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Publisher: Science and Education Publishing   (Total: 72 journals)

American J. of Applied Mathematics and Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Applied Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
American J. of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American J. of Cancer Prevention     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
American J. of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
American J. of Clinical Medicine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American J. of Educational Research     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
American J. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
American J. of Energy Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
American J. of Environmental Protection     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American J. of Epidemiology and Infectious Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Food and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American J. of Food Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American J. of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
American J. of Information Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Materials Engineering and Technology     Open Access  
American J. of Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American J. of Mathematical Analysis     Open Access  
American J. of Mechanical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Medical Case Reports     Open Access  
American J. of Medical Sciences and Medicine     Open Access  
American J. of Medicine Studies     Open Access  
American J. of Microbiological Research     Open Access  
American J. of Modeling and Optimization     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American J. of Nanomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American J. of Numerical Analysis     Open Access  
American J. of Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American J. of Public Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
American J. of Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American J. of Sensor Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American J. of Sports Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American J. of Water Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American J. of Zoological Research     Open Access  
Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Automatic Control and Information Sciences     Open Access  
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chemical Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Celiac Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Dental Sciences and Research     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Econometrics and Financial Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Physics     Open Access  
Intl. Transaction of Electrical and Computer Engineers System     Open Access  
J. of Automation and Control     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Biomedical Engineering and Technology     Open Access  
J. of Business and Management Sciences     Open Access  
J. of Cancer Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Computer Networks     Open Access  
J. of Computer Sciences and Applications     Open Access  
J. of Environment Pollution and Human Health     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Finance and Accounting     Open Access  
J. of Finance and Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Food and Nutrition Research     Open Access   (SJR: 0.344, h-index: 11)
J. of Food Security     Open Access  
J. of Geosciences and Geomatics     Open Access  
J. of Materials Physics and Chemistry     Open Access  
J. of Mathematical Sciences and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Optoelectronics Engineering     Open Access  
J. of Polymer and Biopolymer Physics Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Materials Science and Metallurgy Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Physics and Materials Chemistry     Open Access  
Research in Plant Sciences     Open Access  
Research in Psychology and Behavioral Sciences     Open Access  
Sustainable Energy     Open Access  
Turkish J. of Analysis and Number Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Wireless and Mobile Technologies     Open Access  
World J. of Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
World J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access  
World J. of Chemical Education     Open Access  
World J. of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
World J. of Organic Chemistry     Open Access  
Journal Cover   American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture
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   ISSN (Print) 2328-398X - ISSN (Online) 2328-3998
   Published by Science and Education Publishing Homepage  [72 journals]
  • Adfreeze Forces on Lightly Loaded Pile Foundations of Solar PV Farms in
           Cold Regions

    • Authors: Kibriya T; Tahir L.
      Pages: 109 - 117
      Abstract: Renewable energy generation through utility scale ground mounted solar photo-voltaic systems has gained steady popularity with increasing number of such facilities being constructed in various regions worldwide. Solar PV systems are very popular in the province of Ontario in Canada and strong growth in this sector is led by the popular initiatives of the Government of Ontario which offers extremely attractive rates for generation of renewable energy through Ontario Hydro’s popular Feed-In Tariff (FIT) Program. Many other countries offer incentives on such generation of renewable energy while many governments aim at increasing the percentages of renewable energy in their systems tremendously. Most ambitious plan has recently been launched by the state of Hawaii to deploy 100% of renewable energy in their grid by 2045. Solar PV systems are a cheap source of renewable energy as the energy released by the sun is harnessed as electricity by the solar photo-voltaic panels which is fed to the main transmission systems after raising its voltage. The costs of solar photo-voltaic panels meanwhile have also kept downward trends while the manufacture of various types of solar panels has multiplied rapidly. These renewable energy generation facilities are fully sustainable being completely recyclable on completion of their design/ contract period. Typical utility scale ground mounted solar PV facilities usually comprise of solar PV panels mounted on series of racking tables supported on foundations mostly comprising of partially embedded steel pipes. The governing loads for the foundations of these lightly loaded solar PV structures are usually frost loads in areas facing extremely cold winters. In fine grained soils like silty/ clayey soils, large adfreeze stresses develop due to penetrating frost deep into the soil resulting into uplift of foundation piles. Typical winter conditions in Ontario are harsh with extreme frost conditions in most areas which poses unique issues for design and construction of such foundations. Being a relatively newer technology, codes and standards for design and testing of such lightly loaded solar PV structures are still in the formulation stages. Frost heaving and its effects often create adverse conditions for these structures thereby affecting the production and continuous supply of renewable energy. Due to larger depths of frost penetration in extreme winter conditions, understanding the action of frost and related development of adfreeze stresses on these lightly loaded pile foundations is extremely important. Calculating reasonable frost depths and thereby the design loads is an important part of pile design for such facilities while the contractors tend to save on pile lengths to save on costs and compromising the structural design. Many such Solar PV facilities have experienced frost uplift of foundation piles either during the construction phase or during its lifetime. Since frost heave is more of a serviceability related issue, unfactored adfreeze loads without any factor of safety is a usual tendency by the EPC contractors. This paper investigates the frost depths and adfreeze stress related issues with the foundation piles of solar PV facilities hence the governing design forces on these piles and suggests appropriate frost related design stresses for the foundation piles. The authors have been heavily involved in design/ design reviews, pile selection/ design and pile load testing in the majority of the solar PV farms in Canada and US along with rehabilitation of piles affected by frost [1,2,3].
      PubDate: 2015-08-19
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2015)
  • Traditional vs FEA Based Analysis/Design of Baseplates for Tall
           Telecommunication & Transmission Poles

    • Authors: Tahir Kibriya; Leena Tahir
      Pages: 118 - 128
      Abstract: Various shapes of steel poles are commonly used in the telecommunications and transmission industry for carrying telecommunication equipment to transmit signals for communication equipment or wires and power equipment like transformers etc. for power transmission purposes. These poles vary from 50’ to almost 500’ heights with winds being the governing loads in addition to superimposed equipment loads and snow/ice loads and hence require careful design. The poles vary from being round in geometry to 8/12/16/24/28 sided shapes. With large base diameters and appreciable moments and direct loads, typically the pole baseplates are round, hexagonal or square with/without stiffeners and either rest on the supporting anchor rod base nuts or on grout over the base support, all of which require different analysis/ design procedures. From the literature, one can observe that while baseplate analysis and design for large poles structures has not been amply investigated, limited investigations and testing carried out on base plates designed by various methods and most test results have indicated most procedures to be under designing plates. While AISC and ASCE 48 codes provide limited guidance on design of these various types of pole baseplates, ANSI/EIA/TIA 222F & 222G codes merely refer to AISC for design of these different configurations of baseplates. Many proprietary base plate analysis/design worksheets commercially available produce different results. With the availability of advanced structural analysis techniques like FEA, a comparison is made between the baseplates designed by typical methods using commercially available baseplate worksheets and those designed by using the FEA techniques. The analysis results vary appreciably between the traditional methods and the FEA based method. This paper analyses few pole base plates based on FEA and compares them with the baseplates designed by traditional methods and suggests appropriate improvements in the current design/ analysis procedures so as to reduce the appreciable differences between the both procedures.
      PubDate: 2015-08-24
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2015)
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