher education of not requiring our teaching staff to have a tertiary teacher education qualification as a pre-requisite for employment?’ and ‘Are we doing a disservice to our students by not requiring university teachers to have appropriate tertiary teacher education preparation?
      PubDate: 2014-10-12
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 10 (2014)
       
  • Lesson Study in Improving the Role of E-Portfolio on the Metacognitive
           Skill and Concept Comprehension: A Study on Cell Biology Subject in IKIP
           PGRI Madiun, Indonesia

    • Authors: Marheny Lukitasari; Herawati Susilo, Ibrohim, A. Duran Corebima
      Pages: 919 - 924
      Abstract: The purpose of the study was to examine the potency of the implementation of e-portfolio supported by the implementation of Lesson Study to improve the metacognitive skill and concept comprehension of Cell Biology. The activities of the lesson study aimed for developing and enhancing e-portfolio implementation habit carried out done seventh times with the same Cell Biology material. The study was followed by quasi experimental study conducted on two classes, consisting of 26 and 27 students. One class underwent seven meetings of portfolio and another class underwent seven meetings of e-portfolio. The data of the study related to the concept comprehension were obtained by valid and reliable pretest and posttest. The data related to the metacognitive skill were obtained too by the pretest and posttest supported by a special rubric. The data of the lesson study were analyzed qualitatively. The data of the quasi experimental study were analyzed by ANACOVA test, to uncover the difference between the two treatments. The results of the study showed that there were significant effects of the implemented treatment on the metacognitive skill and the cell biology concept comprehension of the students. The average score of the metacognitive skill of e-portfolio class supported by lesson study was 39,4% higher than that of the portfolio class. The average score of the concept comprehension of e-portfolio class supported by lesson study was 15% higher than that of the portfolio class without lesson study. The implementation of lesson study was significantly effective in improving the metacognitive skill and the concept comprehension of e-portfolio class compared to that of portfolio class, regardless the previous research reported that the implementation of e-portfolio had unsignificant effect.
      PubDate: 2014-10-19
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 10 (2014)
       
  • Complex System Theory and College English Teaching Developments

    • Authors: Liang Aimin; Cong Rizen
      Pages: 925 - 931
      Abstract: Complex systems are composed of elements or agents that are of many different types and that interact in different ways. Complex System Theory, originating in the fields of physics and mathematics, and also popularly known as Chaos Theory or Dynamic System Theory, attempts to describe the interactions of different elements and agents with the features of heterogeneity, dynamics, openness, adaptation, non-linearity, and sensitive dependence on initial conditions etc and supplies new perspectives to the researches of Applied Linguistics. This article tries to reveal the prospect of the application of Complex System Theory in College English Teaching of China with the purpose to explore effective approaches to its developments of the following elements: such as, needs analysis, teaching objectives, teaching materials, testing, teaching models and evaluations.
      PubDate: 2014-10-20
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 10 (2014)
       
  • Home, School and Gender Differences in Early Reading Fluency among
           Standard Three Pupils in Primary Schools in Kiuu Sublocation, Kiambu
           County, Kenya

