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Publisher: STM Journals   (Total: 36 journals)   [Sort by number of followers]

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Current Trends in Information Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
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Emerging Trends in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
J. of Advancements in Library Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 38)
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J. of AYUSH :- Ayurveda, Yoga, Unani, Siddha and Homeopathy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
J. of Control & Instrumentation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
J. of Electronic Design Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Herbal Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
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J. of VLSI Design Tools & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
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OmniScience : A Multi-disciplinary J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Recent Trends In Civil Engineering & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Research & Reviews : A J. of Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Research & Reviews : A J. of Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Research & Reviews : A J. of Life Sciences     Open Access  
Research & Reviews : J. of Agricultural Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Research & Reviews : J. of Botany     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Research & Reviews : J. of Crop Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Research & Reviews : J. of Dairy Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Research & Reviews : J. of Ecology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Research & Reviews : J. of Embedded System & Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Research & Reviews : J. of Food Science and Technology     Open Access  
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Research & Reviews : J. of Veterinary Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Trends in Electrical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
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Journal Cover
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Toxicology
Number of Followers: 4  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 2231-3834
Published by STM Journals Homepage  [36 journals]
  • Treatment of Korean Panax Ginseng against Cisplatin-Induced Toxicity in
           Rats Haematological and Histological Examination of Liver, Spleen and
           Kidney
    • Authors: H.Balaji raghavendran, Rekha Sathyanath, Hyeong Kueg, Chang Gue Son
      Abstract: Vital goal of all anti-cancer therapies are to prevent the incidence of side effects either through more selective therapeutic methodology that target only neoplastic cells or through the use of complementary or alternative medicine. Present study investigated the effects of Panax ginseng (PG) on cisplatin-induced haematological and histopathological (liver, kidney and spleen) changes in rats. Rats were administered with PG (25, 50, 100 mg/kg) before or after an intraperitoneal injection of cisplatin (6 mg/kg). Total white blood cells (WBC), absolute neutrophil, lymphocytes and platelets on day 5 were examined. Histopathology of liver, kidney and spleen were additionally assessed. Post-treatment with PG (100 mg/kg) significantly attenuated cisplatin-induced decrease in platelets. However, cisplatin-induced changes in WBC, absolute neutrophil and lymphocytes were not significantly improved. Cisplatin-induced histopathological changes like liver sinusoidal dilatation, inflammatory infiltration, renal glomerulus damage and changes in white and red pulp of spleen were not augmented by PG. PG improves the resistance of rats against cisplatin-induced haematological or histopathological changes but toxicity was not improved in rats.   
      PubDate: 2013-09-16
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2013)
       
  • Effect of Ethylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether on Testicular Antioxidant
           System in Adult Rats
    • Authors: Tabarak Malik, Ghanshyam Das Gupta
      Abstract: Ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME), an environmental contaminant, which is widely used as a solvent especially in lacquers, paints, dyes, pesticides, liquid soap, cleaning solution & cosmetic, chemical intermediates, as a diluent for hydraulic brake fluid etc on industrial scale, has been shown to induce reproductive abnormalities in male rats. The precise nature and mechanism of action of EGME on the male reproductive system is not clear. In the present study, we have sought to investigate the induction of oxidative stress in the testes of rats after exposure to EGME. EGME 2g/kg body weight per day five days in a week was administered dermally to rats for 28 days. The body weight of the animals administered with EGME did not show any significant change. The weight of the testes, epididymis, seminal vesicles, and ventral prostrate decreased significantly. The activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase decreased significantly in the testes of rats treated with EGME. The level of lipid peroxidation increased and glutathione content decreased in the testes of rats treated with EGME. The results suggested that the EGME elicit depletion of antioxidant enzymes and concomitant increase in the level of lipid peroxidation in the testes of rats. In conclusion, the adverse effect of EGME on male reproduction could be due to the induction of oxidative stress in testes. 
      PubDate: 2013-09-16
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2013)
       
