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Advances in Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Advances in Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Algorithms Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American J. of Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
American J. of Bioinformatics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American J. of Biomedical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
American J. of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
American J. of Computational and Applied Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American J. of Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
American J. of Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
American J. of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American J. of Fluid Dynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 44)
American J. of Geographic Information System     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
American J. of Intelligent Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
American J. of Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
American J. of Materials Science     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
American J. of Mathematics and Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
American J. of Medicine and Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American J. of Operational Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American J. of Organic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
American J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 46)
American J. of Signal Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American J. of Sociological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
American J. of Stem Cell Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American J. of Tourism Management     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Applied Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Architecture Research     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Basic Sciences of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Medicine and Diagnostics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 56)
Energy and Power     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Food and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Frontiers in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human Resource Management Research     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Intl. J. of Agriculture and Forestry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Applied Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Intl. J. of Applied Sociology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Arts     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Intl. J. of Biological Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Biophysics     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Brain and Cognitive Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Composite Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 44)
Intl. J. of Construction Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Intl. J. of Control Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Diabetes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Intl. J. of Ecosystem     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Electromagnetics and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Finance and Accounting     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Intl. J. of Food Science and Nutrition Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Genetic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Hydraulic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Information Science     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Instrumentation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 39)
Intl. J. of Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Library Science     Open Access   (Followers: 518)
Intl. J. of Materials and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Materials Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Mechanics and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Metallurgical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Mining Engineering and Mineral Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Modern Botany     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Networks and Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Nursing Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Optics and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Optoelectronic Engineering     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Plant Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Prevention and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Probability and Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Sports Science     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Intl. J. of Statistics and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Stomatological Research     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Textile Science     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Intl. J. of Theoretical and Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Intl. J. of Traffic and Transportation Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Intl. J. of Tumor Therapy     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Virology and Molecular Biology     Open Access  
J. of Civil Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
J. of Game Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Mechanical Engineering and Automation     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
J. of Microbiology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
J. of Nuclear and Particle Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
J. of Safety Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
J. of Wireless Networking and Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Management     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Marine Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Microeconomics and Macroeconomics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Microelectronics and Solid State Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Public Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Research in Cell Biology     Open Access  
Research in Neuroscience     Open Access  
Research in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Research in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Research in Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Resources and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
World Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)

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International Journal of Biological Engineering
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2163-1875 - ISSN (Online) 2163-1883
Published by SAP Homepage  [105 journals]
  • Are Isothiocyanates from Cruciferous Vegetables Potential Therapeutic
           Agents for Breast Cancer

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2016Source: International Journal of Biological Engineering, Volume 6, Number 1Suong NT NgoBackground: The important role of food bioactive compounds in the reduction of cancer risk has been highlighted by extensive research over the last two decades. Consumption of cruciferous vegetables in particular, rather than vegetables as a group has drawn a great deal of attention in cancer research due to their potential protective properties. The health benefits of cruciferous vegetables have been well reported being attributed to their rich sources of isothiocyanates and indole constituents. This paper focused on the activity of isothiocyanate constituents in breast cancer. Methods: Studies and data sources: Medline and Pubmed were searched for studies using key terms isothiocyanate and breast cancer as text words and as exploded subject headings where possible. Other key terms such as sulforaphane, benzyl isothiocyanate, phenethyl isothiocyanate, allyl isothiocyanate and breast cancer were also searched to check for appropriate studies. The search included all studies published from 1995 up to December 2015. Relevant studies cited in the primary-search published before 1995 were also included in the review. Inclusion criteria: The following inclusion criteria were applied in the screening of articles: 1) study published in English; 2) study compared ITC treated group with a control; 3) study examined breast cancer tumour or breast cancer cells; 4) study examined anticancer effect; 5) statistical analysis was provided. The search resulted in 3 human clinical trials and 49 preclinical in vivo and in vitro studies. Results&Discussion:There were substantial preclinical data over the last two decades, which reported the activity of various isothiocyanate constituents in breast cancer cell lines and animal models of breast cancer tumour, with a limited number of studies from human clinical trials. Recent studies have also found that isothiocyanates exhibited significant activity against breast cancer stem cells as well as breast cancer bull cells, which is generally thought as a new and innovative approach for targeting breast cancer treatment. The most extensively investigated cruciferous vegetables’ active constituents included sulforaphane, benzyl isothiocyanate and phenethyl isothiocyanate, and overall, at pharmacological concentration range of 1-10 µM for sulforaphane and 2.5-5 µM for benzyl isothiocyanate, and phenethyl isothiocyanate with a wide undefined, varied range of concentrations, these food bioactive compounds demonstrated a highly desirable activity at the cellular and molecular levels, therefore they are likely to show great promise for use in humans as anti-cancer therapeutic agents.
       
