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Publisher: Indian Council of Agricultural Research   (Total: 6 journals)

Fishery Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian Horticulture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Indian J. of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.271, h-index: 14)
Indian J. of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.272, h-index: 13)
Indian J. of Fisheries     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.246, h-index: 3)
Indian Phytopathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
  Indian Phytopathology
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   ISSN (Print) 0367-973X - ISSN (Online) 2248-9800
   Published by Indian Council of Agricultural Research Homepage  [6 journals]
  • Perspectives of seed health in the genomic era

    • Authors: H.S. PRAKASH
      Pages: 319 - 326
      Abstract: Seed is a vital input in agriculture. The International seed trade has crossed 10,000 million USD in 2010 and the total estimated value of the domestic seed market among important countries is 44,925 million USD, India ranking 6th with a market of 2,000 million USD (International Seed Federation Seed Statistics, 2014). India is an important producer and exporter of seed. Many national and multi-national seed companies are operating in India. Hence it is important to meet the ational seed health quality standards to sustain the seed trade. Seeds are infected by fungi, bacteria, viruses and nematodes. The seed borne inoculum of pathogens may cause seed/seedling death resulting in poor plant stand, as well it may contribute to introduction and spread of disease. Thus seed health is of great concern to agrofood industry and regulatory authorities like quarantine and seed certification agencies. The seed industries are concerned with meeting the stringent International Phytosanitory regulations and to deliver sufficiently healthy seed to farmers and seed producers. It is difficult to control viral/bacterial diseases through prophylactic fungicide treatment. Hence preventive measures like avoidance of contaminated/infected planting material are preferred to manage the disease. In this background, testing of planting material for pathogen-free status gains significance.
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 4
  • The pathogen biology, identification and management of Rhizoctonia species
           with emphasis on isolates infecting turfgrasses

      Pages: 327 - 345
      Abstract: Rhizoctonia solani is an economically important soilborne basidiomycetous pathogen of worldwide distribution and it is known to attack at least 188 species of higher plants, including crops, vegetables, ornamentals, forest trees and turfgrasses. The pathogenic isolates may belong to multiple genera and species (i.e., Thanatephorus spp., Waitea spp., Ceratobasidium spp., etc.) and are variously responsible for pre- or post-emergence damping off of seedlings, crown necrosis and root rots, aerial blights and wilts, fruit rots and post-harvest losses, accounting for 5-10% loss in yield and product quality. Many non-pathogenic isolates of R. solani are decomposers of soil organic matter, contributors of soil ecology, symbiotic on plants and may serve as biocontrol agents. Isolates of R. solani are morphologically grouped based on the number of nuclei per cell and by hyphal anastomosis reactions, which are often unreliable methods for precise pathogen detection. Recent approaches utilizing molecular markers, genome finger printing, and ITS sequencing have increased the speed, precision, and practicality of accurately identifying or grouping R. solani isolates. Current investigations on endogenous double-stranded RNAs in relation to virulence and hypovirulence of R. solani and investigations at the ‘omics’ levels have opened up exciting possibilities for understanding its dynamic biological and pathogenic processes and interactions with environmental factors. This review will discuss modern approaches along with their potentials and limitations for investigating this challenging group of plant pathogens, with special reference to isolates pathogenic to turfgrasses.
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 4
  • Genetic characterization of an Indian isolate of Ralstonia solanacearum
           race 3/ biovar 2/ phylotype IIB from potato

      Pages: 346 - 352
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to genotype brown rot pathogen of potato isolated from Pundibari, West Bengal, India. The polyphasic phenotypic and genotypic characterization revealed that the R. solanacearum causing brown rot of potato belongs to race 3/biovar 2/phylotype IIB (R3/B2/PhyIIB). The genotypic methods such as BOX-PCR, Phylotyping, 16SrDNA, 16-23S-intergenic spacer, recN gene sequence comparison and Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) revealed that the strain was genetically identical to R3/B2 strain of R. solanacearum reported in Bolivia, Brazil, Kenya, Israel, the Netherlands, Belgium, Burundi and Thailand. The strain shared all eleven gene sequences such as 16S rDNA (1420bp), 16-23S rDNA intergenic region (1282bp), recN (1169bp), gdhA (774bp), adk (420bp), gyrB (873bp), ppsA (717bp), gapA (774bp), egl (693bp), hrpB (810bp), and fliC (318bp) with R3/B2/PhyIIB strains reported worldwide. In depth genotypic analysis revealed that the strain causing potato brown rot in India traced its origin in R3/B2/PhyIIB strain reported from South America, Europe, Africa, Middle East and Asia further suggest that the strain is an introduced one. The result also reaffirms worldwide occurrence of this particular race 3 strains. Perusal of records revealed that this is the first report on detailed genetic characterization of Indian R3/B2/PhyIIB strain of R. solanacearum.
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 4
  • Assessment of antibacterial properties of medicinal plants having
           bacterial leaf endophytes against plant pathogenic Xanthomonads