  • Molecular Mechanism of Fluoride Induced Oxidative Stress and Its Possible
           Reversal by Chelation Therapy
    • Authors: Selvaraj Milton prabu, Thanga S pandiyan
      Abstract: Fluorine (Fl) a member of the halogen family is the most electronegative and reactive of all the elements of Periodic table. Chronic and acute exposures of fluoride leads to  cardiovascular disease (hypertension and atherosclerosis), neurological disorders, gastrointestinal disturbances, liver disease, renal disease, reproductive effects, other health disorders and also affects the antioxidant system in the body. Furthermore, reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated oxidative damage is a common malady in fluoride pathogenesis. Formation of free radical due to cascade mechanism combined with glutathione-depleting agents increases the oxidation process in the cells and cause damage. Formation of ROS/RNS including peroxyl radicals (ROO•) the superoxide radical, singlet oxygen and hydroxyl radical (OH•) via the Fenton reaction direct DNA damages when both humans and animals are exposed to fluoride. In addition, fluoride induces the formation of oxidized lipids which in turn generate several bioactive molecules (ROS, peroxides and isoprostanes), of which aldehydes [malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxy-nonenal (HNE)] are the major end products. Various synthetic antidotes were recommended for the present study such as DMSA (meso-2, 3-dimercaptosuccinic acid), and BAL (2, 3-dimercapto-1-propanol) for fluoride toxicity. However, it may cause side effect when used alone.  Recently, phyto-antidotes from plants or vegetables like flavonoid and polyphenols have played a major role in Fl induced oxidative stress related diseases. In this thought we included the various phytochemical used till now for mitigating fluoride induced toxicity in different organs. Eventually, this review suggests that combination with natural and synthetic antidotes revealed a good strategy for chelating fluoride toxicity.
      PubDate: 2013-09-16
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2013)
       
  • Effects of Sub Chronic Dermal Exposure of Gasoline Blended with Varying
           Concentration of Benzene on Hepatic Mixed Function Oxidases in Rats
    • Authors: Tabarak Malik, D. K. Pandey
      Abstract: Interaction of chemicals in a mixture, their biotransformation and adverse impact, if any, on environment and workroom atmosphere needs to be evaluated to identify the nature of potential toxic effects elicited by constituent chemical(s) in a mixture.  The nature of chemical interaction(s) through which an individual chemical in a mixture undergoes metabolism and/or biotransformation in the target tissue could be helpful in evaluation of its toxic potential. Gasoline is a unique example of such chemical mixture where interaction of aromatics viz., benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylene (BTEX) traverses through a common metabolic pathway involving cytochrome P-450 dependent mixed function oxidases.  Travis et al. [1] has quantitatively evaluated that gasoline vapor has an antagonistic effect on benzene metabolism and its biotransformation products.  It was reported that 1000 ppm gasoline vapor had the same inhibitory effect as 500 ppm toluene on the metabolism of 290 ppm benzene, indicating that there may be many confounding factors in gasoline which might affect the metabolism of benzene in turn affecting its toxicity at the molecular level. It has been reported that benzene causes myelotoxicity through its bioactive metabolites.  Such biotransformation mechanisms involve cytochrome P-450 dependent Phase-I enzymes and the products are further detoxified through Phase-II enzymes.  It was therefore considered pertinent to study the impact of gasoline blended with 1, 3 and 5% benzene concentrations.  Female albino rats weighing 200–250 gm were exposed by dermal route to gasoline blended with varying benzene concentrations, @ 2 g/kg body wt., six days a week over a period of 90 days.  The activities of hepatic mixed function oxidases, viz., aniline hydroxylase and aminopyrene demethylase as a monitor of Phase-I enzymes and Glutathione-S-Transferase for Phase-II enzyme was estimated along with free glutathione levels.  Serum creatine kinase was also estimated to assess the extent of muscular dystrophy.  The results of this sub chronic study will be discussed in the context of interaction of gasoline with varying concentration of benzene in experimental animals.
      PubDate: 2013-05-08
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2013)
       