  • Growth Characteristics of Newly Isolated Xylose-Assimilating Bacterium and
           Accumulation of Green Plastic, Polyhydroxyalkanoate in the Genetic
           Engineered Strain

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2016Source: International Journal of Biological Engineering, Volume 6, Number 1Kenji Tanaka, Shunya Mori, Kastuki Matsumoto, Kojiro Yamamoto, Izumi Wakida, Saki Goto, Hiromi MastusakiA bacterial polyester, polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) is expected as “green plastic” because it is thermoplastic, flexible and biodegradable. In commercial production of PHA, the use of economic and ecological substrate like biomass is necessary. Hemicellulose, which is mainly composed of xylose and other monosaccharides can be a candidate of substrate for production of PHA. However, xylose is not easily utilized by microorganisms. We isolated a bacterium that grows at a high specific growth rate in xylose-mineral salts medium. The bacterium, which was named Enterobacter sp.TF, assimilates many kinds of sugar but it does not accumulate PHA. Hence, we made the genetic recombinants by introducing the genes for biosynthesis of homopolyester of D-3-hydroxybutyrate, PHB from Ralstonia eutropha, and the genes for biosynthesis of PHA copolyester from Pseudomonas sp.61-3. As a result, the recombinant introduced with the genes of R.eutropha accumulated PHB from xylose.
       
  • Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (M-TB) - Human Sputum Interaction Mechanisms
           Energetics

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2015Source: International Journal of Biological Engineering, Volume 5, Number 2Chukwuneke J. L., Achebe C. H., Omenyi S. N.The energetics of mycobacterium tuberculosis – human sputum interaction mechanisms have been studied. This involved the use of the Hamaker coefficient approach as a surface thermodynamics tool in determining the interaction processes. The surface interfacial energy is explained using van der Waals concept of particle interactions on separation of particulates suspended in a liquid. The methodology employed involved taking sputum samples from twenty infected persons and from twenty uninfected persons for absorbance measurement using a digital Ultraviolet visible Spectrophotometer. The variables required for the computations with the Lifshitz formula were derived from the absorbance data. Matlab software tools were used in the mathematical analysis of the data produced from the absorbance values. The Hamaker constants A11, A22, A33 and the combined Hamaker coefficients A132 and A131 were obtained using the values of the dielectric constant together with the Lifshitz equation. The free energies of adhesion calculated were found to be negative with combined Hamaker coefficient positive. The values of A132abs = 0.21631x10-21Joule (for M-TB infected sputum) and A132abs = 0.18825x10-21joule (for M-TB/HIV infected sputum) were obtained. The implication of this result is the positive value of the absolute combined Hamaker coefficient which entails net positive van der Waals forces demonstrating an attraction between M-TB and the macrophage. This however, implies that infection is very likely to occur. The desired outcome is that the bacteria do not adhere to the macrophage to avoid bacteria penetrating it, in which case a condition for rendering free energy of adhesion positive and combined Hamaker coefficient negative is required.
       
  • Experimental and FEM Study of Effect of Smoking on Red Blood Cells

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2015Source: International Journal of Biological Engineering, Volume 5, Number 1Zhao Yong, Ibrahim N. Muhsen, Mohamed Tarek Abdelaty, Muhammad U. Zafar, Arwa A. Alanqary, Nourah A. Alrubaiq, Samah F. Alabbasi, Randa Alnounou, Youssef Omaia ElakwahBlood cells are composed of 99.9% erythrocytes, red blood cells. Erythrocytes transport oxygen to all cells of the body through narrow blood capillaries. The mechanical properties and deformability of erythrocytes are therefore vital in maintaining their ability to perform their functions. Many diseases or substances are known to affect erythrocytes in both shape and mechanical properties, such as: sickle cell anemia, or carbon monoxide, respectively. In this study, an experimental approach was used to study the effect of smoking on the mechanical properties of red blood cells. Experimental measurements were obtained using a nano-indentation tester, and preliminary results are reported. The commercial FEA package ANSYS was used to simulate the experiment and gain extra insight. The results of the study showed that smoking produces no significant changes in the mechanical properties of RBCs. Research involving more subjects with larger range of ages is needed to fully understand the effect of smoking on RBCs.
       
