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Research & Reviews : A J. of Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
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Journal Cover
Research & Reviews : A Journal of Pharmacology
Number of Followers: 1  
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 2230-9861 - ISSN (Online) 2230-9861
Published by STM Journals Homepage  [36 journals]
  • Prescribing Patterns of Analgesics in Surgical Departments in a Tertiary
           Care Hospital
    • Authors: Dr. Varun H.V., Usha Rani D, Sangita G Kamath, Sathisha Aithal, Umakant N Patil
      Abstract: Analgesics are routinely employed in the management of pain in surgical departments. Drug utilization studies evaluate the present trends of drug usage, drug expenditures, appropriateness of prescriptions and adherence to evidence-based recommendations. The Objectives were to study the prescribing pattern, approval status, inclusion in World Health Organization (WHO) essential medicines list/National List of Essential Medicines (NLEM), cost and rationality of analgesics prescribed in surgical departments. Data were collected from records of inpatients who had undergone surgical procedures, from SSIMS & RC Hospital, Davangere. The prescribing patterns, approval of analgesics by Drug Controller General of India (DCGI) and United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA), cost and listing of analgesics in WHO essential medicines list/NLEM were analysed. The analgesics were classified into different groups based on WHO‐ Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification. The results show a total of 276 analgesics prescribed to 126 patients, of which 207(75%) were single drug formulations, 69(25%) fixed dose combinations (FDCs), 255(92.4%) and 219(79.3%) analgesics were approved by DCGI and USFDA, respectively, 195(70.65%) and 3(1.08%) analgesics were included in NLEM and WHO essential medicines list, respectively. Parenteral formulations [174(63.04%)] were most commonly prescribed. The most commonly prescribed analgesics as per WHO-ATC class were N02A (Opioids) [132(47.83%)]. Only 51(18.48%) analgesics were prescribed by their recommended international non-proprietary names (rINN) [generic name]. Owing to the vital role of analgesics in the management of pain in surgical departments, more drugs need to be included in the essential medicines list. Keywords: Prescribing patterns, Analgesics, Essential medicines, Drug utilization studies, WHO-ATC  
      PubDate: 2014-04-19
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2014)
  • Design and Development of Self Microemulsyfying Drug Delivery System of
           Olmesartan Medoxomil
    • Authors: Smita D Patel, M R Patel, K R Patel
      Abstract: Olmesartan Medoxomil is poorly water soluble drug. It comes into the BCS II drug. Hence oral bioavailability of Olmesartan Medoxomil is less (26%). The purpose of this study is to develop novel dosage form of the self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems (SMEDDS) for the Olmesartan Medoxomil for enhancing its solubility hence the oral bioavailability. Before the formulation of SMEDDS, solubility study was performed in different excipients and select excipients on basis of solubility of Olmesartan Medoxomil. Microemulsion region was decided by preparing ternary phase diagram. Drug excipients interaction study performed using FTIR. After preliminary study, SMEDDS formulations were prepared in Capmul MCM NF (oil), Acrysol EL 135 (surfactant), and Transcutol CG (co-surfactant) by simple mixing at 40˚C. Parameters evaluated included: macroscopic evaluation, Visual assessments, self emulsification, transmittance test, particle size distribution, zeta potential, and polydispersity index and in vitro dissolution. In vitro dissolution was carried in USP apparatus II using phosphate buffer pH 6.8 at 37±0.50C with 50 rpm rotating speed. Drug release was measured by spectroscopic method. The results obtained from the solubility study, better solubility was seen in Capmul MCM NF (oil), Acrysol EL 135 (surfactant), Transcutol CG (co-surfactant). No any drug excipients interaction was seen. Optimized formulation S3 of SMEDDS was observed with smaller droplet size 16.62nm, PDI 0.178, and zeta potential −12.1mV5.Formulation was clear and near to 100% transmittance after dilution with Water. SMEDDS formulation showed complete release in 60 min as compared with the plain drug, which showed a limited dissolution rate. Conclusion of the study is SMEDDS Olmesartan Medoxomil oral formulations were prepared that provides excellent drug solubilisation and improved in vitro release of Olmesartan Medoxomil.Keywords: SMEDDS, Olmesartan Medoxomil, bioavailability, in-vitro release study
