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Publisher: Science and Education Publishing   (Total: 72 journals)

American J. of Applied Mathematics and Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American J. of Applied Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
American J. of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American J. of Cancer Prevention     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American J. of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
American J. of Clinical Medicine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
American J. of Educational Research     Open Access   (Followers: 43)
American J. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
American J. of Energy Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American J. of Environmental Protection     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
American J. of Epidemiology and Infectious Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American J. of Food and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American J. of Food Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
American J. of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American J. of Information Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Materials Engineering and Technology     Open Access  
American J. of Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American J. of Mathematical Analysis     Open Access  
American J. of Mechanical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American J. of Medical Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American J. of Medical Sciences and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American J. of Medicine Studies     Open Access  
American J. of Microbiological Research     Open Access  
American J. of Modeling and Optimization     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American J. of Nanomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American J. of Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American J. of Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American J. of Public Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
American J. of Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American J. of Sensor Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American J. of Sports Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
American J. of Water Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American J. of Zoological Research     Open Access  
Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Automatic Control and Information Sciences     Open Access  
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chemical Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Celiac Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Dental Sciences and Research     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Econometrics and Financial Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Physics     Open Access  
Intl. Transaction of Electrical and Computer Engineers System     Open Access  
J. of Automation and Control     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Biomedical Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Business and Management Sciences     Open Access  
J. of Cancer Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Computer Networks     Open Access  
J. of Computer Sciences and Applications     Open Access  
J. of Environment Pollution and Human Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Finance and Accounting     Open Access  
J. of Finance and Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
J. of Food and Nutrition Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 11)
J. of Food Security     Open Access  
J. of Geosciences and Geomatics     Open Access  
J. of Materials Physics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Mathematical Sciences and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Optoelectronics Engineering     Open Access  
J. of Polymer and Biopolymer Physics Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Materials Science and Metallurgy Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Physics and Materials Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Research in Plant Sciences     Open Access  
Research in Psychology and Behavioral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sustainable Energy     Open Access  
Turkish J. of Analysis and Number Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Wireless and Mobile Technologies     Open Access  
World J. of Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
World J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access  
World J. of Chemical Education     Open Access  
World J. of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
World J. of Organic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal Cover   American Journal of Educational Research
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2327-6126 - ISSN (Online) 2327-6150
   Published by Science and Education Publishing Homepage  [72 journals]
  • Mathematical Problem Solving and Use of Intuition and Visualization by
           Engineering Students

    • Authors: Chih-Hsien Huang
      Pages: 1284 - 1288
      Abstract: Deciding on the truth value of mathematical statements is an essential aspect of mathematical practice in which students are rarely engaged. This study explored first year engineering students’ approaches to mathematical statements with unknown truth values, taking a perspective that the construction examples is an activity of problem solving. Task-based interviews utilizing the think-aloud method revealed students problem solving processes in depth. The primary data sources were the protocols of 15 students to the questionnaire, three false statements involved basic concepts about derivative and definite integral. Through analysis of the data. The findings suggest that the factors the participants failed to solves problems include: mathematical intuition and prototype example hindered the constructing of counterexamples, there are two dangers in visualizing -figures can induce false conclusions and figures can mislead our reasoning.
      PubDate: 2015-11-13
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 12 (2015)
  • Some Aspects of Professional Empowerment to Improve Job Satisfaction of
           Primary School Teachers

