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Publisher: Indian Council of Agricultural Research   (Total: 6 journals)

Fishery Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian Horticulture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Indian J. of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.276, h-index: 15)
Indian J. of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 14)
Indian J. of Fisheries     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.222, h-index: 4)
Indian Phytopathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal Cover   Indian Phytopathology
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 0367-973X - ISSN (Online) 2248-9800
   Published by Indian Council of Agricultural Research Homepage  [6 journals]
  • Survey, Incidence, Symptomatology and Serological Identification of Papaya
           leaf curl virus in Eastern Uttar Pradesh

    • Authors: D.K. DUBEY; A.K. TIWARI* P.P. UPADHYAY
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1
       
  • Survey, Incidence, Symptomatology and Serological Identification of Papaya
           leaf curl virus in Eastern Uttar Pradesh

    • Authors: D.K. DUBEY; A.K. TIWARI* P.P. UPADHYAY
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1
       
  • Survey, Incidence, Symptomatology and Serological Identification of Papaya
           leaf curl virus in Eastern Uttar Pradesh

    • Authors: D.K. DUBEY; A.K. TIWARI* P.P. UPADHYAY
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1
       
  • Survey, Incidence, Symptomatology and Serological Identification of Papaya
           leaf curl virus in Eastern Uttar Pradesh

    • Authors: D.K. DUBEY; A.K. TIWARI* P.P. UPADHYAY
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1
       
  • Survey, Incidence, Symptomatology and Serological Identification of Papaya
           leaf curl virus in Eastern Uttar Pradesh

    • Authors: D.K. DUBEY; A.K. TIWARI* P.P. UPADHYAY
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1
       
  • Survey, Incidence, Symptomatology and Serological Identification of Papaya
           leaf curl virus in Eastern Uttar Pradesh

    • Authors: D.K. DUBEY; A.K. TIWARI* P.P. UPADHYAY
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1
       
  • Survey, Incidence, Symptomatology and Serological Identification of Papaya
           leaf curl virus in Eastern Uttar Pradesh

    • Authors: D.K. DUBEY; A.K. TIWARI* P.P. UPADHYAY
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1
       
  • Survey, Incidence, Symptomatology and Serological Identification of Papaya
           leaf curl virus in Eastern Uttar Pradesh

    • Authors: D.K. DUBEY; A.K. TIWARI* P.P. UPADHYAY
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1
       
  • Trichoderma – Genetics, Genomics and Beyond

    • Authors: PRASUN K. MUKHERJEE
      Abstract: The Trichoderma spcies are widely used in agriculture as biofungicides and plant growth promoters. There are more than 200 species that are taxonomically well defined. Like other fields of biology, research on Trichoderma has also reaped the benefits of advances in genomics, with more than seven species having been sequenced. Apart from agriculture and industry, medical science can also benefit from Trichoderma genomics, as these fungi could be a very important source of many novel, yet to be discovered, bioactive secondary metabolites. Here, recent advances made on Trichoderma genetics and genomics have been summarized, and outlined how research and application on Trichoderma could be useful by these new developments.
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1
       
  • Chaetomium globosum: A potential biocontrol agent and its mechanism of
           action

    • Authors: RASHMI AGGARWAL
      Abstract: India with diverse soil and climate comprising several agro-ecological regions provides ample opportunity to grow a variety of crops and these crops form a significant part of total agricultural produce in the country. More than 70% of all major crop diseases are caused by fungi. These pathogens perpetuate through seed, crop residue and soil. Considering the nature of the disease, control measures are directed towards host resistance and fungicidal control. Breeding for disease resistance has also been not successful in many cases due to non-availability of sources of resistance. Chemical control measures have shown promise but are not considered economical and eco-friendly since, their large scale use has been responsible for the undesirable effects such as persistence, bioaccumulation, biomagnification, toxicity, pathogen resistance, secondary pest outbreak and destruction of the non-target organisms. These have necessitated looking for alternative approaches, such as biological control.
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1
       
  • Development of seed coating formulation using consortium of Bacillus
           subtilis OTPB1 and Trichoderma harzianum OTPB3 for plant growth promotion
           and induction of systemic resistance in field and horticultural crops