      Pages: 353 - 357
      Abstract: Assessment of antibacterial property in plants by direct testing of aqueous plant extract or solvent extracted plant extracts on test pathogen is a time consuming process and therefore the preliminary assessment technique to confirm antibacterial property in unknown plant is needed. Presence or absence of bacterial endophytes in the leaves of 56 medicinal plants was considered for the assessment of antibacterial compound in these medicinal plants. Absence of leaf endophytic bacteria in 29 medicinal plants was considered as a basis of presence for antibacterial compound in these plants. This was confirmed by inhibition of growth of the test bacterium, in the sterilized aqueous extract of three medicinal plants. The medicinal plant showing bacterial inhibition zone was further confirmed for antibacterial compound by formation of inhibition zone by aqueous extract, ethanol extract and methanol extract on test bacterium by paper disc method. Medicinal plants which did not have bacterial endophytes, possessed antibacterial property in their aqueous leaf extract against Xanthomonads. Out of 29 medicinal plants which did not have leaf endophytic bacteria, 3 plants viz., Simarouba glauca, Terminalia chebula and Bixa orellana Linn were found to possess antibacterial property against Xanthomonas sp. The presences of antibacterial compound in these plants were up to 500 µg/ml of aqueous leaf extract. Thus, the medicinal plants which did not have endophytic bacteria in their leaves can be considered for the presence of antibacterial compound.
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 4
  • Identification and validation of leaf rust resistance genes in Indian
           wheat genotypes using molecular markers

      Pages: 358 - 364
      Abstract: A collection of 25 wheat cultivars/genotypes were evaluated for leaf rust resistance genes using different pathotypes and presence of resistance genes was confirmed through molecular markers. The presence of different resistance genes like Lr1, Lr10, Lr19, Lr26 and Lr34 were identified through gene matching technique. Different Lr genes were further confirmed using five different PCR-based markers such as STS and SCAR markers linked to leaf rust resistance genes. The presence of Lr1, Lr10, Lr19, Lr26 and Lr34 in the tested genotypes was confirmed by a unique amplification of markers pTAG621560, Lrk10D1282,362, SCS265512, IB 267267 and csLV34F229,150. Of 25 genotypes, the presence of Lr1 gene was found in all wheat genotypes except HD 2888 and MACS 6145. Genotypes, HD 2985, VL 804, Raj 3765, HI 977, PBW 343, HS 240 and NI 5439 showed the presence of 282 bp fragment specific to Lr10 gene. A single fragment of 512 bp (SCS265) specific to Lr19 did not give amplification in all wheat genotypes. A 267 bp fragment with marker (IB-267) got amplified in genotypes, HD 2733, HD 2824, VL 804, UP 2425, DBW 17, PBW 343, PBW 550, HS 240 and MACS 1967 carrying Lr26 gene. Six genotypes namely HD 2985, VL 616, UP 2425, Raj 3765, DBW 16 and PBW 550 showed the presence of 150 bp fragment (cs LV34) specific to Lr34 gene.
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 4
  • Inheritance of blast resistance and its allelic relationship with five
           major R genes in a rice landrace “Vanasurya”

      Pages: 365 - 369
      Abstract: A rice landrace “Vanasurya” was identified to be blast resistant after multilocation evaluation under uniform blast nursery (UBN). The F2population derived from the cross between Vanasurya x susceptible rice cultivar, CO 39 showed a segregation of 3R:1S, which revealed that the resistance to blast disease is governed by a single dominant gene. Test of allelic relationship of blast resistance in the landrace, Vanasurya with known major blast resistance genes, viz. Pi1, Pi9, Pita, Piz5 and Pi54 by crossing it with the monogenic blast differentials showed that blast resistance gene in Vanasurya was allelic to Pita whereas it was non-allelic to other genes tested. This was further confirmed through molecular marker analysis with a gene based marker YL155/87 for Pita.
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 4
  • Post-infectional biochemical changes in maize leaves affected by banded
           leaf and sheath blight disease

