Publisher: CCSE   (Total: 43 journals)   [Sort by number of followers]

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Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Culture and History     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Asian Social Science     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Cancer and Clinical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Computer and Information Science     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Earth Science Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Energy and Environment Research     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Engineering Management Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
English Language and Literature Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
English Language Teaching     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
Environment and Natural Resources Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Environment and Pollution     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Global J. of Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.416, CiteScore: 1)
Higher Education Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 68)
Intl. Business Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. Education Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Intl. J. of Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Business and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Intl. J. of Economics and Finance     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Intl. J. of English Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Intl. J. of Marketing Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Psychological Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Statistics and Probability     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. Law Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Agricultural Science     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
J. of Education and Learning     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Educational and Developmental Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
J. of Food Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
J. of Geography and Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
J. of Management and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
J. of Materials Science Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
J. of Mathematics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
J. of Molecular Biology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Plant Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Politics and Law     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
J. of Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 31)
Mechanical Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Modern Applied Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Network and Communication Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Public Administration Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Review of European Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Sustainable Agriculture Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
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Journal of Politics and Law
Number of Followers: 11  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1913-9047 - ISSN (Online) 1913-9055
Published by CCSE Homepage  [43 journals]
  • Reviewer Acknowledgements for Journal of Politics and Law, Vol. 13, No. 3

    • Abstract: Reviewer acknowledgements for Journal of Politics and Law, Vol. 13, No. 3, 2020.
      PubDate: Sun, 30 Aug 2020 09:15:46 +000
       
  • The Development of the Legal Framework for Autonomous Shipping: Lessons
           Learned from a Regulation for a Driverless Car

    • Abstract: This article focuses on the regulation of maritime autonomous surface vessels from the perspective of international law of the sea. The article discusses on the possibility of developing a legal framework to regulate autonomous maritime navigation based on laws and regulation of autonomous driving of landed vehicles. The authors opine that existing legal framework does not conform to the goal of regulation of autonomous navigation. However, the regulation of autonomous car testing and exploitation could be imitated to design a new legal framework for autonomous shipping. Despite the divergent approaches, some principles remain in common particularly of cybersecurity and privacy. As computer systems are replacing the need of a master and crew for digitally managed ships, low level of cybersecurity implies an increase in risk of losing control over the vessel. The authors are of the opinion that that current legal acts, standards and their drafts do not pay necessary attention to the problem of cybersecurity of autonomous ships. Moreover, current legislations do not provide mechanisms of influence on behavior of shipowner and shipbuilder to make them apply the best measures. The similar situation is with privacy. Factually, an autonomous ship is a natural tool for surveillance, as to effectively navigate through the seas, it must collect and process information pertaining to navigational safety and other related matters. The question raises how this information has to be collected, kept, processed and deleted. Thus, the maritime community may consider adopting the approach on privacy from regulation for autonomous cars.
      PubDate: Sun, 30 Aug 2020 09:12:59 +000
       
  • Can Artificial Intelligence Author Laws: A Perspective from Russia

    • Abstract: This article discusses the issue of the introduction of digital technologies into policy-making. The article describes several systems of policy-making in the Russian Federation. In addition, the article discusses the issue of the introduction of a new System of policy-making in the light of the digital transformation of the Russian economy.The paper analyzes the capacities of digital technologies, including artificial intelligence (AI), in the context of their application in policy-making. The authors conclude that there are prerequisites and opportunities for deeper automation of the policy-making. This can improve the quality of the bills, can increase public involvement in the policy-making process, and speed up the development and adoption of new regulations. An intelligent system can develop legislative bills that are of superior technical quality and are non-contradictory in the context of both national and international legal systems. Digitalization processes should naturally lead to changes in the mechanism of policy-making, which in turn should lead to its greater automation. Moreover, insufficient automation today can become an obstacle in the digital transformation of the Russian economy.The authors conclude that in the future it would be possible for intellectual systems to author bills. The general development of AI systems shows that given the parameters of the problem and given the circumstance when the machine would be able to detect a center of social tensions in the community, the intelligent system itself would be capable of making proposals in the field of legislative regulation.The application of intelligent systems in policy-making is not without its drawbacks. Such systems are not transparent in the legal and technical sense and can also transfer human beliefs into the texts of the regulations. These problems can be addressed through public scrutiny and the introduction of a licensing system, however even this would create a number of new practical challenges.
      PubDate: Sun, 30 Aug 2020 09:11:16 +000
       