    • Authors: Fotini Kefalidou; Nikolaos Vassilakis, Konstantinos Pitsalidis
      Pages: 1289 - 1295
      Abstract: Teachers’ job satisfaction and their professional empowerment are two main factors which contribute to education improvement. Purpose of the present study is to investigate and record teachers’ perceptions of their professional empowerment and their beliefs about their job satisfaction. Also the impact of teachers’ demographic and professional characteristics on their perceptions of job satisfaction and the possible correlations between job satisfaction and professional empowerment are examined. The research method is the descriptive and correlative survey, with the use of a self-report questionnaire. Teachers’ perceptions of their professional empowerment are measured by the School Participant Empowerment Scale (SPES), while their job satisfaction by the Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS). The results indicate that teachers who do not have a permanent position in a school and they are obliged to change school environment every year, or they have to work in more than one school each year, they feel less empowered and satisfied. Findings of this study also show that while there is no differentiation as far as it concerns the sex, the marital status, the age, the studies or the previous experience, there are differentiations according to labor relations and the number of schools a teacher works in a year. Regarding job satisfaction, the majority of respondents are of the view that there is an average overall job satisfaction. In addition the research shows that there is a positive correlation between job satisfaction and empowerment. This paper provides useful data about the issue of teachers’ job satisfaction as well as their empowerment and the factors that influence their feelings about their overall job satisfaction and empowerment. The improvement of labor relations and the decrease in the number of schools teachers work in a year, would essentially contribute to their job satisfaction and empowerment.
      PubDate: 2015-11-13
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 12 (2015)
  • Civil Discourse of Religious Knowledge (For Modern Model of Religious

    • Authors: Rumyana Ilcheva Neminska
      Pages: 1296 - 1303
      Abstract: The peaceful coexistence of different ethnic groups in Bulgaria is historically justified and is a natural course in public relations. In democratic years Bulgarian education delegate educational rights of every child, regardless of faith and confession. Subjects civic education and religion have their formative role in the development of civic education and religious tolerance. The article examines legal and methodological prerequisites for the development of subjects - civic education and religion as indicators of democracy in Bulgarian schools. Bulgarian democratic changes in school are associated with certain historical events - after the liberation from Ottoman rule in 1878; after the collapse of the communist regime in 1998. In this sense, considered trends in purpose, content and methodology subjects in citizenship and religion. Leading fact in the analysis is that the two school subjects are parallel, concurrent and complementary educational content. They develop or be eliminated in certain democratic or egalitarian departments of the state. Make a comment about the educational and nurturing role of religion and civic education for young people. Provide curriculum for primary education for the development of inter-religious tolerance. It is scientifically proven doctoral thesis "Education for interfaith tolerance (1 - 4 class)."
      PubDate: 2015-11-13
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 12 (2015)
  • Teacher's Perceptions of Principals’ Instructional Leadership in
           Omani Schools

    • Authors: Yasser F. Alhendawi Al-Mahdy; Amal R. Al-kiyumi
      Pages: 1304 - 1310
      Abstract: The main purpose of this study was to examine teachers’ perceptions of their school principals’ instructional leadership (IL), and the impact gender might has on those perceptions. The Instructional Management Rating Scale (PIMRS) Thai-form of Hallinger and Lee [15] was used to collect data from 368 teachers for measuring principals’ practices of instructional leadership in Omani schools. The main results suggested a moderate level of school principals’ engagement in the three dimensions of instructional leadership. The lowest rated dimension was managing the Instructional Program whereas the highest rated dimension was Creating School Mission. There were significant differences in the first dimension of IL (i.e. creating a school mission) based on gender in favor of female teachers. This study contributes to the body of research on instructional leadership from the Omani cultural context.
      PubDate: 2015-11-14
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 12 (2015)
  • Information Age to Interaction Age in Legal Education: How Far Have We

