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IBM J. of Research and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.275, CiteScore: 1)
Journal Cover
IBM Journal of Research and Development
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.275
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 18  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0018-8646
Published by IBM Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Large-scale application of IBM Design Thinking and Agile development for
           IBM z14
    • Authors: F. L. Eickhoff;M. L. McGrath;C. Mayer;A. Bieswanger;P. A. Wojciak;
      Pages: 1:1 - 1:9
      Abstract: In this paper, we describe the application of IBM Design Thinking and Agile development for the IBM z14 project. We discuss the adoption of IBM Design Thinking practices and its impact on the development and client reception of IBM z14. Furthermore, we show how the design direction of the IBM z14 system was iteratively shaped by involving key members of client organizations (“sponsor users”) early in the development process. Next, we discuss how applying Agile practices in a hardware/firmware environment—with iterative development and test, playbacks, and continuous integration—allowed for faster course correction and delivery on a challenging schedule. This paper provides a case study for the adoption of IBM Design Thinking and Agile practices, which were originally designed for small team operations, and the challenge of applying them to a large-scale development organization such as the IBM team developing the z14 with more than 1,000 engineers.
      PubDate: March-May 1 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 62, No. 2/3 (2018)
  • Message from the General Manager, IBM Z
    • Authors: R. A. Mauri;
      Pages: 1 - 2
      Abstract: Presents the Message from the General Manager for this issue of the publication.
      PubDate: March-May 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 62, No. 2/3 (2018)
  • Preface: IBM z14 Design and Technology
    • Authors: Felix Eickhoff;
      Pages: 1 - 4
      Abstract: This issue describes the innovative design and technology of the IBM z14, the latest IBM mainframe, with its significant new capabilities, including pervasive encryption, analytics and machine learning, platform simplification, enhanced system capacity and performance, significant reduction in input/output (I/O) latency, data serving, reliability, robustness, and new semiconductor process technology. The topics covered in this issue also consider client value, solutions, and business motivation, along with additional new technologies and innovations across the stack.
      PubDate: March-May 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 62, No. 2/3 (2018)
  • Enabling pervasive encryption through IBM Z stack innovations
    • Authors: M. Jordan;N. Sardino;M. McGrath;C. Zoellin;T. E. Morris;C. Carranza Lewis;G. Vance;B. Naylor;J. Pickel;M. S. Almeida;D. Wierbowski;C. Meyer;R. Buendgen;M. Zagorski;H. Schoone;K. Voss;
      Pages: 2:1 - 2:11
      Abstract: Organizations are under tremendous pressure to protect the data in their enterprises. Strong walls and perimeter defenses are no longer viewed as adequate, and most organizations agree that encryption plays a vital role in protecting critical information. However, the practice of implementing an encryption strategy can vary greatly as organizations struggle with practical challenges of deploying encryption solutions. In this paper, we explain how innovations in the IBM Z stack, spanning hardware, firmware, operating systems, and middleware combine to help organizations address the challenges of protecting the data at the center of their enterprises using pervasive encryption, which can be enabled by policy and be transparent to applications.
      PubDate: March-May 1 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 62, No. 2/3 (2018)
  • Integrating solutions on IBM Z with Secure Service Container
    • Authors: S. Roscher;V. Bönisch;J. Lee;D. Zeisberg;J. Schweflinghaus;
      Pages: 3:1 - 3:6
      Abstract: Today's IT solutions often consist of many structural elements, with some essential ones deployed as hardware appliances. The IBM Secure Service Container for IBM Z provides the means to integrate and consolidate these elements into a secure, reliable, and easy-to-maintain software container instead of in hardware. An appliance, in this case, is defined as a collection of operating system, middleware, and software components that works autonomously to provide core services and infrastructure. Appliances can serve as part of a data center infrastructure (e.g., firewall) or as an addition to a service or solution stack (e.g., database accelerator). Appliances integrated into IBM Z with Secure Service Container are encrypted and signed for security, and inherit the core reliability, performance, and overall platform characteristics of IBM Z. These appliances are tamper-proof, and only the appliance administrator has access to the appliance software. Not even the system administrator can access the appliance software unless specifically authorized. Also, the administration of appliances hosted in a Secure Service Container is consistent for all appliances hosted in that infrastructure. In this paper, we discuss the design, capabilities, and attributes of Secure Service Container as well as the IBM Z firmware that supports it.
