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IBM J. of Research and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.275, CiteScore: 1)
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IBM Journal of Research and Development
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.275
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 18  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0018-8646
Published by IBM Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Preface: Blockchain: From Technology to Solutions
    • Pages: 1 - 2
      PubDate: March-May 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 63, No. 2/3 (2019)
  • Blockchain Solution Reference Architecture (BSRA)
    • Authors: R. Viswanathan;D. Dasgupta;S. R. Govindaswamy;
      Pages: 1:1 - 1:12
      Abstract: Enterprise Blockchain network solutions facilitate the extension and optimization of processes across organizational boundaries. This increased level of sharing provides greater visibility, provenance of transactions to all parties involved, and reduces friction that arises due to organizational boundaries. Blockchain Solution Reference Architecture (BSRA) provides comprehensive guidance to architect and build end-to-end solutions based on Blockchain technologies. BSRA was primarily developed based on client engagements across industries such as retail, financial, supply chain, and telco, and addresses two major parts of a Blockchain solution: 1) building a Blockchain business network that receives, builds, and shares blocks in a secure manner; and 2) onboarding members on to the business network with the appropriate level of access and collaboration privileges. BSRA provides a foundational set of architectural artifacts that can help accelerate development of solutions based on Blockchain technologies. It also provides a starter list of architectural decisions that every project will have to set during development.
      PubDate: March-May 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 63, No. 2/3 (2019)
  • Endorsement in Hyperledger Fabric via service discovery
    • Authors: Y. Manevich;A. Barger;Y. Tock;
      Pages: 2:1 - 2:9
      Abstract: Hyperledger Fabric (HLF) is a modular and extensible permissioned blockchain platform. The platform's design exhibits principles required by enterprise-grade business applications, such as supply chains, financial transactions, asset management, etc. For that end, HLF introduces several innovations, two of which are smart contracts in general-purpose languages (chaincode in HLF), and flexible endorsement policies, which govern whether a transaction is considered valid. Typical blockchain applications comprise two tiers: The “platform” tier defines the data schema and embedding of business rules by means of chaincode and endorsement policies; the “client-side” tier uses the HLF software development kit (SDK) to implement client application logic. The client side should be aware of the deployment address of chaincode and endorsement policies within the platform. In past releases, this was statically configured into the client side. As of HLF v1.2, a new feature called service discovery, presented in this paper, provides APIs that allow dynamic discovery of the configuration required for the client SDK to interact with the platform. This enables the client to rapidly adapt to changes in the platform, thus improving the reliability of the application layer and making the HLF platform more consumable.
      PubDate: March-May 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 63, No. 2/3 (2019)
  • Supporting private data on Hyperledger Fabric with secure multiparty
    • Authors: F. Benhamouda;S. Halevi;T. Halevi;
      Pages: 3:1 - 3:8
      Abstract: Hyperledger Fabric is a “permissioned” blockchain architecture, providing a consistent distributed ledger, shared by a set of “peers” that must all have the same view of its state. For many applications, it is desirable to keep private data on the ledger, but the same-view principle makes it challenging to implement. In this paper, we explore supporting private data on Fabric using secure multiparty computation (MPC). In our solution, peers encrypt their private data before storing it on the chain and use secure MPC whenever such private data are needed in a transaction. We created a demo of our solution, implementing a bidding system where sellers list assets on the ledger with a secret reserve price, and bidders publish their bids on the ledger but keep secret the bidding price. We implemented a smart contract that runs the auction on this secret data, using a simple secure-MPC protocol that was built using the EMP-toolkit library. We identified two basic services that should be added to Hyperledger Fabric to support our solution, inspiring follow-up work to implement and add these services to the Hyperledger Fabric architecture.
      PubDate: March-May 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 63, No. 2/3 (2019)
  • Crypto anchors
    • Authors: V. S. K. Balagurusamy;C. Cabral;S. Coomaraswamy;E. Delamarche;D. N. Dillenberger;G. Dittmann;D. Friedman;O. Gökçe;N. Hinds;J. Jelitto;A. Kind;A. D. Kumar;F. Libsch;J. W. Ligman;S. Munetoh;C. Narayanaswami;A. Narendra;A. Paidimarri;M. A. P. Delgado;J. Rayfield;C. Subramanian;R. Vaculin;
      Pages: 4:1 - 4:12
      Abstract: Blockchain technology can increase visibility in supply-chain transactions and lead to more accurate tracing of goods as well as provide evidence of whether a product is authentic or not. A shared, distributed ledger or blockchain alone, however, does not guarantee correct and trustworthy supply-chain traceability. We argue that blockchain technology (and any other digital traceability solution) must be enhanced with methods to “anchor” physical objects into information technology, Internet-of-Things and blockchain systems. Only when trust from the digital domain is extended to the physical domain can the movement of goods be accurately traced (e.g., for callbacks and provenance) and product authenticity determined. In this paper, we introduce the concept of crypto anchors, propose a classification and system architecture, and give implementation examples for different use cases and industries.
