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Publisher: Indian Council of Agricultural Research   (Total: 6 journals)   [Sort by number of followers]

Showing 1 - 6 of 6 Journals sorted alphabetically
Fishery Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian Horticulture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Indian J. of Agricultural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.276, h-index: 15)
Indian J. of Animal Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 14)
Indian J. of Fisheries     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.222, h-index: 4)
Indian Phytopathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal Cover Indian Phytopathology
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 0367-973X - ISSN (Online) 2248-9800
   Published by Indian Council of Agricultural Research Homepage  [6 journals]
  • Response of rabi maize against common rust incited by Puccinia sorghi
           schw.

    • Authors: V.K. MALIK*and R.S. CHAUHAN
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 2
       
  • Status of nodulation and mycorrhizal association in black gram (Vigna
           mungo L. Hepper) and its effect on severity of root rot and web blight
           disease under different soils in Jammu sub-tropics

    • Authors: S.K. SINGH; B.S. JAMWAL, V.K.RAZDAN, V.B. SINGH A.K.SINGH*
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 2
       
  • Evaluation of urdbean genotypes against yellow mosaic for identification
           of resistant sources

    • Authors: S.C. DUBEY*; BIRENDRA SINGH
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 2
       
  • Detached non-wounded fruit inoculation technique for pathogenicity of
           Colletotrichum capsici on chilli

    • Authors: JAMEEL AKHTAR*; A. KANDAN, BALESHWAR SINGH, PARDEEP KUMAR S.C. DUBEY
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 2
       
  • Comparative economics of spray scheduling for of late leaf spot of
           groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) incited by Phaeoisariopsis personata

    • Authors: UTPAL DEY*; D.N. DHUTRAJ, A.P. SURYAWANSHI, ANUP DAS S.P. DAS
      Abstract: Late leaf spot (LLS), caused by Phaeoisariopsis personata, a foliar disease of groundnut or peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is one of the important factors limiting groundnut productivity in India. It frequently inflicts colossal yield losses of more than 50% on unsprayed peanuts. The current studies emphasized upon the management strategies to mitigate the losses caused by the disease. Among the fungicides, Difenoconazole (@ 0.1%) recorded highest pod yield (1757 kg/ha) and test weight (30.75 g) with least disease incidence (17.98%), severity (12.30%), minimum defoliation (4.83%),  minimum frequency (1.20/mm2) and reduced size (1.31 mm2) and thereby increased the pod yield by 53.04 per cent and test weight by 21.79 per cent over unsprayed control followed by Propiconazole (@ 0.1%) which recorded pod yield of 1649 kg/ha and test weight of 29.90 g with disease incidence (19.53%), severity (16.58%) and minimum defoliation (5.66%) and thereby increased the pod yield by 49.97 per cent and test weight by 19.57 per cent over unsprayed control. Both the botanicals (Mehandi @ 10% and NSKE @ 5%) and bioagents (Trichoderma viride, Verticillium lecanii and Bacillus circulans @ 5%) recorded significantly higher pod yield (range, 1089 - 1333 kg/ha) and test weight (range, 24.39 - 26.88 g) and increased the pod yield (range, 21.88-38.11%) and test weight (range, 1.39-10.53%) over unsprayed control (yield 825 kg/ha and test weight 24.05 g). The late leaf spot disease incidence and defoliation were found to be reduced with increased number of (two-three) sprayings of the fungicides.
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 2
       