      Pages: 370 - 373
      Abstract: Total phenol content, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase contents were estimated in maize germplasm affected by banded leaf and sheath blight disease. In comparison to healthy plants, the increase in total phenol content in diseased plants was maximum in extra early germplasm (362.3%) followed by inbreds (353.06%). Contrarily, peroxidase level increase was maximum in early maturity germplasm (87.5%) followed by inbred (86.0%). The relative increase in polyphenol oxidase was maximum in early maize germplasm (70.8%) followed by inbreds (63.7%). These are secretions which require trigger by means of pathogen attack, elicitor response and abiotic stresses. It appears that higher phenol, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase activities in maize germplasm plays a vital role in inducing resistance against banded leaf and sheath blight (BLSB) disease in maize.
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 4
  • Secondary metabolite profiling of plant pathogenic Alternaria species by
           matrix assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight
           (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry

      Pages: 374 - 382
      Abstract: Profiling of secondary metabolite production (both known and unknown metabolites) on standardized culture media has proven to be useful for classification and identification of certain morphologically similar species of Alternaria. In this study, secondary metabolite profiling of 50 fungal isolates belonging to 10 plant pathogenic Alternaria species such as A. solani, A. porri, A. brassicicola, A. brassicae, A. sesame, A. alternata, A. macrospora, A. ricini, A. carthami and A. brunsii isolated from vegetable, oil yielding and seed spice crops were examined. Secondary metabolites were extracted from 14 day old cultures, grown on potato dextrose agar, with ethyl acetate containing formic acid. After extraction, the secondary metabolite profiles of all fungal isolates were analyzed using thin layer chromatography (TLC), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. These analyses indicated characteristic ‘species-specific metabolite finger prints’. Thus, chemotaxonomic approach is a simple and rapid technique to determine the chemical diversity of the different Alternaria species and to identify species specific metabolites that could be adopted as chemotaxonomic markers in species identification. This study can be integrated in a polyphasic approach.
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 4
  • Pathogenic and cultural variability among Indian isolates of Fusarium
           oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici causing wilt in tomato

    • Authors: K.K. PANDEY; R.C. GUPTA*
      Pages: 383 - 387
      Abstract: Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici is a destructive disease of tomato in India. The present study was carried out to characterize different isolates of F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici collected from seventeen states in the country on the basis of virulence and colony characters. A total of ninety-five isolates were classified in four virulence grade highly virulent (10), virulent (60) and moderately virulent (25). The pigmentation of culture on PDA medium was grouped in five categories and varied from creamy white to blackish red where majority of the isolates (24) come under light pink. Based on the radial growth, the isolates were categorized in three groups as fast growing (›70 mm), moderate growing (51-70 mm) and slow growing (‹50 mm) after nine days of incubation. The present study revealed that, at least three different physiological variants exist in the collected isolates of F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici in the country.
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 4
  • Genetic diversity analyses of Mycosphaerella eumusae causing Septoria leaf
           spot disease of banana in India

    • Authors: P. GANGA DEVI; R. THANGAVELU*
      Pages: 388 - 398
      Abstract: The leaf spot diseases caused by Mycosphaerella spp. are considered as one of the major constraints of banana production in entire banana growing regions of India. To identify the major leaf spot pathogen, a total of 99 isolates of leaf spot pathogen were isolated from different banana growing states. All these isolates were identified as M. eumusae based on cultural and morphological characters of the fungus. For confirmation, the rDNA-ITS region of all the 99 isolates of M. eumusae was sequenced and the Blast analysis showed 99-100% similarity only with M. eumusae, which causes Septoria leaf disease in banana. Further, the genetic diversity analyses carried out using the sequence data of rDNA-ITS region and by RAPD indicated the presence of 8-12 haplotypes among the M. eumusae isolates and also the existence of 98-100% homology between the three species of Mycosphaerella (M. musicola, M. fijiensis and M. eumusae) which are the major leaf spot disease causing pathogens in different banana growing regions of the world. This suggests that all these three species of Mycosphaerella have been derived from a common ancestor. The phylogenetic analysis also indicated that both these molecular methods have also clearly distinguished all the three species of Mycosphaerella by grouping them separately but in the major sub cluster of either M. musicola or M. fijiensis. This paper reports for the first time, the genetic diversity analysis carried out among the wide population of M. eumusae isolates that are causing severe yield and quality loss to banana in India.
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 4
  • Evaluation of substrates for mass multiplication of green manure
           associated fungi for biological control of soil borne phytopathogens

