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Publisher: Science and Education Publishing   (Total: 72 journals)

American J. of Applied Mathematics and Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American J. of Applied Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American J. of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Cancer Prevention     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American J. of Civil Engineering and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
American J. of Clinical Medicine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American J. of Educational Research     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
American J. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American J. of Energy Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
American J. of Environmental Protection     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American J. of Epidemiology and Infectious Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American J. of Food and Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American J. of Food Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
American J. of Information Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American J. of Materials Engineering and Technology     Open Access  
American J. of Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American J. of Mathematical Analysis     Open Access  
American J. of Mechanical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American J. of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Medical Case Reports     Open Access  
American J. of Medical Sciences and Medicine     Open Access  
American J. of Medicine Studies     Open Access  
American J. of Microbiological Research     Open Access  
American J. of Modeling and Optimization     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American J. of Nanomaterials     Open Access  
American J. of Numerical Analysis     Open Access  
American J. of Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American J. of Public Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
American J. of Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American J. of Sensor Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American J. of Sports Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American J. of Water Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American J. of Zoological Research     Open Access  
Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Automatic Control and Information Sciences     Open Access  
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chemical Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Celiac Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Dental Sciences and Research     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Econometrics and Financial Management     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Physics     Open Access  
Intl. Transaction of Electrical and Computer Engineers System     Open Access  
J. of Automation and Control     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Biomedical Engineering and Technology     Open Access  
J. of Business and Management Sciences     Open Access  
J. of Cancer Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Computer Networks     Open Access  
J. of Computer Sciences and Applications     Open Access  
J. of Environment Pollution and Human Health     Open Access  
J. of Finance and Accounting     Open Access  
J. of Finance and Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
J. of Food and Nutrition Research     Open Access   (SJR: 0.344, h-index: 11)
J. of Food Security     Open Access  
J. of Geosciences and Geomatics     Open Access  
J. of Materials Physics and Chemistry     Open Access  
J. of Mathematical Sciences and Applications     Open Access  
J. of Optoelectronics Engineering     Open Access  
J. of Polymer and Biopolymer Physics Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Materials Science and Metallurgy Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Physics and Materials Chemistry     Open Access  
Research in Plant Sciences     Open Access  
Research in Psychology and Behavioral Sciences     Open Access  
Sustainable Energy     Open Access  
Turkish J. of Analysis and Number Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Wireless and Mobile Technologies     Open Access  
World J. of Agricultural Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
World J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access  
World J. of Chemical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
World J. of Environmental Engineering     Open Access  
World J. of Organic Chemistry     Open Access  
Journal Cover   American Journal of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology
  [16 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2328-4056 - ISSN (Online) 2328-4064
   Published by Science and Education Publishing Homepage  [72 journals]
  • Titer IgG anti-flagellum Antibody and Flagellin Gene Variants of
           Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi as Risk Factor for Typhoid Fever
           Carriers

    • Authors: Ressy Dwiyanti; Yadi Yasir, Muhammad Sabir, Rosdiana Natzir, Sutji Pratiwi Rahardjo, Nur Indah Purnamasari, Juhri Saning, Mochammad Hatta
      Pages: 65 - 69
      Abstract: Background: Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) is a human-specific pathogen that causes typhoid fever. Typhoid fever remains a global health problem especially in developing countries. Pathogenesis of typhoid fever is complex and host response is poorly understood.There is an urgent need for adequate and efficient detection methods for the establishment of carrierstate of typhoid fever as a source of transmission. We compared IgG anti-flagellar antibody and fagellin gene variants of S. Typhi to explore risks factor of typhoid fever carriers. Method: Serum and fecal swab samples obtained from 379 suspected for typhoid carrier. Typhoid carriers were identified when home visits of patients who have recovered from typhoid fever at least 1 year.In-house indirect sandwich ELISA were established to detect anti-flagellum IgG.DNA Samples obtained directly from fecal swab were confirmed to be serovar Typhi by nested PCR. All specimens were examined for their Hd, Hj, z66 and z66 Ind flagellin genes by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Results: A total of 379 suspected patients, where examined by nested PCR to detect specific flagellin gene for S. typhi, and found 21 (5.28%) samples were positive. Serum samples from all suspected typhoid carrier were examined by ELISA to detect titer of anti-flagellum IgG. Of 21 typhoid carrier patients, there were 2 (9.5%) patients had Hd+ variant; one (4.8%) patient had Hj+ variant; 6 (28.6%) patients had Hd+Z66+ variant; one (4.8%) patient had Hj+ Z66+ variant and 11 (52.3%) patients had Hd+Z66IND+ variant. There were 34 patients positive for anti-flagellum IgG antibody after examine by ELISA. Among PCR positive patients there were 14 patients had high titer and 7 patients had low titer of anti-flagellum IgG antibody. Within PCR negative we found 13 patients with low titer of anti-flagellum IgG. Conclusions: We conclude that patient harboring Hd+Z66IND+ gene of S. Typhi and High titer of IgG antibody anti-flagellum S. Typhi considered to be risk factor for typhoid carriers development.
      PubDate: 2015-03-04
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2015)
       