  • BioClean and Liquid Biofertilizers to Big Cleaning Day 2014

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2015Source: International Journal of Biological Engineering, Volume 5, Number 1Sittisak UparivongBioClean and Liquid biofertilizers are green fermented liquid bioproducts. BioClean was produced by fermenting various flowers (such as lotus, marigold, orchid, etc.) while liquid biofertilizers were produced by using available biomaterials (such as vegetables, fruits, some herbaceous, etc.). These biomaterials had been fermented by mixing with molasses and adding 18 zymogenic synthetic microorganisms (18 ZSMs). The products of bioclean and liquid biofertilizers (v.2014) were aimed to produce and utilize for environmental and agricultural sectors to the two factories of Khon Kaen Fishing Net (Head office and Boworn branch) at Khon Kaen Province, Thailand. The properties of products were analysed and investigated by the steps of crops field test and water quality treatment for fishes living before servicing to target factories. The results of satisfactory rating of project service to the two target factories of Khon Kaen Fishing Net (Head office and Boworn branch) for encouraging along the way to “Big cleaning day and Green area 2014” were obtained 80.7% and 78.7% during services respectively, evaluated by the groups of general officers of two factories.
       
  • Design and Implementation of Medical System for Measuring Glottal Activity
           (Electroglottography)

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2015Source: International Journal of Biological Engineering, Volume 5, Number 1Atika A. Salih, Auns Q. H. Al-NeamiThe present study aims to design and implementation a medical system for measuring glottis activity (electroglottography). Electroglottography (EGG), is a noninvasive way that measure the change in electrical resistance across the larynx, which is related to the vocal fold vibration. The measurement was implemented by using a pair of electrodes placed on the neck at the level of thyroid cartilage, where a low level current (1.6mA) of high frequency (300 KHz) was applied. The sensed signal was AM modulated, recalling of AM detector which is based on a full wave rectification and the serve of 8th order low pass filter. The signal was filtered by a high pass filter to remove the noise. The fundamental frequency of the resulted signal was in a range between 50 to 600 Hz. The system output was examined on ten persons (5 males, 5 females with different ages) which provided a very good signals for diagnosis of vocal fold disorders.
       
  • Structural Assessment of Elastase Strain K in Homogeneous Non-Aqueous
           System

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2014Source: International Journal of Biological Engineering, Volume 4, Number 1Chee Fah Wong, Raja Noor Zaliha Raja Abd. Rahman, Mahiran Basri, Abu Bakar SallehHomogeneous non-aqueous enzymology emerges as an attractive alternative to other non-aqueous systems in order to overcome some inherent drawbacks associated with heterogeneous non-aqueous biocatalysis. However, homogeneous organic systems require enzymes that are both soluble and stable in hydrophilic organic solvents. In relation to this, the role of hydrophilic organic solvents as the main contributor to the stability of elastase strain K is well studied in this communication. Circular Dichroism (CD) spectropolarimetry method by means of far UV had been assigned to examine the effect of methanol concentrations on the secondary structure of elastase strain K, based on the content changes of different secondary structure elements in proteins. The far UV spectra of the enzyme in 10-60% (v/v) of methanol have depicted spectral trends similar to that of the control [0% (v/v)]. Further investigation into the behavior of elastase strain K in methanol using several tools in DICHROWEB has unveiled stabilized form of secondary structures throughout the transitions from low to extremely high concentrations of methanol.
       