      Pages: 399 - 401
      Abstract: Inhibitory potential of dominant decomposing fungi of Sesbania green manure was evaluated against some important soil borne plant pathogens viz., Athelia rolfsii, Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum by dual culture methods. The selected dominant decomposing fungi were also evaluated for its mass production on different substrates. Maximum growth inhibition of Sclerotium rolfsii, Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum observed in dual culture with Trichoderma harzianum after 96 hours were 57.03%, 58.42% and 64.81%, respectively. The mean colonial diameter of Sclerotium rolfsii, Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum was found minimum by the effect of cultural filtrates and volatile metabolites of Trichoderma harzianum, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium citrinum among all the dominant fungi. Four different substrates viz., pearl millet, wheat, sorghum and Sesbania aculeata L. were evaluated for their potentiality to be a candidate substrate for effective and successful mass production of dominant decomposing fungi used as potential biological control agents. The efficacy was measured in terms of spore production of the fungal species and loss in the weight of the substrates. Aspergillus fumigatus recorded maximum population (130.64 x 106spore g-1) when mass cultured on pearl millet grains substrate. The minimum population of spore was recorded in Curvularia lunata (6.55 x 106 spore g-1) on Sesbania aculeata substrate. The maximum per cent weight loss was recorded in Penicillium citrinum inoculated on pearl millet grains (48.75%) and the minimum per cent weight loss was observed in Curvularia lunata inoculated on Sesbania aculeata (14.75%).
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 4
  • Comparative efficacy of biodegradable plastic and low density polyethylene
           mulch on viability of soilborne plant pathogens of strawberry

    • Authors: HARENDER RAJ
      Pages: 402 - 406
      Abstract: Soil-borne diseases like crown rot (Rhizoctonia solani), southern blight (Sclerotium rolfsii) and wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. fragariae) are among the important diseases of strawberry. Comparative efficacy of polyethylene and biodegradable mulch was observed in solarization for 40 days in May-June on these pathogens. Biodegradable plastic mulch (BPM) was found slightly less effective with average maximum temperature of 36.9 and 39.1°C in comparison to 38.3 and 40.1°C in low density polyethylene mulch (LDPM) in 2008 and 2009, respectively. Soil solarization with BPM resulted in 96.6, 97.2 and 98.0% reduction in the viability of propagules/sclerotia of F. oxysporum f.sp. fragariae, S. rolfsii and R. solani in comparison to 100% reduction in viability with LDPM at 5 cm soil depth. These pathogens did not survive beyond 40°C in thermal sensitivity test in water bath.
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 4
  • Mycoflora and aflatoxin assessment of crude herbal drugs during storage in
           Haridwar, Uttarakhand, India

    • Authors: PINKEY KHATI
      Pages: 407 - 411
      Abstract: The present paper explores the association of mycoflora and aflatoxins with stored crude herbal drugs that are most commonly used in ayurvedic preparations. Total of 10 drug samples collected from different locations of Haridwar were analysed for mold profile, aflatoxins and microbial load. All the samples were found contaminated with one or more fungal genera such as Alternaria, Aspergillus, Fusarium, Chaetomium, Cladosporium Curvularia, Penicillium, Mucor, Rhizopus, Rhizoctonia and Verticillium. Among all the fungal isolates, Aspergillus flavus (23.60%) was isolated with highest frequency followed by A. niger (19.20%). Microbial load of all the samples was found beyond WHO limits. However, specific pathogenic bacteria Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp. were not reported during the present investigation. After aflatoxins analysis, presence of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) was proved in two samples. The present study suggests that detection of fungi and aflatoxins poses a risk for consumer’s health and it is necessary to check the herbal drugs before allowing distribution for public use.
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 4
  • Molecular characterization of Agaricus bisporus strains and their
           evaluation for production efficiency

    • Authors: VIJAY KUMAR*; B.C. SUMAN
      Pages: 412 - 417
      Abstract: Ten strains of Agaricus bisporus viz. DMRA-7, DMRA-9, DMRA-14, DMRA-37, DMRA-102, DMRA-103, DMRA-104, DMRA-121, DMRA-122 and U3, procured from different sources were evaluated for production efficiency. DMRA-7, recorded highest average yield of 20 kg per 100 kg compost followed by DMRA-37 (19.17 kg) and DMRA-102 (18.67 kg) based on the average yield of two crops. Strain DMRA-7, in addition to being high yielding also exhibited better morphological quality traits followed by strains DMRA-37, DMRA-102 and U3. The studies on production efficiency have been further supported by the results obtained from RAPD-PCR technology. Studies revealed that eight unique markers viz. OPP-3800, OPP-6700, OPP-6200, OPP-7900, OPP-7700, OPP-9500, OPP-19100 and OPP-19700 have been identified for strain DMRA-7, while only one unique marker OPP-10800 has been identified for control (U3). Sixteen primers amplified 57 RAPD markers, of which 67.92 per cent were polymorphic. Similarity coefficient obtained from RAPD analysis revealed that similarity among all the selected strains ranged between 45 to 76 per cent with an average of 60 per cent.
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 4
  • Integrated management of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) in

