American Journal of Public Health Research
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
     ISSN (Print) 2327-669X - ISSN (Online) 2327-6703
     Published by Science and Education Publishing Homepage  [19 journals]
  • Effect of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) on Human
           Immunodeficiency Virus Disease Pathogenesis and Progression

    • Authors: K V Ramana
      Pages: 68 - 74
      Abstract: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the causative agent of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) was discovered way back in 1983. More than three decades since its discovery, HIV infection diagnosis, treatment and management has been a big challenge to the medical field. HIV infection is attributed to cause compromised T-cell and B-cell immunity, promote different malignancies and the infected individuals are at risk of acquiring other viral, bacterial, fungal and parasitic infections. HIV disease progression was found different in infected population, where few HIV infected patients develop AIDS in less than 5 years and are called as early progressors, HIV infected population in whom development of AIDS is slow and may remain normal up to 10 years are termed as late progressors and patients in whom the symptoms of AIDS are not seen even after 10-15 years are labeled as long term non-progressors. The variability in disease progression is not completely understood. After the discovery of HAART, the mortality of the HIV infected population has significantly reduced but the morbidity attributed to HAART has remained as a serious concern. From being a life threatening infection HIV has now become a chronic infection, where patients live their natural life years with the HAART therapy. Among the most significant changes in HIV infection and pathogenesis is the development of non-infectious complications attributed to the HIV infection, HAART therapy, other demographic factors and co-morbidities. Other factors that influence the disease pathogenesis and progression include chronic immune activation, drug resistance and toxic side effects of HAART therapy. Among this Immune activation plays a key role in the pathogenesis and progression of HIV infection.
      PubDate: 2014-04-13
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 3 (2014)
  • Does Socio-demographic Factors Influence Women’s Choice of Place of
           Delivery in Rural Areas of Tamilnadu State in India

    • Authors: Rejoice Puthuchira Ravi; Ravishankar Athimulam Kulasekaran
      Pages: 75 - 80
      Abstract: Every day, approximately 1000 women die from preventable causes related to pregnancy and childbirth. Of which, 99% of all maternal deaths occur in developing countries. The aim of this study was to assess the socio-demographic factors influence women’s choice of place of delivery in rural areas of Thiruvarur district of Tamilnadu state in India. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in 28 villages selected using multistage sampling technique for selecting 605 women in the age group of 15-24 years during July 2010-April 2011. Data analysis was by use of Statistical Package for Social Sciences version-17, with statistical significance set at p-value of 0.05. The study reveals that education, age at marriage, birth order, standard of living index and exposure to mass media appeared strong influencing factors for the choice of place of delivery among women in rural areas. The result shows that 69% of home deliveries were monitored by Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs/Dais). Bivariate analysis indicates that all women who had completed higher secondary education were preferred the health institution for their delivery whereas 18.8% of home deliveries have been taken place among illiterates. The proportion of home deliveries (7.3%) was higher among women in households in the less standard of living index. Home deliveries were higher among women who were less exposed to mass media (7.1%) than more exposed to mass media (1.6%). Birth order was significantly influence on the place of delivery among women. First birth order deliveries were less likely to take place at home (2.5%) than second (8.2%) and third birth order deliveries (9.1%). It concludes that family tradition and poor socioeconomic condition of the family appear to be the main reasons for choosing to deliver at home. It recommends that Government should be taken a comprehensive strategy to increase the availability, accessibility and affordability of delivery care services in rural areas. Public health strategies involving traditional birth attendants will be beneficial particularly rural/remote areas where their services are highly utilized.
      PubDate: 2014-04-15
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 3 (2014)
  • Knowledge and Attitude of a Semi Urban Community in the South-South Region
           of Nigeria towards Diabetes Mellitus

    • Authors: Faith Osaretin Alele; Olayinka Stephen Ilesanmi
      Pages: 81 - 85
      Abstract: Adequate knowledge of Diabetes Mellitus empowers the community about good health seeking behavior, drug compliance and follow up care. Studies on the knowledge and attitude of the community dwellers are therefore important. This study seeks to access the knowledge and attitude towards Diabetes Mellitus. A descriptive cross sectional study of 384 adults was carried out at Okada in Edo State. Questionnaire was used to collect information and analyzed with SPSS version 15. Descriptive statistics were done and presented as bar charts and tables. Attitude was scored using a Likert scale of 10 questions with maximum attainable mark of 50 points. Respondents with mean score and above were classified as having good attitude. Association between categorical variables were explored using chi square, Level of significance was set at 5%. The mean age of respondents was 34±11years, 206 (53.6%) were males and half of the respondents were married. In all, 243(63.5%) of the respondents had a good attitude towards diabetes treatment. Lack of health care facilities and attitude of health care providers were the commoner factor preventing respondents from seeking screening for Diabetes. A larger proportion 82.7% of respondents with tertiary education and 53.2% of those with primary education had good attitude towards Diabetes treatment. P = 0.003. The majority of the respondents have heard about Diabetes but only few of them had a good attitude towards the treatment of the disease. It is therefore important that awareness programs about diabetes should be provided in the community.
      PubDate: 2014-04-15
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 3 (2014)
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