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Publisher: Indian Council of Agricultural Research   (Total: 6 journals)   [Sort by number of followers]

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Fishery Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian Horticulture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Indian J. of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.238, h-index: 18)
Indian J. of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.233, h-index: 16)
Indian J. of Fisheries     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.154, h-index: 5)
Indian Phytopathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal Cover Indian Phytopathology
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   ISSN (Print) 0367-973X - ISSN (Online) 2248-9800
   Published by Indian Council of Agricultural Research Homepage  [6 journals]
  • Bacterial wilt of solanaceous crops: Diagnosis, diversity and management

    • Authors: DINESH SINGH
      Abstract: Wilt disease of solanaceous caused by bacterial pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum (Smith) Yabuuchi et al. (1995) is a major devastating soil borne disease in the world, limiting the production of solanaceous vegetable crops, and affecting more than 450 plant species. The loss due to this disease is very high, ranging from 2 to 100% depending on environmental conditions and crops. The affected plants show a typical wilt symptoms and browning of vascular tissue in roots stems and tubers. The pathogen is a gram -ve, rod shaped, frequently occurs in pairs, motile with 1 to 4 polar flagella, aerobic, non-fluorescent, positive in catalase and oxidase tests and forms nitrites from nitrates and negative in levan production and starch hydrolysis. Virulent isolates on 2,3,5-Triphenyl Tetrazolium Chloride (TTC) medium develop fluidal, irregular colonies having peripheral white and pinkish in centre. The optimum growth of the bacterium on artificial medium occurs at temperature of 28 to 32oC. In India, race 1 and bvs 3 and 4 are prevalent in tomato chilli capsicum and brinjal. However, race 1 and 3 infect the potato. Presently, R. solanacearum strains are categorized into four genetic groups called phylotypes which reflect the geographical origin and also ancestral relationships between the strains. Besides cultural, morphological and biochemical tests, sero-diagnostic like ELISA (Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), immunofluorescent cell staining, lateral flow devices, serological kits are applied for detecting R. solanacearum from infected plant, tubers and soil. For detecting R. solanacearum, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based techniques are usually applied using amplification of ribosomal sequences (16S RNA) and other conserved genes of bacteria. To improve the sensitivity, various modifications have been made like enrichment in SMSA broth, nutrient broth or CPG broth to allow bacteria to multiply prior to do conventional PCR, called as BIO-PCR and two round PCR as nested- PCR. Multiplex-PCR protocols have been developed to simultaneously detect either R. solanacearum and E. carotovora subsp. carotovora or Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepodonicus from tubers of potato and also R. solanacearum along with Xanthomonas perforans in tomato. Management of bacterial wilt disease of solanaceous crops is very difficult due to its soil borne nature. Different workers throughout the world have made efforts to control this disease by using cultural, chemical, biological and host resistance methods, either alone or in combination of these methods.
      PubDate: 2017-05-25
      DOI: 10.24838/ip.2017.v70.i2.70607
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 2 (2017)
  • Seed bio-priming in the management of seed- and soil-borne diseases

    • Authors: R.N. PANDEY
      Abstract: The use of pesticides in agriculture is restricted due to environmental and health hazards. However, pests need to be managed to harvest healthy crops. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the developed countries encourage the management of the plant diseases and pests through   biological control by using the appropriate, efficient and quality bioagents. The bioagents viz. Trichoderma  harzianum, T. viride, T. virens, T. atroviride, T. koningii, Paecilomyces lilacinus and Pseudomonas fluorescens, etc have been proved effective for the management of the seed- and soil borne plant pathogens/ diseases. Different workers have worked out the mode of action of the bioagents. Molecular studies have shown that different genes in the bioagents are responsible for their efficiency to manage the pathogens and enhancing the plant growth. The bioagent like T. asperellum has been found to be entophyte in the plant system and perform very well for all these characters. Therefore, a large number of rhizospheric bioagent should be isolated and studies for useful characters of eco-friendly management of biotic and abiotic stresses. The method of use of the bioagents in plant health management should also be studied thoroughly, as seed bio- priming of the bioagents particularly Trichoderma spp. have been found quite effective to manage the plant pathogens and enhancing germination, seedling vigour, plant growth, etc. In the wake of climate change, the bioagents are the hope to overcome the biotic and abiotic stresses and ecofriendly and sustainable management of diseases and plant health. An attempt has been made to summarize the work carried out on seed priming by a different method in general and seed bio-priming in particular and has been presented in this article.
      PubDate: 2017-05-25
      DOI: 10.24838/ip.2017.v70.i2.70608
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 2 (2017)
  • Wheat blast - A new challenge to wheat cultivation in South Asia

