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Publisher: Indian Council of Agricultural Research   (Total: 6 journals)

Fishery Technology     Open Access   (2 followers)
Indian Horticulture     Full-text available via subscription   (9 followers)
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (6 followers)
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (4 followers)
Indian Journal of Fisheries     Open Access   (2 followers)
Indian Phytopathology     Open Access   (2 followers)
Indian Phytopathology    [4 followers]  Follow    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
     ISSN (Print) 0367-973X - ISSN (Online) 2248-9800
     Published by Indian Council of Agricultural Research Homepage  [6 journals]
  • Status of Trichoderma research in India: A review
      Abstract: Species of Trichoderma are diverse fungal microbial community known and explored worldwide for their versatilities as biocontrol and growth promoting agents. They are also widely exploited in industries as sources of enzymes. A large number of research groups are working on various aspects of Trichoderma viz., diversity, ecology and their applications. In India, about 110 groups representing various universities and research institutes are working with about 15 different species and have published about 460 research papers. Trichoderma harzianum and Trichoderma viride are the widely used species and have been exploited on about 87 different crops and about 70 soilborne and 18 foliar pathogens, respectively. This review aims to give an overview of the status of usage of Trichoderma on important agricultural crops by different groups and organizations in the country.
      PubDate: 2014-04-07
      Issue No: Vol. 67 (2014)
  • Virulence frequencies of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae on different sets
           of rice differentials under Punjab agro-ecological zones
      Abstract: Virulence frequencies on a particular differential were calculated as the ratio of virulent isolates of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae to the number of total isolates tested. Numerical data pertaining to disease score (0-9) was analysed by virulence analysis tool. In this study, virulence frequencies to the resistance genes present in the standard international differentials including near isogenic lines (NILs) and local rice cultivars, ranged between 0–1 (representing zero to 100 per cent). None of the single gene was found to be effective against all the X. oryzae pv. oryzae isolates. Out of total 105 tested isolates, 73.2 percent were infective on Xa4 gene, 72.3 percent on xa5 gene and only 9 percent on xa13 gene. The combination of xa5 and xa13 (IRBB-53) was the most effective, on which none of the X. oryzae pv. oryzae isolates were found virulent. The data was also correlated with distribution of X. oryzae pv. oryzae virulences in different agro-ecological zones of Punjab. Among the local cultivars, the highest virulence frequency percentage was observed on cultivar PAU 201 (77.8%) in South and south-western districts of Patiala and Sangrur, while none was observed in western plain and northern regions of Punjab. This study shows the in effectiveness of single resistance genes, implying that only two or more gene combinations can manage bacterial blight disease effectively in Punjab.
      PubDate: 2014-04-07
      Issue No: Vol. 67 (2014)
  • Epidemiological analysis of the damage potential of Pgt-Ug99 in Central
           East, North East Africa; Iran and Punjab (India)
    • Authors: S. NAGARAJAN*; K.H. KOGEL J.C. ZADOKS
      Abstract: In the Rift valley Epidemiological Zone that falls in the predicted Puccinia graminis tritici-Ug99 spread route from Uganda to India, is the presence of bi-modular annual rainy season, absence of a hot dry summer and the practice of two wheat growing seasons (the green bridge). This ensures the survival of Pgt in situ and the endogenous primary inoculum initiates the recurrence of the disease. While in the Indian Punjab Epidemiological Zone the exogenous primary inoculum of Pgt from the Himalaya to the plains of Indian Punjab gets subdued and at best builds-up traces of disease severity before the harvest of wheat. The Iranian Epidemiological Zone is similar to Indian Punjab, except that there is no monsoon and the exogenous inoculum of Pgt initiates stem rust development year and again. It is felt that Pgt-Ug99 lacks pre-eminence to threaten wheat production in the Indian Punjab.