    • Authors: S.P. MOHAN KUMAR; P. CHOWDAPPA* V. KRISHNA
      Abstract: An experiment was conducted to develop seed-coating formulation using microbial consortium of Bacillus subtilis OTPB1 and Trichoderma harzianum OTPB3. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cv. Arka vikas was used as the model crop to study the efficacy of formulation on growth promotion and induction of systemic resistance. The microbial consortium led to a significant increase (p < 0.01) in all growth parameters of tomato seedlings compared to stand alone treatments of B. subtilis OTPB1 and T. harzianum (OTPB3) and the control. Defence related enzymes such as polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase activities were significantly (P<0.01) higher by 56.7, 69.7 and 55.5%, respectively in tomato seedlings treated with formulation compared to other treatments and the control. The lesion size caused by Alternaria solani and Phytophthora infestans on intact tomato leaves were significantly reduced by 78.7 and 82.1% respectively in microbial consortium formulation treated seedlings. When microbial consortium formulation evaluated against vegetable crops (brinjal, beans, bitter gourd, bottle gourd, cabbage, chilli, carrot, cauliflower, pumpkin, ridged gourd), and fruit crop (papaya in plastic trays in glass house) and tuber crops (potato) and ginger and turmeric under field conditions, significant increase in growth parameters under greenhouse conditions and growth parameters and yield under field were recorded. This study, therefore, assumes significance in production of disease free quality vegetable transplants and enhancement of yield in potato, ginger and turmeric.
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1
       
  • Integration of organic and inorganic amendments with native bioagents for
           bio-intensive management of vascular bacterial wilt of eggplant

    • Authors: P.P. GHOSH; S. DUTTA* A. CHATTOPADHY
      Abstract: The potentiality of bio-control consortium and organic/inorganic soil amendments as the major component of bio-intensive management strategy of Ralstonia solanacearum induced vascular bacterial wilt of eggplant in New Alluvial region of West Bengal was studied. The study of in vitro antagonistic potentiality of native rhizospheric fluorescent pseudomonads revealed that PF-3, followed by PF-2 produce the highest inhibition zone 5.19 mm and 4.26 mm, respectively. Further only PF-2 was able to inhibit all the R. solanacearum isolates. Among different organic amendments tested, green manuring with dhaincha leaf (25 q/ha)and application of neem cake (500 kg/ha) one month before transplanting were the most effective treatment in terms of disease reduction by 42.3% and 41.57%, respectively, over control. Among the different inorganic amendments, application of bleaching powder (20 kg/ha) followed by lime (500 kg/ha), one month before transplanting, were the most effective treatments in terms of disease reduction up to 44.91% and 28.04%, respectively over control. The integration module constituting green manuring with dhaincha leaf (25 q/ha)+ Bleaching (20 kg/ha) + Lime (500 kg/ha) + consortium of fluorescent pseudomonads (PF-2 & PF-3) (seedling treatment and soil spot application) was the best performer among seven different modles, both in terms of disease reduction (72.25%) and enhancement of yield (11.8 t/ha) over control. The present investigation indicated that the exploitation of biodiversity with organic and inorganic amendment towards assistance for preferential adaptation of native biological consortia is indeed able to suppress this versatile complex pathogen.
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1
       
  • Biology and epidemiology of Telletia indica inducing Karnal bunt (partial
           bunt) of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in arid regions

    • Authors: BAHRAM MANSOORI
      Abstract: The wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) fields were surveyed during April-May 2007, 2008, 2012 and 2013, to see the incidence of Karnal bunt of wheat (Kb) caused by Tilletia indica in south of Iran.  The assessments of disease indicated that there were no teliospores in soils. The experiments have been conducted to investigate a substitute for teliospore which survive and produce secondary sporidia. In vitro of teliospores on water agar, a type of tiny translucent spores, were seen to reproduce by budding on lids of Petri dishes several weeks after germination. Floccose colonies producing allantoids sporidia were initiated after mounting the lids over fresh potato dextrose agar medium. On dehydrated colonies of fungus initiated from teliospores on water agar, kept for a period of 2 years at dry condition (10-14% RH; 10-45°C), small radiated colonies were seen to be formed producing secondary sporidia under humidity provided from a piece of moistened cotton wool. Similar tiny spores were captured on slides used as trap mounted over the samples of teliospores free soils under humid conditions. While a number of tiny spores germinated into colonies producing secondary sporidia, numerous secondary sporidia were also seen on the traps among tiny spores which seemed to be released and deposited on slides from soil. Thus, results indicated that wheat fields have been infested through decades by a moiety of T. indica; so called minisporidia, providing secondary sporidia to initiate disease at favorite conditions in South of Iran.
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1
       