  • New Trends in Developing Alternative Ways to Resolve Financial Disputes

    • Abstract: The authors investigate an issue of the appearance of new trends in developing alternative ways to resolve financial disputes. It has been found that: 1) selection of an arbitration forum for dispute resolution in the field of international finance instead of national courts of London and New York became an obvious reality that should be taken into account by politicians and entrepreneurs; 2) advantages and disadvantages of arbitration resolution of financial disputes are also obvious, so special attention should be paid to the new forms of dispute resolution clauses – hybrid dispute resolution clauses that authorize counterparties to select between the national judicial proceeding and the international arbitration, allowing the parties to select the most appropriate proceeding jurisdiction as following from the specific dispute based on advantages of both forums; 3) in connection with the popularization of alternative ways of dispute resolution in the field of financial relations it is prospective to use mediation for dispute resolution: the entry of Singapore Convention on Mediation 2019 into legal force and joining of global financial leading states to it can contribute to this; 4) in connection with the specifics of cross-boundary financial relations, and for dispute resolution, standard arbitration regulations are not always applicable, so now arbitration institutions tend to follow the way of including separate regulations with regard f the specifics of these disputes; the latest trend can be considered the creation of separate centres in the field of financial dispute resolution.
      PubDate: Sun, 30 Aug 2020 09:09:13 +000
       
  • Cakes and Ale, Paintings and Sculptures: Directors’ Duties and
           Corporate Art Collecting

    • Abstract: Corporations spend significant amounts of money on art collecting and art sponsorship, but little research has been done on the question of whether such activities are permissible in light of directors’ duties. This article addresses that issue by examining whether corporate expenditure on art collecting and sponsorship is consistent with the duty to act in the bests interests of a corporation, the duty to exercise powers for a proper purpose and the fiduciary duty not to make improper use corporate information or position. This is done first by examining the scale of corporate expenditure on art and then by analysing the case law on various directors’ duties, before discussing whether corporate art collecting is legitimate in light of those duties. The article examines the most important reasons why a corporation may collect art – as an investment, in furtherance of corporate social responsibility goals and in order to enhance the psychological well-being of employees – and concludes that while art collecting for such purposes does not amount to a breach of directors’ duties, this is subject to the requirement that a corporation put into place safeguards contained in a formalised art collecting and sponsorship policy, the key principles of which are stated at the end of the article.
      PubDate: Sun, 30 Aug 2020 09:06:47 +000
       
  • Application of the Doctrine of Binding Precedent in Malaysia: A
           Re-Evaluation

    • Abstract: This paper aims to analyze the issues concerning the implementation of binding precedent in Malaysian cases, and propose a re-evaluation of the binding precedent doctrine. The qualitative approach was employed to indicate the issues related to the doctrine of binding precedent by analyzing relevant cases. These cases were selected to propose the re-evaluation of the binding precedent doctrine as practiced by the Malaysian dual-judicial system. The main issue to be discussed regarding the doctrine of binding precedent is interference by the Civil Court on Islamic matters and Syariah Court decisions, which lead to inconsistency in judgments, even after the amendment of Article 121(1A) of the Federal Constitution. This study proposes that the application of binding precedent should be re-evaluated to ensure that the principles of justice are upheld. Court judges should decide cases based on merit, and only use previous judgments as guidance for present and future cases.
      PubDate: Sun, 30 Aug 2020 09:05:02 +000
       
  • The Concept of Culpability in Criminal Law and AI Systems

    • Abstract: This article focuses on the problems of the application of AI as a tool of crime from the perspective of the norms and principles of Criminal law. The article discusses the question of how the legal framework in the area of culpability determination could be applied to offenses committed with the use of AI. The article presents an analysis of the current state in the sphere of criminal law for both intentional and negligent offenses as well as a comparative analysis of these two forms of culpability. Part of the work is devoted to culpability in intentional crimes. Results of analysis in the paper demonstrate that the law-enforcer and the legislator should reconsider the approach to determining culpability in the case of the application of artificial intelligence systems for committing intentional crimes. As an artificial intelligence system, in some sense, has its own designed cognition and will, courts could not rely on the traditional concept of culpability in intentional crimes, where the intent is clearly determined in accordance with the actions of the criminal. Criminal negligence is reviewed in the article from the perspective of a developer’s criminal liability. The developer is considered as a person who may influence on and anticipate harm caused by AI system that he/she created. If product developers are free from any form of criminal liability for harm caused by their products, it would lead to highly negative social consequences. The situation when a person developing AI system has to take into consideration all potential harm caused by the product also has negative social consequences. The authors conclude that the balance between these two extremums should be found. The authors conclude that the current legal framework does not conform to the goal of a culpability determination for the crime where AI is a tool.
      PubDate: Sun, 30 Aug 2020 09:01:33 +000
       
  • Dependency, Exploitation and Poverty among the Labourers of the Fishing
           Community

