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Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian J. of Finance & Accounting     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Business and Economic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Business and Management Horizons     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Business Management and Strategy     Open Access   (Followers: 48)
Case Studies in Business and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Education and Linguistics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Environmental Management and Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Global J. of Educational Studies     Open Access  
Human Resource Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. Finance and Banking     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Accounting and Financial Reporting     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Intl. J. of Culture and History     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Intl. J. of Education     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Intl. J. of English Language Education     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Intl. J. of Global Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Human Resource Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Intl. J. of Industrial Marketing     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Learning and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Intl. J. of Management Innovation Systems     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Regional Development     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Social Science Research     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Intl. J. of Social Work     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Intl. Research in Education     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Issues in Economics and Business     Open Access  
Issues in Social Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
J. for the Study of English Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
J. of Agricultural Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
J. of Applied Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Asian Development     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Biology and Life Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Corporate Governance Research     Open Access  
J. of Education and Training     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Educational Issues     Open Access  
J. of Entrepreneurship and Business Innovation     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
J. of Environment and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
J. of Food Industry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Food Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
J. of Management Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
J. of Public Administration and Governance     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
J. of Safety Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Social Science Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
J. of Studies in Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Research in Applied Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Research in Business and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
World J. of Business and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
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Journal of Biology and Life Science
Number of Followers: 2  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2157-6076
Published by Macrothink Institute Homepage  [47 journals]
  • Prokaryotic Expression, Purification and Activity Detection of
           Phosphodiesterase 2A Protein

    • Authors: Lei Jiang, Shenghu Yan
      Pages: 1 - 12
      Abstract: Depression is associated with changes in cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) levels. Depression can be improved by increasing the cGMP concentration through the cGMP/PKG pathway with PDE2A inhibitors. This study is aimed to improve the expression of a highly active PDE2A protein with an Escherichia coli vector ST6 for the screening of PDE2A inhibitors. PDE2A gene was obtained through polymerase chain reaction. A recombinant plasmid of ST6-PDE2A was built by seamless cloning and then introduced into E. coli BL21 (DE3). The cultivation conditions were optimized to increase target protein expression. The expressed protein was purified with Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. Its purified activity was measured by a PDE-GloTM phosphodiesterase kit. An maximized protein expression was obtained by cultivating E. coli BL21 with ST6-PDE2A in the YT medium at 37 °C till OD600 reached to 0.6-0.8 and then by inducible expressing with 1 mM IPTG at 16 °C for 40 hours. The resultant active protein has an EC50 of 0.1196 mg/ml.
      PubDate: 2020-04-16
      DOI: 10.5296/jbls.v11i2.16650
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Non-numerical Distance and Size Effects in an Ant

    • Authors: Marie-Claire Cammaerts, Roger Cammaerts
      Pages: 13 - 35
      Abstract: The distance effect (the fact that the individuals’ discrimination between two similar elements increases with the magnitude of the distance between them) as well as the size effect (the fact that the individuals’ discrimination between two similar elements decreases with the size of these elements) have been largely reported in vertebrates but not in invertebrates. Here, we demonstrate their existence in an ant, using operant conditioning to visual cues (black circles) of different dimensions. The two effects were obvious and differed from one another. Both effects could be accounted for Weber’s law, but it was here not tempted to verify if they are in line with this law by defining the just noticeable difference the ants can perceive between the cues.
      PubDate: 2020-04-21
      DOI: 10.5296/jbls.v11i2.16895
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Weber’s Law Applies to the Ants’ Visual Perception

    • Authors: Marie-Claire Cammaerts, Roger Cammaerts
      Pages: 36 - 61
      Abstract: Non-numerical distance and size effects have been previously observed in the ant Myrmica sabuleti. As such effects can be theoretically in line with Weber’s law, we presumed that this law, until now examined in vertebrates, could also apply to ants. Using operant conditioning we trained then tested M. sabuleti workers faced with black circles having fixed diameters of 2, 3 and 4 mm against circles with diameters increasing by 0.5 mm until the ants perceived a difference between the smaller and the larger circles. This just noticeable difference occurred when the larger diameter reached 3.5, 5.5 and 7 mm respectively, what corresponded to a ratio larger/smaller surface of 3.06, 3.36 and 3.06. Owing to the degree of accuracy of the experimental methodology, this ratio is sufficiently constant for being consistent with Weber’s law.
      PubDate: 2020-04-21
      DOI: 10.5296/jbls.v11i2.16896
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Application of CRISPR/Cas9 Technology in the Genetic Improvement of Rice
           Yield and Quality Characters