  • Development of disease resistant bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) line
           in background of PBW 343 and genetics of Karnal bunt-free trait

    • Authors: RITU BALA; SATISH KUMAR, NAVTEJ SINGH BAINS INDU SHARMA*
      Abstract: The KBRL 57, a Karnal bunt (KB) free stock of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed from a cross between Aldan and H567.71. Both lines are resistant to KB disease. This stock was used as a donor to introgress the KB resistance into PBW 343, the most widely-grown wheat cultivar in India. The introgression was done using conventional backcrossing method along with artificial inoculation with KB fungus. The KB-free and KB-affected plants in each backcross generation as well as F2, was recorded after artificial inoculation. The segregation of lines into KB - free and KB - affected in all the generations clearly indicated two independently segregating, dominant genes which jointly confer the KB resistance.
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1
       
  • Evaluation of yield losses and management practices of false smut in rice
           (Oryza sativa L.)

    • Authors: SNEHLATA KUMARI; J. KUMAR*
      Abstract: Of the 24 rice varieties evaluated from different rice-growing areas in Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh, incidence of false smut disease ranged from 5.0-48.76%, while yield loss was 0.82-17.09%. Among these, hybrids were found to be more prone to false smut. Maximum disease incidence was observed in hybrids, PA 6444 (48.76%), followed by PSD-3 (32.81%) and PRH 10 (28.94%) with maximum yield loss of 17.09% in PA 6444. Field trials were conducted during 2012 and 2013 to test efficacy of new fungicides against false smut. The spraying of Propiconazole @ (0.1%) with first spray at booting stage and second an interval of 10 days was most effective. Similarly, Trifloxystrobin + Tebuconazole (0.04%), Hexaconazole (0.1%), Carbendazim (0.1%) and Kreoxim methyl (0.1%) significantly reduced its incidence compared with the control. All fungicides were effective when applied at boot stage, except kreoxim methyl, which was found to be more effective when applied at heading stage.
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1
       
  • Isolation technique and culture conditions of false smut pathogen
           (Ustilaginoidea virens) of rice

    • Authors: MATHEW S. BAITE*; R.K. SHARMA
      Abstract: False smut disease is caused by Ustilaginoidea virens (Cooke) Takahashi, on rice. It has become a serious pest in almost all rice growing areas in the world. The conditions for successful isolation of its pathogen in axenic cultures have been standardized and the growth conditions were optimized. The false smut balls were surface sterilized in 1% sodium hypochlorite solution followed by 70% ethanol wash for 1 min and repeated washing with sterilized distilled water. The fastest growth rate was achieved with potato sucrose agar medium having a pH of 6.0 at an incubation temperature of 27°C. Dark incubation was also found highly conducive for the growth of fungus compared to incubation in light. These conditions could be useful for the best isolation of the pathogen for different studies. Beside morphological identification, the identity of the fungal pathogen was confirmed through ITS sequencing which showed up to 98 % identity with U. virens in NCBI-BLAST analysis. The cultural photographs of false smut pathogen of rice, U. virens, have been for the first time in India, very well illustrated and presented for visualization that will help in correct identification of the fungus. The proposed isolation technique coupled with information on optimization of culture conditions of U. virens will immensely contribute to further studies on this fungus and the disease in India.
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1
       
  • Genotypic variability in the isolates of Rhizoctonia solani from rice,
           maize and green gram