  • Management of foot rot and bakanae of rice through fungicides

    • Authors: PANKAJ KUMAR; S. SUNDER, RAM SINGH* ANIL KUMAR
      Abstract: Foot rot and bakanae caused by Fusarium moniliforme Sheldon [teleomorph: Gibberella fujikuroi (Sawada) Wollenweber] is a major production constraint in export quality Basmati rice in Haryana. In vitro growth inhibition tests of six fungicides revealed that the EC50 values of fungicides varied from 0.34 to 724.43 ppm a.i. Trifloxystrobin 25% + tebuconazole 50% 75 WG was the most inhibitory (EC50 0.34 ppm a.i.). In terms of EC90 values, carbendazim 50 WP was the most toxic (EC90 1.14 ppm a.i.) followed by tebuconazole 250 EC and trifloxystrobin 25% + tebuconazole 50% 75 WG with EC90 values of 3.89 and 4.36 ppm. Field trials conducted in nursery beds and transplanted crop indicated that all the fungicides and a bio-control agent Trichoderma viride reduced bakanae incidence significantly. Tebuconazole 250 EC, trifloxystrobin 25% + tebuconazole 50% 75 WG and kresoxim methyl 44.3 SC (statistically on par) were found to be highly effective in reducing the disease incidence in both the cultivars closely followed by carbendazim 50 WP and azoxystrobin 44.3 SC. In transplanted crop also, tebuconazole 250 EC was observed to be the most effective in reducing bakanae incidence and enhancing grain yield of paddy. Seed treatment with T. viride at 5 g/kg seed provided about 60 per cent disease control in both the cultivars. A significant increase in grain yield was also observed in each treatment.
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 2
       
  • Morphological and pathological characterization of Fusarium
           verticillioides (Saccardo) Nirenberg of different maize growing areas of
           Punjab

    • Authors: HARLEEN KAUR*; CHANDER MOHAN MANDEEP SINGH HUNJAN
      Abstract: Fifty six isolates of Fusarium verticillioides were obtained from the diseased samples collected from different maize growing areas of Punjab. The isolates showed considerable variability in their cultural characteristics, morphology and pathogenic potential to maize (Zea mays L.). The colony colour and pigmentation varied from white to light pink to purple to dark purple colonies. Based on the colony growth, isolates were categorised as slow, medium and fast growing with average colony growth rate ranging from 9.1 to 10.7, 10.8 to 11.3 and 11.4 to 16.4 mm/day respectively. Comparison of colony colour and sporulation potential of different isolates revealed that generally isolates with dark purple colony colour and dark purple pigmentation with appressed growth were heavily sporulating, isolates with white to dirty white colonies with fluffy growth were less sporulating and the isolates with light pink to purple colonies had moderate sporulating potential. On the basis of multivariate cluster analysis of both qualitative and quantitative data, all the 56 isolates were grouped into 7 major clusters and the maximum number of isolates was represented by cluster II with 18 isolates. They were grouped into seven major clusters based on their cultural and morphological characteristics. Within these clusters, as the sporulation of each cluster increased there was decrease in the average growth rate per day. Pathological behaviour of all isolates of F. verticillioides differed on a set of five inbred lines (LM-13, CM-140, CM-143, CML-25 and CM-600) and four maize hybrids (PMH 1, JH 3459, NK 6240 and 31-Y-45). Average disease index of isolates grouped in different clusters was found positively correlated with sporulation (+0.30) as well as mean growth rate (+0.40) of isolates.
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 2
       
  • Molecular Characterization and Yield Evaluation of Near Isogenic Line
           (NIL) of Wheat Cultivar PBW 343 Developed for Karnal Bunt Resistance

    • Authors: SATISH KUMAR*; CHANDRA NATH MISHRA, VIKAS GUPTA RAJENDER SINGH
      Abstract: For Indian wheat to be export ready there is a need to satisfy the quarantine requirements of international standards. However, Karnal bunt (KB) disease of wheat can be a hindrance. Karnal bunt caused by Neovossia indica (Mitra) is an important wheat disease. Currently, resistance breeding is being pursued as the main strategy for its management. As a breeding strategy, near isogenics lines (NILs) were developed in the background of wheat cultivar PBW 343. Backcross breeding was utilized to incorporate the KB resistance from a registered genetic stock KBRL 22. The near isogenics lines so developed were evaluated for resistance at every generation of selfing after six backcrosses. One of these resistant lines, KB 2012-03 was evaluated for yield across five different locations in the North western plains zone (NWPZ) of India. Simultaneously 194 SSR markers were used to characterize the parents, PBW 343 and KBRL 22 and the near isogenics line (NIL) KB 2012-03. Out of these, 47 markers were polymorphic between the parents. 11 SSR markers were able to characterize the regions specific to KBRL 22 thus specifying that the resistant regions have been incorporated. The multi-location yield testing also revealed that on average basis the near isogenics line (NIL) KB 2012-03 (41.2 q/ha) yielded significantly superior than the parental check PBW 343 (35.7 q/ha). This line can act as a source of Karnal bunt resistance.
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 2
       
