Publisher: Macrothink Institute   (Total: 47 journals)   [Sort by number of followers]

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Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian J. of Finance & Accounting     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Business and Economic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Business and Management Horizons     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Business Management and Strategy     Open Access   (Followers: 46)
Case Studies in Business and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Education and Linguistics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Environmental Management and Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Global J. of Educational Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human Resource Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. Finance and Banking     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Accounting and Financial Reporting     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Intl. J. of Culture and History     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Intl. J. of Education     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Intl. J. of English Language Education     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Intl. J. of Global Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Human Resource Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Intl. J. of Industrial Marketing     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Learning and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Intl. J. of Management Innovation Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Regional Development     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Social Science Research     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Intl. J. of Social Work     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. Research in Education     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Issues in Economics and Business     Open Access  
Issues in Social Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
J. for the Study of English Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
J. of Agricultural Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Applied Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Asian Development     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Biology and Life Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Corporate Governance Research     Open Access  
J. of Education and Training     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Educational Issues     Open Access  
J. of Entrepreneurship and Business Innovation     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Environment and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
J. of Food Industry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Food Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
J. of Management Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
J. of Public Administration and Governance     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
J. of Safety Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Social Science Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
J. of Studies in Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Research in Applied Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Research in Business and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
World J. of Business and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
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Business and Economic Research
Number of Followers: 12  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2162-4860
Published by Macrothink Institute Homepage  [47 journals]
  • Qualifications and Certificates v Practical Knowledge and Experience: Is
           There a Winner'

    • Authors: Eddie Fisher, Yorkys Santana González
      Pages: 1 - 21
      Abstract: There appears to be a continuing and inconclusive debate amongst scholars whether theoretical knowledge or practical experience is more important in related and associated areas such as education, recruitment and employability. This research, limited to a literature review and face to face interviews, conducted a systematic investigation to obtain and analyze valid and reliable research data to establish whether theoretical knowledge or practical experience are of paramount importance. The outcome of this research suggests that a hybrid approach should be adopted, with the major focus being on practical experience supported by relevant theoretical knowledge and not the converse. A number of additional recommendations are presented how to balance and close the gap between theory and practice including a redesign of ordinary and advanced level educational teaching. Far greater emphasis needs to be placed on young people gaining early practical experience inside and outside the classroom. This can be achieved by developing practical workshops (pilot studies) for use in safe laboratory-type environments and by extending work placements within organizations during term times.   
      PubDate: 2020-03-23
      DOI: 10.5296/ber.v10i2.16520
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2020)
  • SME: Apparently Small But of Great Derivative Value! Literature Review of
           Tourism SMEs to Create Employment and Access to Finance

    • Authors: Gazmend Nure, Evelina Bazini, Filloreta Madani
      Pages: 22 - 45
      Abstract: Contributions from various tourism SMEs to improve socio-economic development in developed countries include employment creation, improved living standards and increased family income. Despite this, you have great deals on the direct link between job creation, but there is also some controversy over who creates jobs and how they do it. Various documents say that Tourism SMEs play an important role in training young people, covering the labour deficit and generating benefits to the efficiency of the economy, innovation and overall growth. Therefore, this study will help us build the evidence needed to create Tourism SME policies and understand the core operational values of SMEs that maximize results in terms of achieving basic objectives such as job creation, increasing employee productivity and what are the financial challenges facing tourism SMEs. Policy initiatives to encourage the financial sector to be more proactive in securing tourism financing SMEs can also be envisaged, including taking steps to improve the knowledge and understanding of the tourism sector.
      PubDate: 2020-03-23
      DOI: 10.5296/ber.v10i2.16574
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2020)
  • Deposit Insurance and Bank Risks in Vietnam

    • Authors: Pham Thi Chi, Dao Thanh Binh
      Pages: 46 - 63
      Abstract: The relationship between deposit insurance and banking risks has been widely studied, but has been the subject of relatively few empirical studies, especially for Vietnamese banking system. This research aims to explore the effect of deposit insurance on banks’ risk taking in Vietnam. The paper employs 7 bank specific variables and 2 macroeconomic variables, as well the premium paid by banks as variables for the regression models used. The results suggest that deposit insurance does impact banks’ risk taking incentive but it has different effects on each type of risk. It is concluded that credit, default and leverage risk are found to have a negative relationship with deposit insurance, while leverage and deposit insurance have a positive relationship, which may help banks and supervisors in their decision for the deposit risk premium. This paper contributes to the existing literature by help to understand the impact of deposit insurance on banks risk taking behavior in Vietnamese banks.
      PubDate: 2020-03-26
      DOI: 10.5296/ber.v10i2.16750
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2020)
  • A Study of Determinants of Service Quality and Its Role in Customer
           Satisfaction: A Case of Selected Hotels in Sulaimaniyah, Kurdistan Region
           of Iraq