    • Authors: Bo Peng, Xiaorui Ma, Tao Yang, Mengyang Zheng, Juan Peng, Xiayu Tian, Yanfang Sun, Xiaohua Song, Ruihua Pang, Jintao Li, Quanxiu Wang, Wei Zhou, Xinxiang A, Hongyu Yuan
      Pages: 62 - 82
      Abstract: Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most important food crops in the world. With the continuous increase of global population and the continuous improvement of people's living standards, it has become the focus of attention of rice breeders and botanists to improve the yield and quality of rice. In the new genome editing technology, the CRISPR/Cas system can accurately and specifically edit the target genome region. In recent years, CRISPR/Cas9 technology has made important progress in studying the function of new genes, increasing rice yield and improving rice quality. Therefore, this paper mainly reviewed the application of CRISPR/Cas9 technology in the genetic improvement of rice yield and rice quality in recent years, and looked forward to the application prospect of CRISPR/Cas9 technology in rice genetic breeding, which will provide important reference for the cultivation of new high-quality and high-yield rice varieties.
      PubDate: 2020-05-14
      DOI: 10.5296/jbls.v11i2.17039
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Diurnal activity patterns of walia ibex (Capra walie) in Simien Mountains
           National Park, Ethiopia

    • Authors: Dessalegn Ejigu, Afework Bekele, Larkin Powell
      Pages: 83 - 93
      Abstract: Walia ibex (Capra walie) is an endangered and endemic species restricted to Simien Mountains National Park (SMNP), Ethiopia. Data on activity patterns of walia ibex were collected during October 2009 to November 2011, and the main objective of the research was to determine diurnal activity patterns of walia ibex in Simien Mountains National Park in order to design sound conservation strategies for the species. Scan sampling method was used for data collection on diurnal activity patterns of walia ibex. Diurnal activity patterns in walia ibex were bimodal, in which they were active before and after noon. They rest in shade on rocks and cliffs during the mid-day to protect themselves from hot sun and predators. Activity patterns of walia ibex during the day showed statistically significant differences (F7,18228= 82.09, df=7, p<0.01). Feeding showed significant differences compared to moving, standing, resting, socializing, and other activities (p<0.05). Diurnal activity records in the walia ibex population during the wet and the dry seasons showed that time spent feeding was the highest and vigilance was the lowest. Knowledge of the pattern of this behavior can especially be useful to design conservation planning as successful reproduction in the population may be threatened by anthropogenic disturbances. Thus, information about the diurnal activity patterns of walia ibex is essential for conservation planning of the endemic and endangered walia ibex in its natural habitats.
      PubDate: 2020-05-18
      DOI: 10.5296/jbls.v11i2.17049
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Isolation, Identification and Molecular Characterization of
           Nocardiopsaceae Producing Novel Antibiotics From Soil Samples in Bingol,
           Turkey