      PubDate: 2014-01-02
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2014)
  • Evaluation of Medication Errors: A Review of Literature
    • Authors: Languluri Reddenna, Tedlla Rama Krishna
      Abstract: The goal of drug therapy is the achievement of defined therapeutic outcomes that improve a patient’s quality of life while minimizing patient risk. Medication errors may be nobody’s baby, but when it happens, it could well turn out to be everyone’s worry and the reasons given for medication error range from silly to the downright serious. Medical negligence was cited as the cause of 27.6% of these adverse events and 69% by human error. Approximately 19% of these adverse events were drug related. Results showed the additional length of stay associated with an adverse drug event was 2.2 days and the increase in cost associated with an adverse drug event was $3244. Adverse drug reactions occur in at least 5% of hospitalized patients and the incidence increases with use of a large number of drugs. Although, the literature has provided practitioners with a series of operational definitions, the following developed by the Institute of Healthcare Improvement, reviews some commonly accepted definitions associated with medication use safety. Medication errors should be identified and documented in order to recognize recurring causes and therefore develop systems to minimize them. Four most commonly used techniques are anonymous self-reports (questionnaires), incident reports, critical-incident reports and direct observation. Pharmacists can assist in practicing evidence-based medicine by guiding physicians’ prescribing practices to conform to those outlined in peer-reviewed literature.
      PubDate: 2014-01-02
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2014)
  • Phyto-Pharmacognostical Study of Zornia Gibbosa Span (Samyojaki)
    • Authors: Bipin Sawant, T. S. Bairy
      Abstract: Recent survey shows that the plants extinction are occurring at rates hundreds of times higher than natural background rates, and 15,000 species of medicinal plants are now threatened. Under such circumstances the drugs which are abundantly available, common and cost-effective should be encouraged to control the extensive overuse of few classical drugs. Thus preventing them from verge of extinction and also reducing the chances of adulteration. Looking at the need of the hour the herb Zornia gibbosa Span which is abundantly available, cost-effective and highly used by folklore vaidyas of Udupi district of Karnataka for various ailments is chosen for detailed phyto-pharmacological analysis. Hence study was undertaken to identify morphological &histological markers to authenticate Zornia gibbosa Span along with phytochemical analysis to justify its therapeutic activity. Presence of foliacious bracts and mucilaginous leaf is a key to its morphological identification. On microscopic examination Zornia gibbosa has typical dicotyledonous structure. TS of all the three parts i.e. root, stem & leaf exhibits xeromorphic plant characters. The preliminary phytochemical study indicates the presence of Carbohydrate, Saponin and Phenol indicating towards its probable anti-inflammatory and analgesic action.
      Keywords: Zornia gibbosa Span, histological markers, phenol, glycosides
      PubDate: 2014-01-02
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2014)
  • Ethanolic Root Extract of Jatropha curcas L. Ameliorates
           Paclitaxel-Induced Neuropathic Pain in Rats
    • Authors: Elvis Ofori Ameyaw, Phyllis Elsie Owsu Agyei, Johnson Nyarko Boampong, Kwesi Antwi Koranteng, Samuel Kyei
      Abstract: Jatropha curcas is a plant used in various parts of the world as food, medicine for pain and biofuel. The present study investigated the potential analgesic properties of ethanolic root extract of J. curcas on paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain in rats. Neuropathic pain was induced in rats with paclitaxel. Cold allodynia was measured with cold water at 4.5 °C. Mechanical hyperalgesia was measured in the Randall-Sellito test and thermal hyperalgesia evaluated in the tail immersion test. J. curcas (JAT) (30−300 mg/kg) significantly (P ˂ 0.05) increased the duration of paws in the cold water. Pregabalin (10−100 mg/kg) similarly produced cold anti-allodynic effect. A dose-dependent reversal of mechanical hyperalgesia seen as an increase in the paw withdrawal latency was produced by JAT and Pregabalin in the Randall-Selitto paw pressure test. In the tail immersion test, JAT increased the latency of tail withdrawal in a dose-corresponding modus; a similar effect was produced by the standard drug, Pregabalin. This study has demonstrated the anti-nociceptive properties of JAT in paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain in rats. Keywords: Allodynia, hyperalgesia, paclitaxel, rats, Jatropha curcas