      PubDate: March-May 1 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 62, No. 2/3 (2018)
  • An optimized blockchain solution for the IBM z14
    • Authors: A. Nuñez Mencias;D. Dillenberger;P. Novotny;F. Toth;T. E. Morris; ;V. Paprotski;J. Dayka;T. Visegrady;B. O'Farrell;J. Lang;E. Carbarnes;
      Pages: 4:1 - 4:11
      Abstract: Blockchain is a technology that has been available for several years and has already had several generations. Multiple implementations exist. In this paper, we describe how one of them, the Hyperledger Fabric, is used today to demonstrate the wide usage of the technology for multiple markets beyond finance and cryptocurrency. The use cases highlight the relevance of security—due to the type of data and the distributed foundation of blockchain—and of system performance to enable the use cases in production. Security and performance are the base for the architecture of blockchain on the IBM LinuxONE systems. The Secure Service Container prevents tampering, and the cryptocard usage hardens the solution—and the performance optimization in the compiler, cryptoinstructions, and large caches provides the performance. These optimizations have been further extended with the IBM z14 beyond previous IBM Z generations. In this paper, we describe how a cluster topology is used to implement a high-availability service that scales dynamically from small networks to large ones using the hot plug capabilities of the IBM LinuxONE systems.
      PubDate: March-May 1 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 62, No. 2/3 (2018)
  • IBM z14 and the Cognitive Era
    • Authors: J. D. Bradbury;A. Chatterjee;A. Saporito;N. P. Sardino;J. S. Siu;A. T. Sofia;E. Tzortzatos;K. W. Wei;
      Pages: 5:1 - 5:9
      Abstract: The IBM z14 is designed for cognitive and analytics processing to support business use cases. With the explosive growth in the amount and richness of data and data-driven business processes, being able to process, analyze, and apply machine learning in a timely and efficient manner is often a business necessity. Improvements to the single-instruction–multiple-data (SIMD) facility, as well as improvements to Java garbage collection, provide improved support for different software packages. Software such as Apache Spark has been enabled for both z/OS and Linux on z to provide the software infrastructure required for cognitive and analytics processing, while new software such as IBM Machine Learning for z/OS provides additional assistance for data scientists. End-to-end cross-platform solutions that require data that is stored on the z14 can also be improved using these new software and hardware capabilities. This paper explores the various hardware capabilities of z14, as well as the enabling software and end-to-end solutions.
      PubDate: March-May 1 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 62, No. 2/3 (2018)
  • Platform simplification for IBM z14
    • Authors: C. Mayer;A. Brand;A. Bieswanger;B. D. Valentine;E. A. Weinmann;H. Wolf;T. Reiser;S. Korba;W. Niklaus;
      Pages: 6:1 - 6:11
      Abstract: In this paper, we describe our continued focus on simplifying the IBM Z environment and the key changes made across the mainframe stack, including platform management, hypervisors, and operating systems. For the IBM z14 program, the first goal was to enable system administrators, with no mainframe experience, to provision resources and deploy Linux workloads on the mainframe in minutes using their current skills. Further goals include providing a mobile experience for users to securely monitor and manage their systems from “anywhere,” addressing critical user pain points in the configuration of server time protocol using a topological visualization, securing the hardware management console (HMC) with two-factor authentication, and modernizing the main user workspace. Finally, the concept of attaching storage resources to an IBM Z environment has been changed to provide a consistent end-to-end experience for both the novice system administrator and the storage administrator. Additionally, the two IBM Design hallmark projects, IBM Dynamic Partition Manager and IBM zHMC.Next, are also critical to achieve these goals. Finally, applying IBM Design Thinking and Agile practices, and establishing radical collaboration with our customers, is essential to deliver these meaningful outcomes.