    • Authors: PANKAJ KUMAR MISHRA; ROBIN GOGOI*, PRADEEP KUMAR SINGH, JYOTILEKHA BORAH S.N. RAI
      Abstract: Molecular characterization of Rhizoctonia solani isolates of three hosts viz., rice, maize and green gram was done using three molecular markers viz., Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD), Universal Rice Primer (URP) and Internal Transcribed Spacer Region (ITS). The RAPD markers were found suitable for resolving the genetic polymorphism hidden among twenty two R. solani isolates. The phylogenetic analysis based on RAPD revealed three clusters comprising two major clusters of maize and rice and one minor cluster with four outliers of the isolates. The two green gram isolates PRS21 and PRS22 were clustered with the maize isolates. URP markers could not identify and clearly differentiate the isolates of R. solani. Although these markers could sparsely cluster the rice and maize isolates separately into two major clusters but many of the isolates were not clearly placed in any of these clusters. Both the green gram isolates clustered together with maize which was analogous to the RAPD results. The cluster analysis of full length ITS region formed four groups without any clear cut differentiation among the isolates and did not follow the pattern of RAPD and URP analyses.
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1
       
  • Characterization of Bipolaris maydis isolates of different maize cropping
           zones of India

    • Authors: ISHAR PAL; VIMLA SINGH*, ROBIN GOGOI, K.S. HOODA NAMITA BEDI
      Abstract: Present investigation was undertaken to study the cultural, morphological and pathogenic variability of twelve isolates of Bipolaris maydis from different maize cropping zones of India. The isolates showed considerable variability in their cultural characteristics, morphology and pathogenicity to Zea mays. All the isolates produced dark coloured, fusoid conidia, measured 6.14-23.41 µm x 2.15-5.70 µm. The conidia of MDCh1 isolate was largest (19.6 µm x 5.0 µm) whereas MUCh3 isolate produced smallest (9.7 x 3.3 µm) conidia. The average number of septa varied from 2-8. The isolate MLCh1 showed highest number of septa (5.0).  Isolate MDCh1 (Delhi) showed maximum colony diameter and, MLCh1 (Ludhiana), the minimum. However, growth on different culture media, revealed that, the isolates MKCh1 (Kangra), MDCh1 (Delhi) and MUCh6 (Udaipur) registered highest colony growth on PDA, Richard's agar and Water agar respectively while MLCh1 (Ludhiana) registered minimum colony growth on both PDA and Richard's agar media, MPCh1 (Pantnagar) showed minimum colony growth on Water agar media. The colour of the mycelium of specific isolates varied between media. In a majority of the isolates, the colour was black ranging from light black, light grey, light green, grey etc. The colony texture rough to smooth, regular to irregular margin with or without zonation was observed. Pathogenicity test of the isolates conducted under glasshouse conditions revealed that the MKCh1 isolate was highly virulent with the highest disease score (3.6) in susceptible hybrid line and MUCh3 as the least virulent with disease score of 1.4 only. Apparently, all the isolates of B. maydis were virulent under glasshouse conditions.
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1
       
  • Minimization of floret infection by fungi causing grain mold in sorghum
           (Sorghum bicolor L.) through use of fungicides

    • Authors: C. GOVARDHAN; I.K. DAS*
      Abstract: Field experiments were conducted with four popular grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) cultivars that included two each of varieties and hybrids to evaluate the efficacy of fungicides for minimization of floret infection by grain mold fungi during two successive rainy seasons of 2012 and 2013 at Hyderabad. The spraying of fungicides (name''''') at 80% anthesis significantly lessened seed-borne infection at milk stage and grain mold severity at maturity. Propiconazole was found to be the most effective fungicides that reduced fungal infection frequency and grain mold severity in sorghum. It reduced 65% of Fusarium, 89% of Curvularia and 67% of total fungal infection on milk stage grain compared to the control. The study will provide valuable information for resistant breeding programme against specific grain mold pathogen.
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1
       
  • Assessing genetic polymorphism of isolates of Peronosclerospora sorghi
           causing downy mildew on maize (Zea mays) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) by
           RAPD method