  • Comparison of Latex Agglutination with Enzyme Immunoassay for Detection of
           Rotavirus in Children with Acute Diarrhea in Diyala Province, Iraq

    • Authors: Abdul-Razak SH. Hasan; Dawood S. Hameed, Asmaa H. Hwaid
      Pages: 70 - 73
      Abstract: Rotavirus (RV) is the most important etiological agent of diarrhea in children under 5 years old, mainly in developing countries. The laboratory diagnosis is usually based on detection of viral antigen using enzyme immunoassay or direct latex agglutination techniques. Objectives: To compare the sensitivity and specificity of enzyme immunoassay versus direct agglutination test for the detection of rotavirus in stool of children less than 5 years of age with acute diarrhea in Diyala province. Patients and methods: The present study was conducted during the period from 1/August/2012 to 30/November/2013. 120 patients with acute diarrhea were included. The patients attended Al-Batool Maternity and children Teaching Hospital and other Primary Health Care Centers in Baquba, the center of Diyala province. Seventy (58.3%) patients were males and 50 (41.7%) were females. The age range was 2 months to 5 years. Information regarding age, sex, residence, type of feeding and source of drinking water were collected. Detection of RV in stool specimens using direct agglutination test (Diaspot-USA) was performed as soon as possible after collection. The enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) was carried out using the commercially available kit (DRG-Germany). Data were statistically analyzed and P value < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The results showed that the detection rate of RV in stool specimens by DAT and ELISA were 70% and 93.3% respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive values of DAT was 75.56%, 66.67%, 97.22%, and 15.39% respectively, and for ELISA was 91.3%, 66.67%, 97.67%, and 33.33% respectively. Spearman's correlation analyses revealed that the age group 10-15 months was significantly affected (P= 0.046). Conclusion: Rotavirus antigen detection by EIA is a rapid, sensitive, and specific method, and could be used in large scale application for screening stool samples of patients with acute diarrhea.
      PubDate: 2015-03-10
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2015)
       
  • Plasmodium Vivax Malaria with Severe Thrombocytopenia and Varied Skin
           Manifestations: A Case Report

    • Authors: Tony Ete; Akash Roy, Prasanta Kumar Bhattacharya, Preeti Jane Picardo, Md Jamil, Ibandalin M Shangpliang, Hage Nobin
      Pages: 74 - 76
      Abstract: Plasmodium vivax malaria is an endemic infection in India and is commonly associated with mild haematological abnormalities. Severe thrombocytopenia as well as purpuric skin manifestation are common in isolated falciparum and mixed falciparum/vivax malaria, but is very rare in isolated P.vivax infection. We hereby report a case of severe thrombocytopenia in a case of vivax malaria along with skin lesions presenting as purpura, ecchymosis and urticaria. Vivax malaria can no longer be considered as benign and atypical presentations with severe complications should be borne in the minds of physicians especially in a malaria endemic country like India.
      PubDate: 2015-03-13
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2015)
       
  • Effects of Anthropogenic Events and Viral Persistence on Rodent Reservoirs
           of Hantavirus Infection: Understanding Host-Pathogen Interactions
           Facilitates Novel Approaches to Intervention Strategies

    • Authors: Abdullah Mahmud-Al-Rafat; Mahbub -E-Sobhani, Andrew W. Taylor-Robinson
      Pages: 77 - 86
      Abstract: Hantaviruses are primarily rodent-borne pathogens which have received considerable attention recently due to their high mortality rates in humans. In order to find the causes of rapid transmission and emergence of hantavirus-associated diseases anthropogenic changes are a priority. These include deforestation, urbanization, noise pollution, light pollution and electromagnetic fields, all of which have been shown to profoundly affect rodent physiology and immunology. Moreover, anthropogenic events promote human-rodent co-habitation and thereby provide a driver to increase rates of transmission and, by extrapolation, levels of infection in humans. Such environmental disruption acts as a chronic stressor to rodents and causes elevated concentrations of glucocorticoids, which are a major class of immunosuppressive hormone. Glucocorticoids are responsible for altering the immune tolerance of rodents, thereby rendering them susceptible to infection. Glucocorticoids induce regulatory T lymphocytes to reduce inflammatory and antiviral responses and to activate regulatory responses, principally through production of the cytokines interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor-β to support viral persistence. In order to develop a low-cost intervention strategy for hantavirus infection consideration should be given to a systemic approach to therapy. This would both aim to achieve a reduction of anthropogenic stressors and to gain a greater understanding of host-pathogen interactions.
      PubDate: 2015-04-12
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2015)
       
 
 
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