      PubDate: March-May 1 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 62, No. 2/3 (2018)
  • Performance innovations in the IBM z14 platform
    • Authors: C. R. Walters;D. S. Hutton;E. W. Chencinski;C. Axnix;R. Winkelmann;M. Fee;A. Saporito;C. Jacobi;
      Pages: 7:1 - 7:11
      Abstract: The IBM z14 platform brings together numerous innovations that collectively provide considerable performance gains over prior designs for the full spectrum of modern workloads being run on today's enterprise systems. These workloads range from traditional online transaction processing and batch workloads to Linux-based and cloud-based workloads, leveraging advances in analytics, mobile transaction processing, social data mining, cognitive applications, security (blockchain), and other areas. The performance gains in the z14 platform required advancements in the processor hardware microarchitecture, physical design, and instruction-set architecture, as well as in the firmware and hypervisor stacks. The result is a comprehensive platform solution that enables efficient multiprocessor scaling for large single-image partitions and mixed-workload multipartition environments within a single platform, while remaining responsive to the “bursty” demands of batch and transaction-based workloads. The performance gains present in the z14 are a direct result of the collaborative efforts between diverse teams within IBM working together to produce advancements in hardware, firmware, and software that outpace the gains of the individual contributions. In this paper, we discuss these results with a focus on the client value delivered through system performance and workload responsiveness.
      PubDate: March-May 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 62, No. 2/3 (2018)
  • Design of the IBM z14 microprocessor
    • Authors: C. Jacobi;A. Saporito;M. Recktenwald;A. Tsai;U. Mayer;M. Helms;A. B. Collura;P.-K. Mak;R. J. Sonnelitter;M. A. Blake;T. C. Bronson;A. J. O'Neill;V. K. Papazova;
      Pages: 8:1 - 8:11
      Abstract: The latest-generation IBM Z processor provides enhanced performance and compute capacity compared to its IBM z13 predecessor. This paper describes some of the major improvements that include an additional perceptron branch predictor, a completely redesigned translation engine that is tightly integrated into the core pipeline, and an integrated level-1 cache directory and translation lookaside buffer design. Outside of the central processing unit (CPU), the cache sizes have increased on each cache level, and each processor chip now contains 10 CPUs. The system topology has been optimized to improve cache transfer latencies for workloads spanning multiple processor chips. The bus interfaces between the chips have been redesigned to improve peak bus traffic handling. In combination, these enhancements provide significant performance improvements in traditional data-serving workloads, as well as in virtualized Linux environments running database, analytic, and cognitive workloads.
      PubDate: March-May 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 62, No. 2/3 (2018)
  • IBM z14 design methodology enhancements in the 14-nm technology node
    • Authors: C. Berry;J. Warnock;J. Badar;D. G. Bair;E. Behnen;B. Bell;A. Buyuktosunoglu;C. Cavitt;P. Chuang;O. Geva;D. Hamid;J. Isakson;P. M. Lobo;F. Malgioglio;G. Mayer;J. L. Neves;T. Strach;J. Surprise;C. Vezyrtzis;T. Webel;D. Wolpert;
      Pages: 9:1 - 9:12
      Abstract: In designing the IBM z14 microprocessor chipset, we discarded many of our previous assumptions and processes in favor of newer, more radical approaches. These new approaches were the result of learning from previous designs as well as this design's performance and schedule requirements. In this paper, we discuss some of the more significant changes to our methodology, including a dramatic departure from our very hierarchical integration design style to a flatter, more nimble approach. We also discuss improvements to our design's power management architecture for managing power-supply noise. Finally, we discuss changes to our simulation environment, targeted at increasing both the number of simulation cycles and simulation logic coverage.