    • Authors: Suriyakumari Lane
      Pages: 1311 - 1318
      Abstract: This paper analyses undergraduate legal education in the United Kingdom (with some reference to other countries) in the last 50 years in relation to teaching methods. In the 1960s the emphasis was on the lecturer imparting legal information by means of face-to-face lectures. This was an Information Age with legal education being teacher-centred. The lecturer was the expert whose role was to ensure that students were taught the necessary legal content. The beginnings of the Interaction Age came with the setting up of tutorials/seminars. However, they were mainly teacher-centred, where the tutor gave a mini lecture. The interaction was mainly between the tutor and students. A development of the Interaction Age came with the recognition that in tutorials/seminars the teacher should be a facilitator of learning between students, interacting with each other. The early forms of computer-assisted learning consisted of imparting information to students. Initially, the internet was used mainly to develop websites and place lecture notes and powerpoint slides. Some websites contained interactive self-assessment tutorials, the interaction being only between the learner and the content, placed by the lecturer. The Interaction Age using technology only began when interactive devices such as online discussion forums, chat rooms, video conferencing were utilised to enable interaction between students and between students and lecturers, as co-participants in the learn in process. The literature review indicates that there is little effective use of interactive technological devices to assist learning in higher education institutions providing face-to-face teaching. The Interaction Age has made little progress, with pockets of innovation in a few institutions. The chief obstacles to progress are lecturers still in the Information Age and passive students who wish to be taught rather than to actively learn. In most face-to-face institutions (including those adopting blended learning) lecturers impart information. Students only engage in interaction to co-construct knowledge where the interaction is part of the assessment. The research methodology is to conduct a literature review on teaching methods from the sixties to the present day to investigate the extent to which the teaching is teacher-centred with little interaction between lecturer and students in traditional lectures. The methodology is theoretical and exploratory. The research perspective is historical. The literature was selected to throw light on the teaching methods in the Information Age and the methods in the Interaction Age.
      PubDate: 2015-11-17
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 12 (2015)
  • Common and Flexible Use of Mathematical Non Routine Problem Solving

    • Authors: Cigdem Arslan; Yeliz Yazgan
      Pages: 1319 - 1323
      Abstract: This study aims to investigate whether high-achieving sixth, seventh and eighth graders can exhibit strategy flexibility while they are solving non-routine problems. In this context, four students from each grade level participated in the study. Four non routine problems were represented to the students one by one in separate papers. Students worked in pairs and all interviews were videotaped. These records, pupils’ scripts, and notes taken by the researchers were used in data analysis. Four criteria (selection and use of the most appropriate strategy, changing strategies when it does not work for the solution of a problem, using multiple strategies for the solution of a problem and changing strategies between problems) were established to determine students’ flexibility levels. Each answer given by pairs was evaluated based on these criteria and scored as 0, 1 or 2. Results showed that students usually can select the most appropriate strategy, and use multiple strategies in one problem. Students were comfortable in using “look for a pattern” and “make a drawing” strategies. On the other hand, the most unfavorable strategy for them was “simplify the problem”. Additionally, there were enterprises to use “write an equation” strategy. Besides, it was observed that students did not need to make a significant change in their thinking ways when their first attempts were wrong and they rarely change their strategies between problems. A longitudinal study including more students at different achievement levels and different kind of non-routine problems will give in-depth information about this subject.
      PubDate: 2015-11-18
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 12 (2015)
  • Comparison of Students’ Satisfaction and Achievement at Secondary
           Level in Islamabad

    • Authors: Muhammad Tanveer Afzal; Munazza Afzal
      Pages: 1324 - 1327
      Abstract: This study aims at investigating satisfaction level of students and their achievement in public and private secondary schools of Islamabad. The respondents of this study were 9th grade students and English teachers (980 students and 98 teachers) of public and private secondary schools of Islamabad. Questionnaire was used for information gathering about satisfaction level of students. The academic achievement was gauged by the result of English subject from the first term examination. Independent sample t-test was applied to investigate the effect of satisfaction level on students’ achievement. The results of the study revealed that satisfaction level have a significant effect on students’ overall academic achievement in the subject of English. From students’ perspective, satisfaction level of private school students was lower but their achievement scores were higher than public school students. It is recommended that teachers should focus on teaching activities and instructional strategies that lead to higher level of satisfaction and academic achievement of students.
      PubDate: 2015-11-18
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 12 (2015)
  • Project-based Approach to Teaching Standardized Test Construction: A Model
           for Pre-Service Education Students on How to Standardize a Test