    • Authors: Y. SIREESHA; R. VELAZHAHAN*
      Abstract: Downy mildew, caused by Peronosclerospora sorghi (Weston & Uppal) Shaw, is an economically important disease of maize (Zea mays L.) and sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] in India. The isolates of P. sorghi infecting sorghum and maize are difficult to distinguish from each other using morphologic criteria. However, there is wide variability in pathogenic and molecular characters among isolates of P. sorghi from maize, sorghum and wild sorghum. Therefore, studies were undertaken to assess the genetic variability in isolates of P. sorghi causing downy mildew on maize and sorghum by RAPD method during 2013 at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore. A total of 65 reproducible RAPD bands were obtained with 15 selected primers on 11 isolates of P. sorghi tested. Each primer yielded on an average of 6 RAPD fragments and molecular size of amplicons ranged from 250 bp to 2.0 kb. The 11 isolates were grouped into two main clusters (A and B) on the basis of cluster analysis of the pooled data for all 15 primers using unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA). All the maize and sorghum isolates were grouped together in cluster A and cluster B respectively, confirming the genetic diversity among the isolates infecting both maize and sorghum.
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1
       
  • Evaluation of exotic potato genotypes for late blight [Phytophthora
           infestans (Mont.) de Bary] resistance

    • Authors: A.K. SRIVASTAVA; T.K. BAG, M.S. GURJAR*, VINAY BHARDWAJ, SANJEEV SHARMA B.P. SINGH
      Abstract: Eighty eight genotype accessions of potato imported from fifteen different countries were evaluated for long stable late blight resistance at Central Potato Research Station, Shillong from the year 2006 to 2010. Under laboratory testing, eight lines were found resistant, 11 moderately resistant and 72 lines susceptible while under field testing under natural epiphytotic conditions, 11 accessions were found to be resistant, 18 moderately resistant and 62 susceptible to late blight. Fifty nine lines exhibited late blight resistance at par while the rest exhibited different reaction under both laboratory and field testing. The average relative AUDPC value ranged from 11.86 (CP 2163) to 83.14 (CP 2294) among exotic accessions while it was 10.5 in resistant check (K. Girdhari). Potato accessions viz. CP 1722, CP 2000, CP 2011, CP 2163 and CP 2379 which showed resistance against late blight both under laboratory and field conditions were shortlisted. These accessions possess acceptable tuber traits having medium to profuse flowering with high pollen fertility and can be used as donor parents for incorporating late blight resistance genes to develop new potato varieties.
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1
       
  • Mass sporulation technique in Alternaria solani causing early blight of
           tomato (Solanum lycopersicum)

    • Authors: S.M. YADAV; VINEETA SINGH* RAMESH CHAND
      Abstract: The studies were carried out assess the effect of moisture, light, darkness and UV light on conidial production of Alternaria solani, causing early blight in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). The sporulation of Alternaria solani is often reduced when test pathogen is cultivated in vitro on grain-based media. The study was done on five grains media (wheat, sorghum, barley, maize and pearlmillet) to assess the effect of moisture, light quality, darkness quality and UV light on conidial production. Excellent colonization with sporulation (4.50 x 103) was found with sorghum grains at 25±2°C after 30 DAI (days after incubation). The varying moisture content of substrates gave diversified colonization and sporulation of test pathogen on sorghum grain-based media. Ten g grains: 8 ml water gave best sporulation (1.00 x 104). This technique is a cost-effective, rapid and reliable since it does not require use of agar and chemicals. Of the five most virulent isolates used for spore production on sorghum grains, Asv-2 gave maximum sporulation (1.0 x 104) at 30 days after incubation. The pathogen produced maximum spores (5800 spore/ml on PDA and 5600 spore/ml on PDB) under UV light exposure for 20 second. Maximum spore concentration of 5.9 x 103/ml was observed in 24 hr light coupled with 24 hr dark along with 30 minutes exposure to sun on PDA.
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1
       
  • Status, identification of resistant sources and epidemiology of early
           blight of tomato in Jammu division of Jammu and Kashmir