    • Authors: Mamta Singh, Devendra Kumar
      Pages: 64 - 85
      Abstract: Purpose of the study: Hospitality and tourism is a promising sector for growth of the Economy in Kurdistan region of Iraq. Every year a massive number of tourists visit the region during Nawroz and Eid –ul-Adha festival seasons. The region is fairly modern and possesses several tourist destinations including site seeing, religious tourism and historical tourism etc. Kurdistan Regional Statistics Office published a report on region’s economy that consists of number of foreign individuals, who visited Kurdistan region categorized into Arab and Non-Arab visitors category provides a clear picture that the region is not only an attraction for holiday but also for other type of tourism. Therefore we wish to learn customers opinion about satisfaction from service quality of the selected hotels. The study will be used to share key information with the hotel in Sulaimaniyah city.Methodology: To understand the determinants of service quality that is most shot for by the individuals we have conducted a survey of selected five star hotels in Sulamaniyah. The sample size for this study was a small sample which was 50 respondents. We used purposive sampling. For data analysis we used SPSS software package for social sciences. Main Findings: We observed from the majority responses that Room service, delivery time, behavior of hotel staff, a nice welcome on arrival, variety of food and beverage are some of the important parameters on which customers decide to rate a hotel. The customers do not have much interest in modern furniture facilities as per this study result. Application of the study: In the nutshell hospitality and tourism sector has huge potential for job creation given the fact the region has well-educated and well groomed young population ready to be employed in the region’s growing tourism industry, this research will help the hotels to provide better services to satisfy the customer.
      PubDate: 2020-03-28
      DOI: 10.5296/ber.v10i2.16472
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2020)
  • Predictors of Entrepreneurial Orientation: Comparative Assessment of the
           Effects of Personality and Environment

    • Authors: Ahmet Emre Demirci
      Pages: 86 - 103
      Abstract: This study aims to understand whether the personal traits or the environmental conditions play a more significant role in entrepreneurial intentions. Since intentions are strong predictors of the behaviors, it is important to understand whether the former or the latter factor has a stronger impact on entrepreneurial dispositions. In order to understand the complex relations between entrepreneurial intentions, personality traits, and perceived environmental conditions, total number of 229 economics and business administration students at Anadolu University, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences were surveyed. Results of the statistical analysis have revealed that although the majority of the individual personal traits and contextual factors are perceived as strong predictors of entrepreneurial intentions, when considered as separate holistic structures; personal traits are better predictors for entrepreneurial intentions compared to contextual factors in Turkey.
      PubDate: 2020-04-09
      DOI: 10.5296/ber.v10i2.16616
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2020)
  • Malaysia Private Entity Reporting Standard (MPERS) adoption for SMEs:
           Insights from Accounting Practitioners in Malaysia

    • Authors: Nurul Nazlia Jamil, Nathasa Mazna Ramli, Ainulashikin Marzuki, Nurul Nadiah Ahmad
      Pages: 104 - 122
      Abstract: Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) have very significant contribution to economic growth of the countries as more than 95% of companies worldwide and employment are represented by the SMEs industries. Therefore, in increasing the harmonization of reporting standard of SMEs, Malaysia is moving aggressively towards the efforts by introducing the Malaysian Private Entity Reporting Standard (MPERS) for SMEs starting from 1st January 2016 onwards. MPERS is seen to bring opportunities to the business as it is adoption of international standard that has been designed to fits the local needs and the customization to the Malaysian business environment could ensure comparability of the locals with the international business. Hence, this research attempt to 1) examine the perceptions of accounting practitioners on MPERS implementation and 2) identify the problems encountered in applying MPERS in SMEs. This study provides pioneering evidence on the problems of the practitioners encountered when applying the MPERS through the 176 questionnaires survey that have been distributed to the accounting practitioners that involve with MPERS implementation for SMEs in Malaysia. The insights and perceptions obtained highlighting new dimensions to the inherent problem such as issues of consistency and guidance in applying the MPERS with the cost-effective manner. Thus, the issues of differences in judgements among the practitioners become a phenomenon in relation to the application of MPERS for SMEs. The findings of this study are of interest to standard setters and SMEs stakeholders in Malaysia and other countries.
      PubDate: 2020-04-15
      DOI: 10.5296/ber.v10i2.16847
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2020)
  • Economic Uncertainty and the Demand for Broad Money in South Africa