  • Activation of defense response in som plant against leaf blight following
           application of bioinoculants

    • Authors: BISHWANATH CHAKRABORTY*; AMRITA ACHARYA, USHA CHAKRABORTY, DHRUBA KUMAR JHA JINTU RABHA
      Abstract: Eight different morphotypes (S1-S8) of Persea bombycina, locally known as som plant, were grown in pots under nursery condition where the soil was supplemented with varieties of bio-inoculants like Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), Arbuscular mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) and Plant growth promoting fungi (PGPF) alone or in combinations. Among these eight morphotypes, S5 and S6 showed improved growth. These two morphotypes were further transplanted in field where the soil was amended with talc-based formulation of Bacillus altitudinus, wheat bran based formulation of Trichoderma asperellum and mass multiplied spores of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi. Enhancement of growth was evidenced in treated plants by increase in plant height (cm), total number of branches and number of leaves. Following the application of these bioformulations, soil phosphate content decreased and root phosphate increased in case of treated plants. Increase in chlorophyll content as well as total soluble protein content of the leaves of treated plants was also recorded. Significant increase in phenolics (total as well as orthophenol content), and in defense enzymes such as chitinase (CHT), β-1,3 glucanase (GLU), phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), and peroxidase (POX) were also observed in both roots and leaves following the application of the bioformulation. HPLC analysis for detecting changes in leaf phenolic content revealed production of a new phenolic acid after treatment with the bioinoculants. The leaves of treated and untreated plants (S5 and S6) were inoculated with spores of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, the causal agent of leaf blight disease of the host plant. Assay of major defense enzymes PAL, POX, CHT and GLU as well as total phenol content after every 24 hr of inoculation for 72hr showed that the level of these enzymes were more in treated plants than in the untreated plants. This results was in accordance with the progression of disease in detached leaves were the symptoms appeared earlier in untreated plants. It is clearly evident that the applications of bioinoculants greatly improved the health status of som plants and also induced systemic resistance in the plant against the fungal pathogen of leaf blight.
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 2
       
  • Exploration of microbial resources for plant disease management

    • Authors: SOMESHWAR BHAGAT
      Abstract: Microbes are most the important and precious resources which are naturally present in soil ecosystem. Microbes consist of several prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms and are ubiquitously found in almost all ecosystem including agricultural soil, sea water, forest, etc.). Trichoderma spp. and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs) are the most important microbes in plant disease management, which have been used most widely across the world. This paper highlights the major functions of biocontrol of Trichoderma spp and PGPRs, interaction of Trichoderma/PGPRs-Plant Pathogens-Plant and their use in plant disease management. They have multifaceted function with intensive crop health care but need certain congenial conditions (presence of organic matter, soil moisture, temperature, pH, etc. for their maximum bioefficacy. The selection of superior strains of biocontrol agent, mass production and formulation technology (including products from BCA) and method of delivery in the field are the most crucial aspects in biocontrol of plant disease management.
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 2
       
  • Characterization and genetic diversity of Xanthomonas campestris pv.
           campestris causing black rot disease in crucifers in North India