    • Abstract: The fishing community is mainly dependent on the harvest of fisheries resources to meet their social and economic needs. More than two million people in Sri Lanka are directly or indirectly dependent on the exploitation of fisheries resources. The wage labourers who are engaged in fishing are severely impacted by poverty even though they make a significant contribution to the economy of the country. With regard to this, this study focused on how dependency and exploitation have shaped the life of the poor wage labourers in the fishing community, based on Andre Gunder Frank’s Dependency theory. Most of the labourers in the fishing community suffer a poor living standard. They are badly exploited by some other actors operating in their working environment. The investors (Mudhalalis) and intermediaries are the people who exploit the labour of the poor fishermen and turn them into dependent people through loans provided by them. Poverty, inadequate housing, poor health, illness and treatment, education of children, inadequate infrastructural facilities, and family problems including domestic violence were found to be the causes of dependency and exploitation of the fishing community. These issues need to be addressed to enhance standard of living of the fishing community.
      PubDate: Sun, 30 Aug 2020 08:58:22 +000
       
  • Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration of Armed Groups in Post-war
           Sri Lanka: A Study based on Koralaipattu South Divisional Secretariat
           Division in Eastern Sri Lanka

    • Abstract: This article generally focuses on the process of Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR) which are essential to restore sustainable peace in the post-war scenario. The DDR is one of the significant aspects of the process of post-war peacebuilding. In most of the cases, this process has implemented with the assistance of foreign governments and international or regional institutions. However, the circumstances under which the Government of Sri Lanka happened to take over the sole responsibility for implementing the DDR process have raised serious concerns both at the local and international level. Hence, this article attempts to conduct a detailed inquiry of the DDR process implemented in Sri Lanka after the end of the civil war. This article followed a descriptive method of investigation. The findings of the study show that the DDR process was not fully implemented in a broad manner in the Sri Lankan context, but only served as a continuation of the military victory over the LTTE. In particular, not much attention was paid to disarming and demobilizing the armed groups, and only the so-called DDR process took place without international assistance and supervision.
      PubDate: Sun, 30 Aug 2020 08:56:00 +000
       
  • Protection of Personal Non-Property Rights in the Field of Information
           Communications: A Comparative Approach

    • Abstract: The issues which arise in connection with the use of information technologies are analysed in the paper. The attention is focused on the protection of non-property rights, such as honour, dignity, business reputation, violated on the Internet. It is noted that today there is a significant increase in the volume of legal regulation in this area. Nevertheless, there are still significant gaps in the protection of human rights, violated on the Internet. The current level of development of these processes objectively requires the creation of effective mechanisms and means to protect human rights and freedoms, including personal non-property rights. The existing ways of protection of persons on the Internet, such as judicial protection and self-defense are compared in the paper, there advantages and drawbacks are revealed. The types of violations of non-property rights of persons on the Internet are investigated. The specific attention is paid to cyberbullying. Some issues typical for communication on the Internet, such as difficulties in identifying where exactly the offence was committed and which court the claim should be addressed as well as the identification of the offender are revealed. Some shortcomings in the legal regulation of protection of persons on the Internet and ways to eliminate them are analyzed.
      PubDate: Sun, 30 Aug 2020 08:52:58 +000
       
  • From Manshiya to Alexandria: Re-Examining the Process of
           Constitutionalizing and Normalizing the Emergency Status in Egypt

    • Abstract: Recent political and legal developments within the Arab region have resurrected previously dormant historical debates and endowed them with a new life and vitality. The theory of exceptionality has been prominent within these debates, being repeatedly reasserted in different constitutional drafts, and even celebrated, as a means through which political authority maintain and secure ‘the public order’. Egypt long lasting rule relying on an emergency context has provided a worthy manifestation of how emergency rule have been installed in political and legal settings; and become presented as an only way to govern; in which it had been incorporated in different constitutions and manifested into a political exercise. We dedicate this article to witness these overlapping challenges to analyze why post-revolutionary regimes have failed to deliver a meaningful transformative constitutionalism that is based upon the principle of the rule of Law, and continued instead to rely on the emergency status as module of governance.
      PubDate: Sun, 30 Aug 2020 08:50:27 +000
       
  • Protection of Intellectual Property Rights in Ukraine in the Light of
           European Integration Processes

    • Abstract: The article provides an assessment of the state of legislation of Ukraine on the protection of intellectual property at the present stage. The most important problematic aspects and prospects of improving the legal regulation of intellectual property protection on the way to European integration are described in detail. The experience of foreign countries in ensuring the protection of intellectual property is analyzed. Particular attention is paid to the features of computer program protection, which is especially relevant nowadays. Features of the use of license agreements by the owner of computer programs, namely BSD License, Apache License, GNU General Public License, GNU Lesser General Public License, were analyzed. The conclusion is drawn that a system of continuous analysis of decisions made by European countries in the field of intellectual property law, as well as on issues related to general state policy on the administration of intellectual property, in order to implement developed approaches to legislation and law enforcement practice, could improve the protection of intellectual property rights in Ukraine.
      PubDate: Sun, 30 Aug 2020 08:48:42 +000
       