    • Authors: Wen-Hsien Tan, Chin-Hong Puah, Shirly Siew-Ling Wong, Mei-Teing Chong
      Pages: 123 - 133
      Abstract: This paper scrutinised the impact of economic uncertainty on the broad money demand in South Africa using quarterly data from 2001 to 2018. Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (GARCH) model is employed to capture the volatilities of selected components in order to construct an economic uncertainty index (EUI) for South Africa. The constructed index is then used as a regressor along with real income, interest rate and exchange rate in determining South African demand for broad money. The empirical finding using the Autoregressive Distributed Lag approach notably shows that the EUI is negatively affecting South Africa’s demand for broad money in the long term. This reveals that economic agents tend to hold real or safer assets than riskier assets, thus reduce broad money demand during times of heightened economy in South Africa. The model is cointegrated in the long-run and stable with the inclusion of EUI in the broad money demand function for South Africa. The findings are able to assist policy makers in using suitable determinants as stabilisation tools and targeting a more effective monetary policy framework refined by appropriate monetary aggregates in South Africa.
      PubDate: 2020-04-15
      DOI: 10.5296/ber.v10i2.16577
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2020)
  • Does FDI Caused Profit Repatriation: Exploring the Moderating Role of
           Governance Institutions

    • Authors: Ghalib Bin Faheem, Danish Ahmed Siddiqui
      Pages: 134 - 152
      Abstract: This paper investigates the impact of foreign direct investment, institutional quality on profit repatriation and net primary income taken as a proxy of profit repatriation. Inflation and GDP per capital were taken as controls. Data sample of 54 countries (developing) has been used for the first model of this research. And data sample of 100 countries (developed and developing both) has been used for the second model. The sample period is from 2008-2017. Finding of this study indicate that institutions quality is negatively impacting profit repatriation and net primary income. It also reveals foreign direct investment is negatively affecting profit repatriation but positively impacting net primary income. Results reveal that investors are unwilling to invest in countries where institutions encourage corruption, because these factors increase the cost of doing business. Developing countries have weaker institutions than developed countries and so, investors will be taking their profit back and not willing to re-invest in that particular country.
      PubDate: 2020-04-17
      DOI: 10.5296/ber.v10i2.16704
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2020)
  • The Role of Non-State Actors in Strengthening the Developmental Capacity
           of the State: A Case Study of Cross Rivers State, Nigeria

    • Authors: Felix Chukwudi Oparah, Enya Ndem Bassey, Ohatu Ekoh Ohatu
      Pages: 153 - 167
      Abstract: This study examined the role of Non State Actors (NSAs) in strengthening the developmental capacity of the state, using a case study of Cross River State, Nigeria. Primary and secondary data on selected constituents of NSAs including Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs), Privately Owned Companies, Banks, Private Hospitals and Private Schools were analyzed using tables and charts. The results revealed that activities of NSAs significantly enhance the developmental capacity of Cross River State especially in the areas of provision of public services, knowledge and skill acquisition, infrastructural development and employment generation. Besides other recommendations, it was recommended that NSAs and the government should perform complementary roles in enhancing developmental capacity and that the establishment of more NSAs in the rural areas should be encouraged through the provision of special funding and other incentives for NSAs that have their offices in the rural areas.
      PubDate: 2020-04-22
      DOI: 10.5296/ber.v10i2.16447
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2020)
  • Flip Side of the Coin: Negative Socio-Economic Implications of ICT