      PubDate: 2014-04-07
      Issue No: Vol. 67 (2014)
  • Competitive ability and fitness potential among the pathotypes of Puccinia
           triticina on wheat in India
      Abstract: To study the competitive ability, three sets of pathotypic combinations of Puccinia triticina on wheat were inoculated on Lr13, Lr17, Lr24 and Agra local. Pathotype 77-5 (121R63-1) showed better competitive ability in comparison to other pathotypes 77(45R31), 77-2(109R31-1), 104-2(21R55) and 106(0R8) in most of the cases. Likewise in fitness studies pathotype 77-5 exhibited low incubation and latent period, high number of uredial pustules and more urediniospore production/cm2 than the other pathotypes indicating its high fitness potential. These studies elucidate the high competitive ability and fitness potential in pathotype 77-5, which explains its predominance for the last 15 years in the natural population of Puccinia triticina.
      PubDate: 2014-04-07
      Issue No: Vol. 67 (2014)
  • Management of viral and leaf spot disease complexes in organic farming of
      Abstract: Organic farming is gaining global importance with increasing awareness of the consumers towards quality products free from chemical residues, pesticide and the environmental protection. Black gram (Vigna mungo L.) is one of the important pulse crops grown throughout the country. Sustainable black gram production is continuously challenged from several diseases of which viral and leaf spot disease complexes are of economic importance. Field experiments were conducted during kharif 2010, 2011 and 2012 to develop a suitable organic module to manage these diseases and improve productivity of blackgram. The module consisting of soil application of neem cake @ 2 q ha-1 + one foliar spray of BD-501 (1g/13 L) at 20 DAS + one foliar spray of neem oil @ 2% at 25 days + two sprays of BD 501 or neem oil significantly reduced the incidence of viral and leaf spot disease complexes and increased the yield attributes and yield of blackgram. Viral incidence in various treatments ranged between 3.12 and 3.32% compared to 6.12% in untreated control. Two sprays of BD-501 (1g 13L-1) proved highly effective for the management of leaf spot complex. The lowest leaf spots (PDI 28.25) and maximum seed yield (9.26 q ha-1) was recorded with the application BD-501 followed by Neem oil (PDI 29.58 and seed yield 8.39 q ha-1) as compared to control (PDI 63.42 and seed yield 7.24 qha-1). The IDM module resulted in 1.5 times higher B: C ratio over the untreated control.
      PubDate: 2014-04-07
      Issue No: Vol. 67 (2014)
  • Virulence distribution and frequency of Puccinia striiformis f. sp.
           hordei, causing stripe rust of barley in northern parts of India
      Abstract: Three hundred seven yellow rust samples/isolates, primarily from North Indian states during 2004-05 to 2010-11, were collected during field survey in the main crop season of barley. They were subjected to pathotype identification based on three sets of differentials. Five pathotypes were identified from 307 isolates. New virulence was not identified in any of the sample. Pathotype 1S0 (M) was the most frequent and identified in 199 isolates (64.82%). Pathotype 0S0-1 (24) consisted of 54 isolates. Gene Yr1 virulent pathotype 1S0 which was first identified from Shimla in 1987 was widely distributed across the North Indian states. All the identified pathotypes were avirulent on Yr2, Yr3, Yr4, Yr5, Yr7, Yr8, Yr9+ and Yr10 genes. Weighted average frequency and frequencies dynamics was higher for the pathotype 1S0. Frequencies of pathotypes 1S0 and 0S0-1 varied from 55.22% to 85.29% and 0% to 38.81%, respectively. Shannon’s relative index (HSR) indicated low diversity in Puccinia striiformis f. sp. hordei (Psh) population in northern parts of India.
      PubDate: 2014-04-07
      Issue No: Vol. 67 (2014)
  • Evaluation of major cereal crops for resistance against Rhizoctonia solani
           under green house and field conditions
      Abstract: A wide collection of cultivated rice, wild rice, maize, wheat and barley genotypes were screened against R. solani for resistance. Results showed that none of the tested cultivated rice varieties showed resistance to sheath blight, except wild rice accessions, Oryza australiensis and O. grandiglumis. Only two rice cvs., IR 42 and TKM 9 showed moderate resistance among the cultivated rice varieties screened. Moderate resistance was also observed in barley cv. NDB 1445, while other hosts showed susceptibility to the disease. Different hosts included in this study were grouped into two major clusters on the basis of distance based analysis. Two wild rice accessions O. australiensis and O. grandiglumis clustered separately than other hosts including the wild relatives. This study can further be utilized to understand the résistance mechanism in wild rice accessions as well as to take breeding programme with moderate resistance rice varieties.