  • Impact of Hexavalent Chromium on Histopathology in Freshwater Stinging
           Catfish, Heteropneustes Fossilis
    • Authors: Ahmed M. K., G. K. Kundu, M. H. Al-Mamun, M. R. Islam, M. R. Islam
      Abstract: Acute toxicity of Cr (VI) (as K2Cr2O7) to freshwater stinging catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis and its histopathological impacts on gill and liver tissue were evaluated. Fish showed behavioral alterations after K2Cr2O7 exposure and 96 h-LC50 was 35.724 mg/L in static bioassay.  Fish were exposed to three sub-lethal concentrations (concentration I=1/4th of 96 h-LC50, concentration II=1/10th of 96 h-LC50 and concentration III=environmental concentration of Cr reported in the river Buriganga). Blood, liver and gill samples were collected after 48, 96 and 192 h. The changes in gill were characterized by epithelial lifting and edema, lamellar fusion, aneurism, desquamation and necrosis, whereas, the liver tissue showed macrophage infiltration, vacuolization and shrinkage of hepatocytes, dilation of sinusoids and cloudy swelling, The result showed that acute arsenic toxicity severely affects the normal behavior and vital organs which is deleterious for the exposed fish.
      PubDate: 2013-05-08
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2013)
       
  • Genotoxicity Evaluation of Hospital Waste Waters: A Study Monitored by
           E.coli WP2 Assay
    • Authors: Dr. Preeti Gupta, P. Mathur, P. Bhatnagar
      PubDate: 2013-05-08
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2013)
       
  • Protective Effect of Epigallocatechin Gallate (EGCG) on Sodium Fluoride
           (NaF) Induced Changes in Histology of Selected Organs in Rats
    • Authors: S Thangapandiyan, S Milton prabu
      Abstract: Histopathology is the microscopical examination of biological tissues to observe the appearance of diseased cells and tissues in very fine detail. The present study, has been designed to evaluate the effects of oral administration of Sodium Fluoride (NaF) 25 mg/kg/bw (orally), NaF with EGCG (40 mg/kg/bw) daily for four weeks on histological alterations, if any on heart, liver, kidney and testes of rats. Rats were weighed about 160–180 g. NaF alone treated groups showed marked inflammation, necrosis and degenerative changes in the heart, kidney, liver and testes. Treatement with EGCG showed marked improvement in all the degenerative changes inflicted by NaF. Thus, the result of the present study clearly demonstrated that the EGCG due to its free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity, it protects against NaF induced oxidative histopathological changes in the heart, liver, kidney and testes.
      PubDate: 2013-05-08
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2013)
       
  • Adverse Events Associated with Oral First-in-Man Administration of New
           Chemical Entities Compared with Placebo – An Analysis of 14 Single- and
           Multi-Dosing, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Studies
    • Authors: Rahul S Dimber, Peter Dewland
      Abstract: This investigation is a retrospective analysis of the adverse events (AEs) associated with oral administration of new chemical entities (NCEs)for the  first time in humans. We gathered data from 14 single- and multiple-dosings of FIM NCE studies conducted in our center over a period of 5 years. In total, 452 subjects were dosed. A total of 2280 doses were administered. Active medication was given on 1763 dosing occasions and placebo was given on 517 dosing. 74.9% of AEs of active and 95.6% of AEs on placebo were mild. The most common AE (incidence of more than 2%) on active medication and placebo were headache, nausea, dizziness, diarrhea, dry mouth, fatigue, tachycardia, insomnia, abnormal dreams and abdominal pain. Except for nausea and diarrhea, which was more in active group, there was no statistically significant difference for other AEs between active and placebo. 
      PubDate: 2012-12-26
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2012)
       
  • Solid Waste on GITAM University, Hyderabad Campus - Characterization,
           Quantification with Projections for Future and Disposal Methods
    • Authors: Jayakumar Iyer Rajamani, Ms. Sarita
      Abstract:   The present study attempted to characterize and quantify the solid waste generated by regular student activities for a fortnight. The solid waste comprised food waste, vegetable peels, solid paper refuse, caps of cool drink bottles, plant twigs, unsorted rubbish and non-biodegradable plastic. The daily solid waste was estimated to be 0.06 ton dry weight. A questionnaire survey on the food preference by the consumers revealed fried items are of major priority in their diet. On an average, 598 persons utilize the canteen generating 52 kg (dry weight) of waste daily through food and the future projection is estimated to be 58.57 ton annually. Composting of food waste particularly vermicomposting could be a good disposal technique and it is also practiced 
      PubDate: 2012-12-26
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2012)
       