    • Authors: PRIYANKA SINGH RATHAUR; DINESH SINGH* RICHA RAGHUWANSHI
      Abstract: Forty seven isolates of Xanthomonas campestris pv campestris (Xcc) were isolated from different crucifers growing in Northern parts of India for characterization and genetic diversity study. All the isolates were gram negative rod, aerobic with monotrichous flagella and produces yellow, translucent, raised colonies on NSA medium. The isolates were further confirmed by amplifying hrp F gene. Natural incidence of black rot disease in Indian mustard, vegetable mustard, radish and turnip crops in field was found quite low (2-15%), whereas in cole crops including cauliflower, cabbage, broccoli and knol khol, the incidence was 10 to 40 per cent. Repetitive DNA polymerase chain reaction-based fingerprinting (rep-PCR) using BOX primers was done to assess the genetic diversity of these Xcc isolates along with three out group bacteria, X. oryzae pv. oryzae Xoo-4, X. citri pv. citri Xac-63 and Bacillus subtilis DTBS-5. Cluster analysis of fingerprinting of BOX-PCR clearly separated isolates of Xcc from out group bacteria and formed eight diverse groups or DNA types. Maximum isolates clustered in DNA type 2 (15 isolates) followed by DNA type 6 (8 isolates) and DNA type 1 (7 isolates). The Jaccard’s similarity coefficient matrix values ranged from 0.76 to 0.17, which indicates high level of genetic diversity among Xcc isolates.
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 2
       
  • Screening of native isolates of Trichoderma spp. of Jammu for their
           biocontrol potential through hydrolytic enzyme activities

    • Authors: SACHIN GUPTA*; SURUCHI MAHAJAN, MONI GUPTA DEEPIKA SHARMA
      Abstract: Trichoderma spp. is well described biocontrol fungi for its lytic activity and antagonistic properties against phytopathogens. The present studies were conducted to biochemically characterize Trichoderma spp. isolated from soils of Jammu. A total of fifty native isolates of Trichoderma spp. were screened on the basis of their antifungal activity using dual culture technique. Twenty promising isolates were evaluated for the secretion of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes viz. cellulases, chitinases and β-1, 3-glucanases. Enzyme activity detected in agar plates using their respective inducers as sole carbon sources and further tests for enzyme production in broth culture revealed that majority of the isolates showed maximum specific enzyme activity up to 6th day of incubation with few exceptions FL322, OR26X and OR27 (for cellulase); BR1, FL21 and CE32 (for chitinase) and 1CR2, AG20, FL41, FL322 and OR26X (for glucanase) which showed regular increasing trend up to 9 days. However, maximum cellulase activity was detected in AG52 (3.957 U/mg protein) followed by FL60 (3.151 U/mg protein). Highest chitinase activity was observed in AG52 (3.458 U/mg protein) followed by VE56 (2.728 U/mg protein) and glucanase activity was highest in VE56 (2.995 U/mg protein) followed by AG52 (2.642 U/mg protein) and FL60 (2.538 U/mg protein). SDS-PAGE profiling of the protein precipitate from cultural filtrate exhibited remarkable variability. A total of forty bands ranging in size from 14.3 kDa to 97 kDa were detected in the isolates.
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 2
       
  • Endophytic Hyphomycetous Fungi associated with some Medicinal Plants from
           Telangana State, India

    • Authors: C. MANOHARACHARY; D. NAGARAJU*
      Abstract: Twenty seven medicinal plants were selected and screened for endophytic hyphomycetous fungi during 2011-2013. Following standard methods endophytes were isolated from their respective host plants. Out of total isolates, identification of sporulating hyphomycetous fungi reveles 33 taxa of endophytic fungi representing 16 genera. This study also reveals the fact that about 20 hyphomycetous endophytes isolated form new additions to their respective hosts.
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 2
       
  • Antagonistic and Acaricidal activity of actinomycetes against pathogens
           and red spider mite of tea plantations

    • Authors: R. JAYANTHI*; P. NEPOLEAN, MAREESWARAN, B. SURESH KUMAR, T. KUBERAN AND B. RADHAKRISHNAN R. JAYANTHI*, P. NEPOLEAN, MAREESWARAN, B. SURESH KUMAR, T. KUBERAN AND B. RADHAKRISHNAN
      Abstract: The biocontrol efficacy of some of the actinomycetes collected from different tea growing soils of south India was attempted. Ten potential actinomycetes isolates viz., AAS2, AAS5, AAS6, AAS7, AAS15, APSA1, APSA4, APSA5 and APSA6 collected from The Anamallais and one isolate (CAS4) from The Nilgiris were screened for their antagonistic potential against tea pathogens and acaricidal activity against red spider mite under in vitro conditions. Maximum growth inhibition was recorded by CAS4 (100%) and APSA1 (82.1%) against foliar pathogens such as Pestalotiopsis theae. APSA1 cell free culture filtrate showed highest inhibitory effect (85.3%) against Glomerella cingulata followed by CAS4 (65.4%) on Cylindrocladium sp. APSA1and CAS4 showed maximum response against stem pathogens like Hypoxylon serpens and Macrophoma sp. (80.3%), respectively. The growth of root pathogen, Xylaria sp. was completely controlled by AAS7 and APSA4. Three isolates of actinomycetes inhibited higher mortality rate of Red spider mites (RSM) where APSA1 (100%) recorded total mortality followed by AAS7 (94.0%) and APSA6 (92.0%).
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 2
       
