American Journal of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
     ISSN (Print) 2328-4056 - ISSN (Online) 2328-4064
     Published by Science and Education Publishing Homepage  [19 journals]
  • Detection of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis among Infertile Patients Suspected
           with Female Genital Tuberculosis

    • Authors: Venkanna Bhanothu; Jane Theophilus, Roya Rozati
      Pages: 22 - 33
      Abstract: Female genital tuberculosis (FGTB) is a symptomless disease that evidences itself only when it is investigated for infertility. Demonstration of the etiologic agent by H & E staining or Z-N staining for acid fast bacilli, smear microscopy, culture of sputum and other body fluids were often less specific. We therefore, proposed to use the endo-ovarian tissue biopsies and pelvic aspirated fluids for the detection of FGTB among infertile women by conventional versus genotypic methods. A prospective case-control study was undertaken. A total of 302 specimens were collected from 202 infertile women highly suspected of having FGTB on laparoscopic examination and from 100 control women of reproductive age. Out of these 302 specimens, 150 (49.67%) were premenstrual endometrial tissue biopsies (ETBs), 95 (31.46%) were ovarian tissue biopsies (OTBs) and 57 (18.87%) were pelvic aspirated fluids (PAFs). All specimens tested by conventional/ phenotypic methods were later compared with multi-gene/ multi-primer PCR (multi-gene PCR) method using four sets of primers for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) DNA in a single tube-single step reaction and correlated with laparoscopic findings. The presence of MTB DNA was observed in 49.5% of ETBs, 33.17% of OTBs and 5.44% of PAF specimens collected from highly suspected FGTB patients. All control women were confirmed as negative for tuberculosis. The conventional methods showed 99% to 100% specificity with a low sensitivity, ranging from 21.78% to 42.08% while H & E staining showed a sensitivity of 51.48%. Multi-gene PCR method was found to have a much higher sensitivity of 70.29% with MTB64 gene, 86.63% with 19kDa antigen gene at species and TRC4 element at regional MTB complex level and 88.12% with 32kDa protein gene at genus level (Pearson χ2 = 214.612, 1df, McNemar’s test value = 0.000). The specificity of multi-gene PCR was 100%. We suggest site specific sampling, irrespective of sample type and amplification of the 19kDa antigen gene in combination with TRC4 element as a successful multi-gene PCR method for the diagnosis of FGTB and differentiation of mycobacterial infection among endo-ovarian tissue biopsies and PAFs taken from infertile women.
      PubDate: 2014-04-07
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2014)
  • Incidence of Urinary Tract Infection among Pregnant Women Attending
           Antenatal Clinic at Federal Medical Centre, Bida, Niger-State, North
           Central Nigeria

    • Authors: Akobi O.A; Inyinbor H.E, Akobi E.C, Emumwen E.G, Ogedengbe S.O, Uzoigwe E.O Amlscn, Abayomi R.O, Emumwen E.F Amlscn, Okorie I.E Bmls
      Pages: 34 - 38
      Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To determine the bacteriological aetiology and incidence of Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) and antibacterial susceptibility patterns among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics at Federal Medical Centre, Bida, Niger-State, using the gold standard of culture. STUDY DESIGN: Data were obtained from the Medical Microbiology Department Registry from Ante-natal women coming for routine ante natal clinic between January 2010 and December 2012. Mid-stream urine samples were collected from a total of 1242 pregnant women between the ages of 15 and 54 years. Samples were collected inside sterile disposable universal bottles from pregnant women suspected to have UTIs at first antenatal booking. Data was coded, computed and analysed using SPSS version 16.0 and p values ≤0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. RESULT: Out of 1242 pregnant women with in the age bracket 15 and 54years in this study, our research showed that the incidence of UTI in this population was 46.1%, statistically significant (p = 0.046, with mean age of 30.92 years and standard deviation of ± 5.46). Escherichia coli were the most prevalence uropathogen (60%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus (28.3%). Escherichia coli was susceptible to Nitrofurantoin and Gentamycin (61.4%) and (51.5%) respectfully. CONCLUSION: The incidence of urinary tract infection of 46.1% uropathogen in this study is of public concern. Therefore, periodic screening should be carried out on pregnant women during antenatal clinics for symptomatic or asymptomatic UTIs.
      PubDate: 2014-04-21
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2014)
  • The Prevalence and Distribution of Human Onchocerciasis in Two Senatorial
           Districts in Ebonyi State, Nigeria

    • Authors: Nworie Okoro; Ukpabi Nkechinyere Nwali, Oli Angus Nnamdi, Okonkwo Chuma Innocent, Okoli Chukwudum Somadina, Ejiofor Obiora Shedrack
      Pages: 39 - 44
      Abstract: Background: There has been a recent increase in the number of human Onchocerciasis cases in hospitals in Ebonyi Central. This study therefore sets out to determine the prevalence of the disease in Ebonyi North and Central Senatorial Zones of Ebonyi State as well as determine the age groups and sex most affected. Methods: This study was carried out in Ebonyi North and Central Senatorial Zones of Ebonyi State between January 2011 and April 2012, among subjects of 20-59 years. Diagnosis was by skin examination for onchocercal lesions, ocular examination for ocular lesion and parasitological examination for the presence of microfilariae of Onchocerca volvulus in skin biopsies and adult filariae in excised nodules. Results: Out of the 250 persons randomly examined in each zone, 82 (32.8%) persons in Ebonyi Central zone comprising of 60 (38.7%) males and 22 (23.1%) females were found positive for Onchocerca volvulus while 73 (29.2%) persons in Ebonyi North Zone comprising 48 (32.0%) males and 25 (25.0%) females. Chi-square test shows that male subjects had significantly higher diseases prevalence (p < 0.05) than their female counterparts in the two zones but combined prevalence among male and female do not differ significantly in the two zones. The age group most affected was 50-59 years with the prevalence of 40.0% in Ebonyi Central and 38.6% in Ebonyi North Zones. Out of the 155 (30.8%) persons infected in the two zones, 28 (5.6%) males and 14 (2.8%) females had Onchocercal skin lesions, 57 (11.4%) males and 22 (4.4%) females had low vision. Partial blindness was observed in 16 (3.2%) males and 8 (1.6%) females. However, 7 (1.4%) males and 3 (0.6%) females had complete blindness. Farmers were mostly affected than any other occupational group. Conclusion: The findings obtained from this work suggested that Ebonyi Central and North Senatorial Zones are Onchocerciasis hypo-endemic Zones having the prevalence rate of 32.8% and 29.2% respectively. Sex, age and occupation are related to Onchocerciasis infections in both Zones. Males are more infected than females. Massive distribution of insecticides to destroy the vector Simulium damnosum (black fly), provision of adequate antiflarial drugs - ivermectin and mass health education targeted on preventive measures are highly recommended.
      PubDate: 2014-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2014)
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