American Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
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Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2327-6711 - ISSN (Online) 2327-672X
Published by Science and Education Publishing [72 journals]
- Review of Evolving Trends in Clinical Pharmacy Curriculum around the Globe
Authors: Azhar Hussain; Madeeha Malik, Saad Abdullah
Pages: 1 - 7
Abstract: Pharmacy education in developing countries in the past, have mainly focused on industrial and product development roles of pharmacist. But these, major changes have been seen in pharmacy practice and other practice fields for pharmacists. The introduction of clinical pharmacy as a major discipline has necessitated a change in the current curriculum of pharmacy education in developing countries. The aim of this literature review is to summarize the research findings related to different clinical pharmacy curriculum being followed for training students in patient care areas among developed and developing countries including Pakistan. A total of 50 published articles were reviewed regarding current clinical pharmacy curriculum and clinical clerkship models which are followed worldwide. This review concluded that there is a need to upgrade the clinical pharmacy curriculum in the country so the pharmacist can be involved effectively in provision of direct patient care. The stakeholders should take strict actions to design an integrated clinical pharmacy model to be implemented in clinical clerkship for students. Therefore policy makers should accelerate legislative and regulatory changes to expand scope of clinical pharmacy practice in Pakistan.
Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
- The Action of Amoxicillin-Clavulanate on Hepatocytes
Authors: Omar Rashid Sadeq
Pages: 8 - 10
Abstract: The oral antibiotic amoxicillin is third generation penicillin combined to clavulanate, widely employed in medicine and dentistry for treatment of mild-to-moderate bacterial infections. Clavulanate is not indicated alone because it lacks antibacterial activity, so it is added to amoxicillin in order to inactivate beta-lactamse enzyme which is the major cause of penicillin resistance. Beta- lactamase is produced by many microorganisms, it destroys beta lactam ring of beta lactam antibiotics, therefore amoxicillin-clavulante is indicated as an extended antibiotic that covers many gram positive a and a significant number of gram negative microorganisms which produce beta-lactamse. This compound amoxicillin-clavulanate is available in multiple dose variations, typically as 250, 500 to 875 mg amoxicillin with 125 mg of clavulanate potassium, given two to three times daily for 7 to 10 days. The combination is provided in many trade formulation namely moclav and agumentin. Amoxicillin is in general use because it is the most effective and least toxic antibiotic, however it can cause some unwanted effects particularly allergic, GIT and renal effects. The purpose of recent study is to estimate possibility toxic effect of amoxicillin-clavulanate on hepatocytesand its revesibility, about 64 infectious patients of several ages were investigated, 35 of them are men and the 29 are women, for about 3 weeks. Complete blood count (CBC) and serum of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (AP) and gamma glutamyltranspeptidase (gamma-GT) are taken before, and after completion of treatment. The main finding of this research is that amoxicillin-clavulanate has a toxic effect on hepatocytes, represented mainly by reversible cholestatic hepatitis in patients older 50 years, who experience fatigue, GIT upset, prurituts and jaundice. The hepatic injury has occurred in elderly men more than in women.
Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
- In vitro Free Radical Scavenging Activities of the Saponin-rich Fractions
from Vernonia amygdalina Del. (Compositae)
Authors: Chinaka Nwaehujor; Eridiong O. Onyenweaku, John E. Mgbang
Pages: 11 - 17
Abstract: Vernonia amygdalina leaves is consumed fresh or dried after removal of bitter taste by the peoples of the South-Eastern Nigeria, especially the Igbos. It is also widely used in cooking and serves as a vegetable and ethno-medicinal herb against many ailments. Not much is known of its in vitro antioxidant potentials, especially the major saponins and those of its fractions. In this study, the 80 % methanol extract of the leaves was fractionated by analytical TLC-guided column chromatography, preparative TLC and further purified with HPLC using gradient concentrations of solvent mixtures of chloroform, n-butanol, methanol and distilled water yielding VASC, VASB, VASM70, VASM65 and VASM50. Quantitative phytochemical analysis gave their % total saponin content as 55.8, 64.6, 21.4, 78.8 and 33.8 respectively. The 5 saponin-rich fractions (VASC, VASB, VASM70, VASM65 and VASM50) showed no significant signs of toxicity in mice at oral doses of 1500 mg/kg although VASM50 at 1500 mg/kg caused increased urination and watery fecal deposits which disappeared after 18hrs. The saponin-rich fractions of Vernonia amygdalina were evaluated for in vitro free radical scavenging properties using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH.), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay, hydroxyl radical scavenging assay, ABTS radical cation scavenging activity assay, anti-lipid peroxidation assay, B-carotene bleaching assay and superoxide anion using ascorbic acid, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), catechin and gallic acid as reference standards. The results showed that the saponin-rich fractions from Vernonia amygdalina leaves had a potent DPPH radical scavenging and FRAP activities comparable to those of reference standards used. The IC50 values were also comparable to those of standards especially that of VASM65. Vernonia species are known to contain abundant saponins and flavonoids which are polar compounds and readily soluble in methanol. Most saponins and their derivatives of plant origin are known to possess great antioxidant potentials. This may explain the above observed antioxidant activities and thus, the use of the leaves in different traditional curative therapies in Eastern Nigeria, and as vegetable.
Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)