    • Authors: Samer Abuzerr, Kate Zinszer, Syamand Ahmed Qadir, Ekrem Atalan, Halgord Ali M. Farag, Abdel Hamid el Bilbeisi, Kawa Khwarahm Hamafaraj, Rima Naser, Miran Husein Qader, Alshaarawi Salem, Amany Al Afifi, Salem Abu Musleh
      Pages: 94 - 106
      Abstract: There is growing interest in the antimicrobial discovery of life-threatening multidrug-resistant pathogens. The study was undertaken to isolate, identify, and characterize antibiotic-producing actinomycetaceae, particularly nocadisosaceae, from soil samples of Bingol, Turkey. Soil samples were collected from three different regions of Bingol, Turkey. The physicochemical analysis of the soil samples was immediately measured using standard methods. This was followed by isolation of Nocardiopsaceae, nutritional tests, chemotaxonomic analysis, and molecular characterization. The isolated organisms showed morphological properties consistent with the Nocardiopsaceae soil bacteria.  The 16s rDNA gene sequence indicated a similarity between the strains with 99.86% which was Nocardiopsaceae synnemata-formans. The BLAST hits had a significant e-value of 0.005. The results of the present study revealed that soil Nocardiopsaceae of Bingol appears to have immense potential as a source of antibacterial compounds.
      PubDate: 2020-05-18
      DOI: 10.5296/jbls.v11i2.17050
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Analysis of the ABO and RH (D) Blood Groups Among Third Year Integrated
           Science Education Students of the University of Education, Winneba

    • Authors: C. K. Koomson, C. Owusu-Fordjour, M. Afari-Baidoo, C. A. Biritwum
      Pages: 107 - 116
      Abstract: The objective of this study is to get an information about the distribution of ABO and Rhesus blood group, among the Education students of the University of Education, Winneba. Also it is a need for routine screening for hemolysin among blood group O, if found to be high, as well as to institute donor registry for Rhesus negative blood group, if found to be low. Records of ABO and Rhesus blood grouped results of students were screened in November 2019. Data were analyzed by the use of the software Epi info, version 5.3.4. Descriptive statistics were used to compute percentages and averages. Results are presented in tables and charts, and expressed as percentages/ proportions, and means. One hundred and sixty-six results were obtained, made up of 132 males and 34 females. Among the population studied, blood group O had the highest frequency, 93 (56%), followed by blood group A, 39 (23.5%), then B, 29 (17.5%), while AB had the least frequency, 5 (3%). Most of students were found to be Rhesus positive (92.2%) while Rhesus negative were only 7.8%. Blood group O was found to be highest among the study population followed by A, B and AB in that order. Most of the students were found to be Rhesus positive while only a few were Rhesus negative. Routine screening for hemolysin among blood group O and institution of donor registry is recommended.
      PubDate: 2020-07-01
      DOI: 10.5296/jbls.v11i2.16853
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Investigate the Antibacterial Activity of Lichen Biomass Used in Textile
           Dye Removal

    • Authors: Ülküye Dudu Gül
      Pages: 117 - 125
      Abstract: All over the world, the treatment of textile wastewater has become a significant problem due to the development of the textile industry. Particularly, the treatment of synthetic dyes, which are found abundantly amounts in textile wastewater, has gained importance. Recent studies have focused on the use of biological treatment technologies to remove pollutants in water. On the other hand, the disposal of wastes from biological treatment technologies was considered as another environmental problem. This study aims to compare the antimicrobial properties of the extract obtained from dye loaded and un-loaded lichen biomass after the biosorption process. According to the results of this study, it was found that the extract obtained from the waste lichen biomass, which has loaded with the textile dye in the decolorization process, showed a similar antimicrobial effect with the unloaded lichen extract. To sum up the waste lichen biomass used to remove textile dyes can be reused for the application of antimicrobial products.
      PubDate: 2020-07-06
      DOI: 10.5296/jbls.v11i2.17321
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Variability and Genetic Diversity of Bottle Gourd [Lagenaria siceraria
           (mol.) Stand.] in Bangladesh