  • Assessment of Suitability of Inland Wetland Fishes in Gujarat, India, for
           Human Consumption: A Focus on Organochlorine Pesticides
    • Authors: Venugopal Dhananjayan, S. Muralidharan, R. Jayakumar, P. Selvam
      Abstract: The work described in this study evaluated the organochlorine pesticide (OCP) residues in the inland wetland fishes of Gujarat, India, and their suitability for human consumption. Among the various OCPs analyzed, isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), γ-HCH and β-HCH were detected in 70%–80% of samples. The p,p’-DDE, metabolites of DDT were detected in higher load. Of the nine species of fishes tested, the maximum load of ∑HCH and ∑DDT was recorded in Puntius sophore with mean concentration of 112 ng/g and 67.06 ng/g wet wt. respectively whereas it was the minimum in Labeo rohita with mean concentrations of 3.5 ng/g and 4.2 ng/g wet wt. respectively. DDT and HCH detected in the present study were well below the tolerance limits recommended for fishes. The calculated daily dietary intake of OCPs in all the species examined was lower than the maximum acceptable daily intake limits prescribed for human consumption. Further studies on continuous monitoring of organochlorine pesticides and dietary intake are warranted to characterize the residue accumulation and to facilitate the early identification of risks due to fish consumption.
      PubDate: 2012-12-26
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2012)
       
  • A New Extractive Spectrophotometric Method for the Determination of
           Oxydemeton methyl in Relation to its Environmental and Toxicological
           Analysis
    • Authors: D. K. Sharma, Rajinder Kashyap, Naresh K. Verma, Nisha Sharma
      Abstract:  In view of the wide agricultural use of oxydemeton methyl insecticide and its associated toxic effects, it has been determined in soil, water and food stuffs to assess its environmental relevance. A new, simple and sensitive extractive spectrophotometric method has been developed for the purpose. It is based on microwave assisted alkaline hydrolysis of insecticide to form 2-ethylsulfinyl-ethyl mercaptan and transformation of the latter through reaction with carbon disulphide and nickel(II) acetate into  methyl isobutyl ketone extractable yellow nickel(II) trithiocarbonate complex showing maximum absorbance  at 378 nm. The colour is stable for 6 h and Beer’s law is obeyed in the concentration range 2.46–49.2 µg mL–1. The oxydemeton methyl in commercial formulation, residues on water, food stuffs and on five Indian soils of different soil characteristics has been determined by the proposed method. The leaching behavior in terms of ground water umbiquity scores (GUS) for oxydemeton methyl has the value from 0.67 to 0.82 classifying it as a non leacher.  
      PubDate: 2012-10-08
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2012)
       
  • Assessment of Indoor Air Pollutants with Special Reference to Particulate
           Phase Polyaromatic Hydrocarbon in Rural Villages
    • Authors: S Sen, J Narayana, B Ravichandean, R Rajesh
      Abstract: Emissions from household stoves using traditional biomass fuels such as firewood, crop residue and animal dung could have a continuing contribution to air pollution and also have adverse health impacts due to emission of different toxic pollutants. The present study was carried out in 13 household kitchens in Thavarghatta located in Shimoga district to know the level of the total suspended particulate matter (TSPM) and particulate phase polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated with it. TSPM was recorded in the range of 2.66 mg/m3–32.366 mg/m3, and it was found that the level was much higher than the standard level prescribed by EPA for indoor environment. Particulate PAHs (16 Major PAH compounds prescribed by EPA) were observed in the range of 4.2 µg/m3–30.67 µg/m3 and this also exceeded tolerance limit according to the guidelines set by WHO. The 3-ring PAHs compounds (acenapthalene, acenapthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, and anthracene) dominate more than 50% of particulate phase PAHs. Therefore, the present study infers that there may be high health risk in indoor environment with particulate dust and PAHs in this region and need proper public awareness, change in pattern of fuel use, modification in stove design and improvement in ventilation to reduce the risk factor.
      PubDate: 2012-10-08
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2012)
       
