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Publisher: Indian Council of Agricultural Research   (Total: 6 journals)   [Sort by number of followers]

Showing 1 - 6 of 6 Journals sorted alphabetically
Fishery Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian Horticulture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Indian J. of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.238, h-index: 18)
Indian J. of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.233, h-index: 16)
Indian J. of Fisheries     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.154, h-index: 5)
Indian Phytopathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal Cover Indian Phytopathology
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 0367-973X - ISSN (Online) 2248-9800
   Published by Indian Council of Agricultural Research Homepage  [6 journals]
  • Bacterial wilt of solanaceous crops: Diagnosis, diversity and management

    • Authors: DINESH SINGH
      Abstract: Wilt disease of solanaceous caused by bacterial pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum (Smith) Yabuuchi et al. (1995) is a major devastating soil borne disease in the world, limiting the production of solanaceous vegetable crops, and affecting more than 450 plant species. The loss due to this disease is very high, ranging from 2 to 100% depending on environmental conditions and crops. The affected plants show a typical wilt symptoms and browning of vascular tissue in roots stems and tubers. The pathogen is a gram -ve, rod shaped, frequently occurs in pairs, motile with 1 to 4 polar flagella, aerobic, non-fluorescent, positive in catalase and oxidase tests and forms nitrites from nitrates and negative in levan production and starch hydrolysis. Virulent isolates on 2,3,5-Triphenyl Tetrazolium Chloride (TTC) medium develop fluidal, irregular colonies having peripheral white and pinkish in centre. The optimum growth of the bacterium on artificial medium occurs at temperature of 28 to 32oC. In India, race 1 and bvs 3 and 4 are prevalent in tomato chilli capsicum and brinjal. However, race 1 and 3 infect the potato. Presently, R. solanacearum strains are categorized into four genetic groups called phylotypes which reflect the geographical origin and also ancestral relationships between the strains. Besides cultural, morphological and biochemical tests, sero-diagnostic like ELISA (Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), immunofluorescent cell staining, lateral flow devices, serological kits are applied for detecting R. solanacearum from infected plant, tubers and soil. For detecting R. solanacearum, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based techniques are usually applied using amplification of ribosomal sequences (16S RNA) and other conserved genes of bacteria. To improve the sensitivity, various modifications have been made like enrichment in SMSA broth, nutrient broth or CPG broth to allow bacteria to multiply prior to do conventional PCR, called as BIO-PCR and two round PCR as nested- PCR. Multiplex-PCR protocols have been developed to simultaneously detect either R. solanacearum and E. carotovora subsp. carotovora or Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepodonicus from tubers of potato and also R. solanacearum along with Xanthomonas perforans in tomato. Management of bacterial wilt disease of solanaceous crops is very difficult due to its soil borne nature. Different workers throughout the world have made efforts to control this disease by using cultural, chemical, biological and host resistance methods, either alone or in combination of these methods.
      PubDate: 2017-05-25
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 2 (2017)
  • Seed bio-priming in the management of seed- and soil-borne diseases

    • Authors: R.N. PANDEY
      Abstract: The use of pesticides in agriculture is restricted due to environmental and health hazards. However, pests need to be managed to harvest healthy crops. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the developed countries encourage the management of the plant diseases and pests through   biological control by using the appropriate, efficient and quality bioagents. The bioagents viz. Trichoderma  harzianum, T. viride, T. virens, T. atroviride, T. koningii, Paecilomyces lilacinus and Pseudomonas fluorescens, etc have been proved effective for the management of the seed- and soil borne plant pathogens/ diseases. Different workers have worked out the mode of action of the bioagents. Molecular studies have shown that different genes in the bioagents are responsible for their efficiency to manage the pathogens and enhancing the plant growth. The bioagent like T. asperellum has been found to be entophyte in the plant system and perform very well for all these characters. Therefore, a large number of rhizospheric bioagent should be isolated and studies for useful characters of eco-friendly management of biotic and abiotic stresses. The method of use of the bioagents in plant health management should also be studied thoroughly, as seed bio- priming of the bioagents particularly Trichoderma spp. have been found quite effective to manage the plant pathogens and enhancing germination, seedling vigour, plant growth, etc. In the wake of climate change, the bioagents are the hope to overcome the biotic and abiotic stresses and ecofriendly and sustainable management of diseases and plant health. An attempt has been made to summarize the work carried out on seed priming by a different method in general and seed bio-priming in particular and has been presented in this article.
      PubDate: 2017-05-25
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 2 (2017)
  • Wheat blast - A new challenge to wheat cultivation in South Asia