    • Authors: A. K. M. Quamruzzaman, F. Islam, M. M. R. Salim, L. Akhter, M. M. Rahman, M. A. Z. Chowdhury
      Pages: 126 - 137
      Abstract: The presented study was conducted at the experimental field of Olericulture Division, Horticulture Research Center, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Gazipur, Bangladesh during the year 2018-19 to assess the extent of genetic diversity among 25 bottle gourd germplasms. Data on: days to first harvest, fruit number per plant, average fruit weight, fruit yield (kg/plant), fruit length, fruit diameter, fruit yield (t/ha), fruit shape and fruit color were recorded.  Plot means for quantitative characters were used for the statistical analysis, while genetic diversity, principal component analysis (PCA), principal Coordinate analysis (PCO), cluster analysis, cluster means and two-dimensional scattered plotting diagram were studied. The germplasms were constellated into five distinct groups with the range of 3 germplasms in the cluster III to 6 germplasms in the clusters II and IV. The inter-cluster distance in all cases was larger than is the intra-cluster distance. The highest intra-cluster value (2.65) was found in the cluster IV. Maximal inter-cluster distance (12.24) was observed between germplasm of cluster I and V, followed by the clusters I and III (12.05) and minimal was found between germplasms of cluster I and IV (3.46). In case of the cluster means values and yield contributing performance cluster I, cluster IV and cluster III performed well. Considering the group distance and inter-genotypic crosses between the clusters and cluster means, inbreeds belong to clusters: I, IV and III, to that will be given higher priority for crossing in future bottle gourd hybridization program.
      PubDate: 2020-07-06
      DOI: 10.5296/jbls.v11i2.17322
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Morphological and Nutritional Properties of Popular Eggplant Cultivars in
           Bangladesh

    • Authors: AKM Quamruzzaman, Anjumanara Khatun, F. Islam
      Pages: 155 - 167
      Abstract: The study was conducted to investigate the morphological characteristics, nutritional composition, compare the proximal composition, mineral content and antioxidant bioactive compounds of ten popular eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) cultivars (six OP and four hybrids) in Bangladesh during the winter season of 2019-20. Considering the growth habit, plant vigour, earliness, fruit shape, fruit colour, fruit no/plant, fruit yield, pest and diseases infestation BARI Begun-6, BARI Begun- 8, BARI Begun-10, SM275, BARI Hybrid Begun-4 and Hybrid 21x11 were superior in comparison to other cultivars. BARI Begun-6 showed the highest amount of Carbohydrate (6.63) and Ca (48.33), while BARI Begun-8 was highest for crude fiber (2.48), ash (0.62), protein (1.54) and Mn (0.40). BARI Begun-10 obtained the highest content of energy (32.1), anthocyanin (78.51), P (23.45) and Zn (0.57). SM275 showed the highest concentration of ascorbic acid (15.21), Na (8.51) and Mg (24.80). In both studies the four OP cultivars viz., BARI Begun-6, BARI Begun-8, BARI Begun-10, SM275 and one hybrid viz., Hybrid 21x11 performed well with better horticultural characters along with significant amounts of human promoting health components, such as crude fibre and biologically essential minerals like K, Ca, Mg, P, Na and Fe. These cultivars can be cultivated and consumed for better human health.
      PubDate: 2020-07-23
      DOI: 10.5296/jbls.v11i2.17407
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • The Tea and Polysaccharide Fractions of Ximenia americana Stem Barks
           Inhibits Inflammatory Parameters Induced by Zymosan in Mice