      PubDate: 2013-09-19
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2013)
  • Comparative Pharmacognostical Studies on Genuine, Commercial and
           Adulterant Samples of Centella Asiatica (L.) Urban
    • Authors: Leon Stephan Raj, Vanila D, A.Saravana Ganthi
      Abstract: The adulteration and substitution of herbal drugs is the burning problem in herbal industry. Adulteration becomes a very serious problem with crude drugs, and often occurs when a drug is not easily available or when its price is comparatively high. Adulteration, in many cases, may not be intentional. In many cases, it could occur due to mistaken identity of the plant. In the present study, comparative pharmacognostical studies have been planned to test the purity of the material that is commercially available for medicinal purposes with the genuine material and the material with similar morphology of the drug plant. The results of the present study enumerate the rate of purity of the commercial sample of Centella asiatica with the pharmacognostical and phytochemical characters of genuine and adulterant plant.Keywords: Adulteration, Centella asiatica, Merremia emarginata, pharmacognosy, phytochemistry
      PubDate: 2013-09-19
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2013)
  • Asymmetric Membrane Capsules for Delivery of Poorly Water Soluble Drugs
    • Authors: Vivek Chavda, Moinnuddin Soniwala
      Abstract: After the successful implementation of asymmetric membrane in osmotic tablet preparation, it also diversified towards capsular system. The asymmetric membrane capsule is a controlled drug-delivery device widely used in controlled osmotic drug delivery. The phase-inversion technique is utilized to nurture such units. It has a relatively thin dense region supported on a thicker porous region, hence called asymmetric. In contrast to gelatin capsules, however, the walls of asymmetric membrane capsules are made from a water-insoluble polymer such as cellulose acetate (CA) ethylcellulose (EC), cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB), and their mixtures. This review is undertaken to provide some fascinating features of asymmetric membrane capsule with its preparation method and evaluation parameters. Keywords: asymmetrical membrane, osmotic effect, poorly water-soluble drugs, sodium lauryl sulfate
      PubDate: 2013-09-19
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2013)
  • A Possible Case of Methotrexate Induced Hepatic Cirrhosis
      Abstract: A patient with psoriasis on long term methotrexate (MTX) therapy (cumulative dose=14.4 g) developed cirrhosis of liver associated with portal HTN and ascites. All the other possible causes for liver cirrhosis like HBV, HCV infection were ruled out. Investigations: antibodies (LKM-1), anti-mitochondrial antibodies (AMA 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9), anti-treponemal antibody (TPHA), HBS Ag, anti-HCV were negative
      PubDate: 2013-04-22
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2013)
  • Isolation, Characterization of Rhinacanthus Nasutus L. Kurz and Its
           Biological Evaluation
    • Authors: P. Jaya Preethi, K. Bindu Sree, A. Sirisha, Pavan Kumar, S. Ruby, T. Sivakumar
      Abstract:  The present paper deals with isolation, characterization and evaluation of anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-bacterial activities of n-hexane extract of Rhinacanthus nasutus L. Kurz. Extraction was carried out with soxhlet apparatus using solvents of increasing polarity. The anti-inflammatory activity was done by Carrageenan-Induced Paw Edema in rats. Analgesic activity was done by hot plate method and anti-bacterial activity by plate hole diffusion method. n-Hexane extract exhibited significant change in anti-inflammatory, analgesic activities when compared with the standard drug and control. Antibacterial screening of n-hexane extract was 100% active in concentration of 1000 µg/ml, 93% active in concentration of 500 µg/ml, and 87.5% active in concentration of 250 µg/ml.  