      Abstract: Wheat blast or Brosone is caused by Magnaporthe oryzae pathotype Triticum (MoT) B.C. Couch (Anamorph Pyricularia oryzae Triticum). It is a recent disease of wheat originated in 1985 in Brazil and later reported from other countries like Bolivia, Uruguay, Paraguay and Argentina in South American (Iragashi et al.,1986; Prabhu et al.,1992, Perelló et al., 2015). During early 2016 had been reported to occur in Bangladesh (South Asia) (Malaker et al., 2016) in districts close to West Bengal borders of India. Wheat blast is not yet reported in India. The disease is categorized into most damaging diseases of wheat due to its multiple modes of survival (seed, secondary hosts, crop residue and airborne conidia), fast spread and damage to spikes thus causing losses ranging from 20-100%, development of resistance to fungicides, higher rate of mutation and lack of resistance in common wheat varieties. Goulart et al. (2007) reported an average loss of 3.87 q/ha (10.5%) in wheat yield, in the Embrapa Agropecuária Oeste experiment in Brazil while in Indápolis, the losses in grain yield were in the average 6.09 q/ ha (13%). The losses in spike weight were higher (63.4%) in the case of an early infection than with late infection (46.0%). The grains below the infection point in the rachis were larger than the normal ones and may partially compensate for the losses due to empty spikelets.
      PubDate: 2017-05-25
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 2 (2017)
  • Milk stage kernel infection frequency in kharif sorghum at grain mold
           prone locations in India

      Abstract: Milk stage kernel infection frequency has substantial effects on mold development in mature sorghum grain. Field experiments were conducted with 16 sorghum genotypes at four grain mold prone locations (Akola, Hyderabad, Dharwad and Surat) in India during kharif 2014 and 2015. The genotypes included grain mold susceptible, resistant, improved germplasm, breeding lines and released cultivars. The objective was to quantify natural infection frequency of fungi in milk stage kernel and study the response of various sorghum genotypes against this infection. Results revealed that Fusarium (16.1%) and Curvularia spp. (7.9%) were predominant fungal genera at the milk stage kernel at all the locations under study. Few other fungi namely Alternaria, Bipolaris, Aspergillus, and Penicillium spp. were detected sporadically in low frequency (≤0.95%). There was significant negative association between infection frequency of Fusarium and Curvularia especially when intensity of infection was moderate to high (>25%). The genotypes B58586, GMR156-1, GMR166-1, SGMRN12-3-1 and IS25070 were found promising with low intensity (average total infection<10%) of milk stage kernel infection across environments. The information can be useful for resistant breeding program against specific fungal component of grain mold.
      PubDate: 2017-05-25
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 2 (2017)
  • Pathogenic and genetic diversity among Alternaria alternata isolates of
           potato from Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh

      Abstract: Early blight of potato caused by species of Alternaria is one of the most important diseases of potato worldwide. The occurrence of A. solani and A. alternata varies from region to region. The samples were collected from Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh states of India during 2009 and 2010. The identity of all the isolates was confirmed as A. alternata by morphological characters and sequencing. PCR amplification using universal primers ITS 4 and ITS 5 resulted in an amplicon of 594 bp which showed high similarity with reference ITS sequences of A. alternata in GenBank. Analysis of sequences revealed presence of partial sequence of ITS 1 and ITS 2 and complete sequence of 5.8S rRNA gene. All the isolates of A. alternata showed 100% similarity among themselves (except ALT 43) and with other A. alternata isolates in the GenBank. Three major clusters each were obtained when isolates were genotyped for RAPD and for AFLP markers. Pathogenicity was proved by detached leaf inoculation method and all the isolates were found pathogenic with varying degree of aggressiveness. Isolates were grouped into four groups on the basis of aggressiveness. No correlation was observed between aggressiveness and the clusters made on the basis of genotyping.
      PubDate: 2017-05-25
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 2 (2017)
  • Antifungal efficacy of floral extracts, biocontrol agents and fungicides
           against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceri

      Abstract: The present investigation was conducted during 2011-2015 to evaluate the effectiveness of extracts of Marigold sp. (Tagetes erecta L.), Gaillardia sp. (Gaillardia pulchella), Chrysanthemum sp. (Chrysanthemum indicum) and Calotropis sp. (Calotropis gigantea) flowers, biocontrol agents and fungicides against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceri. Among the Pseudomonas fluorescens, Bacillus subtilis and Trichoderma harzianum tested by dual culture technique, P. fluorescens suppressed the colonisation of F. oxysporum f. sp. ciceri by 81.59%.The three fungicides viz., carbendazim (0.1%), metalaxyl (0.2%) and thiram (0.2%) were tested by poisoned food technique. Carbendazim @ 0.1% showed the highest effectiveness against F. oxysporum f. sp. ciceri. Seed treatment with P. fluorescens 10 g/kg seed + Trichoderma harzianum 4 g/kg seed + Marigold sp. (Tagetes erecta L.) floral water extract 4% proved highly effective in increasing seedling vigour index (3008.25) in chickpea in paper towel assay and was also effective to reduce incidence of Fusarium wilt (69.31%) under green house conditions.
      PubDate: 2017-05-25
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 2 (2017)
  • Assessment of wheat varieties for slow rusting and management of stripe
           rust caused by Puccinia striiformis

      Abstract: Fifty wheat varieties were screened under artificial epiphytotic conditions against stripe rust of wheat during Rabi, 2013-14. On the basis of final rust severity (FRS), AURPC (Area Under Rust Progress Curve), r (Infection Rate) and CI (Coefficient of Infection), 10 lines exhibited partial resistance against the disease. PCR profiles of fifty wheat varieties by the allele-specific primer (cssfr1) revealed distinct fragment of 517 bp in 23 varieties indicating the presence of Yr18 gene. Wheat varieties, PBW 343, DPW 621-50, RSP 561 and HD 2967 were used for testing five fungicides viz., Amistar Top, Quadrix, Score, Folicur and Tilt, each at 0.1 percent concentration. Amistar Top was found most effective in reducing the disease severity of stripe rust in PBW 343, followed by Quadrix, Score, Folicur and Tilt. The application of these fungicides also showed a significant increase in the grain yield, with maximum increase (33.58%) by Amistar Top in HD 2967 followed by Quadris, Score, Folicur and Tilt.
      PubDate: 2017-05-25
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 2 (2017)
  • Status of seed-borne fungi in some indigenous medicinal and aromatic
           plants conserved in National Gene Bank, India

      Abstract: During 2011-2015, seed health testing (SHT) of 880 accessions representing more than 60 crop species of medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) germplasm resulted in detection and identification of 17 fungal species belonging to 11 genera. Based on morphological key characteristics, various pathogens, namely Botrytis cinerea, Cephalosporium maydis, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Fusarium equiseti, F. oxysporum, F. semitectum, F. solani, F. verticillioides, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Macrophomina phaseolina, Melanospora zamiae, Myrothecium roridum, M. verrucaria, Phoma exigua var. exigua, P. sorghina, Ustilago coicis and Verticillium albo-atrum were recorded on 71 accessions (8.1%) of MAPs germplasm with varying level of seed infections (10-50%). Pathogen wise overall infection showed the highest infection share of U. coicis (44.4%) followed by P. sorghina (19.4%) and B. cinerea (11.1%) among 71 infected accessions. A perusal of literature indicated that detection of B. cinerea and M. roridum on Vernonia anthelmintica; C. maydis and M. verrucaria on Costus speciosus; C. gloeosporioides and M. phaseolina on Abroma augusta; F. equiseti on Origanum vulgare; F. verticillioides on C. speciosus, Mucuna pruriens and T. cucumerina; L. theobromae on C. speciosus, T.cucumerina and T. bracteata; P. exigua var. exigua on T.cucumerina; and P. sorghina on Coix lacryma-jobi, C. speciosus, Ochna lanceolata, Perilla frutescens, Tagetus patula, T. cucumerina and T. bracteata are new host records on MAPs germplasm from India. If such infected seeds are conserved and/or distributed for either research purpose or their commercial use, they may act as a source of inocula dissemination and hamper the cultivation of MAPs leading to losses in quality and yield. Therefore, detection of seed infection through seed health testing is important in conserving disease-free material so as to minimize the risk of spreading disease in the country.
      PubDate: 2017-05-25
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 2 (2017)
  • Biochemical basis of resistance in wheat against Karnal bunt caused by
           Tilletia indica