      PubDate: March-May 1 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 62, No. 2/3 (2018)
  • IBM z14: Enabling physical design in 14-nm technology for
           high-performance, high-reliability microprocessors
    • Authors: D. Wolpert;E. Behnen;L. Sigal;Y. Chan;G. E. Téllez;D. Bradley;R. Serton;R. Veerabhadraiah;W. Ansley;A. Bianchi;N. Dhanwada;S. Lee;M. Scheuermann;G. Wiedemeier;J. Davis;T. Werner;L. Darden;K. Barkley;M. Gray;M. Guzowski;M. DeHond;T. Schell;S. Tsapepas;D. Phan;K. Acharya;J. A. Zitz;H. F. Shi;C. Berry;J. Warnock;M. H. Wood;R. M. Averill III;
      Pages: 10:1 - 10:14
      Abstract: The IBM z14 design was built with the 14-nm high-performance silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology of GLOBALFOUNDRIES. This was the first technology node after IBM transitioned from its integrated fabrication facility to operating in a fabless environment, driving significant changes to design processes and methodology. In addition to this partnership, the 14-nm technology introduced significant changes relative to previous technology nodes, including the introduction of fin-shaped field-effect transistors, the use of double patterning for the lowest back-end-of-line layers, and the introduction of middle-of-line layers to exploit contact layers for local interconnects. This combination of technical and business challenges required numerous large-scale innovations for our design, design team, and design methodologies. In this paper, we provide a survey of these innovations, including the fin-based standard cell image, deeply scaled SOI self-heating/electromigration verification, routing strategies to handle double-patterning with interlayer via awareness, fill automation to enable simultaneous design of multiple layers of hierarchy, and high-performance array design with the voltage and noise limitations of the 14-nm technology node.
      PubDate: March-May 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 62, No. 2/3 (2018)
  • Process technology for IBM 14-nm processor designs featuring
           silicon-on-insulator FinFETs
    • Authors: S. R. Stiffler;R. Ramachandran;W. K. Henson;N. D. Zamdmer;K. McStay;G. La Rosa;K. M. Boyd;S. Lee;C. Ortolland;P. C. Parries;
      Pages: 11:1 - 11:7
      Abstract: A highly optimized silicon-on-insulator FinFET technology is utilized for the IBM processor designs in the 14-nm node. This process technology has a number of unique elements that enable these product designs—namely, deep-trench embedded dynamic random access memory, multiple work-function FinFET devices, and a hierarchical 17-level metal back end of line. In this paper, we highlight these key features and provide a general background for the technology used to make these very large (∼700 mm2), complex chips operating at peak frequencies in excess of 5 GHz, and we discuss specific technical challenges.
      PubDate: March-May 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 62, No. 2/3 (2018)
  • New database compression assists in the IBM z14 processor
    • Authors: C. G. Zoellin;O. Draese;J. D. Bradbury;C. Jacobi;A. Puranik;P. Sutton;R. Tokumaru;
      Pages: 12:1 - 12:11
      Abstract: In this paper, we describe how the IBM z14 processor, together with Db2 for z/OS Version 12, can improve data compression rates and thus reduce data storage requirements and cost for large databases. The new processor improves on the compression hardware accelerator available in earlier IBM Z generations by adding new hardware algorithms that increase the compression ratio and extend the applicability to additional data structures in Db2 for z/OS databases. A new entropy coding step employed after Ziv–Lempel compression reduces the size of data compressed with the prior algorithms by 30% on average. Moreover, the new order-preserving compression algorithm enables database index compression, reducing index sizes by roughly 30%. This results in an overall improvement of 30% of the database size for many applications, with associated benefits in storage requirements, input/output bandwidth, and buffer pool efficiency.
      PubDate: March-May 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 62, No. 2/3 (2018)
  • zHyperLink: Low-latency I/O for Db2 on IBM Z and DS8880 storage
    • Authors: D. Craddock;A. Hoshikawa;J. Josten;D. F. Riedy;P. G. Sutton;H. M. Yudenfriend;
      Pages: 13:1 - 13:10
      Abstract: zHyperLink is a new low-latency I/O capability for storage area networks (SANs). When using zHyperLink, the IBM z14 processor, along with the DS8880 Storage System (IBM's latest enterprise-class storage for mainframe attachment), delivers up to a 90% reduction in storage I/O service times compared with fiber channel transport technology. zHyperLink I/O service times eliminate the need for an operating system task switch for most read I/O operations, fundamentally improving application response times and changing system scaling behavior. Initial use of zHyperLink on IBM Z, IBM DS8880 storage, and z/OS accelerates the Db2 for z/OS relational database transaction processing information management system hierarchal database and reduces the elapsed time for Virtual Storage Access Method applications. These improvements occur without any application changes. In this paper, we explain the strategic importance of a low-latency I/O capability for the SAN and describe the z14 architecture, hardware, firmware, and software implementation concepts and the preliminary performance results for Db2.