  • Characterization and management of Colletotrichum capsici causing
           anthracnose in chilli

    • Authors: P. AHILA DEVI*; V. PRAKASAM
      Abstract: The pathogen causing the anthracnose was identified as Colletotrichum capsici. RAPD profile was compared with the other patterns and Euclidean distance matrix was calculated for C. capsici from various ecosystems of Tamil Nadu. The isolate Cc1 was found to produce the toxic fraction C14C22O (2 tert-butyl-4- isopropyl-5-methyl). The toxic fraction C12 H 21 N0 2 (2,4,6 trimethyl phenyl glyoxylate) was produced by Cc8, where as the toxic fractionC12 H14 N03 (4-dimethylaminomethyl-3-cyclohexane-1-carboxylate) was seen in Cc10. The residues of mancozeb were below detectable level (BDL) in the chilli samples 7 days after application of Carbendazim 12% + Mancozeb 63%@ 0.15% and 0.3%.
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 2
       
  • Development of biological control strategies for collar rot and early leaf
           spot for organic cultivation of groundnut

    • Authors: DATA RAM; SHRI KISHAN BAIRWA* PARDEEP KUMAR
      Abstract: To develop a suitable disease management package in groundnut using biocontrol agents and botanicals, a field trial was conducted during 2011 to 2014 at Hanumangarh district of Rajasthan. The treatment module consisting of seed treatment with Trichoderma viride at 10g kg-1 seed plus furrow application of FYM (250 kg ha-1) enriched with 4.0 kg T. viride (at time of sowing) followed by two foliar applications of neem seed kernel extract (5 per cent) at 45 and 60 days after sowing gave maximum reduction (76.45 %) and least incidence (6.42 %) of collar rot disease with highest pod yield (2310 kg ha-1) as well as maximum net profit. This module also showed significant (P=0.05) reduction of early leaf spot disease (60.54 %) over control. Integration of bioagents and fungicides also proved effective for disease management in groundnut crop. The module comprising of seed treatment with T. viride at 10g kg-1 seed plus furrow application of FYM (250 kg ha-1) enriched with 4.0 kg T. viride (at time of sowing) and foliar spray of hexaconazole (0.1 per cent) at 45 and 60 days after sowing was observed to be the most effective treatment to manage early leaf spot disease of the crop.
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 2
       
  • Phenotyping of potato accessions for stable resistance to late blight
           (Phytophthora infestans)

    • Authors: MALKHAN SINGH GURJAR*; SANJEEV SHARMA VINOD KUMAR
      Abstract: Late blight (Phytophthora infestans) is one of the major constraint to potato cultivation in North eastern Himalayan region of India especially in Meghalaya state of India. Forty six exotic accessions along with checks, Indian cultivars like Kufri Giridhari (Highly Resistant), Kufri Himalini (Moderately Resistant) and Kufri Jyoti (Highly Susceptible) were tested for stable resistance in vitro and field conditions (2011 to 2014). Four accessions of potato like CP3605, CP3768, CP3776 and CP3841 (AUDPC=101.5-195.12) were found highly resistant in field conditions but CP3832, CP3839, C3841 showed high resistance in in vitro conditions. Four accessions viz. CP2298, CP3277, CP3766 and CP3774 (AUDPC=230.12- 433.26) were resistant in field whereas in in vitro (detached leaf assay) six accessions viz. CP1839, CP1909, CP2320, CP3364, CP3605, CP3776 were resistant. CP1281, CP1319, CP2187, CP2350, CP2423, CP3765 and CP3787 (AUDPC=331.75-645.75) were found moderately resistant in field. In field testing, seventeen and fourteen potato accessions were found highly susceptible and susceptible respectively whereas only nine accessions were found susceptible in detached leaf assay. In conclusion, seven accessions viz. CP1281, CP2350, CP2423, CP3280, CP3605, CP3776 and CP3841 exhibited highly resistant, resistant, moderately resistant similar blight response in laboratory as well as in field conditions. Therefore, these stable resistant accessions can be used for further potato breeding of north eastern Himalayan region of India.
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 2
       