      PubDate: 2013-04-22
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2013)
  • Anti-nociceptive Potential of Scurrula parasitica: An Unexploited
           Parasitic Plant
    • Authors: Nilesh Mahajan, Parag Joshi, Manish Kondawar, K. L. Senthil Kumar, V. Vaidhyalingam
      Abstract: Scurrula parasitica (Loranthaceae) is an herbaceous growing shrub parasitic on Dendrophthoe falcata (Loranthaceae) which is itself parasitic on Mangifera indica (Anacardiaceae). Scurrula parasitica is distributed throughout the western ghat region of Maharashtra, some parts of Uttar Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. Genus Scurrula comprising of around 91 species, however, only S. ferruginea, S. atropurpurea, S. fusca have been investigated systematically. No such pharmacological and phytochemical data are available on the plant Scurrula parasitica. So, the main intention of the current study is to investigate the unexploited angiospermic parasite plant, Scurrula parasitica for its ethno medical claims as well as pharmacological activities based on chemotaxonomic tracing, in experimental animals. The dried methanol extract (SPM) of the whole plant of Scurrula parasitica L was studied for its analgesic activity using animal models such as- Acetic-acid-induced writhing test (chemical stimulation), Heat conduction method (thermal stimulation) in comparison with Diclofenac sodium as reference standards. The SPM was given in doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight in which dose 400 mg/kg given significant results in comparison with reference standard Diclofenac sodium. The study may conclude that some chemical entities transferred from host Dendrophthoe falcata to the parasite Scurrula parasitica are accountable for its anti-nociceptive potential.
      PubDate: 2013-04-22
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2013)
  • Anthelmintic Activity of Leaves of Tridax Procumbens
    • Authors: Gajendra Pratap Choudhary
      Abstract: The ethanolic extract of the leaves of Tridax procumbens was evaluated for its anthelmintic efficacy in vitro. Graded doses of the extract (10, 50, 100, and 200 mg/mL) showed significant anthelmintic activity, with their sensitivity when compared with the standard. Ivermectin and levamisole were used as reference drugs.
      PubDate: 2013-02-04
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2013)
  • Laxative Activity of Root of Moringa pterygosperma
    • Authors: Mahesh Krishnath Kambale, M. Kumawat, N. S. Naikwade, D. D. Chougule
      Abstract:  Crude aqueous extract of root of Moringa pterygosperma (family: Moringaceae) at dose 100 and 200 mg/kg was investigated for laxative activity according to Cappaso et al. in albino rats that were compared with standard drug agar-agar (300 mg/kg, p.o.) in normal saline. The rats were fasted for 12 h before the experiment. After 8 h of drug administration, the faeces were collected and weighed. The extract was found to produce significant laxative activity in dose-dependant manner. The activity may be contributed to the phytoconstituents present. 
      PubDate: 2013-02-04
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2013)
  • Phenetic Analysis of Solanum melongena Accessions to Explore the Genetic
           Diversity by SDS-PAGE
    • Authors: Aisha Umar
      Abstract: The present experimental work was conducted for the phenetic analysis among 40 accessions of Solanum melongena from different geographical areas of Pakistan. The interspecific variation was found among the accessions of S. melongena. The analysis of seed storage was done by SDS-PAGE to check their relationship. Electrophoretic data was documented by gel documentation system (Bio-Rad, USA), and analyzed by using quantity 1-D analysis software and dendogram constructed with 100% tolerance in UPGMA (unweight pair-group arithmetic mean). The electrophorogram of accession Nos. (1–19) 018477, 018482 (Faisalabad) and 18484 (Sahiwal) was unique in protein banding position as compared to other accessions with light and dark bands. The band numbers and molecular weight of these were 7(49 KDa – 018477acc.), 18(21 KDa – 018482acc.) and 13(36 KDa) in 08184 accession from Sahiwal. The accessions 20–40 also have the unique banding pattern; band No. 2(70 KDa) from D. I. Khan (18504), Sahiwal (20344), and Batgram (20509). Band No. 7(49 KDa–18500, 18505, 14466(3) acc.) belonging to D. I. Khan and Bhawalpur was also having unique protein profile as well as 17(24KDa–20281, 20425, 44663) band was also unique in position. This work has proved that the accessions have low level of genetic diversity, which was negligible. Constructed dendogram has shown cluster 1 divided into 6(6a, 6b), 7(7a, 7b), 8(8a, 8b) and 9(9a, 9b) was the largest cluster including accessions 20425-4745(3), which belong to different geographical areas, but have no genetic variations. So, according to results, the all studied accessions had almost similar protein contents.