      Abstract: Wheat blast or Brosone is caused by Magnaporthe oryzae pathotype Triticum (MoT) B.C. Couch (Anamorph Pyricularia oryzae Triticum). It is a recent disease of wheat originated in 1985 in Brazil and later reported from other countries like Bolivia, Uruguay, Paraguay and Argentina in South American (Iragashi et al.,1986; Prabhu et al.,1992, Perelló et al., 2015). During early 2016 had been reported to occur in Bangladesh (South Asia) (Malaker et al., 2016) in districts close to West Bengal borders of India. Wheat blast is not yet reported in India. The disease is categorized into most damaging diseases of wheat due to its multiple modes of survival (seed, secondary hosts, crop residue and airborne conidia), fast spread and damage to spikes thus causing losses ranging from 20-100%, development of resistance to fungicides, higher rate of mutation and lack of resistance in common wheat varieties. Goulart et al. (2007) reported an average loss of 3.87 q/ha (10.5%) in wheat yield, in the Embrapa Agropecuária Oeste experiment in Brazil while in Indápolis, the losses in grain yield were in the average 6.09 q/ ha (13%). The losses in spike weight were higher (63.4%) in the case of an early infection than with late infection (46.0%). The grains below the infection point in the rachis were larger than the normal ones and may partially compensate for the losses due to empty spikelets.
      PubDate: 2017-05-25
      DOI: 10.24838/ip.2017.v70.i2.70609
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 2 (2017)
  • Milk stage kernel infection frequency in kharif sorghum at grain mold
           prone locations in India

      Abstract: Milk stage kernel infection frequency has substantial effects on mold development in mature sorghum grain. Field experiments were conducted with 16 sorghum genotypes at four grain mold prone locations (Akola, Hyderabad, Dharwad and Surat) in India during kharif 2014 and 2015. The genotypes included grain mold susceptible, resistant, improved germplasm, breeding lines and released cultivars. The objective was to quantify natural infection frequency of fungi in milk stage kernel and study the response of various sorghum genotypes against this infection. Results revealed that Fusarium (16.1%) and Curvularia spp. (7.9%) were predominant fungal genera at the milk stage kernel at all the locations under study. Few other fungi namely Alternaria, Bipolaris, Aspergillus, and Penicillium spp. were detected sporadically in low frequency (≤0.95%). There was significant negative association between infection frequency of Fusarium and Curvularia especially when intensity of infection was moderate to high (>25%). The genotypes B58586, GMR156-1, GMR166-1, SGMRN12-3-1 and IS25070 were found promising with low intensity (average total infection<10%) of milk stage kernel infection across environments. The information can be useful for resistant breeding program against specific fungal component of grain mold.
      PubDate: 2017-05-25
      DOI: 10.24838/ip.2017.v70.i2.70611
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 2 (2017)
  • Pathogenic and genetic diversity among Alternaria alternata isolates of
           potato from Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh

      Abstract: Early blight of potato caused by species of Alternaria is one of the most important diseases of potato worldwide. The occurrence of A. solani and A. alternata varies from region to region. The samples were collected from Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh states of India during 2009 and 2010. The identity of all the isolates was confirmed as A. alternata by morphological characters and sequencing. PCR amplification using universal primers ITS 4 and ITS 5 resulted in an amplicon of 594 bp which showed high similarity with reference ITS sequences of A. alternata in GenBank. Analysis of sequences revealed presence of partial sequence of ITS 1 and ITS 2 and complete sequence of 5.8S rRNA gene. All the isolates of A. alternata showed 100% similarity among themselves (except ALT 43) and with other A. alternata isolates in the GenBank. Three major clusters each were obtained when isolates were genotyped for RAPD and for AFLP markers. Pathogenicity was proved by detached leaf inoculation method and all the isolates were found pathogenic with varying degree of aggressiveness. Isolates were grouped into four groups on the basis of aggressiveness. No correlation was observed between aggressiveness and the clusters made on the basis of genotyping.
      PubDate: 2017-05-25
      DOI: 10.24838/ip.2017.v70.i2.70614
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 2 (2017)
  • Antifungal efficacy of floral extracts, biocontrol agents and fungicides
           against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceri

      Abstract: The present investigation was conducted during 2011-2015 to evaluate the effectiveness of extracts of Marigold sp. (Tagetes erecta L.), Gaillardia sp. (Gaillardia pulchella), Chrysanthemum sp. (Chrysanthemum indicum) and Calotropis sp. (Calotropis gigantea) flowers, biocontrol agents and fungicides against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceri. Among the Pseudomonas fluorescens, Bacillus subtilis and Trichoderma harzianum tested by dual culture technique, P. fluorescens suppressed the colonisation of F. oxysporum f. sp. ciceri by 81.59%.The three fungicides viz., carbendazim (0.1%), metalaxyl (0.2%) and thiram (0.2%) were tested by poisoned food technique. Carbendazim @ 0.1% showed the highest effectiveness against F. oxysporum f. sp. ciceri. Seed treatment with P. fluorescens 10 g/kg seed + Trichoderma harzianum 4 g/kg seed + Marigold sp. (Tagetes erecta L.) floral water extract 4% proved highly effective in increasing seedling vigour index (3008.25) in chickpea in paper towel assay and was also effective to reduce incidence of Fusarium wilt (69.31%) under green house conditions.
      PubDate: 2017-05-25
      DOI: 10.24838/ip.2017.v70.i2.70615
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 2 (2017)
  • Assessment of wheat varieties for slow rusting and management of stripe
           rust caused by Puccinia striiformis

      Abstract: Fifty wheat varieties were screened under artificial epiphytotic conditions against stripe rust of wheat during Rabi, 2013-14. On the basis of final rust severity (FRS), AURPC (Area Under Rust Progress Curve), r (Infection Rate) and CI (Coefficient of Infection), 10 lines exhibited partial resistance against the disease. PCR profiles of fifty wheat varieties by the allele-specific primer (cssfr1) revealed distinct fragment of 517 bp in 23 varieties indicating the presence of Yr18 gene. Wheat varieties, PBW 343, DPW 621-50, RSP 561 and HD 2967 were used for testing five fungicides viz., Amistar Top, Quadrix, Score, Folicur and Tilt, each at 0.1 percent concentration. Amistar Top was found most effective in reducing the disease severity of stripe rust in PBW 343, followed by Quadrix, Score, Folicur and Tilt. The application of these fungicides also showed a significant increase in the grain yield, with maximum increase (33.58%) by Amistar Top in HD 2967 followed by Quadris, Score, Folicur and Tilt.
      PubDate: 2017-05-25
      DOI: 10.24838/ip.2017.v70.i2.70616
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 2 (2017)
  • Status of seed-borne fungi in some indigenous medicinal and aromatic
           plants conserved in National Gene Bank, India