    • Authors: Gabriela Fernandes Oliveira Marques, Arcelina Pacheco Cunha, Francisco Sávio Machado Lima Gabriel, Nágila Maria Pontes Silva Ricardo, Maria Gonçalves Pereira, Ana Maria Sampaio Assreuy
      Pages: 168 - 180
      Abstract: Ximenia americana or “ameixa-do-sertão” is a plant used in the folk medicine of Northeast-Brazil in inflammatory and painful processes. The literature has shown anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities for the aqueous or hydroalcoholic extracts and polysaccharide fractions of X. americana stem barks. This study investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of polysaccharide fractions and tea prepared from X. americana stem barks in mice models of paw edema and peritonitis induced by zymosan. Tea (50,100, 150 mg/kg; p.o.) and polysaccharide fractions (FI, FII: 1 mg/kg; i.v.), containing carbohydrate (44.8, 25.0, 44.4%) and polyphenols (28.3, 0.78, 1.50%), respectively, were administered 1 h before zymosan (500 mg; s.c. or i.p). FT-IR analysis of the tea showed bands indicating C=O and C-O groups vibration, typical of phenolic compounds. Zymosan-induced paw edema (AUC: 355.0 ± 38.1) was inhibited by the tea by 38% (100 mg/kg) and 36% (150 mg/kg). FI and FII reduced the edema by 47% (933.8 ± 158.1 AUC) and 30% (1263 ± 124.8 AUC), respectively. Zymosan i.p. induced hypernociception (4.7 ± 0.3 g) and increased the peritoneal leukocyte migration (10979 ± 1475 cells/ml). FII increased by 66% the nociceptive threshold (13.87 ±1.59 g) and reduced by 63% leukocyte migration (3993 ± 439.1 cells/ml). FII decreased plasma protein by 64% (92.6 ± 4.5 vs. zymosan: 119.6 ± 5.4 mg/ml) and MDA by 63% (57.5 ± 3.5 vs. zymosan: 88.9 ± 6.3 mg/ml). The tea, containing polysaccharides and polyphenols, and polysaccharide fractions FI/FII of X. americana barks possess antiinflammatory effect in mice models of acute inflammation induced by zymosan.
      PubDate: 2020-09-15
      DOI: 10.5296/jbls.v11i2.17698
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Nanotechnology and Global Applications: Bench to Community

    • Authors: Ashok Chakraborty, Smita Guha, Prabir Patra
      Pages: 181 - 189
      Abstract: Advances in nanotechnology has become enormously promising in the field of health science, in developing many medical equipment. The possible effects of novel nanomedical technology significantly improve the diagnosis and therapeutic aspects of many diseases. Nanomaterials are being applied in operation, disease diagnosis as well as therapy, molecular imaging, implant technology, tissue engineering, as well as a device for efficient drug delivery, protein and gene release. In this review we discussed the utility of nanoscience in health issues, and the knowledge from there how can be disseminated to the educators and parents for expanding STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Math) programs.
      PubDate: 2020-09-28
      DOI: 10.5296/jbls.v11i2.17617
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Mitochondrial Dysfunction Contributes to Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome - A
           Patient Presentation

    • Authors: Golder N. Wilson, Vijay S Tonk
      Pages: 190 - 202
      Abstract: A female patient with substantial history and physical findings of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome by systematic evaluation had a variant in the gene encoding the sixth subunit of mitochondrial ATP synthetase gene that produced a change from glycine to aspartic acid at position 132 of the MT-ATP6 protein (MT-ATP6 m.8921G>A, p.Gly132Asp). The mutation was heteroplasmic, affecting 32% of the mitochondria in blood leucocytes, was qualified as a pathogenic variant because of its significant molecular change, but was not detected in the maternal blood sample as might be expected for its low degree of heteroplasmy. The patient was shown to have typical findings of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome by comparison of 48 history and physical findings in her and a peer group of 32 teenage females with that diagnosis. None of the classical neurosensory or developmental symptoms of mitochondrial disease were present in mother or daughter, but the patient had symptoms, metabolite alterations during rest or exercise, and muscle biopsy changes that suggested mild mitochondrial dysfunction. She also had heterozygous variants of uncertain significance in the nuclear PLOD1, FLNA, and ATP2A genes by concomitant whole exome sequencing that could also contribute to her arthritis-adrenaline disorder. Mitochondrial dysfunction is proposed to influence neuromuscular components of connective tissue, acting through an articulo-autonomic dysplasia cycle to cause the typical joint-skin laxity and dysautonomia of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.
      PubDate: 2020-09-28
      DOI: 10.5296/jbls.v11i2.17756
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Behavioral Responses of Tabanidae and Stomoxys calcitrans to Unbaited and
           Baited Nzi and Horse Pal Traps in Southern Sweden