    • Authors: Sergey Samoilenko
      Pages: 168 - 181
      Abstract: While positive impacts of ICT have been noted and subjected to numerous academic inquiries, the negative implications are often swept under the proverbial rug and not given much attention. The subject of the negative impacts of ICT, however, is worth considering, for such impacts are observable in a variety of economies of the world and must be dealt with. An intuitive taxonomy of problems could be created based on four dimensions: social vs. economic implications and intra-economy vs. inter-economy impacts. A set of research suggestions could offer assistance in investigating negative impacts of ICT in a rigorous and relevant to the local context manner.
      PubDate: 2020-05-06
      DOI: 10.5296/ber.v10i2.16973
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2020)
  • The Impact of Human Capital and Foreign Direct Investment on Economic
           Growth: An Empirical Study on Jordan

    • Authors: Mustafa Mohammad Alalawneh
      Pages: 182 - 196
      Abstract: Human capital is a real factor in improving the investment climate and attracting foreign investment. FDI also increases human capital in the host country through the transfer of advanced technology and the rehabilitation of local labor. The importance of the study comes from Jordan's serious endeavor to attract foreign direct investment and to present itself as a rich country in human and qualified capacities. This study examines the effect of human capital and foreign direct investment on economic growth in Jordan employing Auto Regressive Distributed Lags Bounds Testing (ARDL BT) co-integration method for the spanning period from 1984 to 2018. The results indicate that there is a long- run relationship among variables. The results showed that there is a negative and statistically significant effect of human capital index (HCI) on economic growth (GWP) in the long run, and a positive and statistically significant effect of FDI (GFDI) on economic growth (GWP) in the long run. The estimation results indicate that a 1% increase in (HCI) decreases (GWP) by 0.272%, and a 1% increase in (GFDI) increases (GWP) by 0.006%. This study is one of the few studies that highlight the challenges facing both HC and FDI in increasing economic growth in Jordan and provides some recommendations.
      PubDate: 2020-05-06
      DOI: 10.5296/ber.v10i2.16747
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2020)
  • Reality of Applying Marketing Mix of Vietnamese Mobile Telecommunication
           Service Enterprises

    • Authors: Nguyen Thi Nhung, Vu Hong Nhung, Hoang Hai Ninh, Hoang Kim Ung, Nguyen Linh Phuong, Khuat Quang Thanh
      Pages: 197 - 212
      Abstract: The group of authors researched the application of Marketing – mix strategy of Vietnam mobile telecommunications enterprises through surveying 300 customers who are using telecommunications services of Viettel, VNPT, and Mobi Fone. After that, the group offered different solutions to improve the marketing-mix efficiency of Vietnam’mobile telecommunications enterprises in the contexr of extensive and complex integration.
      PubDate: 2020-05-06
      DOI: 10.5296/ber.v10i2.16983
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2020)
  • Challenges Associated with the Handling of Tomatoes in the Ho Central

    • Authors: Grace Denny Doku, Margaret Aba Sam Hagan, Joyce Mamle Mawusi Obubuafo
      Pages: 213 - 224
      Abstract: The study sought to evaluate tomato handling processes and their associated challenges faced by venders in the Ho Central Market. Data was generated by randomly sampling one hundred (100) tomato vendors within the study area. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the data collected from the respondents. The study revealed handling methods adopted by the tomato vendors in the Ho Central Market. These methods included storing the fruits in boxes as well as spreading them on the floor in the warehouses in an orderly manner. According to the respondents these practices were adopted to ensure long life span of the tomatoes. Another handling method revealed by the study involved displaying the fruits on trays during hawking. This practice was to attract customers and to improve sales or patronage. The study recommended that vendors should be educated on modern and hygienic ways of handling their wares in order to enhance the fruits’ life span. Also, storage facilities should be made available and affordable by the authorities in charge of the Ho Central Market for proper storage of perishable commodities to keep them hygienic and also enhance their life span.
      PubDate: 2020-05-06
      DOI: 10.5296/ber.v10i2.16984
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2020)
  • Flight Delays, Security and Economic Reimbursements