    • Authors: Tabitha Wang’eri; Doyne Mugambi
      Pages: 932 - 941
      Abstract: The intention of the study was to establish the relationship between home and school factors and reading fluency in Kiswahili and English languages among standard three pupils in Kiuu sub location, Kiambu County, Kenya. To achieve this, the study investigated family factors such as family size, number of children attending school, languages spoken at home, parental support such as helping with homework and the frequency of reading story books for children. The study also sought to establish school factors that support reading fluency such as languages of instruction teachers used as well as the number of Kiswahili and English text books children possessed. Bronfennbrener (1979) ecological systems theory was used to ground the study. The study sample consisted of four purposefully selected primary schools two of which were public and the other two privately owned. Data regarding the school and home factors were collected through a paper based questionnaire while the data relating to pupils’ Kiswahili and English reading fluency was collected through one-minute reading passages one in Kiswahili and the other in English. The results revealed that majority of the children lived with both parents and had between 1 and 3 siblings in school and the languages spoken at home, school and among the peers were mother tongue, Kiswahili and English. For majority of the children homework was overseen by the mother while many of them could not recall the last time a parent read to them a story book. With regard to accessing books for reading, the findings revealed that children in private schools had more access to English and Kiswahili books than their counterparts in public schools. With regard to reading fluency, the study established that the maximum number of English words read per minute were 171 while the least were 0 with a mode of 69. The maximum number of Kiswahili words read was 118 with a minimum of 0 and a mode of 61. Children in Private schools displayed better fluent reading than their counterparts in public schools and girls were more fluent readers than boys. The study recommended that the literary environments be improved both at home and in the schools and that the language policy be further interrogated given that the language children are exposed to at home is different from the language of instruction at school and also different from the language used among peers. Another recommendation of this study was that curriculum developers engage in material development both in Kiswahili and the various local languages in tandem with policy requirements. The study further recommended that methods of improving reading acquisition and fluency be sought.
      PubDate: 2014-10-21
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 10 (2014)
       
  • What is outside? The Early Years Foundation Stage in England: Outdoor
           Facilities, Organisation and Staff Attitudes

    • Authors: Helen Bilton
      Pages: 942 - 949
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to report on the facilities available, organisation of, and staff attitudes to early years outdoor education from schools within the south east of England, focusing on provision for children aged three to five. One component of the successful education of the child involves providing an ‘environment for learning’, including the facilities, layout and routines. This paper presents findings concerning the type and variety of facilities available outside; the various styles of organisation of the space; staff attitudes about: their roles, their aims for the environment, children’s behaviour and learning, and perceived drawbacks to practice. This paper draws on empirical data collected from schools within the University of Reading partnership. The findings suggest that although all early years settings must adhere to the statutory framework there are a range of facilities available, and there are a number of ways this environment is organised. Further there appears to be uncertainty about the adult role outside and the aims for activities. The conclusions drawn indicate that staff do not appear to be linking their aims for outdoor education to the facilities provided or to their actions outside. This means there is not a clear link between what staff provide outside and the declared ambitions for learning. This study is important as all educators need to be certain about their aims for education to ensure best outcomes for children. The implications of these findings for early years teachers are that they need to be able to articulate their aims for outdoor education and to provide the correct facilities to achieve these aims. Finally this study was undertaken to raise debate, posit questions and to ascertain the parameters for further research about the early years outdoor environment.
      PubDate: 2014-10-22
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 10 (2014)
       
  • Corrective Feedback: A Bridge between Cognitive Interactionist and Social
           Interactionist Perspectives

    • Authors: Naif Althobaiti
      Pages: 950 - 954
      Abstract: This presentation tries to explain oral corrective feedback (CF) as provided through conversational interaction. In this presentation, CF, as provided through the interaction, is viewed from two perspectives: the cognitive interactionist and the social interactionist. Although, both of these two perspectives value interaction, they explicate the provision of CF through interaction differently. The cognitive interactionists explain the provision of CF through, but not limited to, Interaction Hypothesis, Noticing Hypothesis, and Output Hypothesis. The social interactionists emphasize the roles of teachers and learners within the process of corrective feedback. They also emphasize the context in which they work and the specific pedagogic activity in which they are involved (Ellis, 2008; 2010). This presentation is hoped to contribute a better understanding of EFL learning facilitated through the provision of CF. In addition, it provides some recommendations for future researchers, language educators, and EFL teachers.
      PubDate: 2014-10-23
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 10 (2014)
       