  • Application of Outcome-Based Curriculum in Religious Studies: The Case of
           Madrasas in Sri Lanka

    • Abstract: The madrasah tradition is widely recognized by Muslims in Sri Lanka for its historical contribution to their education. However, the criticism is aimed at the quality of madrasah education, and relevance of madrasah studies to the community needs and its national development in Sri Lanka. The outcome-based Education is proposed as an approach to increase its quality of education and to target the national aspirations and benefits. This paper aims at examining OBE application in madrasah studies. The study is based on analyzed data from 98 responded madrasas to the survey and review of the related literatures and documentary review of curriculum of the respondent madrasas. The findings show that the outcome-based curricula have not been in place in majority of the madrasas. However, it is in the initial proposing stage in some of the madrasas, studies of which base on the integrated system of education. The vast majority madrasas need to outline their aims and objectives of studies to identify the set of competencies intended for the graduates. This study is an academic discourse on long lasting Islamic traditional education system.
      PubDate: Sun, 30 Aug 2020 08:46:35 +000
       
  • Non-retroactivity in Prosecuting Crimes against Humanity and International
           Crimes Tribunal Bangladesh

    • Abstract: The International Crimes Tribunal Bangladesh (ICTB) was set up by Bangladesh through the adaptation of the International Crimes Tribunal Act 1973, as an internal mechanism trying to prosecute and punish Bangladeshi perpetrators who committed international crimes in Bangladesh liberation war in 1971. After a long disappearance from the public eye, the Tribunal was reemerged in 2010. The recent cases decided by the Tribunal have revealed that the international crimes; namely, crimes against humanity, were allegedly committed in 1971, while the relevant Statute was enacted in 1973, and was implemented in 2010. Recently, the ICTB is prosecuting crimes against humanity retroactively, which might have violated the prohibition of penalizing certain conducts committed by the perpetrators before the enforcement of such conduct as a law banning such demeanor as an offense. Therefore, this study firstly analyzes the rule against retroactivity in international criminal law. Secondly, it investigates the justification of the retroactive criminalization of crimes against humanity at the first International Military Tribunal, Nuremberg, and its crystallization into the regional and international legal instruments. Thirdly, the study examines the characteristics of crimes against humanity as an international crime, to scrutinize whether the ICTB needs to fulfill such requirements either in 1971 or 2010. Then, it illustrates various judgments of the ICTB, demonstrating that it does not comply with the rule prescribed by international laws either in 1971 or 2010, in prosecuting crimes against humanity retroactively. Lastly, the study concludes by forwarding ways necessary to the ICTB in retroactive prosecution of international offenses.
      PubDate: Sun, 30 Aug 2020 08:44:11 +000
       
  • The Weakening of the Hegemon and the Future of the Liberal International
           Order

    • Abstract: The hereby paper presents a theoretical approach to the U.S.–China geopolitical rivalry as the process of dispersion of power from the hegemon to the challenger [Allison] that may toward, through the sphere of influence fragmentation processes, to the polycentricity of the international relations system. In this work the author presents a new theoretical approach to the U.S.–China political rivalry understood as a key element of a process of changing the model of the global hegemonic leadership, shaped most fully since 1991. The paper presents the concept of two theoretical levels – the rational strategy and the political vibrancy – which are a necessary context for identifying the nature of given decision-making processes of the main subjects of contemporary international relations. Thus, through the abovementioned concept the sino-american relations are explained within the methods that are being used by states with particular emphasis on analyzing the operations of the People's Republic of China. Furthermore, the author reasons why China is withdrawing from the use of soft power – understood in the terms of J. S. Nye’s – and why it primarily uses the linking power and sharp power [Walker, Ludwig]. The article ends with a summary in which author, based on the information presented, tries to answer the question – why the liberal international order remains uncertain (or is about to fail).
      PubDate: Sun, 30 Aug 2020 08:42:46 +000
       
  • State Reluctance towards Inclusive Policies in Post-Civil War Sri Lanka

    • Abstract: This study aims to identify the factors preventing the state from responding in a manner that will avoid future conflict in post-civil war Sri Lanka. After the government ended the separatist struggle of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) by bringing the civil war to an end in May 2009, the protracted and destructive 30-year war presented an opportunity for both state and society to learn many useful lessons from the long war. These lessons could have enabled the government to reconstitute the state as an inclusive institution, one in which minorities could also participate to ensure just and equitable development for all Sri Lankans. This study uses a qualitative research approach that involves analysis of critical categories. Findings of this study offer some crucial insights about Sri Lanka’s ethnic politics, particularly, the various factors have influenced the state to avoid inclusive policies. The key factor is the dilemma of post-independent political culture or traditions amongst ruling elites resulted in the avoidance of inclusive policies. This study also reveals some other factors that contestations between different social forces within society, within the state, and between the state and society still prevail in Sri Lanka, hampering the institution of inclusive policies. Further, the paper highlights the failure of India and the International Community to pressurize the state of Sri Lanka to introduce inclusive mechanisms due to international power balance (China factor).
      PubDate: Mon, 24 Aug 2020 08:38:25 +000
       