    • Authors: Candidate Ardit Çela, Klodian Muço
      Pages: 225 - 233
      Abstract: Over the past decade, the air transport system has undergone profound changes, mainly driven by the evolution of reference legislation and markets globalization process. The primary cause also goes by the name of "deregulation", which has profoundly revolutionized the tariff methodology and air transport management.With deregulation, airlines have seen disappear of barriers and constraints that incentivized growth and development for many years (Arrigo, Giuricin, 2006; Postorino, 2009).The globalization of markets has also proved decisive in the growth of demand for air transport, which has become an irreplaceable means of transfer that allows the connection from one part of the terrestrial globe to another in a few hours. Impressive growth in air traffic and deregulation has at the same time led to millions of frequent passengers and unpleasant complications, such as delays. In the absence of a specific discipline in this area and with the desire to give balance to a situation partially unbalanced to the detriment of consumers/travelers, the European Union decided to take action to remedy it, equipping passengers with effective protection tools against these afore mentioned situations.The European Union has made the rules issued in 1991 on compensation and assistance to air passengers more rigid and afflictive for airlines by providing, at the same time, new provisions aimed at mitigating the inconvenience of passengers abandoned at airports due to canceled flights or of prolonged delays. The EU legislation covering these changes, which was preceded by the Passenger Rights White Paper, is contained in EU Regulation 261/1994, which came into force in February 2005, which sets out how and operational rules on assistance and reimbursement to air traffic users (Fraschina, 2009).The three different hypotheses of "denied boarding", cancelled flights and prolonged delays are the subject of regulation.In this study, however, we will mainly address the rights and reimbursement of passengers in the event of delays of air flights, in fact according to the new legislation, more protection will be provided to passengers who will face the painful and common circumstances of the delays. Community bodies believed that adequate assistance and reimbursement should be provided to passengers who were forced to long waits at airports due to a flight delay.
      PubDate: 2020-05-06
      DOI: 10.5296/ber.v10i2.16985
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2020)
  • The Effect of Accounting Disclosure about Sustainability Reports on the
           Ability of Banks to Going Concern - Case Study of Arab Bank

    • Authors: Ammar Daher Bashatweh, Salam Nawaf AlMomani
      Pages: 234 - 249
      Abstract: The main objective of the study was to identify the effect of accounting disclosure of sustainability reports on Going Concern in the Arab Bank. To achieve the objective of the study, the content of the sustainability reports issued by Arab Bank were analyzed to identify the disclosure level for the economic, environmental and social dimensions in accordance to the (GRI,2014) initiative indicators. Furthermore, the Going Concern ability of the bank was measured using a set of financial indicators selected based on the results reported in previous literature addressing Continuity in commercial banks. Data used in the current study was taken from the sustainability reports and the annual statements issued by The Arab Bank (2010-2014). The study concluded that there is a significant effect of the disclosure of the dimensions of all the sustainability reporting on the return on assets and the return on equit). The study recommended the need for Arab Bank to disclose the dimensions of sustainability dimension in accordance to the International disclosure Initiative (GRI, 2014).There is also a need for more disclosure of the accounting activities in annual statements to provide a clearer picture for the sustainability accounting statements and annual statements which reflect the Arab Bank concern with respect to sustain the community resources and its ability to Concern Going.
      PubDate: 2020-05-08
      DOI: 10.5296/ber.v10i2.17006
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2020)
  • Corporate Social Responsibility during the Coronavirus Pandemic: An
           Interim Overview

    • Authors: Shaike Marom, Robert N. Lussier
      Pages: 250 - 269
      Abstract: The Coronavirus outbreak caught the world by surprise, spreading like wildfire and causing fatal illness to many. The ongoing pandemic and its implications have led to severe global socioeconomic disruption, halting most regular activities. Coping with the pandemic and its horrible consequences required to pull together all resources and unite efforts by individuals, organizations and governments. Businesses have embarked on an effort to support coping with the pandemic in various ways, as aligned with the concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR). The article reviews the various ongoing CSR efforts in the fight against the Coronavirus pandemic, serving better understanding on best CSR practices at times of crisis and in the afterwards ‘new normal’.
      PubDate: 2020-05-17
      DOI: 10.5296/ber.v10i2.17046
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2020)
  • Civil Servant Borrowing Practices: A Determinant of Poverty in Zimbabwe