      PubDate: March-May 1 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 62, No. 2/3 (2018)
  • IBM z14: Advancing the I/O storage and networking channel adapter
    • Authors: M. Becht;S. G. Aden;T. Bubb;C. Colonna;R. Higgs;L. Hopkins;A. Li;M. Saleheen;J. F. Silverio;R. Wong;M. Zee;
      Pages: 14:1 - 14:12
      Abstract: The IBM z14 system introduces a new input/output adapter that supports two storage protocols as well as a networking protocol. This is the first time three protocols have been supported on one application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC). The three protocols supported are Fibre Connection, Fibre Channel Protocol, and Ethernet. In addition to consolidation, enhancements included substantial performance improvements, reductions in power, and updates to both the technology and multiple intellectual property interface standards. Due to the increased complexity of this ASIC, new verification methodologies were introduced that also incorporated firmware running on programmable sequence engines. This enabled testing earlier in the development cycle, referred to as a shift-left transformation, so our firmware and software development teams could start coding even before the actual hardware was built.
      PubDate: March-May 1 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 62, No. 2/3 (2018)
  • IBM z14 Parallel Sysplex and coupling technology
    • Authors: D. H. Surman;G. L. Kurdt;R. K. Errickson;P. D. Driever;A. M. Clayton;S. N. Goss;P. K. Szwed;
      Pages: 15:1 - 15:8
      Abstract: In this paper, we describe important improvements that the IBM z14 delivers to provide value for Parallel Sysplex Clustering technology. Data-sharing environments that exploit coupling facility (CF) lock structures will be able to achieve improved availability, performance, and throughput using an asynchronous duplexing protocol. CF Structures can be transparently encrypted to provide increased security for customer data that reside in the CF Structure as well and flowing through the CF links with new support for CF Encryption. Workloads that exploit CF list structures and are dependent on CF notifications to drive work will achieve improved performance and throughput through new CF notification enhancements. Large CFs will gain improved scalability and throughput to obtain more effective capacity out of CF processors. A new physical coupling link that provides a higher bandwidth industry-standard connection will improve CF connectivity.
      PubDate: March-May 1 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 62, No. 2/3 (2018)
  • IBM z14: Improved datacenter characteristics, energy efficiency, and
           packaging innovation
    • Authors: W. P. Kostenko;D. W. Demetriou;J. G. Torok;
      Pages: 16:1 - 16:11
      Abstract: The IBM z14 mainframe provides significant improvements in datacenter physical characteristics, flexibility, robustness, energy efficiency, and modeling capability relative to its predecessor, the IBM z13. In this paper, we consider these improvements in the context of the latest trends in the commercial datacenter and describe the innovations in packaging, controls, testing, modeling, and tools that enabled them. The z14 supports the American Society of Heating Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers class A3 maximum air-inlet temperature of 40 °C, versus 35 °C for the IBM z13. Water-cooled models have increased maximum inlet water temperature. A maximum-configuration IBM z14 delivers 23% or more traditional compute capacity per watt than the z13. The z14 offers a cover set option that has a total system depth of 1.486 m versus 1.87 m for z13, which is much closer to the 1.20-m depth of many datacenter racks. The z14 has a high level of physical robustness with respect to shipping and operating shock and vibration, as well as earthquakes. We discuss how this robustness was achieved through design, modeling, and testing. We also review the capabilities of tooling to accurately estimate system power, weight, and airflow, as well as the heat extracted to water in the water-cooled systems.
      PubDate: March-May 1 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 62, No. 2/3 (2018)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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