  • Arsenic Induced Oxidative Stress and Its Possible Reversal by Chelation
           Therapy
    • Authors: M. Muthumani, S. Miltonprabu
      Abstract: Arsenic (As) is a metalloid listed in group Va of the periodic chart. It exists in nature in the oxidation states +V (arsenate), +III (arsenite), 0 (arsenic) and −III (arsine). In the aqueous environment inorganic arsenic appears commonly in the oxidation states +V and +III as arsenous acid (As (III)), arsenic acid (As (V)), and their salts. Chronic and acute exposures of arsenic leads to cancer, cardiovascular disease (hypertension and atherosclerosis), neurological disorders, gastrointestinal disturbances, liver disease and renal disease, reproductive health effects, dermal changes and other health disorders and also affects the antioxidant system in the body. Furthermore, reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated oxidative damage is a common denominator in arsenic pathogenesis. Formation of free radical such as superoxide radical due to cascade mechanism, combined with glutathione-depleting agents, increases the sensitivity of cells to arsenic toxicity. Formation of ROS/RNS, including peroxyl radicals (ROO•), the superoxide radical, singlet oxygen, hydroxyl radical (OH•) via the Fenton reaction, hydrogen peroxide, the dimethylarsenic radical, the dimethylarsenic peroxyl radical and/or oxidant-induced DNA damage, when both humans and animals are exposed to arsenic. In addition, arsenic induces the formation of oxidized lipids which in turn generate several bioactive molecules (ROS, peroxides and isoprostanes), of which aldehydes [malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxy-nonenal (HNE)] are the major end products. Various traditional antidotes are recommended for the present study such as DMSA (meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid), DMPS(2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid) DMPA (N-(2,3-dimercaptopropyl)-phthalamidic acid) BAL (2,3-dimercapto-1-propanol), Taurine (2-aminoethaesulfonic acid) against arsenic-induced toxicity. Recently, such phyto-antidotes like silibinin, arjunolic acid, vitamin C (ascorbic acid), vitamin E (α-tocopherol) and curcumin have played a major role in arsenic toxicity. Glutathione and antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase showed the protective role against arsenic-induced oxidative stress.
      PubDate: 2012-10-08
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2012)
       
  • Impact of Profenofos on Oxygen Consumption and Gill Histopathology of the
           Fresh Water Crab, Paratelphusa jacquemontii (Rathbun)
    • Authors: A. Maha rajan, N. Neelakandamoorthy, P. Kumarasamy
      Abstract: In fresh water crab, gills are crucial for respiration, excretion, acid-base balance, and osmotic and ionic regulation. Profenofos, a well-known organophosphate pesticide has been in agricultural use over the last two decades for controlling pests of paddy, cotton and tobacco. In the present study, an attempt has been made to study the effect of profenofos on oxygen consumption and gill histopathology of the freshwater crab, Paratelphusa jacquemontii (Rathbun). The crabs were exposed to sublethal concentration (1/10th and 1/20th of 96 h LC50) of profenofos for a period of 15 days. The treatment of these profenofos brought about significant decrease in oxygen consumption as compared to control. Exposure to profenofos was found to result in several alterations in the histo-architecture of the gills of P. jacquemontii. The alterations included bulging of tips of primary gill filaments and fusion of secondary gill filaments elongated secondary gill lamellae, and infiltration of hemocytes. The significance of this study as a bio-indicator for assessing the toxicity and economic importance of the crab is discussed.
      PubDate: 2012-10-08
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2012)
       