      Abstract: The biochemical basis of Karnal bunt resistance was evaluated in four resistant (ALDAN, CMH77.308, H567.71 and HP1531) and two susceptible (PBW343 and HD2967) genotypes. The parameters studied included total phenols and defense related enzymes (peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase and polyphenol oxidase). The level of total phenols and activity of the defense related enzymes was more in resistant as compared to the susceptible genotypes. However, there was variation within the resistant genotypes. Maximum level of total phenols was observed in CMH77.308 at 3 days after inoculation while maximum peroxidase activity was observed in H567.71 after 2 days of inoculation. The activity of polyphenol oxidase was highest after 3 days of inoculation in the resistant genotype HP1531 while maximum activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase was observed in H567.71 after 3 days of inoculations.
      PubDate: 2017-05-25
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 2 (2017)
  • Control of wilt complex in brinjal using chemical, microbial, soil
           amendments and integrated management

      Abstract: Wilt in brinjal has become more damaging in the red lateritic soil of Jharkhand due to the prevalence of Fusarium oxysporum and Ralstonia solanacearum making it wilt complex disease. Out of six organic amendments tested soil application of neem cake (@ 5q/ha) proved to be the most effective treatment to minimize wilt severity (26.30%) and increased fruit yield (19.23 kg/plot). Among the five fungicides viz; carbendazim, mancozeb, tricyclazole, blitox, oxathiin and streptocycline, seedling dip with mancozeb (@ 2.5g/l) was most effective and showed least wilt severity (24.21%) with highest fruit yield (21.59 kg/ plot) which was significantly at par with blitox-50. Among four bioagents viz; Trichoderma viride (TvD) Delhi isolate, Trichoderma harzianum Ranchi isolate(ThR), Trichoderma harzianum (ThD) Delhi isolate and Pseudomonas fluorescens Delhi (PfD) soil application of precolonized ThD proved to be most effective in reducing wilt severity (16.15%) and highest fruit yield (24.79 kg/plot)were recorded. In the integrated approach of chemicals with bioagents and organic amendments under field condition among all the combinations, minimum wilt severity (20.34%) was recorded in neem cake precolonized with ThD + seedling dip in blitox (0.3%) treatment and also found highest fruit yield (24.97 kg).
      PubDate: 2017-05-25
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 2 (2017)
  • Management of rhizome rot of ginger at farmers’ field in Jammu

    • Authors: SHAHID AHAMAD
      Abstract: Ginger is an important spice crop belonging to family Zingiberaceae. Rhizome rot of ginger caused by Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson) Fitz is a major constraint in the production of healthy rhizome, sometimes causing total failure of crop. The maximum disease incidence was recorded during Kharif-2015 i.e 55.25% while lowest disease incidence was recorded during Kharif-2014 i.e. 7.5% when rhizomes dip treatment was given with Mancozeb + Carbendazim along with drenching with Metalaxyl 40% WS @ 0.3% was given followed by T2- seed dip treatment with Mancozeb + Carbendazim. The mean disease incidence was recorded 9.0% in case of T3 (T2 + drenching with Metalaxyl 40% WS @ 0.3%) and maximum mean diseases incidence was recorded 45.37% in case of T1 - check. The mean maximum yield 132.5 q/ha was recorded in case of T3 (T2 + drenching with Metalaxyl 50% WS @ 0.3%) and minimum mean yield 82.5 q/ha was recorded in case of T1 - Check.
      PubDate: 2017-05-25
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 2 (2017)
  • Evaluation of chickpea genotypes against Fusarium wilt for resistant

      Abstract: Wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris is an important yield limiting disease of chickpea. Cultivation of resistant cultivars is an economical management option available for the disease. Six hundred sixty eight genotypes of chickpea were screened against F. oxysporum f. sp. ciceris in sick field for three years from 2013-14 to 2015-16 crop season. The genotypes SCGP-WR 28, H 10-05, GL 10023, IPC 2006-77 and CSJK 72 were found to be resistant and the genotypes H 09-70, H 08-25, H 10-16, DCP 92-3, GNG 1936 and Pusa 212 proved to be moderately resistant against the wilt. The remaining genotypes showed susceptible reaction against the disease. These genotypes could be cultivated as such or used as resistance source in breeding programme.
      PubDate: 2017-05-25
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 2 (2017)
  • Survival of Alternaria brassicicola in cryo-preserved Brassica spp. seeds
           for longer duration

      Abstract: Seed health testing of seven accessions of Brassica spp. conserved in the year 2001 at -180°C in liquid nitrogen at National GeneBank, ICAR-NBPGR, New Delhi resulted in detection of Alternaria brassicicola in three accessions of B. juncea, IC-113148, Pusa Bold and Prakash in the year 2015. Detection of A. brassicicola in cryopreserved Brassica seeds shows that the fungus can survive even at ultra-low temperature for a long duration.
      PubDate: 2017-05-25
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 2 (2017)
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