      Abstract: During 2011-2015, seed health testing (SHT) of 880 accessions representing more than 60 crop species of medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) germplasm resulted in detection and identification of 17 fungal species belonging to 11 genera. Based on morphological key characteristics, various pathogens, namely Botrytis cinerea, Cephalosporium maydis, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Fusarium equiseti, F. oxysporum, F. semitectum, F. solani, F. verticillioides, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Macrophomina phaseolina, Melanospora zamiae, Myrothecium roridum, M. verrucaria, Phoma exigua var. exigua, P. sorghina, Ustilago coicis and Verticillium albo-atrum were recorded on 71 accessions (8.1%) of MAPs germplasm with varying level of seed infections (10-50%). Pathogen wise overall infection showed the highest infection share of U. coicis (44.4%) followed by P. sorghina (19.4%) and B. cinerea (11.1%) among 71 infected accessions. A perusal of literature indicated that detection of B. cinerea and M. roridum on Vernonia anthelmintica; C. maydis and M. verrucaria on Costus speciosus; C. gloeosporioides and M. phaseolina on Abroma augusta; F. equiseti on Origanum vulgare; F. verticillioides on C. speciosus, Mucuna pruriens and T. cucumerina; L. theobromae on C. speciosus, T.cucumerina and T. bracteata; P. exigua var. exigua on T.cucumerina; and P. sorghina on Coix lacryma-jobi, C. speciosus, Ochna lanceolata, Perilla frutescens, Tagetus patula, T. cucumerina and T. bracteata are new host records on MAPs germplasm from India. If such infected seeds are conserved and/or distributed for either research purpose or their commercial use, they may act as a source of inocula dissemination and hamper the cultivation of MAPs leading to losses in quality and yield. Therefore, detection of seed infection through seed health testing is important in conserving disease-free material so as to minimize the risk of spreading disease in the country.
      PubDate: 2017-05-25
      DOI: 10.24838/ip.2017.v70.i2.70617
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 2 (2017)
  • Biochemical basis of resistance in wheat against Karnal bunt caused by
           Tilletia indica

      Abstract: The biochemical basis of Karnal bunt resistance was evaluated in four resistant (ALDAN, CMH77.308, H567.71 and HP1531) and two susceptible (PBW343 and HD2967) genotypes. The parameters studied included total phenols and defense related enzymes (peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase and polyphenol oxidase). The level of total phenols and activity of the defense related enzymes was more in resistant as compared to the susceptible genotypes. However, there was variation within the resistant genotypes. Maximum level of total phenols was observed in CMH77.308 at 3 days after inoculation while maximum peroxidase activity was observed in H567.71 after 2 days of inoculation. The activity of polyphenol oxidase was highest after 3 days of inoculation in the resistant genotype HP1531 while maximum activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase was observed in H567.71 after 3 days of inoculations.
      PubDate: 2017-05-25
      DOI: 10.24838/ip.2017.v70.i2.70619
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 2 (2017)
  • Control of wilt complex in brinjal using chemical, microbial, soil
           amendments and integrated management

      Abstract: Wilt in brinjal has become more damaging in the red lateritic soil of Jharkhand due to the prevalence of Fusarium oxysporum and Ralstonia solanacearum making it wilt complex disease. Out of six organic amendments tested soil application of neem cake (@ 5q/ha) proved to be the most effective treatment to minimize wilt severity (26.30%) and increased fruit yield (19.23 kg/plot). Among the five fungicides viz; carbendazim, mancozeb, tricyclazole, blitox, oxathiin and streptocycline, seedling dip with mancozeb (@ 2.5g/l) was most effective and showed least wilt severity (24.21%) with highest fruit yield (21.59 kg/ plot) which was significantly at par with blitox-50. Among four bioagents viz; Trichoderma viride (TvD) Delhi isolate, Trichoderma harzianum Ranchi isolate(ThR), Trichoderma harzianum (ThD) Delhi isolate and Pseudomonas fluorescens Delhi (PfD) soil application of precolonized ThD proved to be most effective in reducing wilt severity (16.15%) and highest fruit yield (24.79 kg/plot)were recorded. In the integrated approach of chemicals with bioagents and organic amendments under field condition among all the combinations, minimum wilt severity (20.34%) was recorded in neem cake precolonized with ThD + seedling dip in blitox (0.3%) treatment and also found highest fruit yield (24.97 kg).
      PubDate: 2017-05-25
      DOI: 10.24838/ip.2017.v70.i2.70620
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 2 (2017)
  • Management of rhizome rot of ginger at farmers’ field in Jammu