      PubDate: March-May 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 63, No. 2/3 (2019)
  • Blockchain analytics and artificial intelligence
    • Authors: D. N. Dillenberger;P. Novotny;Q. Zhang;P. Jayachandran;H. Gupta;S. Hans;D. Verma;S. Chakraborty;J. J. Thomas;M. M. Walli;R. Vaculin;K. Sarpatwar;
      Pages: 5:1 - 5:14
      Abstract: Blockchain records track information about financial payments, movements of products through supply chains, identity verification information, and many other assets. Analytics on this data can provide provenance histories, predictive planning, fraud identification, and regulatory compliance. In this paper, we describe analytics engines connected to blockchains to provide easy-to-use configurable dashboards, predictive models, provenance histories, and compliance checking. We also describe how blockchain data can be combined with external data sources for secure and private analytics, enable artificial intelligence (AI) model creation over geographically dispersed data, and create a history of model creation enabling provenance and lineage tracking for trusted AI.
      PubDate: March-May 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 63, No. 2/3 (2019)
  • Automatic smart contract generation using controlled natural language and
    • Authors: T. Tateishi;S. Yoshihama;N. Sato;S. Saito;
      Pages: 6:1 - 6:12
      Abstract: Smart contracts, which are widely recognized as key components of blockchain technology, enable automatic execution of agreements. Since each smart contract is a computer program that autonomously runs on a blockchain platform, their development requires much effort and care compared with the development of more common programs. In this paper, we propose a technique to automatically generate a smart contract from a human-understandable contract document that is created using a document template and a controlled natural language (CNL). The automation is based on a mapping from the document template and the CNL to a formal model that can define the terms and conditions in a contract including temporal constraints and procedures. The formal model is then translated into an executable smart contract. We implemented a toolchain that generates smart contracts of Hyperledger Fabric from template-based contract documents via a formal model. We then evaluated the feasibility of our approach through case studies of two types of real-world contracts in different domains.
      PubDate: March-May 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 63, No. 2/3 (2019)
  • Blockchain anchored supply chain automation
    • Authors: C. Narayanaswami;R. Nooyi;S. R. Govindaswamy;R. Viswanathan;
      Pages: 7:1 - 7:11
      Abstract: Increasing globalization, e-commerce usage, and social awareness are leading to increased consumer demand for variety, value, convenience, immediacy, verifiable authenticity and provenance, ethical materials sourcing and manufacturing, regulatory compliance, and services after sales. Fulfilling this increased complexity of consumer demand has required supply chains to evolve into multienterprise networks with numerous flow paths in production, merchandising, and fulfillment involving many organizational/institutional handoffs, to effectively manage a large number of complex products with shorter life cycles and high transaction volumes. The supply chain management models of today place higher demands on automation and require a transition from the traditional paradigm of planning followed by long-loop execution for a handful of segments to a paradigm of managing a portfolio of end-to-end instrumented data-rich microsegmented supply chains that are monitored and adjusted in near real time. These essential aspects and challenges of supply chain management require the supporting information technology to also evolve. In this paper, we propose a novel reference software architecture to address the complex requirements of modern supply chains that also integrates blockchain into several layers of the stack. We present several examples where this reference architecture is applicable, and then demonstrate through a use case in production that integrating blockchain technology helps with providing visibility, documenting provenance, and allowing permissioned data access to facilitate the automation of many high-volume tasks such as reconciliations, payments, and settlements.
      PubDate: March-May 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 63, No. 2/3 (2019)
  • Blockchain: An enabler for healthcare and life sciences transformation
    • Authors: F. Curbera;D. M. Dias;V. Simonyan;W. A. Yoon;A. Casella;
      Pages: 8:1 - 8:9
      Abstract: Major trends in healthcare and life sciences (HCLS) include huge amounts of and longitudinal patient data, policies on a patient's rights to access and control their data, a move from fee-for-service to outcome-based contracts, and regulatory and privacy requirements. Blockchain, as a distributed transactional system of record, can provide underpinnings to enable these trends and enable transformative opportunities in HCLS by providing immutable data on a shared ledger, secure and authenticated transactions, and smart contracts that can represent rules that are executed with secure transactions. We describe HCLS use cases leveraging these facets of blockchain, including patient consent and health data exchange, outcome-based contracts, next-generation clinical trials, supply chain, and payments and claims. We then describe a blockchain-based architecture and platform for enabling these use cases. Finally, we outline a realization of this architecture in a case study and outline further research topics in this domain.
      PubDate: March-May 2019
      Issue No: Vol. 63, No. 2/3 (2019)
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