  • Rhetorical Texts of the 4th Century A.D. about Wealth and Its Loss

    • Authors: N. Tsitsanoudis-Mallidis; Ch. Stergioulis
      Pages: 955 - 962
      Abstract: With this announcement we will try to present to the most possible extent, how wealth and its loss is dealt with by Basil of Caesarea and John Chrysostom, but also the way in which man is forced to deal with problems arising from both acquisition and possession and also loss-always according to the eternal word of the Gospel and of the orthodox viewpoint. Both texts belong to the homilitikon genre. The oration of Basil of Caesarea «Πρ ὸ ς το ὺ ς πλουτο ῦ ντας» belongs to the Homilitikon category of his work and the content is practical and moral. It begins with a very short prologue (exordium). From the first lines of oration he makes sure he illustrates a portrait of the rich young man. The largest part of his speech is covered by the “πίστις” (probatio). Basil begins the main part of his oration justifying the formulation of his view in the preamble of the rich young man. Getting to the main point of the Cappadocian bishop, he brings forward the following reasonable question to the rich young man and indirectly to his audience: "If you have guarded from your youth the command of love and attributed to the poor as much as you have offered to yourself, then how have you accumulated this very large fortune?" In the following section of his oration he makes sure to go to a new question: "But how are you going to exploit wealth?" Man should manage his wealth in the way that the Lord commands. Then wealth remains to the ownership of the person who possesses it, though when man tries to save it, its lost. Basil even castigates the habit of the avaricious wealthy to bury and save their precious possessions in vaults, bringing up the excuse that the future is uncertain. In the next section of his oration Basil the Great goes over to the question: «And how will we live without precious possessions?" The confrontation of wealth is a trial of whether we want a true life or a temporary enjoyment. Special emphasis is given to how to deal with the situation, when the woman is involved. If the woman too loves wealth, the disease is even greater, this would motivate a man to a number of pleasures. The ecclesiastical man also castigates with harshness the greediness of the rich. The desire to acquire more and more possessions creates a dependency relation of them. And indeed man feels poverty, since he constantly has the need of acquiring more. The following section of the “Πρ ὸ ς πλουτο ῦ ντας” oration refers to punishment suffered by the rich who live in contrary to God's will by the fair Judge. An issue that also employs Basil of Caesarea is the "nature of wealth". Wealth should not be a gallows for souls nor a hook of death. Basil the Great even catches up before any objections are made, that the acquisition of wealth is necessary for the future of children. Finally, before passing in to the epilogue of his oration refutes to the arguments of those who are childless and plead the excuse that they do not offer part of their wealth to the poor, "because of their needs." The epilogue small in length is designed to motivate the listener to abandon the futile attempt to acquire wealth and help him to prepare as best as possible for the kingdom of Heaven. In the same direction with the archbishop of Caesarea concerning the proper management of wealth John Chrysostom also moves in his oration “Περ ὶ πλούτου κα ὶ πενίας” as in “Περί πλουτο ῦ ντας” of Basil of Caesarea the preamble (exordium) is short. In the occasion of the comparison of the rich man and Lazarus Chrysostom criticizes those who resent God, because they themselves are not wealthy and do not imitate the poor Lazarus. Chrysostom passes over to the main part of his oration through a rhetorical question: "Why do you think being wealthy is so important?" And the reasons why man hunts wealth are: pleasure, flattery, fear and vengeance. So wealth according to Chrysostom is an ungrateful slave sadistic and ‘androfonos’, who is ready to be paid to lead his master to slaughter. After referring to the example of Eutropius, Chrysostom will pass to a new section of his oration: wealth betrays those who do not use it correctly. He also finds it appropriate to deal with the issue of equality between human beings: rich and poor are equal and do not differ in anything. Thus believers must cease to envy the rich and become imitators of the Apostles, the Prophets and of Christ Himself. He fails to understand the behavior of people who prefer the small instead of the large, once they fall in the trap of the devil. Therefore, wealth, according to Chrysostom is not a “great possession” great possession is the acquisition of fear of God. The last section begins with a question: "Isn’t it a nonsense not to know what is beneficial for you?" There is no, more brainless man from the slave of money. God gave wealth, not to lead man to destruction, but to use them in pleasing to God works and in this way to be saved. Finally, in the epilogue, Chrysostom advises believers to face with Christian manner possible loss of their property and to bear in mind the example of “fair Jov”. Both great Fathers as the only way to deal with avarice and as for the only means of getting out of it, propose the adoption of an ascetic morality in the accordance of a Christian model: self-control and self-sufficiency in daily l...
      PubDate: 2014-10-27
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 10 (2014)
       
 
 
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