  • The Problems of Arab Solidarity and the Impact of Arab Spring on It: Study
           on the Model of the GCC Security

    • Abstract: The author presents a brief study of the Arab solidarity. Furthermore, From the point of view of the author the Arab cooperation is one of the most controversial topics in the Arab world, whereas this idea extends to the first history of the Arab countries, we can also mention the creation of the Gulf Cooperation Council, and then the Maghreb Union of Arab Countries. In this article, the topic of Arab solidarity will be presented, through the views of many thinkers, and based on many analytical researches of Arab public opinion, the view of Arab solidarity and analysis of many ideas put forward for this project. There are new positive ideas possibly can be implemented to achieve the Arab solidarity, which is still a very important project for a wide sector of Arabs, this analytical study will present the case of the Gulf Cooperation Council states as example of positive implementation of Arab solidarity. This article includes the results of Arab public opinion and shed the light on the Arab spring which affected many international and local events. The author asks if Arab solidarity will a real case in the future. This study will investigate these issues and provide the readers with a modern perspective on this topic, furthermore this research approaches this subject from three different areas of discussion: the realism approach, the functionalism approach, and the idealism approach.
      PubDate: Thu, 20 Aug 2020 11:40:16 +000
       
  • Western Misperception when Deterring Russia: Cultural and Linguistic
           Factors

    • Abstract: Policy-making discourses of both Moscow and the capitals of Western countries are full of mutual misperceptions, mirror imaging, and attribution of non-existent intentions and capabilities. Although the concepts of deterrence of Western countries and Russia partially overlap, there is also a huge area where they operate in “parallel universes.” Furthermore, a lot of strategic culture in association with deterrence is produced not for operational or functional purposes, but to please local political or military elite. To answer the question which improvements are needed in the future to actually deter Russia and to avoid further aggression on the Russian side, first, Russia can be deterred only in the language they understand: Russia needs to understand the threat, and it needs to have meaning for them.
      PubDate: Thu, 20 Aug 2020 07:35:51 +000
       
  • Problems Faced by Muslim Converts in Sri Lanka: A Study Based on
           Anuradhapura District

    • Abstract: Muslim converts are living with several problems after the conversion, and they are disowned and separated by their original relatives. Muslims by birth call Muslim converts as 'Moula-Islam' which is keeping off them as a different segment. The aim of this research is, therefore, to identify the problems faced by Muslim converts in Anuradhapura district, Sri Lanka. This is an empirical study with the applications of qualitative and quantitative data. The study adopted the questionnaire survey and in-depth interview techniques to collect primary data and randomly selected sixty-five samples out of three hundred sixty-five Muslim coverts living in Anuradhapura district. The significant finding of the study reveals that Muslim converts are facing several socioeconomic problems including the separation from family and relatives, the language problem, financial issues, the disparity in the aspect of marriage and the occurrence of divorces among married couples. The study further highlights difficulties faced by Muslim converts in terms of Islamic knowledge, learning Al-Quran, adopting Muslim cultural identity. Muslim converts are the most vulnerable people in the Muslim community, and they do not receive financial help, including Zakat from traditional Muslims. Hence, this study argues that current problems faced by Muslim converts should be addressed meaningfully and the Muslim community and voluntary organizations should take corrective measures to improve the life of Muslim converts in the Sri Lankan context.
      PubDate: Thu, 20 Aug 2020 07:13:53 +000
       
  • Legal Solidarity: Historical, Religious Moral Background and Perspective
           of Implementation in the Digital World

    • Abstract: With the help of another technological revolution the modern world is suffering from a new radical breakage of all areas and ideals, which include legal principles, ideas and values. The most important amongst them is the principle of the legal solidarity with the long history that has already been rooted in the Bible’s System of Things and Christianity. The main prerequisites of the legal solidarity as well as social and cultural prerequisites of the legal solidarity in the studies of the legislators in Russia and foreign authors are considered in this article. Suggestions of the new stage of solidarity realization in the legislation including digitalization, which allows to implement targeted social assistance and to eradicate the main vice of solidarity – passiveness and paternalism of the social state citizens, are being made.
      PubDate: Mon, 17 Aug 2020 11:55:15 +000
       
  • Autonomous Vehicles within the Urban Space and Transport Security
           Challenges: Legal Aspect