  • Hazard Assessment of Humanity as result of Biological Contamination with
           Uranium at Iraq Southern

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2013Source: International Journal of Biological Engineering, Volume 3, Number 2Mohammed Khudheir, Ahmad Shukri Yahaya, Fauziah AhmDepleted uranium (DU) is known to affect the health and well-being of humans. Exposure to DU weapons used by the United States troops and its allies has caused several types of exotic diseases, congenital malformations, and malignant tumors that have resulted in mild to severe abnormalities. This study aims to determine the amount of DU concentrations present in humans exposed to DU weapons. The Basrah District was chosen as the study site because this district was involved in the Gulf War in 1991 to 2003. Data were collected from hospitals, universities, and health institutes from 1989 to 2010. Blood, tissues, bones, urine, and teeth infected by cancer where compiledas data samples. The DU ratios of each person in the diverse sites of the Basrah Governorate were obtained for analysis. Descriptive statistics was obtained for the dataset. Results of this study shows that the mean of the DU ratio in the infected samples was 0.018 ppm in 1994 and was 1.27 ppm in 2010. Results also indicating that the DU ratio exceeded the standards level significantly. The DU concentration rates increase with increasing the years, due to the accumulation of U238 series radioisotopes in the human organs. The lung has the highest DU ratio, followed by the kidney, bones, urinary bladder, and teeth, successively. Analysis findings indicate the presence of radiological pollution significantly in some areas, and lead to uranium enters the human body through respiration or through ingestion of contaminated food and drink. Airborne uranium also contains particles that accumulate in the human organs.
       
  • Optical Imaging of Motor Cortical Hemodynamic Response to Directional Arm
           Movements Using Near-infrared Spectroscopy

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2013Source: International Journal of Biological Engineering, Volume 3, Number 2Nicoladie D Tam, George ZouridakisThis study aims at determining arm-movement directions from functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) hemodynamic signals in order to decode intentional motor commands, originating in the motor cortices of humans, which could be implemented in neuroprosthetic assistive devices for assisting the physically disabled. Motor cortical hemodynamic responses were recorded using 64 spatially distributed optrodes from 14 normal subjects during free arm orthogonal movements in the x- and y-directions on a horizontal plane. The time course of oxy-(HbO2) and deoxy-hemoglobin (Hb), and of their summation (HbO2 + Hb) and difference (HbO2 – Hb) signals, representing the hemodynamic profiles of total oxygen delivery and extraction, respectively, were computed for the localized neuronal populations in the motor cortices underlying the optrodes. Analysis of the above hemodynamic signals revealed that they could be temporally, spatially, or spatiotemporally decoupled, depending on the movement direction. Thus, by analyzing the spatiotemporal profiles of brain activation we could identify the direction of the orthogonal movements uniquely. Our findings demonstrate that movement direction, a key feature of motor commands, can be reliably extracted in real-time from surface recorded fNIRS signals, and support their viability in future noninvasive assistive devices.
       
  • Modulation of Reporter EGFP Gene Expression by a Disease-Associated Human
           Intra-Intronic Minisatellite Upon Transient and Stable Transfection

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2013Source: International Journal of Biological Engineering, Volume 3, Number 1L. K. Sasina, E. M. Fedorova, N. A. Grudinina, E. V. Belotserkovskaya, K. V. Solovyov, I. O. Suchkova, E. L. PatkinCurrently, our understanding of associations between minisatellite polymorphisms and diseases is far from clear. This is in part due to great differences in human and animal minisatellite structure. Thus, here we have used plasmids which contained the reporter gene EGFP under eukaryotic promoter ROSA26, and different allelles of human minisatellite UPS29 for both transient and stable transfection of F9 cells induced to differentiate, but not terminally differentiated, to establish whether the minisatellite would be capable of affecting expression of EGFP in the episomal state and in a closer to “native” chromatin environment. Upon transient transfection, we found enhanced reporter gene expression for constructs with minisatellite alleles inserts. By contrast, in cells that were stably transfected UPS29 alleles suppressed reporter construct expression compared to controls with no inserted UPS29 allele. The most prominent effect was observed for the shortest UPS29 allele associated with diseases. For stably transfected cell lines, integrated transgene copy number and some epigenetic characteristics of nuclei in situ did not differ among constructs containing different UPS29 alleles. The enhancer effect seen with transient transfection is speculated to be due to accessibility to specific transcription factors. The suppressive effect seen in stable transfectants might be determined mainly by methylation of minisatellite sequences rather than by peculiarities of host genome.
       
 
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