      PubDate: 2014-04-07
      Issue No: Vol. 67 (2014)
  • Molecular characterization of Bipolaris spp. using universal rice primer
           (URP) markers
      Abstract: Bipolaris species are phytopathogenic to many cereal crops. Genetic variability in different isolates of B. sorokiniana and other species of Bipolaris infecting cereals has been studied using URP (universal rice primers) markers. Fourteen isolates of B. sorokiniana collected from different geographical locations of India and one each of B. maydis, B. oryzae, B. tetramera and B. spicifera were taken for the study. Out of 12 URP markers used in the study, 7 markers effectively produced polymorphic bands in all the isolates. The analysis of entire fingerprint profile using unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) differentiated B. tetramera, B. spicifera, B. maydis and B. sorokiniana. Twelve isolates of B. sorokiniana out of 14 taken for the study, showed more than 70% similarity. Isolates BS-60 and BS-120 showed more than 90% similarity. One of the markers, URP 2F amplified a band of 700bp which was present in all the isolates of B. sorokiniana which could be further explored to develop species specific diagnostic marker.
      PubDate: 2014-04-07
      Issue No: Vol. 67 (2014)
  • Studies on cultural morphological and pathogenic variability in isolates
           of Fusarium udum causing wilt of pigeonpea
      Abstract: The present investigation was undertaken to study the cultural, morphological and pathogenic variability in fifteen isolates of Fusarium udum causal agent of pigeonpea wilt. The isolates were procured from four major pigeonpea growing states, Bihar, Jharkhand, Orissa and West Bengal. These exhibited considerable variations in cultural and morphological characters on potato dextrose agar medium. The colony diameter ranged from 29.6 to 57.3 mm after eight days of incubation at 27±2°c. Six isolates produced white mycelia color, serrated margin with fluffy growth with light and dark yellow pigmentation while four isolates produced white mycelia color, serrated margin with partially appressed growth with dark yellow to brown pigmentation in substrate. Remaining five isolates produced white mycelia color, serrated margin with appressed growth with light yellow to brown pigmentation. The dry mycelium weight ranged from 98.3 to 201.0 mg, while number of spore ranged from 0.8 to 3.6 million ml_1 from potato dextrose broth medium after 15 days at 27±2°c. The size of macro conidia and micro conidia ranged from 15.4-45.0 X 2.1-6.2 µm and 2.5-17.5 X 2.1-6.2 µm, respectively. Pathogenic variability on soil inoculated pot grown plants of pigeonpea resulted in 0.0 to 42.3 percent wilt incidence. Based on the wilt incidence, the fifteen isolates were distinguished into pathogenic groups, where isolates Fu-37, Fu-61 and Fu-80 were found highly pathogenic. Isolates Fu-8 did not induce wilting and appeared non pathogenic.
      PubDate: 2014-04-07
      Issue No: Vol. 67 (2014)
  • Exploitation of native microflora of Darjeeling hills for sclerotial rot
           management and growth promotion in pulses
      Abstract: Isolation of microorganisms from various forest, riverine and rhizosphere soils of Darjeeling hills yielded 357 fungi and 135 bacteria. A large number of potential biocontrol agents (BCA) were obtained, among them Trichoderma harzianum and Talaromyces flavus showed suppression to a wide range of fungal pathogens under in vitro. Phosphate solubilizing fungi viz. Aspergillus niger, A. clavatus, A. melleus and T. flavus could enhance growth of Glycine max, Phaseolus vulgaris and Cicer arietinum with significant increase in soil phosphatase activity. Among the bacterial isolates, Bacillus pumilus (BRHS/C-1) was designated as the most potential PGPR which could solubilize phosphate, produce IAA, HCN as well as inhibit phytopathogens to a higher extent compared to other isolates. B. pumilus was also found to enhance growth of legumes in field conditions. Both the BCA and PGPR could inhibit sclerotial rot of Vigna radiate and Glycine max caused by Sclerotium rolfsii in pot conditions. These microorganisms elicited induced systemic resistance against the pathogen by enhancing key defense enzymes like chitinase, β1-3 glucanase, peroxidase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase when applied prior to pathogen challenge.