    • Authors: SUNITA RANI; RANBIR SINGH, SACHIN GUPTA* SIDDARTH DUBEY AND V.K. RAZDAN SUNITA RANI, RANBIR SINGH, SACHIN GUPTA* SIDDARTH DUBEY AND V.K. RAZDAN
      Abstract: Field surveys conducted during 2011 and 2012 revealed the presence of early blight disease (Alternaria solani) of tomato in all the vegetable growing areas of Jammu division of Jammu and Kashmir. The disease intensity and incidence varied from 21.66 to 34.13 per cent and 10.48 to 18.56 per cent respectively. Progression of early blight disease in fifteen genotypes of tomato in relation to different resistance components, viz. size of spot, disease index was studied under field and artificial conditions. Area under disease progress curve (AUDPC) calculated for field studies showed maximum AUDPC of 582.55 exhibited by Pusa Ruby. Three varieties viz. CO3, Tomato Cherry and Heem Sohna were found moderately resistant while Pusa Ruby, P-2, Indam Vaishali were found susceptible under field and artificial conditions. Maximum lesion (11.33 mm) was recorded in Pusa Ruby and minimum (4.3 mm) in CO3 under artificial conditions. Weather factors (temperature, humidity and rainfall) were found to play a significant role in the development of early blight of tomato. Disease showed a progressive increase and maximum disease intensity was observed in the 21th standard week in the variety Pusa Ruby and minimum severity (12.42%) in CO3 during the same week. The per cent disease intensity exhibited significant and positive simple correlation with minimum and maximum temperature and significant and negative correlation with maximum relative humidity. However, rainfall and minimum relative humidity showed non significant positive and negative correlation respectively. Stepwise regression equation was drawn for the disease prediction.
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1
       
  • Variability in Phytophthora nicotianae var. nicotianae causing leaf blight
           and fruit rot of capsicum in North-west Himalayas

    • Authors: JAYA CHAUDHARY*; D.K. BANYAL P.N. SHARMA
      Abstract: This study reports the information on cultural, pathogenic and molecular diversity in Phytophthora nicotianae var. nicotianae associated with leaf blight and fruit rot of capsicum in Himachal Pradesh, a North-Western Himalayan state of India. 25 isolates of P. nicotianae var. nicotianae collected from diverse capsicum growing areas of Himachal Pradesh were categorized into 7 morpho-cultural groups based on colony characteristics like type of growth, colony colour, shape, colony margins and zonation. Pathogenic variability determined on an indigenous differential set comprising of 10 capsicum genotypes, grouped the test isolates into 10 pathogroups without any congruence with the morpho-cultural groups. Genetic diversity analysis using Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) primers and UPGMA cluster analysis distinguished the 25 isolates into two major clusters (Cluster I & Cluster II) with a similarity coefficient 88 %. Cluster I comprised of 19 isolates and cluster II contained 6 isolates. Further, Cluster I and Cluster II were distinctly subdivided into 6 and 2 subgroups, respectively. Pathogenic and ISSR data clustered majority of isolates according to their geographical locations. In the present investigation high variability was observed among P. nicotianae var. nicotianae populations in North-West Himalayas.
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1
       
  • Studies on eco-farmer-friendly practices for management of soft rot of
           ginger (Zingiber officinale)

    • Authors: N. P. DOHROO*; SANDEEP KANSAL NEHA AHLUWALIA
      Abstract: An experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of integrated module of chemicals and non-chemicals against soft rot disease in ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) at Dr Y.S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, during 2011-12 and 2012-13. The in vitro study on mycelial growth inhibition of Pythium aphanidermatum revealed that among different antagonists evaluated Trichoderma harzianum proved most potent bioagent in limiting growth of the pathogen of soft rot of ginger. The two years field study indicated that rhizome treatment in hot water at 47ºC for 30 min and soil application of T. harzianum @ 2.5 kg/ 50 kg FYM/ha, followed by need-based drenching of Mancozeb @ 0.25% was most effective in limiting the incidence of soft rot on ginger besides having their significant response in improving the growth and yield.
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1
       
  • Prevalence and management of Coniella granati leaf spot and dry fruit rot
           in pomegranate (Punica granatum)