    • Authors: Tan Zhongming, Tinashe Mangudhla, Reginald Masimba Mbona
      Pages: 270 - 289
      Abstract: In assessing microfinance institutions (MFIs) and civil servants' perspectives on borrowing in Zimbabwe, we examine the purpose and rationale of MFIs establishments. Thus, in an attempt to understand the reason behind high borrowing, we also considered loan terms, the nature of loans issued, and the uses of MFIs borrowed funds among households. Driven by the exploratory approach, qualitative research involving semi-structured interviews and observation methods were applied in this study. Using, the purpose of the loan, pricing of loans, repayment terms, and loan terms, interview questions were designed and conducted. Our results show that MFIs loans are: short term loans, income (salary) based; and, these loans are mainly for immediate household consumption needs not an investment. This study also indicates that loan application requirements are more favorable for employed households, especially public sector employees. Even though civil servants have a better advantage in accessing MFIs loans, in the long run, they are likely to remain in poverty; since their purpose of borrowing is geared towards family expenses. Also, MFIs prevailing interest rates (high), evidenced with shorter repayment periods, reflect their failure to pull borrowers out of poverty; however, creating an interdependence syndrome of continuous borrowing. Since we focused on lending practices of households, our results serve as a basis of a joint policy formulation in combating poverty. Thus, understanding poverty through the borrowing of employed citizens aids in grasping the interconnectedness of sectors; which, is an essential tool for sustainable development and strategic planning.
      PubDate: 2020-05-18
      DOI: 10.5296/ber.v10i2.16832
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2020)
  • Explaining the Disposition Bias among Investors: The Mediatory Role of
           Personality, Financial Literacy, Behavioral Bias and Risk Tolerance

    • Authors: Asad Basheer, Danish Ahmed Siddiqui
      Pages: 290 - 314
      Abstract: Investors are frequently subjected to cognitive error. They often sell stocks that have increased in value, while keeping stocks that have dropped in value. We proposed a theoretical framework explaining what factors affect this disposition bias and how. According to the proposed theory, Disposition bias is affected through risk tolerance, financial literacy, and behavioural biases. Lower risk tolerance and low financial literacy can aggravate disposition bias. We also proposed that personality factors such as Superego, Parsimony, Orderliness, and Obstinacy also influences both the level of financial literacy as well as behavioural biases that in turn affect disposition bias. Empirical validity was established by conducted a survey using close ended questionnaire. Data was collected from 182 investors trading through 3 brokerage firms in Karachi. Confirmatory factor analysis and structured equation modelling were used for analysis. The results suggested that financial literacy significantly affect all behavioural biases (except Representativeness) as well as Disposition Bias. Higher financial literacy will tend to show less disposition bias and they better can make portfolio decision. Similarly, risk tolerance also affects disposition biases as a risk-averse investor will tend to show more disposition bias. Among the behavioural factors, Anchoring, overconfidence, and loss aversion affect disposition biases. Overconfidence also seems to affect risk tolerance. Personality traits like superego and parsimony seem to affect almost all the behavioural biases. Similarly, superego and parsimony affect risk tolerance. Similarly, Superego and obstinacy affected financial literacy. This finding will help investors to better manage their portfolio by mitigating these biases.
      PubDate: 2020-05-26
      DOI: 10.5296/ber.v10i2.16827
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2020)
  • Apparent Comparative Advantage and Development Space in Women’s
           Apparel Trade

    • Authors: Xin Zhao
      Pages: 315 - 340
      Abstract: This study investigates the apparent comparative advantage of the world’s top five women’s apparel exporters in order to anticipate the development of future international women’s apparel markets using Vollrath’s Relative Trade Advantage (RTA) Index and market share analysis for both aggregate and disaggregate trade data from the UN Statistics Database for the years 1993-2007. Findings show the complexity of the comparative advantage concept and indicate that appearances can be deceiving. Outstanding performance for exporters based on RTA values at the aggregate level does not necessarily mean outstanding performance at the subcategory level. Furthermore, market share analysis shows that new players are making a strong showing in the women’s apparel trade. Niche opportunities are revealed for the current export leaders, as well as up-and-coming apparel exporters. The results suggest that Vollrath’s RTA Index, heretofore little used in the apparel trade area, offers a useful additional perspective on comparative advantage and should be considered for use in future apparel trade studies.
      PubDate: 2020-05-26
      DOI: 10.5296/ber.v10i2.16799
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2020)
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