  • Mercury-induced Biochemical Changes in Perna viridis Exposed in Chronic
           Toxicity Test
    • Authors: J. S. I. Rajkumar
      Abstract: In the present study, the Asian green mussel, Perna viridis, was exposed to 50, 75, 113, 160 and 253 µg/L Hg concentrations under chronic toxicity for the assessment of biochemical biomarkers. Higher levels of glutathione S-transferase (GST), reduced glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and lower levels of protein, catalase (CAT) and acetylcholinesterase (AchE) were found. The values were found to be significant at P < 0.01. This study suggests that activity of metabolites and antioxidant enzymes was affected by heavy metal exposures and has a strong potential as indicator of heavy metal contamination. Further, it is evident from the linkage study, wherein acetylcholinesterase (AchE), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were observed to be the best biomarkers in biochemical studies in mercury pollution. Hence, the determination of oxidative stress biomarkers in P. viridis may serve as a convenient approach during pollution biomonitoring programs.
      PubDate: 2012-06-15
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2012)
       
  • Experimental Study on Cyanoacrylate as Wound Adhesive
    • Authors: Sohayla M. Attalla, Wageih M. Ghanam, Ibraheim M. El-Shawaf, Osama Shabka, Mohamed Salama
      Abstract: Cyanoacrylates (CAs) have been widely used as surgical glues; however, the high cost of medical CA-based glues limits their use in developing countries. Another possible alternative is the low cost α-CAs which are normally used in commercial glues. The lack of toxicity studies of such agents is considered the main obstacle in their medical application. In the present study, we have evaluated the toxicity profile of commercial glue in comparison to medical octyl cyanoacrylates (OCAs) in rats. In the studied groups, α-CAs revealed to be safe with comparable bio-compatibility and wound healing effects to medically used OCAs. These results advocate the possible substitution of the high-cost medical glues with the low-cost commercial ones without the hazards of toxicity.
      PubDate: 2012-06-15
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2012)
       
  • The Ames Test in Twenty-first Century
    • Authors: Myriam Arriaga-Alba, Regina Montero Montoya, Javier J. Espinosa Aguirre
      Abstract: Since the 19th century, industrial development has increased exposure to mutagens and possible carcinogens. In order to avoid these health risks, several techniques have been developed to recognize genotoxins. In the 1970s, Dr. Bruce Ames and colleagues, studying the histidine operon of Salmonella typhimurium, observed that histidine (−) auxotroph mutants were reverted to histidine (+) upon exposure to a mutagen. The researchers further observed that known carcinogens were mutagenic to S. typhimurium strains. The Ames test has since been employed as a first step in evaluating genotoxic risk. The Ames method has been accepted by several international organizations including the IARC (International Agency of Cancer Research), EPA (Environmental Protection Agency), FDA (Food and Drug Administration), IVGT (In Vitro Genetic Toxicity Testing Project), REAC (European Union Legislation, Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals), and the Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare (MHW). Occasionally, research of new products is suspended upon a positive Ames test result. The Ames test has also been improved to evaluate DNA repair mechanisms using S. typhimurium uvrB + /uvrB− strains. Additionally, researchers have genetically modified these strains to investigate metabolic mechanisms that convert pre-mutagens to active mutagens. The Ames test has also been useful for studying alternatives to reduce genotoxic risk. It is widely employed for antimutagenic evaluation and elucidation of their mechanisms of action. Knowledge on antimutagens is important to reduce mutagenic risk of genotoxic compounds which cannot be avoided, such as therapeutic drugs. A major pitfall of the Ames test is the correlation of data obtained from prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells. The aim of this review is to analyze the advantages of the Ames test as a method for studying several aspects of genetic toxicology.
      PubDate: 2012-06-15
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2012)
       
  • Acetylcholinesterase and Butyrylcholinesterase Activities in Brain and
           Plasma of Several Species of Birds in India
    • Authors: Venugopal Dhananjayan
      Abstract:  Since timely acquisition of concurrent controls is not always feasible, development of a reference data of normal cholinesterase (ChE) activities for various wildlife species particularly for birds is necessary to diagnose anticholinesterase exposure. In the present study, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activities in brain and plasma of several species of birds collected from Ahmedabad, India, during 2005–2007, were determined. Brain AChE activity ranged from 1.24 µmole/min/g in Indian white-backed vulture Gyps bengalensis to 2.50 µmole/min/g in koel Eudynamys scolopacea. Plasma AChE and BChE activity varied from 0.60 to 1.96 µmole/min/mL and 0.68 to 2.68 µmole/min/mL respectively. The variation in cholinesterase activity among the species of birds was highly significant (ANOVA, P < 0.05). Brain and plasma ChE activity varied 2–5 fold among the species studied. Brain AChE activity among years and between sexes was not significant. The lowest ChE activities were found in the largest species and the highest ChE activities were found in the relatively small species. The ChE activities obtained for koel, pariah kite, blue rock pigeon, Indian white-backed vulture and house crow provide a good estimate of the normal values in birds. This study is the first report of AChE and BChE activities in birds in India and constitutes a starting point for future studies that evaluate impact of pesticides. These values can be used as a baseline to evaluate the effect of anticholinesterase insecticides on birds in the field. 
      PubDate: 2012-06-14
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2012)
       