      PubDate: 2012-10-01
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2012)
  • Chemical Investigation on Roots of Angelica glauca High Altitude Himalayan
    • Authors: Kunal Sajwan, Bharat Pande, Sonali Sajwan, Nitin Rai, Rajeev Kr. Sharma, K. S. Khetwal
      Abstract: The essential oil of Angelica glauca collected from Kumaun Himalayan region of India was analyzed by GC-MS. It has been found rich in sesquiterpenes (52.23%), fatty acids (17.686%), diterpenes (2.771%) apart from bioactive constituents (z)-Lingustilide (4.531%) and (z)-Butylidene phthalide (11.061%). Twenty seven compounds have been identified by comparison of their MS and retention time through literature search.
      PubDate: 2012-10-01
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2012)
  • Pharmacogenetics: A Marvel!
    • Authors: Deepika Tikoo, Dr. Meenakshi Gupta
      Abstract: Pharmacogenetics is a new paradigm in the field of medical research and therapeutics which is set to revolutionize the current scenario of drug prescribing in health care. It can identify the genetic variations responsible for differences in drug efficacy and safety among individuals by employing pharmacogenomic tools and hence result in lowering of the chances of therapeutic failures and adverse effects. Clinical practitioners will also need to have a thorough understanding of these tests and then incorporate them in their practice. Pharmaceutical companies too can benefit by pre-clinical testing for identifying suitable targets and their candidates and then performing clinical studies on the relevant population. Gradually, few pharmacogenetic tests have become available in selected laboratories around the world which is a promising step ahead towards a better future. Still, there is a need to take care of cost-related issues of genomic tools, non genetic factors, multigene involvements and ethical limitations associated with incorporation of pharmacogenetics completely into health care practice.  
      PubDate: 2012-10-01
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2012)
  • Development, Characterization and Evaluation of Topical Gel of Clove Oil
    • Authors: Megha Sharma, khushboo nechlani, Seema Kohli
      Abstract: A wide choice of vehicles ranging from solid to semisolid forms has been used for skin care and of dermatological disease. High molecular-weight water-soluble polymers of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), gelatin, sodium alginate that possess very high viscosity, transparency, film forming properties at low concentration, are reported to be useful in formation of gel. In the present research work, gels of clove oil using different gel-forming agents such as sodium CMC, sodium alginate, gelatin, and gum tragacanth were prepared with an objective to increase transparency and spreadability. The prepared gels were characterized for pH, spreadability, consistency, homogenecity, skin irritation, and drug content and stability studies. Results show that gel made of sodium CMC has good consistency, homogenecity, spreadability, stability and has wider prospect for topical preparations as compared to sodium alginate, gelatin, tragacanth gum, and PVA gel containing clove oil.
      PubDate: 2012-10-01
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2012)
  • Possible Case of Ofloxacin Induced Thrombocytopenia and Hypokalemia: A
           Case Report
    • Authors: Girish K., Vikram Reddy K., Harsha R.
      Abstract:  Although Fluoroquinolones are known to cause thrombocytopenia, Ofloxacin induced thrombocytopenia cases are reported rarely. As per our knowledge no case has been reported in Indian population and this will be the first report. A seventy-five-year-old female patient admitted for fever and  abdominal pain and received ofloxacin, following which there was thrombocytopenia and hypokalemia, and normal levels were returned with ofloxacin discontinuation. It is a reporting of a possible case of Ofloxacin induced thrombocytopenia and hypokalemia in Indian population. 