  • Management of root-rot of mungbean caused by Macrophomina phaseolina
           through seed treatment with fungicides

    • Authors: MUJEEBUR RAHMAN KHAN*; SHUMAILA SHAHID
      Abstract: An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of seed treatment with five fungicides viz., carbendazim, captan, thiram, mancozeb and vitavax against root-rot of mungbean caused by Macrophomina phaseolina under pot condition. The results of the present study proved that all the fungicides reduced the root-rot severity and subsequently improved the growth and yield of infected mungbean plants to a greater or lesser extent. Plants grown in inoculated pots without fungicides treatment exhibited significant (P≤0.05) decline in the plant growth (32-45%) and yield (36%) due to greater root-rot severity. The relative efficacy of fungicides proved carbendazim to be the most effective fungicide in reducing root-rot severity (44%) and increasing plant growth (25-33%) and yield (27%). Captan was next in effectiveness and caused 38% reduction in root-rot severity with 24% increase in yield (P≤0.05). Mancozeb least effective which caused lowest decrease in disease severity (27%) and minimum increase in plant growth (11-13%) and yield (11%). Total chlorophyll, total carotenoid and leghaemoglobin content as well as nodulation in roots was also significantly improved due to fungicide treatments (P≤0.05). Similarly, pathogen population in soil was 45-60% lower in the pots treated with the fungicides than untreated pots, of which, lowest was recorded in carbendazim.
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 2
       
  • Efficacy of seed dressing agents against root rot (Rhizoctonia solani) of
           mothbean (Vigna aconitifolia)

    • Authors: D.B. PATEL*; NARENDRA SINGH S.M. CHAUDHARI
      Abstract: An experiment was conducted at Centre of Excellence for Research on Pulses, S.D. Agricultural University, Sardarkrushinagar, Gujarat during Kharif seasons of 2009 to 2014 to find out effective management of root rot disease of mothbean. The experiment was conducted on cv.GMO-2 with nine seed dressing agents viz, Carbendazim, Mancozeb, Carbendazim + Mancozeb combination, Thiram, Captan, Carboxin + Thiram combination, Vitavax, Trichoderma harzianum and cow dung against the disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani and compared with an untreated control. All the treatments were found effective in controlling the disease. However, the minimum root rot disease incidence was recorded in the seed treatment with combination fungicide Carboxin 37.5% + Thiram 37.5% WS @ 3 g/kg seed (9.14 %) followed by Captan 50 % WP @ 2 g/kg seed (10.28 %). The yield data revealed that the highest grain yield was recorded in the same seed treatment with combination fungicide Carboxin 37.5% + Thiram 37.5% WS @ 3 g/kg ( 547.97 kg/ha) followed by Captan @ 2 g/kg (510.08 kg/ha). Combination of fungicide Carbendazim 12% + Mancozeb 63% WP @ 3 g/kg seed treatment yielded 481.97 kg/ha and Carbendazim alone @ 3 g/kg seed yielded 478.49 kg/ha. The highest ICBR was obtained in the same seed treatment of combination fungicide Carboxin 37.5% + Thiram 37.5% WS @ 3 g/kg seed (1 : 114. 60 ) followed by Captan 50% WP @ 2 g/kg seed (1 : 110. 60 ). These treatments can provide an effective and economical management of root rot of mothbean.
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 2
       
 
 
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