    • Authors: Gabriela Vaduva
      Pages: 203 - 219
      Abstract: The distribution and species diversity of tabanids and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans Linnaeus, 1758, in the research area, Hästhult (wood pasture) in Sweden, as well as the behavioral responses of biting flies to visual and olfactory cues were highlighted by this study. Beyond the control of tabanids and stable flies through the Nzi and Horse Pal traps that act as a surrogate host, this study sought to demonstrate the attractiveness of biting flies to these traps by comparing the results of the two periods in which the traps were unbaited and baited. The odor attractants, such as urine (a mixture of more than phenol) and acetone used to increase trap yields, made the difference to the Horse Pal and Nzi traps for S. calcitrans (L) because the number of flies caught was significantly higher. Through this study, Nzi trap with bait and Horse Pal trap with and without bait were tested for the first time as regards the tabanids and S. calcitrans (L) in Scandinavia. Surprisingly, the number of tabanids caught in the Nzi trap was equal in both situations with or without bait. The result underlined the idea that the Nzi trap manages to catch a large number of tabanids even in the absence of attractants. It turns out that the Horse Pal trap was just as effective with and without bait in capturing tabanids. Furthermore, the number of tabanids caught in both traps depended on the type of weather, and the number of stable flies depended on the weather and also the type of trap. The results of this study showed that both the visual and olfactory aspects of the Nzi and Horse Pal traps are always essential, being used successfully in the control of biting flies and optimized for various research purposes.
      PubDate: 2020-10-09
      DOI: 10.5296/jbls.v11i2.17806
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Do the Stripes on Three-Dimensional Models Overcome the Odor Signals in
           Tabanids Landing Choice'

    • Authors: Gabriela Vaduva
      Pages: 220 - 238
      Abstract: Information about the important factors in tabanid flies visual orientation to hosts has been largely derived from experimental modifications of visual traps and decoys. In the present study performed in wood pasture (Hästhult), southern Sweden, three-dimensional striped models resembling the shape of Zebra, Bongo, Kudu and four control models of different homogenous colors (black, white, reddish-brown and brown) were baited with acetone and aged cow urine in order to test the behavioral preferences in terms of visual and olfactory stimuli in host-seeking tabanids. Attraction of tabanid flies to these models (3D) was high, possibly due to the greater visibility from several directions and also from a greater distance. Vision is important in activating, orienting tabanid flies to the host, as well as for their decision whether and where to land. This research revealed that the visual cues such as stripes on striped models became increasingly important in directing tabanids landing and searching behavior at close range. Likewise, the tabanids approach to attractants sources was overridden by visual cues (stripes) at greater extent compared with the more attractiveness to homogenous colors on control models. Moreover, the visual stimuli (stripes) played also a supplementary role, modifying the selection of landing area on striped model (land on homogenous color part in Bongo and Kudu) once alighting responses were initiated by odor. Tabanid species, especially Haematopota pluvialis and Tabanus bromius exhibited a preference for landing mostly on reddish-brown control model when given the choice of other colors. However, the complex interaction of attractants and visual cues (stripes, color, shape) in the later stages of resource location, remains relatively little studied in all species of tabanids.
      PubDate: 2020-10-09
      DOI: 10.5296/jbls.v11i2.17807
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • The Nutritional Components of Rice are Closely Related to Grain Quality
           Traits in Rice

    • Authors: Bo Peng, Ke-Xin Jin, Dian-Ya Luo, Xia-Yu Tian, Yan-Fang Sun, Xin-Hua Huang, Rui-Hua Pang, Quan-Xiu Wang, Wei Zhou, Hong-Yu Yuan, Fang Yang, Juan Peng, Hui-Long Li, Xiao-Hua Song, Xin-Xiang A
      Pages: 239 - 262
      Abstract: Starch, protein and lipid are the most important nutrients in rice, and their composition and content in rice grains play a decisive role in the grain quality. Rice quality (including appearance quality, cooking quality, nutrition quality, grinding and processing quality, etc.) is not only affected by the composition of the nutrients in grain of rice, but also by the physical and chemical characteristics and their content in grains, but also vulnerable to external environmental conditions. To clarify the relationship between the main nutrients in rice and their grain quality traits is of great theoretical significance and potential application value for the continuous improvement of rice quality in the future. Therefore, this paper reviewed the effects of starch, protein, lipid and mineral elements in grain of rice and also on quality of trait in rice. It is also discussed the relationship between these nutrients and rice grain quality traits. All of those will provide important information for the quality of grain improvement and breeding of new varieties with high quality in rice.
      PubDate: 2020-10-11
      DOI: 10.5296/jbls.v11i2.17809
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Assessment of the Durability and Bio-effectiveness of Three Long-Lasting
           Insecticidal Nets in Three Different Communities After the 2017 Mass Net
           Distribution Campaign in Benin