      PubDate: 2014-04-07
      Issue No: Vol. 67 (2014)
  • Monitored control of Marssonina blotch of apple caused by Marssonina
    • Authors: ANIL KUMAR* ANIL KUMAR*
      Abstract: Protective and curative activity of mancozeb, dodine, metiram, carbendazim, thiophanate-methyl, Shield, kresoxim methyl, pyraclostrobin + metiram (Cabrio top) and difenoconazole against Marssonina blotch of apple, caused by Marssonina coronaria was determined under polyhouse and field conditions. Apple plants aged about two years (cv. Starking Delicious) were grown in pots for under polyhouse experiments and while 5-8 years old trees were used for field evaluations. Plants were sprayed to run off with aforementioned fungicides either before (protectant) and after infection (curative). The i-METO automatic weather monitoring equipments were installed for identifying infection periods of Marssonina blotch in apple in the orchard. Dithiocarbamates (mancozeb and metiram) showed best protective activity whereas, strobilurins (Cabrio top and kresoxim methyl) had strongest curative activity against the disease in polyhouse as well as under field conditions. Mancozeb registered 94.1 per cent disease control when applied before infection whereas, Cabrio top showed 91.1 per cent disease control when applied on the basis of occurrence of infection periods under field conditions
      PubDate: 2014-04-07
      Issue No: Vol. 67 (2014)
  • Pseudomonas fluorescens and Trichoderma viride enriched bioconsortium for
           the management of Fusarium wilt in carnation and gerbera under protected
      Abstract: The talc-based formulation of two bioagents (Pf1 and Tv) and its mixture were tested against Fusarium wilt in carnation and gerbera under protected cultivation. The application of talc-formulation through rooted cutting as dipping, soil application and foliar spray significantly reduced the wilt incidence under protected conditions. The mixture of two biocontrol agents performed better than the individual agent. Among the different treatments tested, Pf1 + Tv (as seedling dip + soil application enriched with FYM + foliar spray @ monthly interval) recorded the disease incidence of 7.8 per cent in carnation and 3.3 per cent in gerbera in the first year whereas the disease incidence was 9.5 per cent in carnation and 7.0 per cent in gerbera in the second year which was at par with carbendazim treatment. Simultaneously, when compared to chemical treatment, the stem length and number of flowers of carnation (86.0 cm and 47.5 per m2) and spike length, number of flowers of gerbera (65.6 cm and 38.0 per m2) were maximum in beds treated with Pf1 + Tv (seedling dip + soil application enriched with FYM + foliar spray @ monthly interval) followed by individual bioagent application.
      PubDate: 2014-04-07
      Issue No: Vol. 67 (2014)
  • Distribution and etiology of corm rot of gladiolus in Jammu Province of
           Jammu and Kashmir
      Abstract: Soil borne diseases are the major constraints in the successful cultivation of gladiolus and a number of pathogens have been found to be associated such as Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. gladioli and Botrytis gladiolorum. In order to record the current status of soil borne diseases in gladiolus, periodical surveys were undertaken during 2010 and 2011. The disease was found to prevail in all the districts surveyed. The prevalence of disease was higher in 2010-11 as compared to 2009-10. Mycoflora found associated with the infected corms of gladiolus were Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. gladioli, Botrytis gladiolorum, Stromatinia gladioli and Penicillium sp. F. oxysporum f. sp. gladioli was the most dominant with an average occurrence of 82, 78 and 70%, whereas, B. gladiolorum had an occurrence of 42, 38 and 56% in Jammu, Kathua and Udhampur districts, respectively. Stromatinia gladioli occurred with the frequency of 10, 8 and 10 per cent and Penicillium sp. with the frequency of 4, 10 and 8 per cent in Jammu, Kathua and Udhampur districts, respectively. The weight loss was maximum (23.19%) in corms inoculated with combined inoculation of F. oxysporum f. sp. gladioli and B. gladiolorum, followed by inoculation of F. oxysporum f. sp. gladioli and B. gladiolorum individually.