    • Authors: NEELAM KUMARI*; VED RAM AND I.M. SHARMA NEELAM KUMARI*, VED RAM AND I.M. SHARMA
      Abstract: The per cent disease index (PDI) of leaf spot and dry fruit rot in pomegranates (Punica granatum L.) caused by Coniella granati (Sacc.) Petrak and Sydow varied from 11.8 to 25.1% on leaves and 12.6 to 39.8% on fruits in Himachal Pradesh. The In vitro evaluation showed that systemic fungicides, viz. Difenoconazole, Hexaconazole, Carbendazim, Propiconazole, Pyraclostrobin, Kresoxim methyl and Flusilazole at 50 ppm, combi-products, namely Carbendazim (12%) + Mancozeb (63%), Hexaconazole (5%) + Captan (70%), Metiram (55%) + Pyraclostrobin (5%), Carbendazim (25%) + Iprodione (25%), Metiram, Captan and Copper oxychloride at 250 ppm concentration provided complete inhibition of fungal growth. Similarly, out of eight bio-resources, vermiwash and mixture of cow urine + Melia azadirach + Vitex negundu + Artimesia roxburghiana + Juglans regia + Azadirachta indica in equal proportion at 5% concentration also inhibited completely fungal growth. Among five biocontrol agents, Bacillus subtilis and Trichoderma harzianum gave maximum growth inhibition of C. granati under in vitro conditions. Field evaluation for two consecutive years (2012-13) revealed that Propiconazole (0.05%) and Carbendazim (0.05%) were highly effective, providing 89.9, 90.7% and 89.5, 90.3% disease control on leaves and fruits, whereas Hexaconazole + Captan (0.1%), Pyraclostrobin (0.05%), Difenoconazole (0.02%) were next best fungicides. Both Propiconazole and Carbendazim are systemic fungicides with protective and curative action.
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1
       
  • Evaluation of chemicals and bioagents against Sclerotium rolfsii causing
           Southern bight of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

    • Authors: M. NARAYANA BHAT*; H.R. SARDANA, DINESH SINGH, CHITRA SRIVASTAVA MOBIN AHMAD
      Abstract: The experiment was conducted to evaluate chemicals and bioagents against Sclerotium rolfsii causing southern blight of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) during 2010-11 and 2011-12 at Karnal, Haryana. Southern blight on bell pepper is an emerging disease in Haryana. Trichoderma harzianum isolates 1 and 5 and T. viride isolates 1 and 3 inhibited mycelial growth by > 60% and completely inhibited sclerotial production in vitro. Strobulirin, triazole and carboxamides had ED 50 < 0.5 µg/ml against S. rolfsii in vitro. Selected bioagents reduced disease incidence by 15.5-37.5 % and increased the yield by 14.8-30.3 % under field conditions.
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1
       
  • Developing strategies for integrated management of Phytophthora root rot
           and gummosis in kinnow mandarin

    • Authors: SHRI KISHAN BAIRWA; AKHILESH KUMAR SRIVASTAVA, PARDEEP KUMAR, ROOP SINGH MEENA, CHANDERBHAN RAMSWROOP KOLI
      Abstract: A field experiment was conducted during 2011-12 to 2013-14 for integrated management of Phytophthora root rot ad gummosis on Kinnow (Citrus reticulate Blanco). Among various treatments tried, bioagents based treatment of stem painting with Bordeaux paste (copper sulphate, lime and water in a 3:3:30 ratio), followed by application of Trichoderma viride (2 × 107 cfu/gm) at 100g + Pseudomonas fluorescens (2 × 108 cfu/gm) at 100g/- tree with carrier material FYM proved most effective which significantly (P≤0.05) recovered lesion size (22.82%) and reduced feeder root rot index (24.39%). Minimum fruit dropping (20.74%) and maximum fruit yield in terms of number of fruits (1084 fruit/tree) as well as fruit yield (212.84 kg/tree) were also recorded in this treatment and was significantly (P≤0.05) superior to the control. The treatment module of stem painting with Bordeaux paste followed by application of T. harzianum (2 × 107 cfu/g) at 100g/- tree + P. fluorescens (2 × 108 cfu/g) at 100g/- tree without carrier material was also found effective and next in order to manage this disease. The reduction in gummosis symptoms were observed mild to moderate in all treatments as compared to the control where severe gummosis occurred.
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1
       
