American Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
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Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2328-4005 - ISSN (Online) 2328-403X
Published by Science and Education Publishing [72 journals]
- Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection: Epidemiology, Treatment and Barriers
of Management in Non Type 1 Genotypes infection
Authors: Shagufta Ahsan
Pages: 19 - 24
Abstract: Chronic Hepatitis C (HCV) infection occurs in more than 130 to 150 million individuals world wide. Twenty percent of patients chronically infected with HCV progress to cirrhosis. Other than cirrhosis, Chronic HCV infection is strongly associated with liver cancer and end-stage liver disease requiring transplantation. However, as with the approval of the fisrt generation protease inhibitors telaprevir and boceprevir, we see significant progress in the treatment of chronic hepatitis c infection. however this has benefited many but not all patients with HCV infection as protease inhibitors have never been approved for genotype 2 and 3. No direct acting antiviral agents have ever been approved until recently. Very recently sofosbuvir, a direct acting antiviral agent which is a nucleotide polymerase inhibitor, has been approved for genotypes 2, 3, (and genotypes 1 and 4), where as multiple direct acting agents are approved and used for genotype 1 which includes but is not limited to Simeprevir. Now patients with genotype 3 have emerged among the hardest to treat. The reason behind this treatment failure of genotype 3 infections is that genotype 3 still remains a challenge to the efficacy of even newer regimen Also genotype 3 is associated with a more rapid progression of the disease. In addition, genotype 4 is increasing in Europe. Thus we want to emphasize the ongoing need for new, simpler therapeutics using direct –acting antivirals that target various stages of the HCV lifecycle to eradicate HCV without concomitant INF.
Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2016)
- Prevalence and Common Microbial Isolates of Urinary Tract Infection in
Pregnancy; A Four Year Review in a Tertiary Health Institution in
Abakaliki, South-East Nigeria
Authors: O.B Anozie; Lawani O.L, C.U.O Esike, Mamah E, Ajah L.O.
Pages: 25 - 28
Abstract: Background: Urinary tract infection is one of the most frequently seen medical complications of pregnancy. Despite significant advances in managing urinary tract infection in pregnancy, its occurrence is still associated with adverse feto-maternal complications. Objective: To determine the prevalence and common microbial isolates of urinary tract infections in pregnancy at the Federal Teaching Hospital Abakaliki. Methodology: This was a four year retrospective study of cases of urinary tract infection in pregnancy (from 1st January 2012 to 31st December 2015). A total of 111cases of urinary tract infection we reviewed under the 4 year period. Information were obtained from the medical records of participants and analysed with Epi info Version 7. The process involved descriptive statistics. Results: The prevalence of UTI in this study was 2.0%. The mean age of patients was 26.2±5.6years. Majority of the patients 58.6% (65) fell within the age range of 20-29 years and 30-39 years age group were 31(27.9%). Sixty two women (55.9%) had between 2 and 4 children while primiparas were 33.3% of the population. Second trimester presentation was highest 78(70.3%) and first trimester was 6(5.4%).The commonest symptoms where frequency 27%, dysuria 25.2%, fever 10.8% and supra-pubic pain with 8.1%. The predominant organism was Escherichia coli making up 70.3%(78). Stapylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumonia respectively were 13.5 and 11.7%. Levofloxacin had the highest level of sensitivity with 98(88.3%) isolates being sensitive to levofloxacin. This was closely followed by Ofloxacin 90(81.1%), Ceftriaxone 78(70.3%), Ceftazidime 70(63.1%), Nitrofurantoin 70(63.1) and Gentamycin 60(54.1%) amongst others. Penicillin and Co-Amoxiclav had the least organism sensitivity with 28(25.2%) and 36(32.4%) respectively. Conclusion: Screening of pregnant women during the antenatal period should be considered an essential component of antenatal care in the communities to avoid the undesirable negative impact of undiagnosed and/or untreated urinary tract infections in pregnancy.
Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2016)