    • Authors: Idelphonse Bonaventure Ahogni, Albert Sourou Salako, Jean Fortuné Dagnon, Wilfrid Sèwade, Prudenciène Agboho, Germain Padonou, Martin C. Akogbeto
      Pages: 263 - 283
      Abstract: Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are an essential tool in the fight against malaria. Physical integrity, durability and bio-effectiveness are key variables in the effectiveness of LLINs. The objective of this study was to identify the main factors affecting the survival of three brands of LLINs with different physical characteristics and to assess their bio-effectiveness. A cohort consisting of 1500 LLINs (500 of each) of the brands: DawaPlus®2.0 (polyester, 150 denier, 40 g/m2 fabric weight), PermaNet®2.0 and Yorkool® (polyester, 75 denier, alternating knit pattern with 85 g/m2 fabric weight) was monitored every 6 months in the communes of Ketou, Dogbo and Djougou (from October 2017 to September 2019) based on attrition and integrity measures and median survival in years. We also determined bio-efficacy using the WHO cone test. The physical presence rate was 26.4%, 21.4% and 48.6% respectively for DawaPlus®2.0, PermaNet®2.0 and Yorkool®. The main cause of loss of the three LLINs was displacement, 43.6% (in rural areas) versus 43.2% (in urban areas) with no significant difference (p ˃ 0.05). The median proportional hole index (pHI) ranged from 578 (IQR: 219-843) at 6 months to 196 (IQR: 46-524.5). After 24 months of use, 86.1% were in good condition (0≤pHI<65), 9% were damaged (65≤pHI<643) and 4.2% were too torn (643≤pHI). A significant decrease in physical survival of LLINs (all brands) was observed at 24 months (37.9%, range 34.7-41.3%) compared to 6 months (90.3%, range 88.7-91.8%) (p<0.001). The 24-hour mortality of the three LLINs met WHO requirements for efficacy. The decline in LLIN survival rates during this study highlights the need to develop and implement new strategies to manage this important vector control tool.
      PubDate: 2020-10-18
      DOI: 10.5296/jbls.v11i2.17645
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Biocide Potential of Jatropha curcas L. Extracts

    • Authors: Dandara Rego Muniz, Iasmine Ramos Zaidan, Luiz Antônio dos Santos Dias, João Paulo Viana Leite, Juliana Aparecida Diniz
      Pages: 138 - 154
      Abstract: Jatropha curcas L., a multipurpose oilseed plant, is very important for biodiesel production; it also has a wide range of bioactive compounds with medicinal properties and biocidal activity for control of crop pests and diseases. This review presents the state-of-the-art of the biocidal activity of J. curcas extracts. Chemical constituents such as phorbol esters are responsible for high bioactivity of J. curcas, due to their toxicity to humans and animals and to their high fungicidal and insecticidal activity. The fungicidal activity of these constituents may be due to destroy endoplasmatic reticulum and hyphae cell walls. The activity of these compounds on insect pest metabolism is well known, leading to an antifeedant effect, repellency, mating inhibition, oviposition inhibition or suppression and/or induction of infertile egg production, and inhibition of larva, nymph, and pupa development. Several studies have shown that although all organs of J. curcas plant are toxic, the degree of toxicity varies in accordance with the extract formulation, the nature of the active substance, the administration rate and procedure, and the individual sensitivity of pests and diseases. Thus, J. curcas stands out as a promising species for bioenergy purposes, as well as for control of pests and diseases that affect agriculture production.
      DOI: 10.5296/jbls.v11i2.17341
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2
       
 
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