      PubDate: 2012-05-14
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2012)
  • Prescription Pattern in the Department of Pediatrics in a Tribal District
           Hospital of Andhra Pradesh India
    • Authors: Ajay Khade, Mohammed Shakeel Mohammed Bashir, Madhurya Ramineni
      Abstract: In rural and tribal regions of India, pediatric population is extremely vulnerable to diseases because of lack of awareness and substandard health care facilities. Hence we planned the study to know the status of drug prescription pattern in pediatric department of a tribal district hospital. Fifty hospitalized cases were included randomly in the retrospective study. Case sheets were analyzed for prescription related parameters. Majority of cases was in the age group of 1–3 years (28%). Gastroenteritis (36%) and febrile convulsion (16%) were the common causes of hospitalization. Total 213 drugs were prescribed, with an average of 4.26 drugs per patient. Intravenous route (132 drugs) was the most preferred route. Antimicrobials were the most common (47.89%) group of drug prescribed, followed by analgesic/antipyretics (18.31%). In antimicrobials, ceftriaxone (52.93%) was the most common drug. Almost 60% drugs were prescribed by trade name. Use of single (17.65%) and two different types (24.51%) of antimicrobials was common. Fixed dose combinations were not used. Nonpharmacological treatment was given in 14% cases. Irrational drug prescription practice is common in the region. It needs emergency intervention to avoid adverse economic consequences and emergence of antimicrobial resistance in the region.
      PubDate: 2012-05-14
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2012)
  • A Review of Pharmacological Action of Certain Herbal Drugs
    • Authors: Nitin Rai, Lalit Tiwari, Rajeev Kr. Sharma
      Abstract: Plants are fundamental to almost all life on earth, providing protection and sustenance for organism ranging from a microorganism to a large animal even too certain categories of plant species. Plants can be considered as chemical factories that have been evolving their biosynthetic pathway programmes over the last decades. During this evolution, plants have synthesized an array of compounds whose structural diversity is often beyond the imagination of even the most imaginative organic chemists. Plants appear to have evolved the chemical pathways to produce many chemical compounds, which are responsible for many pharmacological activities resulting to medicinal potentiality of that plant species. Present communication reviews the pharmacological actions of three important herbal drugs used in a number of herbal formulations, along with their taxonomy and phytochemistry.
      PubDate: 2012-05-14
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2012)
  • Medicinal and Pharmacological Action of Spices: A Review
    • Authors: Nitin Rai, Lalit Tiwari, Rajeev Kr. Sharma
      Abstract: Spices are grown in India from time immemorial and part of Materia Medica of Indian System of medicines viz. Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha and also in Homoeopathy. Uses of spices as medicines have mention from pre-historical time. Various spices, such as cardamom, ginger, black pepper, cumin and mustard seeds, were included in the ancient `susruta mushkakadigana' or herbal medicines, prescribed to remove fat and to cure urinary complaints, piles and jaundice. In India, these spices are consumed as the basic ingredients in various forms of food. Present review communication deals with the pharmacological screening of seven spices along with their taxonomy and phytochemical constituents.
      PubDate: 2012-05-14
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2012)
  • Invitro Evaluation of a Herbal Soap Formulation as an Antifungal Agent
    • Authors: Jeson Babu Jangala
      Abstract: During the past few decades, there is a rise in the resistance of bacterial and fungal pathogens. In this accord, lot of research is being carried out and many studies are focused on the use of plant extracts as fungicides. There is archaeological evidence that the betel leaves have been chewed since very ancient times, for its activity towards bacteria and fungi. Hydroxychavicol, a phenolic substance isolated as an aqueous extract from Piper betle leaves showed inhibitory activity against fungal pathogens including molds like Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium spp. and dermatophyte fungi Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum gypseum and Microsporum canis. The minimum inhibitory concentration varied from 60µg/ml–120µg/ml. The phenolic substance is known to inhibit spore germination and mycelia growth. Light Microscopic studies suggest that hydroxychavicol treated mycelium undergoes plasmolysis leading to its death. An herbal soap formulation containing hydroxychavicol and two other substances was found to be effective against the tested fungi. Hydroxychavicol could be a potential therapeutic agent if suitably formulated. 
      PubDate: 2012-02-07
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2012)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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