    • Authors: SHAHID AHAMAD
      Abstract: Ginger is an important spice crop belonging to family Zingiberaceae. Rhizome rot of ginger caused by Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson) Fitz is a major constraint in the production of healthy rhizome, sometimes causing total failure of crop. The maximum disease incidence was recorded during Kharif-2015 i.e 55.25% while lowest disease incidence was recorded during Kharif-2014 i.e. 7.5% when rhizomes dip treatment was given with Mancozeb + Carbendazim along with drenching with Metalaxyl 40% WS @ 0.3% was given followed by T2- seed dip treatment with Mancozeb + Carbendazim. The mean disease incidence was recorded 9.0% in case of T3 (T2 + drenching with Metalaxyl 40% WS @ 0.3%) and maximum mean diseases incidence was recorded 45.37% in case of T1 - check. The mean maximum yield 132.5 q/ha was recorded in case of T3 (T2 + drenching with Metalaxyl 50% WS @ 0.3%) and minimum mean yield 82.5 q/ha was recorded in case of T1 - Check.
      PubDate: 2017-05-25
      DOI: 10.24838/ip.2017.v70.i2.70610
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 2 (2017)
  • Evaluation of chickpea genotypes against Fusarium wilt for resistant

      Abstract: Wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris is an important yield limiting disease of chickpea. Cultivation of resistant cultivars is an economical management option available for the disease. Six hundred sixty eight genotypes of chickpea were screened against F. oxysporum f. sp. ciceris in sick field for three years from 2013-14 to 2015-16 crop season. The genotypes SCGP-WR 28, H 10-05, GL 10023, IPC 2006-77 and CSJK 72 were found to be resistant and the genotypes H 09-70, H 08-25, H 10-16, DCP 92-3, GNG 1936 and Pusa 212 proved to be moderately resistant against the wilt. The remaining genotypes showed susceptible reaction against the disease. These genotypes could be cultivated as such or used as resistance source in breeding programme.
      PubDate: 2017-05-25
      DOI: 10.24838/ip.2017.v70.i2.70612
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 2 (2017)
  • Survival of Alternaria brassicicola in cryo-preserved Brassica spp. seeds
           for longer duration

      Abstract: Seed health testing of seven accessions of Brassica spp. conserved in the year 2001 at -180°C in liquid nitrogen at National GeneBank, ICAR-NBPGR, New Delhi resulted in detection of Alternaria brassicicola in three accessions of B. juncea, IC-113148, Pusa Bold and Prakash in the year 2015. Detection of A. brassicicola in cryopreserved Brassica seeds shows that the fungus can survive even at ultra-low temperature for a long duration.
      PubDate: 2017-05-25
      DOI: 10.24838/ip.2017.v70.i2.70613
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 2 (2017)
  • About the Journal

    • Authors: Indian Phytopathology
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 2
  • Revisiting the taxonomy of Colletotrichum using multi-locus gene phylogeny

    • Authors: P. CHOWDAPPA
      DOI: 10.24838/ip.2017.v70.i2.71166
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 2
  • Antifungal activity of gum-resin extracts of Boswellia serrata, Commiphora
           mukul, Gardenia resinifera and Shorea robusta against some plant
           pathogenic fungi

      Abstract: Resins are formed as oxidation products of various essential oils and are very complex and varied in chemical composition. They are usually secreted in definite cavities or passages. They frequently ooze out through the bark and harden on exposure to air.Resin production is widespread in nature and is reported from plants of Pinaceae, Araucariaceae, Umbelliferae, Dipterocarpaceae, Burseraceae, Rubiaceae and Sterculiaceae. Ethanolic extracts of gum resins of Boswellia serrata, Commiphora mukul, Gardenia resinifera and Shorea robusta were screened for their antifungal activity in vitro against phytopathogenic fungi, Aspergillus niger Tiegh., Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht., Nigrospora oryzae (Berk and Br.) Petch., Rhizoctonia solani J.G.Kuhn., and Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc and rot fungus Rhizopus stolonifer (Ehrenb.: Fr.) Vuill. The antifungal activity was tested by poisoned food technique. The results obtained showed that the growth of fungi, Rhizoctonia solani and S. rolfsii, was stimulated by all the resin extracts. Extracts of B. serrata and S. robusta caused no inhibition of mycelial growth of the fungi tested. It was observed that the resin extract of G. resinifera was the most effective against N. oryzae and showed 77.16% inhibition of mycelia growth of N. oryzae at the concentration of 111mg/ml.
      DOI: 10.24838/ip.2017.v70.i2.70752
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 2
  • Abundance, richness and diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi
           associated with different grass species in semiarid region