    • Abstract: Nowadays autonomous vehicles are getting widespread use in different parts of the world. In some countries, they are being tested within the urban traffic whereas other counties have been already operating them. Such vehicles possess a number of obvious advantages. We cannot but agree that these cars are the future.However, before complete implementation and mass use of autonomous transport on public roads, it is necessary to resolve a number of problems concerning their safety towards road-users. Except for ethical, economic, and other aspects, it also embraces the legal aspect.The article analyses legal problems of ensuring transport security when using autonomous vehicles. It also touches upon the issues of obligations and liability. Special attention is paid to the matters of criminal liability for offences involving an autonomous vehicle.The conducted legal research allowed concluding that it is necessary to improve legislation in the sphere of operating such vehicles. It is essential to enshrine in law autonomous vehicles (whether fully-autonomous or partially-autonomous) operation rules, oblige their owners to perform regular diagnostic assessment, and to add demands to periodic vehicle inspection. When regulating criminal liability for harm caused by a self-driving vehicle, one must proceed from the layer of its autonomy which stipulates bringing the general public to responsibility.
      PubDate: Mon, 17 Aug 2020 11:52:23 +000
       
  • Constitution and Building of Nation-State in Malaysia

    • Abstract: The building of a nation-state is very relevant to Malaysia in facing various challenges that take place especially in terms of the diverse cultures, languages, ethnic groups and religions. khususnya dari perspektif kepelbagaian culture, language, etnik dan religion. The building of nation-state stems from the existence of the nation and the nation produces a country. Nation-state is the formation of a country based on the process of national unity and consolidated by the bordering of certain territories as its identity. Malaysia comprising of the community of various ethnic groups has faced many challenges in the process of the building of the nation-state involving language, religion, globalisation and constitutional issues. In the context of Malaysia, the building of a nation-state refers to the people of various ethnicity who need to identify themselves with this country, speak in the national language, and support the constitution which is the highest law of the country containing the 'social contract' that needs to be understood in the effort to unite Malaysians. Thus, this article will analyse the role of the constitution as one of the main elements in the building of a nation-state in Malaysia.
      PubDate: Mon, 17 Aug 2020 11:49:48 +000
       
  • The Role of International Law in Protection against Attacks on
           Children’s Education Rights in Armed Conflict

    • Abstract: This study was aimed to investigate issues associated with the education rights of children in international and non-international armed conflict and the influence of armed conflict on educational staff and facilities in war-torn countries. Relevant international conventions are reviewed to evaluate their effectiveness in curbing the influence of armed conflict on children's education. The study highlights the importance of international humanitarian law (IHL) in inhibiting attacks against students, educational staff, and educational facilities during armed conflict. It also reviews conventional and non-conventional methods of protection and suggests ways in which IHL may be clarified and developed to enhance the supervision of the provision of education during armed struggles. The article concludes that it is necessary to have specific international conventions, oversight bodies and relevant educational obligations in order to guarantee law enforcement and require countries or member states to implement articles or provisions properly so as to improve and reinforce the education rights of children whose lives are impacted by armed conflict. In emergency situations, legal provisions constitute a vital protective measure.
      PubDate: Mon, 17 Aug 2020 11:42:27 +000
       
  • Factors Determining the Access to E-services of Public Institutions in Sri
           Lanka: A Case Study of Selected Divisional Secretariat Areas in Ampara
           District

    • Abstract: Enhancing e-service facilities to the citizens would make it easy for them to access various government and private services. It has currently become an essential aspect of the evolution of public administration. All governments, including those of third world countries, are now trying to improve their e-service delivery. E-service delivery is one of the fundamental mechanisms to enhance quality service delivery with transparency, effectiveness, and efficiency. Sri Lanka has made attempts to deliver e-services in multiple sectors, but many constraints have prevented all citizens from accessing those services. Against this backdrop, this study attempts to investigate the factors that influence the ability of citizens to access the various e-services in selected Divisional Secretariat areas of Ampara district, Sri Lanka. This study was conducted using both qualitative and quantitative research methods during the period from July 2018 to January 2019. The qualitative data were gathered from published books, research articles, and personal interviews, and the quantitative data were gathered through a structured questionnaire and statistical reports of government institutions. The collected data were analysed using both qualitative and quantitative techniques, and results are presented in text, tables and charts format. The findings of the study show that factors such as security, the availability of electronic device facilities, and low cost encouraged citizens to access these services often. Nevertheless, factors like difficulty in understanding e-services and concerns about its security have discouraged people from accessing e-services.
      PubDate: Mon, 17 Aug 2020 11:39:54 +000
       
  • Understanding Political Psychology and Its Importance to the Malaysian
           Politics