  • Gene expression profiling of Arabidopsis thaliana chitinase genes in
           response to Alternaria brassicae challenge

    • Authors: N. CHANDRASHEKAR; S. ALI, S. RAWAT A. GROVER*
      Abstract: The experiment was conducted to understand the gene expression profile of ten Arabidopsis chitinase genes upon Arabidopsis-Alternaria brassicae pathogenesis, both locally as well as systemically. At3g12500 (Basic endochitinase), class I chitinase gene induced significantly in distal regions of infected plants. At3g16920 (Chitinase-like protein), member of class II chitinase induced 6 h post-inoculation both locally as well as distally. Among the four class IV, chitinase genes, At2g43590 (Chitinase family protein) displayed significant induction locally after infection. However, in distal regions, At2g43570 (Putative chitinase) and At3g47540 (Chitinase-like protein) showed visible differential expression profile. Among class V genes, At4g19810 (Glycosyl hydrolase superfamily protein) was the only gene to give significant expression profile locally and also systemically. The genes expressed locally are presumed to have catalytic function to cleave β-1, 4-glycoside bond present in biopolymers of N-acetylglucosamine of chitin layer in fungal cell wall and can be candidate genes for imparting PAMP triggered immunity (PTI) and effector triggered immunity (ETI). The genes having significant expression profile for different time intervals upon A. brassicae challenge systemically, viz. At3g12500, At2g43590, At2g47540 and At4g19810, which are considered to be as excellent candidates of induced systematic resistance (ISR). The information obtained would be utilized for characterization of pathogen inducible chitinase promoters and development of transgenic plants for fungal resistance and can also be used to dissect transcription factors interacting with these genes in the signaling cascades.
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1
       
  • Characterization of multilocus genes and RFLP analysis of phytoplasmas
           associated with sesame (Sesamum indicum) phyllody disease in North India

    • Authors: SAJAD UN NABI*; MADHUPRIYA, DURGESH DUBEY, G.P. RAO, V.K. BARANWAL P. SHARMA
      Abstract: The sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) phyllody infected fields in three states, viz. Delhi, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar in India were surveyed during July-October 2013. There was 15-35% incidence of sesame phyllody (SP) and witches’ broom (WB) disease in different fields. The phytoplasma etiology of SP and WB disease was confirmed using nested polymerase chain reaction with phytoplasma specific primers (P1/P6 and R16F2n/R16R2) for amplification of a fragment of ~1.5 and ~ 1.25 kb of 16SrRNA gene. Amplification was also done for sec A, tuf and groEL genes either in nested PCR or direct PCR using previously published primers. Sequencing of amplified product of 16SrRNA, secA, tuf and groEL genes was done. The BLAST analysis and phylogenetic analysis of  16Sr RNA and secA gene sequences revealed that phytoplasma was associated with SP and WB isolates in all the  three states belonged to ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris’ (16SrI) and ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia’ (16Sr II) groups. However, tuf and groEL gene specific primers could not distinguish SP and WB isolates into different group level status. In silico restriction enzyme digestion of 1.25 kb product of  16SrDNA gene sequence of SP and WB phytoplasma with BamHI, BfaI, EcoRI, HhaI, HpaII, RsaI, AluI, HaeIII, TaqI restriction enzymes and virtual iphyclassifier analysis further classified SP and WB isolates into 16Sr I-B and 16Sr II-C subgroups. Our study confirmed that SP and WB isolates from Uttar Pradesh belonged to 16Sr I-B and 16Sr II-C subgroups. However, isolates from Delhi and Bihar belonged to 16Sr I-B subgroup.
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1
       
  • Extracellular polysaccharides production underlining aggressiveness of
           rice bacterial blight pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae

    • Authors: MANDEEP SINGH HUNJAN*; PUSHPINDER PAUL SINGH JAGJEET SINGH LORE
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1
       
  • Evaluation of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) germplasm for identification of
           resistant source to Puccinia recondita, incitant of brown rust of wheat

    • Authors: NISAR A. DAR*; S.K. SINGH, RAYEES A. AHANGER, V.K. RAZDAN HILAL A. BHAT
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1
       
 
 
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