      Pages: 418 - 422
      Abstract: Root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) infection on potato crop is prevailing in many potato growing states including Gujarat in India and render 30-40% produce unfit for sale. An experiment on integrated management was conducted in nematode infested farmer field. The results of two years pooled data revealed that soil application of carbofuran @ 1 kg/ha (Furadan 3 G @ 33 kg/ha) along with bio agent P. lilacinus @ 5 kg/ha enriched with FYM (farm yard manure) at planting time recorded minimum numbers of wilted plants (0.2) with minimum nematode infected tubers (0.62 t/ha) with least root-knot index (0.44) in 0-5 scale. The same treatment also recorded significantly highest healthy tubers yield (23.91t/ha) with net realization of Rs. 33,375/ha giving ICBR 1: 9.60 over untreated control.
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 4
  • Optimum growth stage of wheat and triticale for evaluation of resistance
           against spot blotch

      Pages: 423 - 425
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 4
  • Lack of resistance in mungbean genotypes against urdbean leaf crinkle
           disease complex

      Pages: 426 - 427
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 4
  • Fruit drop of sapota (Manilkara zapota) and its management

    • Authors: M.S. JOSHI*; P.A. FUGRO J.J. KADAM
      Pages: 428 - 430
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 4
  • Cheiromoniliophora - A new generic record from India

    • Authors: R.C. GUPTA*; M.L. UPADHYAYA
      First page: 431
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 4
  • NEWS

    • Authors: RASHMI AGGARWAL
      First page: 432
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 4

    • Authors: Approaches; M. Sharma (ISBN: 978-81-7233-887-9)
      First page: 433
      Abstract: Approaches and Trends in Plant Disease Management - S. K. Gupta and M. Sharma (ISBN: 978-81-7233-887-9), Scientific Publishers (India), 5-A, New Pali Road, P. O. Box 91, Jodhpur 342001; 2014 India; pp429. Price Rs. 2150/-Spectacular progress has been made by India towards ensuring food security buoyed by an unprecedented production of 264 million tons of food grains and 283 million tons of horticultural commodities during 2013-14. This has largely come through area expansion and acceleration of agricultural crop production, besides substantial improvement in productivity. A voluminous gap still seems to exist between per unit area productivity in agriculture in India compared to the western world. Unless sustainability of the growth in food production is insured through continuous improvement in yields from the limited land, it would become extremely difficult for the country to ensure food security for the whopping population of 1.5 billion people by 2030. One of the challenges includes threat due to chronic as well as emerging plant pathogens on the sustainability of agricultural crop production throughout the world. Plant diseases on an average are estimated to cause yield reductions of almost 20 per cent in the principal food and cash crops worldwide. In the past decade, lot of information has been generated by plant pathologists on different aspects of plant diseases and their management options. The book entitled “Approaches and Trends in Plant Disease Management” is an excellent compilation of articles written by knowledgeable and experienced Plant Pathologists of India. In all there are 20 articles each composed in the form of individual chapters dealing with information on the latest developments in the disease management approaches for better, sustainable and environmentally safe disease management strategies. The articles include topics from cultural practices, host-resistance, biological control, integrated disease management, chemical control to molecular markers and biotechnological approaches, each composed pragmatically for sustainable management of plant diseases. The book also contributed few chapters on status and management of some chronic diseases of economic importance to the country. The information has been augmented with coloured photographs, bar diagrams, flow diagrams, tables, microscopic details etc.While I congratulate the contributors for sharing their rich thoughts, they may have improved their articles with some more recent information through literature search. The editors (SK Gupta and Monica Sharma) have done a real good job and possibly could have done better by including some topics on endophytes and nanotechnology in plant disease management. The book provides effective and comprehensive information for researchers, students, teachers and planners regarding present status and possible future strategies in holistic plant disease management. It should find a well-deserved place in the libraries of different institutes and universities engaged in teaching and research in agriculture. Pranjib ChakrabartyAssistant Director General (Plant Protection)ICAR, Krishi Bhawan,Dr Rajendra Prasad RoadNew Delhi 110001
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 4

    • Authors: RASHMI AGGARWAL
      First page: 434
      Issue No: Vol. 67, No. 4
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