    • Abstract: This paper intends to describe political psychology and the importance of the subject matter to the Malaysian politics. Political studies in Malaysia are largely based on political science, political sociology and socio-political analysis. It is a high time that political environment and issues in Malaysia to be looked upon from a psychological perspective. It is important because the discipline will allow the understanding of why political leaders think and behave in a certain manner. It will also allow the appreciation of voters’ behaviour. These perspectives will enrich our ability to understand politics from different roots. In the context of Malaysia, studying political psychology will help to enhance the understanding of many variables related to the practice of politics in this country. The interactions between politics and psychology particularly the impact of psychology to politics would be an interesting study. As far as Malaysia is concerned, a deeper understanding on political psychology will help leaders to appreciate the nerves and needs of the people and they should put every effort to fulfil their aspirations. Political psychology should help to unfold the minds of the political actors as well as the voters.
      PubDate: Mon, 17 Aug 2020 11:37:18 +000
       
  • The Conflict Wings in the Saudi Political System

    • Abstract: A marginal and bloody nature has characterized the struggle between the Saudi family members over the ruling regime since its first date. For the sake of governance, interests, and influence, alliances, disputes, and conflicts arose between the wings of the Saudi family and the liquidations that started since the establishment of Saudi Arabia and are still taking place today. King Abdulaziz liquidated leadership army, which contributed to the concentration of his rule, in the Battle of Al-Sabla. There is a conflict of wings between family members that reached the level of the coup, as happened with King Saud at the hands of his sisters, and to the killing, as happened with King Faisal at the hands of his nephew Faisal bin Musaed. The conflict and disagreement between the members of Al Saud have renewed since the first and second Saudi states and the current one. They expanded at present due to the abundance of money and influence by the control of a wing at the expense of other sides, the existence of a class between family members, and the secretion of the current conflict with the emergence of new leaders, the Saudi arena. The young men belong to the generation of the grandsons of the founding King, who eventually took control of the Saudi rule.
      PubDate: Mon, 17 Aug 2020 11:33:15 +000
       
  • Learning from the Chinese Model of Development and Moulding China - Sri
           Lanka Relations

    • Abstract: The Chinese model of development is a grand global strategy for achieving the Chinese dream through existing foreign policy. China - Sri Lanka bilateral relations have proved to be of increasingly prominent regional and global significance. The paper tries to examine the state of the China - Sri Lanka economic relationship in the context of the Chinese model of development. It is a descriptive study based on secondary data gathered from various sources of information. The Chinese model of development holds much appeal to many developing countries. However, this model is facing serious challenges and has become the subject of much debate in the recent past. The China - Sri Lanka relations have existed more than two thousand years because of the Island of Sri Lanka's strategic location on the old shipping lane. Sri Lanka is still considered a vital part of the String of Pearls concept. Hence, China has turned its attention towards Sri Lanka. From the beginning of the 21st century, Sri Lanka and China ratified several agreements on bilateral issues relating to the Belt and Road Initiative and Silk Road project. The recent developments in the China - Sri Lanka relationship have led to the creation of a so-called Chinese Colony in the South Asian region, and it has triggered China - India geopolitical interests in the Indian Ocean region. This paper concludes with the argument that the Sri Lankan Government will have to be receptive and sensitive on these issues, and pay attention to controlling contamination and maintaining diplomatic relations with all for the political stability and economic prosperity of the nation.
      PubDate: Mon, 17 Aug 2020 11:30:10 +000
       
  • The Impact of the Domestic Environment in the Change of Foreign Policy-
           The Case of Russian Policy towards the European Union after the End of the
           Cold War

    • Abstract: Purpose – This paper aims to study the impact of the domestic environment’s components in changing foreign policy. Therefore, the paper focuses on analyzing Russia’s strategies, in the International arena, that has been structured by the domestic factors (leadership, military, security, economics, and identity).Design/methodology/approach – The paper follows three theories of studying the impact of domestic components into foreign policy in international relations; First it focuses on Foreign Policy Analysis as a traditional analysis in international relations; depending on “Determinants” influencing the foreign policy and the “Instruments/Tools” used to achieve the goals of foreign policy. Second, Neo-Classical Realism Theory, as it tried to explain the importance of internal factors in the foreign policy. Third, Constructivism Theory in International Relations as it concerns Non-state actors and refused the traditional viewing of main concepts in international relations.Findings – The domestic environment is the background context on which foreign policy is drawn. In general, the domestic environment is within the framework of society; according to it the decision-makers make decisions and include domestic policies (public opinion, geographical location, nature of the political system, main values of society, parties, lobbies…etc.); national expertise can be added in dealing with international political issues.Originality/Value – This paper proves that there are new forms for foreign policy variables related to the domestic environment and reflects the Economic capabilities, Military Power, Identity, and Leadership into the state's foreign policy.
      PubDate: Mon, 17 Aug 2020 11:26:49 +000
       