      Abstract: In arid and semiarid region grasses are most abundantly. Among herbaceous species, grasses play an important role in livestock feeding in the arid and semi-arid region, especially in water-limited conditions. In arid and semi-arid regions, grasses are more dominated in rangelands and highly dependent on mycorrhization. Root and rhizosphere soil of fifteen grass species were collected to study at Jhansi the root colonization and AM fungal spore population structure. The potential of AM fungal root colonization varied between highest 85.5 percent in C. ciliaris to lowest 16 percent in Paspalum notatum. AM fungal spore abundance (2394.1/100 g rhizosphere soil) was observed with grass species C. ciliaris. A total of 9 AM fungal species isolated and identified. Genus Glomus was the most abundant genus in all selected grass species. There is no clear relationship between root colonization potential and AM fungal spore abundance. All the grass species showed higher AM fungal diversity in their rhizosphere soil. It is clear from this study that grass species are dependent on AM fungal association and had species diversity in the natural ecosystem. Diversity and evenness in AM fungi across the grass species rhizosphere had no any significant relation, however, grass species had higher AM fungi species richness showed less evenness.
      DOI: 10.24838/ip.2017.v70.i2.70753
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 2
  • Molecular evidence for association of Papaya ringspot virus with papaya
           from North East Hill region of India

      Abstract: Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is a major bottleneck in papaya production globally. The incidence of PRSV was as high as 51% in West Tripura district of Tripura followed by Imphal West of Manipur (41.6%) exhibiting the typical symptoms of yellowing, vein clearing, mottling, severe blistering with distorted leaves and concentric rings on the fruits. The papaya cultivars RCTP 1, Red Lady and Manipur local exhibited typical symptoms of PRSV under sap inoculation. The typical flexuous particles of size 800 X 12 nm were observed in the electron microscope. The amplicons of size 350 bp were observed in RT-PCR using the primers derived from the conserved NIb region of Potyvirus genome. Two PRSV isolates from North East India (PRSV-Mnp1 and PRSV-Trp1) had maximum identity of 83.1 to 84 % with PRSV isolates from Thailand, Taiwan and Korea for conserved NIb genomic region. Phylogenetically PRSV isolates from North East India segregated to a distinct cluster compared to other isolates from different papaya growing regions of the world. It is the first molecular evidence for the association of PRSV with papaya from North-East region of India.
      DOI: 10.24838/ip.2017.v70.i2.70755
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 2
  • Management of lettuce rot caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lactucae in
           hydroponically grown crop using microbial consortia

      Abstract: Hydroponics or growing plants on mineral nutrient solutions without soil has many advantages, as the system has higher water and fertilizer use efficiency, and crop encounters very low pest and disease incidence which inevitably check the requirement of plant protection chemicals. However, recently few of the diseases caused by commonly observed pathogens in conventional soil based system have also been detected in hydroponic culture, bringing a serious risk to hydroponic crop production. The present investigation was made to assess the effectiveness of bio-intensive management of Fusarium rot of lettuce incited by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lactucae (FoL) under hydroponic culture tank system in Assam during 2014-2016. Three rhizosphere inhabiting microbial agents, viz., Trichoderma harzianum, Bacillus thuringiensis and Pseudomonas fluorescens were tested singly as well as in consortia against the pathogen. The microbial agent, T. harzianum exhibited comparatively high antagonistic activity showing highest suppression of FoL in vitro. In hydroponic tanks, T. harzianum applied as root application, showed lowest root infection (15.39%), leaf infection (18.09%) and overall lower disease incidence (17.29%) with highest crop growth attributes and yield. This was followed by treatment with consortia of T. harzianum and B. thuringiensis. The highest root infection (85.08%), leaf infection (70.02%), rot incidence (80.97%) and lowest yield (30.00g/plant) have been recorded in untreated lettuce plants in control tanks.
      DOI: 10.24838/ip.2017.v70.i2.70757
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 2
  • Identification and characterization of phytoplasma associated with brinjal
           little leaf, phyllody and witches’ broom disease in four states of India