  • Acute and Chronic Toxicity of Fluoride and Aluminum on Plant and Animal
           Models
    • Authors: N. Upreti, Shweta Sharma, Subhasini Sharma, K. P. Sharma
      Abstract: Ecotoxicological studies revealed aluminum (Al2SO4. 24 H2O) to be more toxic than fluoride (NaF) on a battery of test organisms (EC/LC50 of Al = 0.308–1.46 ppm; F = 116.6–232.8 ppm). During chronic exposure (Al = 3 ppm, F = 10 ppm for 60–90 days), there was reduction in growth parameters of organisms at different trophic levels in a food chain such as producers {dry weights (6.7–29.0) and chlorophyll contents (23.0–46.8%) of Ceratophyllum demersum L, counts of phytoplankton (Summer: 48.7–51.3%, winter: 62.4–79.6%) and periphytic algae (F = 40–63%; Al = 53–68%)} and consumers (zooplankton counts: F = 93%; Al = 40–92%) in the 15 L-sized artificial microcosms, especially in winter. Fish tissue biochemistry (ACP, ALP) was also altered and their RBC counts decreased (Winter: 10–49%, Summer: 18–26%).  
      PubDate: 2012-02-09
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2012)
       
  • Assessment of Exposure to and Effect of Organochlorine Pesticides on Birds
           in India
    • Authors: Venugopal Dhananjayan, S Jayakumar, S. Muralidharan
      PubDate: 2012-02-09
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2012)
       
  • Soil Adsorption Study of Thiram on Four Indian Soils by Extractive
           Spectrophotometry
    • Authors: Rajinder Kumar Kashyap, Aditi Gupta, Rajinder Kumar Kashyap
      PubDate: 2012-02-09
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2012)
       
  • Hepatoprotective Efficiency of Nigella sativa L. Extract on
           D-Galactosamine Induced Toxicity
    • Authors: Mohamed Saleem Gani
      PubDate: 2011-08-23
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2011)
       
  • Study of Nickel Toxicity and Recovery in Freshwater Major Carp Catla catla
    • Authors: Jaya M Patel, Anita Bahadur
      PubDate: 2011-08-23
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2011)
       
  • Evaluation of Metal pollution in Wetlands using fish as an Indicator
    • Authors: Jayakumar Iyer Rajamani, S. Muralidharan
      PubDate: 2011-08-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2011)
       
  • Histotoxicity of Acid Orange 7 on organs of Fresh water fish Labeo rohita
    • Authors: Anita Bahadur, Jagruti Barot
      Abstract: The present paper reports the histotoxic effects of Acid Orange 7, an azo dye on the tissues such as gill, kidney and liver in major carp, Labeo rohita fingerlings. The sublethal concentrations of the dye are responsible for the histopathological alterations in the target tissues. In the gills hyperplasia, epithelial lifting, hooked secondary gill lamellae, haemorrhage in the primary gill lamellae and erosion of secondary gill lamellae were seen. The kidney showed shrunken glomeruli, increased periglomerular space, wide peritubular space, degenerated tubules, fat deposition and infiltration of blood cells in the lumen of the renal tubules. On the other hand, the liver showed marked changes in the histology. Disorganized hepatocytes, focal necrosis, haemorrhage, karyolysis and karyorhhexis were seen in the liver.
      PubDate: 2011-03-09
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2011)
       
 
 
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