  • Preface to Islamic Political Psychology: Siyasah Syariyyah Meets
           Psychology

    • Abstract: This paper attempts to decribe what is Islamic political psychology. The coverage of this paper is preliminary in nature. The study of political psychology came into picture as a discipline of study quite recently. It is a combination of political science and psychology. It is timely to have the study of Islamic Political psychology. If the study of political psychology involves the theories and practice of political science and psychology, necessarily the Islamic political psychology involves the theories and practice of Islamic Politics (siyasah syariyyah) and Islamic psychology (‘ilm nafs al-Islami). This paper intends to look at the principles of Islamic politics and its relationship to Islamic psychology. It will also be describing the characteristic features of politics from the perspective of syariah. The principles that underline the political system of Islam will then be elaborated. This paper will attempt to highlight the similarities and differences between political psychology as perceived by the coventional perspective and the study as expounded by the worldview of Islam. Islamic political psychology will help the understanding of a certain pattern of thinkings and behaviours either of the politicians or the people as they relate to politics.
      PubDate: Mon, 17 Aug 2020 11:24:41 +000
       
  • Third-Party Mediation in Sri Lanka’s Peace Attempts: A Study on the Role
           of Norwegian Mediation

    • Abstract: Regional and international mediation by third parties in Sri Lanka’s ethnic conflict have had diverse impacts on the country’s political scene at various times. India spearheaded a significant regional mediation following the July 1983 pogrom against minority Tamils. An international mediation effort by a third party was initiated in 2000, with Norway playing the role of facilitator. Both of these attempts to resolve Sri Lanka’s ethnic conflict, which were taken to bring an end to the intense and continued violence, have had mixed outcomes. In particular, Norway’s initiative to bring an end to the conflict with international facilitation was taken in the backdrop of the changed world order that prevailed after the September 11 attacks on the World Trade Center in New York. It is against this backdrop; this article attempts to examine the contributions made by Norway towards the resolution of Sri Lanka’s ethnic conflict. The major finding shows that Norwegian initiative fell into fail after a period and the armed insurgency did not come to an end until 2009. In May 2009, the government forces defeated the LTTE militarily and declared the war victory.
      PubDate: Mon, 17 Aug 2020 11:22:12 +000
       
  • Partisans’ and Civil Elites’ Role in Supporting Military Coups: The
           Case of the Egyptian Elites

    • Abstract: The study reported in the article below tried to examine partisans’ and civil elites’ role in military interventions and coups. The 2013 Egyptian coup d'état that took place on 3 July 2013 was used as a model of analysis. Concisely, this study sought to identify the defining characteristics of the partisans and civil elites who supported that military coup in Egypt, including their social origins, their level of education, their views of democracy and constitutional legitimacy as well as the nature of their allegied tie-up with the armed forces. In order to do just this, the study used Samuel Huntington's hypothesis as a theoretical framework of analysis. Accordingly, elites’ support for military coups underlies weakness (and therefore ineffectiveness) of the country’s civil institutions as well as absence of institutional political channels that regulate competition and conflict between parties with differing interests and resources. An immediate outcome of such a state of affairs was that partisans and civil elites had demonstrated their superiority over the army as they possessed the means of power that enabled them to impose their control. The findings of the study showed that those partisans and civil elites, formed by mechanisms based on mutual interests and wealth, are only theoretically oriented in the sense that they only accept the principles of democracy and constitutional legitimacy in the event that they lead to their arrival to power. However, if that legitimacy comes from other political currents, (e.g. The Muslim Brotherhood), they soon turn against it.
      PubDate: Mon, 17 Aug 2020 11:20:39 +000
       
  • Still Unrecognized State “Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus” in the
           

    • Abstract: The issue of the recognition of the TRNC brings specific constraints because of the influence of the Cyprus peace talks, which have been ongoing for 50 years. After the new era started in 2014, the TRNC authorities’ efforts to reach an agreement and their struggle to make the TRNC recognized have been obstructed by barriers placed by the southern Cyprus administration. Each of the sides in the peace talks approaches each other’s demands positively or negatively. One of the other important problems is whether the decisions given by the TRNC Courts would create an effect like the court decisions given by the courts of any recognized states or not. In order for the court decisions of the TRNC judiciary to have the necessary effects, the TRNC must become effectively an equal on the negotiation table and a directly recognized state. Turkey has enabled the TRNC judiciary decisions to have an effect in Turkey by signing protocols with the TRNC, but what is the status of related court decisions in other countries' In this framework, this study aims to analyse the court decisions in other unrecognized states via the document analysis method. According to the findings, the TRNC’s judiciary decisions can have an effect in other countries. Additionally, the TRNC is a recognized state at least in a limited (indirect) manner and has political equality, but this needs to be improved further via direct recognition.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Jul 2020 09:15:49 +000
       
 
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