      Abstract: Symptoms of little leaf, phyllody and witches’ broom on brinjal plants were recorded at New Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra and Chhattisgarh states of India in 2016. The disease incidence was recorded in the range 5-20% in different surveyed fields. PCR assays were performed using universal primers specific to the phytoplasma 16S rRNA gene: P1/P7 followed by 3F/3R which yielded 1.3 kb amplified products in nested PCR assays in eight symptomatic plants from all the four surveyed states but not from any healthy controls. Pairwise 16S rDNA sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis of BLL isolates revealed their close relationship with strains of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma trifolii' (16SrVI group). In silico RFLP analysis through pDraw32 program further confirmed subgrouping of the phytoplasma strains associated with brinjal little leaf and witches’ broom disease in 16SrVI-D subgroup. 
      DOI: 10.24838/ip.2017.v70.i2.70754
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 2
  • Influence of sowing time on efficiency of chemical and biological
           management of anthracnose of cowpea

    • Authors: RITU MAWAR*; D.K. BANYAL
      Abstract: Cowpea is grown in various agro-climatic zones of India for seed and fodder purposes. Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum dematium (Pers.) Grove is the most devastating and causes substantial yield losses in this crop. Anthracnose severity was maximum in the early sown, while minimum in late sown crop irrespective of all the treatments. In the interaction analyses, all the biological and chemical treatments were significantly superior at Palampur location irrespective of date of sowing. On the basis of pooled average at Jhansi, the disease incidence ranged from 10.5-22.9% compared to Palampur where it ranged from 3.7-22.7%. The influence of sowing date on incidence of anthracnose was significant at both the locations. Early sowing leads to higher disease incidence than late sowing.
      DOI: 10.24838/ip.2017.v70.i2.70758
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 2
  • First report of Choanephora infundibulifera causing blossom blight of
           teasle gourd in India

      Abstract: Momordica subangulata Blume subsp. renigera (G. Don) de Wilde is an important vegetable in India. In June 2015, blossom blight symptoms of Momordica subangulata subsp. renigera was first time noticed in the experimental plot of Directorate of Research, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Kalyani, West Bengal, India. The disease severity ranged from 10-30% and the disease infestation was also recorded from several other districts of West Bengal, India. The zygomycetous fungi, Choanephora infundibulifera (Currey) sacc. is the main causal organism of blossom blight disease. The temperature 28-30°C with high humidity (70-90%) prevalent during the rainy season (June-November) favoured the disease development. This is the first report of blossom blight of Momordica subangulata subsp. renigera caused by Choanephora infundibulifera.
      DOI: 10.24838/ip.2017.v70.i2.70780
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 2
  • Morphological and molecular characterization for identification of
           isolates of Trichoderma spp. from rhizospheric soils of crops in middle

      Pages: 238 - 245
      Abstract: Trichoderma spp. have gained immense importance as a component of biological control in integrated disease management. Three known isolates and five isolates of Trichoderma spp. collected from rhizospheric soils of tomato, brinjal, sorghum, tobacco and groundnut were characterized morphologically and by molecular tools. The isolates showed significant differences in terms of colony characters, sporulation, branching of conidiophores, phialospores colour and shape. RAPD and ITS analysis showed a comparable output grouping distinctly comprising of known isolate T. viride and isolates of T. viride from brinjal and groundnut in one cluster; known isolate T. harzianum and isolates of T. harzianum from tomato and tobacco in another cluster and known isolate T. virens and T. asperellum from sorghum in single cluster. RAPD analysis of eight isolates showed amplification of 391 bands. Analysis of phylogeny of isolates was done by sequencing the ITS region of ribosomal DNA using specific universal primers ITS 1 and ITS 4. Multiple nucleotide alignment of ITS 1, ITS 2 and 5.8s region depicted intra-specific and inter-specific variations in the ITS sequences among the three isolates of T. harzianum (known isolate), T. harzianum from tomato and tobacco which showed 97 and 83 per cent similarity. However, among the T. viride (known isolate) and T. viride isolates from brinjal and groundnut, per cent similarity was 84 and 95; while, known isolate of T. virens and T. asperellum from sorghum, it was 97 per cent. Thus the study was found useful for identification of Trichoderma spp. from rhizospheric soil of different crops.
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 2
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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