    • Authors: David M. Gordon; James C. Collins, Kelly L. Jewell
      Pages: 1328 - 1335
      Abstract: The article is a descriptive case study of a project-based approach to simulate test construction in a pre-service undergraduate training program for future teachers. The curriculum for pre-service teachers (PSTs) in the training program involved learning how to develop tests, how to practice using standardized assessment instruments, and to how to interpret the results from testing. The PSTs completed an educational project to acquire hands on teaching skills in relation to test construction and standardizing a test of a sample population. This article discusses the use of a project-based instructional approach by having students develop a standardized test, rather than using a traditional lecture-based approach, to teach basic assessment skills. Results revealed that PSTs learned the necessary foundational knowledge required in the curriculum and enjoyed the hands-on approach to learning. Practical implications and areas in need of future research are discussed.
      PubDate: 2015-11-18
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 12 (2015)
  • Characteristic of Three Kinds of Blended Classes Categorized Using
           Awareness and Activities

    • Authors: Isao Miyaji
      Pages: 1336 - 1347
      Abstract: For last 10 years or so, we have been practicing class session through incorporation of “blended learning”. Such class sessions are generally divided into 3 types which are lecture, exercise and experiment. We have been examining utilized media, change in awareness related to ability, useful activities, etc. for such classes. We will be taking up 10 subjects among such classes and will compare the utilized media in the class by comparing the class development. For 30 items that have common awareness, we will conduct significance test and will compare the difference between the subjects. By using the average rating score of pre/post survey of such awareness, its elongation, and the number of activities, we will conduct principle component analysis, and will conduct cluster analysis by using principle component score, and will examine the cause of difference by categorizing the subject. Correlation analysis is conducted using principal component scores to find relation between three kinds of principal component scores. The results of these analysis indicate the following findings. Awareness improves in the order of group “experiment type class”, “exercise type class”, and “lecture type class.” Awareness of "experimental type class" gave indication of greater elongation than that of "exercise type class" and "lecture type class". Awareness of subjects improves mostly in order of Group "experimental type class", "exercise type class", and "lecture type class". As the experience oriented activity time gets longer, the improvement in awareness is increased.
      PubDate: 2015-11-18
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 12 (2015)
  • Metacognitive Strategy Used by American Students in Learning Indonesian

    • Authors: Gatut Susanto
      Pages: 1348 - 1353
      Abstract: This research investigated the metacognitive strategy used by American students in learning Indonesian (Bahasa Indonesia). The research objective was to identify certain learning behaviors such as the use of metacognitive strategy. The subjects were students of the Critical Language Scholarship (CLS) program at the beginning level who were learning Bahasa Indonesia intensively for 8 weeks in the summer period in the BIPA Program at the Faculty the Letters, State University of Malang, Indonesia. Data were collected through (1) direct observation of the learning activities and (2) student interviews. The results showed that CLS students, as a representative sample of American students at the beginning level, demonstrate seven general types of learning behaviors when they learn Bahasa Indonesia. These are (1) anticipating; (2) planning; (3) controlling; (4) monitoring; (5) self-evaluating; (6) self-managing; and (7) self-reflecting.
      PubDate: 2015-11-19
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 12 (2015)
  • Evaluation of the Quality of Root Canal Treatments Performed by Dental
           Undergraduates: Is There a Need to Review Preclinical Endodontic

    • Authors: Smadi L; Hammad M, El-Ma'aita AM
      Pages: 1554 - 1558
      Abstract: Aim: To evaluate the quality of root canal treatment (RCT) performed by undergraduate (UG) dental students at the Jordan University Dental Hospital (JUDH) using radiographic records. Methods: All RCTs performed by UG students in the period between November 2013 and May 2014 were included in this study (213 teeth). ‘Adequate’ filling quality was defined as having adequate length, density and taper with the absence of any procedural error. Statistical analysis of the resulting data was carried out using the Chi-square test (χ2). Results: 61.5% of treated teeth were adequate in length, 50.5% were adequate in density and 56.1% were adequate in taper; only 29.2 % fulfilled these criteria at the same time, the relationship between the technical quality of root filling and tooth type was statistically significant (P< 0.01); the most adequate found in maxillary anterior teeth (47.1%), the least adequate found in maxillary molar teeth (5.9%). Conclusions: The technical quality of root fillings performed by undergraduate dental students using cold lateral compaction was poor. This suggests that the undergraduate endodontic training at the JUDH needs to be improved.
      PubDate: 2015-11-24
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 12 (2015)
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