      PubDate: 2014-04-07
      Issue No: Vol. 67 (2014)
  • Influence of bio-ecological factors on population dynamics of a native
           biocontrol agent Aspergillus versicolor in arid soil
      Abstract: The effects of microbial population, soil moisture and temperature on population dynamics of Aspergillus versicolor, a heat tolerant bio agent, were studied at different soil depths for a period of 12-months. The population of A. versicolor was highest at 6-10 cm but declined at 0-5 followed by 11-20 cm soil depths. At upper soil depths, decline in population of A. versicolor was estimated from July to September, but then a sudden upsurge was recorded. At 11–20 cm depth, progressive increase in population of A. versicolor was estimated from July to November, but it did not reach to the level recorded at other depths in the month of October. Population of A. versicolor, after 12 months was 48 and 80% higher at 6-10 and 11-20cm soil depth than the initial one but remained stationary at 0-5 cm. The total fungi mimics A. versicolor at all soil depths with positive correlation (P= 0.001), while its negative correlations were established with actinomycetes and soil moisture. Multiple regression equations accounted for almost 79-97% of variations in the population of A. versicolor by studied factors. Low residual factors in the path coefficient analysis also indicated that no other factor had significant contribution in influencing A. versicolor population. Studies revealed that minimum soil temperature and total bacteria played negligible role in influencing population of A. versicolor.
      PubDate: 2014-04-07
      Issue No: Vol. 67 (2014)
  • Distribution and molecular characterization of begomoviruses infecting
           tomato in sub-Himalayan Tarai region of West Bengal and Brahmaputra valley
           of Assam in northeast India
      Abstract: Tomato leaf curl disease (TLCD) in tomato of Sub-Himalayan Tarai region of West Bengal and Brahmaputra valley of Assam was surveyed and various symptoms like curling, blistering, crinkling and narrowing of leaves with stunted growth were observed. The estimated incidence was 18-83% in sub-Himalayan West Bengal and 14-71% in Brahmaputra valley of Assam. This disease was transmitted to tomato plants through whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) with transmission efficiency of 50-80%. Five TLCD causing virus isolates COB-2, COB-5, GUW-1, RAI-1 and SILIGURI-2 from these regions were characterized based on sequencing of coat protein (CP) gene of begomovirus genomes. The sequence analysis showed that the present isolates shared 79-98% nt identity among them and 79-99% nt identities with other tomato infecting begomoviruses available in database. The isolates COB2, RAI-1 and SILIGURI-2 were similar to each other and related by 94-99% sequence identity with the isolates of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV; EU375489, EF043230, JN676054, HM007113, U15016, AM849548, JX232220, AM286434). The isolate COB-5 and GUW-1 are similar and are related with the with Tobacco curly shoot virus (TbCSV; GU001879, JX467693), Tomato leaf curl Ranchi virus (ToLCRnV, GQ994095) and Tomato leaf curl Bangladesh virus (ToLCBnV; AF188481) by 95-98% sequence identity. In phylogenetic analysis, the present isolates formed two clades among them; COB2, RAI-1 and SILIGURI-2 in one and COB-6 and GUW-1 into another clade. The present data suggest that the TLCD in tomato in these regions is caused by a combination of begomoviruses.
      PubDate: 2014-04-07
      Issue No: Vol. 67 (2014)
  • Validation of Lr24 in some released bread wheat varieties and its
           implications in leaf rust resistance breeding and deployment in central
      PubDate: 2014-04-07
      Issue No: Vol. 67 (2014)
  • Evaluation of different fungicides for the management of leaf rust of
           wheat caused by Puccinia triticina
      PubDate: 2014-04-07
      Issue No: Vol. 67 (2014)
  • Association of ‘Ca. Phytoplasma asteris’ (16SrI group) with
           flattened stem and witches’ broom symptoms of Petunia hybrida in
      PubDate: 2014-04-07
      Issue No: Vol. 67 (2014)
  • Spegazzinia tessarthra isolated as a true endophyte from lichen
           Heterodermia flabellata
      PubDate: 2014-04-07
      Issue No: Vol. 67 (2014)
  • NEWS
    • Authors: Editor IPS
      PubDate: 2014-04-07
      Issue No: Vol. 67 (2014)
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